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Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body Goals: • Meaning of anatomy and physiology • Organization of the human body and properties • Regulation of internal environment • Basic vocabulary Anatomy and Physiology Defined Two branches of science that deal with body’s parts and function 1. ________________________ - The science of body structures and relationships - First studies by dissection (cutting apart) - Imaging techniques 2. _____________________ - The science of body functions Structure and Function Structure and function of the body are closely related Structure of a part of the body allows performance of certain functions Think of some examples: Levels of structural organization 1. ______________________________ - Basic level __________________ the smallest unit of matter - Essential atoms for life include carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and sulfur _________________ two or more atoms joined together 2. ________________________ - Molecules combine to form cells - _______________ are the basic structural and functional units of an organism - Many kinds of cells in the body 3. ________________________ - Tissues are groups of cells and materials surrounding them Four basic types of tissues: A. __________________ B. __________________ C. Muscular D. Nervous


4. ________________________ - Tissues are joined together to form organs - Organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues - Specific functions and recognizable shapes Examples: Heart, lungs, kidneys Stomach is made of several tissues Serous membrane, smooth muscle and epithelial layers for digestion 5. ________________________ A system consists of related organs with a common function Organ-system level - Digestive system breaks down and absorbs food - It includes organs such as the mouth, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas - Eleven systems of the human body 6. ________________________ - An organism or any living individual - All parts of the body functioning together Can you Name the Systems of the Body? (List the systems now – and define later for review.)

System

Function

Clinical Connection: Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques • Used to assess aspects of body structure and function Inspection of the body to observe any changes _______________ - Gently touching body surfaces with hands _______________ - or listening to body sounds (stethoscope) _______________ - Tapping on the body surface with fingertips and listening to echoes


Characteristics of Living Human Organism Basic Life Processes - Distinguish living from non-living things Six important life processes -

Metabolism o Sum of all the chemical process that occur in the body o ______________or the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components o ______________ or the building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components

-

Responsiveness o Body’s ability to detect and respond to changes o Decrease in body temperature o Responding to sound o Nerve (electrical signals) and muscle cells (contracting)

-

Movement o Motion of the whole body o Organs, cells, and tiny subcellular structures o Leg muscles move the body from one place to another

-

Growth o Increase in body size o Due to an increase in existing cells, number of cells, or both o In bone growth materials between cells increase

-

Differentiation o Development of a cell from an unspecialized to specialized state o Cells have specialized structures and functions that differ from precursor cells o Stem cells give rise to cells that undergo differentiation

-

Reproduction o Formation of new cells (growth, repair, or replacement) o Production of a new individual Clinical Connection: Autopsy Postmortem (after death) examination of the body and internal organs Several uses: - Determine the cause of death - Identify diseases not detected during life - Determine the extent of injuries and contribution to death - Hereditary conditions


________________________ A condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment Dynamic condition Narrow range is compatible with maintaining life Example Blood glucose levels range between 70 and 110 mg of glucose/dL of blood Homeostasis and Body Fluids Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids are important Body fluids are defined as dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals inside or outside of the cell Intracellular Fluid (ICF) - Fluid within cells Extracellular Fluid (ECF) - Fluid outside cells Interstitial fluid - is ECF between cells and tissues ECF and Body Location Blood Plasma - ECF within blood vessels Lymph - ECF within lymphatic vessels Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - ECF in the brain and spinal cord Synovial fluid - ECF in joints Aqueous humor and vitreous body - ECF in eyes Interstitial Fluid and Body Function - Cellular function depends on the regulation of composition of interstitial fluid - Body’s internal environment - Composition of interstitial fluid changes as it moves o Movement back and forth across capillary walls provide nutrients (glucose, oxygen, ions) to tissue cells and removes waste (carbon dioxide) Control of Homeostasis Homeostasis is constantly being disrupted Physical insults - Intense heat or lack of oxygen Changes in the internal environment - Drop in blood glucose due to lack of food Physiological stress - Demands of work or school Disruptions - Mild and temporary (balance is quickly restored) - Intense and Prolonged (poisoning or severe infections) Feedback System Cycle of events Body is monitored and re-monitored Each monitored variable is termed a controlled condition Three Basic components 1. ________________ 2. ____________________ 3. _______________________


Feedback Systems _________________________ • Body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition • Sends input to the control center • Nerve ending of the skin in response to temperature change

________________________Brain • Sets the range of values to be maintained • Evaluates input received from receptors and generates output command • Nerve impulses, hormones • Brains acts as a control center receiving nerve impulses from skin temperature receptors _____________________ • Receives output from the control center • Produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition o Found in nearly every organ or tissue o Body temperature drops the brain sends and impulse to the skeletal muscles to contract o Shivering to generate heat Negative and Positive Feedback systems • Reverses a change in a controlled condition o Regulation of blood pressure (force exerted by blood as it presses again the walls of the blood vessels) Positive Feedback systems • _____________________ or reinforce a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions o Normal child birth ___________________________: Regulation of Blood Pressure (insert figure 1.3) External or internal stimulus increase BP • Baroreceptors (pressure sensitive receptors) • Detect higher BP • Send nerve impulses to brain for interpretation • Response sent via nerve impulse sent to heart and blood vessels • BP drops and homeostasis is restored • Drop in BP negates the original stimulus ___________________________: Normal Childbirth Uterine contractions cause the vagina to open Stretch-sensitive receptors in cervix send impulse to brain Oxytocin is released into the blood Contractions enhanced and baby pushes farther down the uterus


Cycle continues to the birth of the baby (no stretching) Positive Feedback: Blood Loss (see image) Homeostatic Imbalances Normal equilibrium of body processes are disrupted Moderate imbalance • Disorder or abnormality of structure and function • Disease specific for an illness with recognizable signs and symptoms • Signs are objective changes such as a fever or swelling • Symptoms are subjective changes such as headache Severe imbalance • Death Questions: At the clinic The hormone thyroxine is released in response to a pituitary hormone called TSH. As thyroxine levels increase in the blood, they exert negative feedback on the release of TSH by the pituitary gland. What effect will this have on the release of TSH? A: Homeostatic Imbalances: Areas of Science Epidemiology - Occurrence of diseases, Transmission in a community Pharmacology - Effects and uses of drugs, Treatment of disease Clinical Connection: Diagnosis of Disease • Distinguishing one disorder or disease from another • Signs and symptoms • Medical history o Collecting information about event o Present illnesses and past medical problems • Physical examination o Orderly evaluation of the body and its function o Noninvasive techniques and other vital signs (pulse) Basic Anatomical Terminology • Common language referring to body structures and their functions • Anatomists use standard anatomical position and special vocabulary in relating body parts


Body Positions - Descriptions of the human body assume a specific stance

Anatomical position • Body upright • Standing erect facing the observer • Head and eyes facing forward • Feet are flat on the floor and forward • Upper limbs to the sides • Palms turned forward Terms for a reclining body Prone position - Body is lying face down Supine position - Body is lying face up Regional Names Several major regions identified Most principal regions Head - Skull and face Neck - Supports the head and attaches to trunk Trunk - Chest, abdomen, and pelvis Upper limbs - Attaches to trunk (shoulder, armpit, and arm Lower limbs - Attaches to trunk (buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot


Directional Terms Describe the position of one body part relative to another - Group in pairs with opposite meaning - Anterior (front) and posterior (back) Only make sense when used to describe a position of one structure relative to another - The esophagus is posterior to the trachea - Knee is superior to the ankle Match the directional term to the correct definition below. Common Directional Terms Directional Terms Anterior Lateral Distal Medial Inferior Posterior

Proximal

_______________ - Away from the head _______________ - Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk _______________ - Farther from the midline _______________ - Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk _______________ - Nearer to the back of the body _______________ - Toward the head _______________ -Nearer to the front of the body _______________- Nearer to the midline Planes and Sections Imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body parts ______________ - vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides ______________ - plane divides body into equal right and left sides ______________ - plane divides body into unequal right and left sides ______________ - Divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions ______________ - Divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions Also called cross-sectional or horizontal plane ______________ - Passes through the body or an organ at an angle Between transverse and sagittal plane Between transverse and frontal plane ______________ - Cut of the body made along a plane Body Cavities - Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs 1. Cranial cavity 2. Thoracic cavity 3. Abdominopelvic cavity


Cranial Cavity and Vertebral Canal Cranial cavity - formed by the cranial bones, Protects the brain Vertebral canal - Formed by bones of vertebral column, Contains the spinal cord Meninges - Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal Thoracic Cavity - Also called the chest cavity, formed by - Ribs - Muscles of the chest - Sternum (breastbone) - Vertebral column (thoracic portion) Within the thoracic cavity • Pericardial cavity o Fluid-filled space that surround the heart • Pleural cavity o Two fluid-filled spaces that that surround each lung Mediastinum • Central part of the thoracic cavity - Between lungs - Extending from the sternum to the vertebral column - First rib to the diaphragm • Diaphragm - Dome shaped muscle - Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity • Extends from the diaphragm to the groin • Encircled by the abdominal wall and bones and muscles of the pelvis Divided into two portions:


Abdominal cavity Stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines Pelvic cavity Urinary bladder, internal organs of reproductive system, and portions of the large intestine Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes __________________ - Organs of the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities __________________ - is a thin slippery membrane that covers the viscera Parts of the serous membrane: Parietal layer - Lines the wall of the cavities Visceral layer - Covers the viscera within the cavities _______________ - Serous membrane of the pleural cavities - Visceral pleura - clings to surface of lungs - Parietal pleura - lines the chest wall ________________ - Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity - Visceral pericardium - covers the heart - Parietal pericardium - lines the chest wall _________________ - Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity - Visceral peritoneum - covers the abdominal cavity - Parietal peritoneum - lines the abdominal wall Other Cavities Oral (mouth) cavity Tongue and teeth Nasal cavity - nose Orbital cavities - -eyeball Middle ear cavities - Small bones of the middle ear Synovial cavities - Joints Abdominopelvic Regions - Used to describe the location of abdominal and pelvic organs - Tic-Tac-Toe grid - Two horizontal and two vertical lines partition the cavity Subcostal line (top horizontal) - inferior to rib cage Transtubercular line (bottom horizontal) - inferior to top of the hip bone Midclavicular lines (two vertical lines) - midpoints to clavicles and medial to the nipples Nine Abdominopelvic Regions Right and left hypochondriac Epigastric and Hypogastric (pubic) Right and left lumbar Right and left inguinal (iliac) Right and left inguinal (iliac) Umbilical

Quadrants Vertical and horizontal lines pass through the umbilicus Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrants (LLQ)


Medical Imaging: Techniques and procedures used to create images of the human body Define the following: Radiography-

Ultrasound Scanning -

X-Rays –

Positron Emission Tomography -

Computed Tomography (CT- Scan) -

Radionuclide Scanning -

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) –

Identify the type of medical imaging used in the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Used for differentiating normal and abnormal tissues ____________________________ At low dose, useful for soft tissue (breast)____________________________ Visualize soft tissue in more detail than conventional radiography____________________________ Uses high frequency sound waves____________________________ Single-photo-emission computerized tomography (SPECT) Specialized technique used for brain, heart, lungs, and liver____________________________ 6. Used to study physiology of body structures (metabolism)____________________________ Matching: Match the type of endoscopy with the correct definition Endoscopy : Lighted instrument with lens and the image is projected onto a monitor

1.

______Colonoscopy

2.

_____Laparoscopy

3.

_____Arthroscopy

A. B. C.

Organs in abdominopelvic cavity Interior of (joint) knee Interior of colon


Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization 2011 From the elements listed below, identify their function / use in the body. 1.

Na+ /K+ - __________________________________________________________________

2. O2

_ __________________________________________________________________

3. Fe3+

- __________________________________________________________________

4. Ca2+

- __________________________________________________________________

5. H2CO3

- __________________________________________________________________

6. HCO3 - -__________________________________________________________________ 7. H+

- __________________________________________________________________

8. H2O

- __________________________________________________________________

Notes:


Free Radicals  A free radical is an _______________________________ atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell  Unstable and highly reactive; can become stable o

by giving up an electron

o

taking an electron from another molecule

o

____________________________ are substances that inactivate oxygen-derived free radicals

o

Free radical damage: cigarette smoke, pollution, radiation, herbicides

Chemical Bonds:  The atoms of a molecule are held together by forces of attraction called chemical bonds.  The likelihood that an atom will form a chemical bond with another atom depends on the number of electrons in its outermost shell, also called the valence shell.

BONDS: 1. Ionic


2. Covalent

3. Polar Covalent


4. Hydrogen

Question: Elements 1.

What is the atomic number of this atom? ____

2. What is the atomic mass? ____ 3. What atom is this? ________, how do you know? _____________________________ 4. How many electrons are needed to fill its outer shell? _____


Molecules:

1.

This bond holds adjacent water molecules together? ____________________________________

2. This bond forms between 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atom in the formation of a water molecule. __________________________________________ 3. Salt is formed by this bond? _________________________________________ 4. An atom with a differing number of neutrons is called a(n) ____________________________ 5. An atom that looses an electron is called a (n) __________________________ 6. An atom that gains an electron is called a (n) ___________________________ 7. Illustrate a molecule of water and identify the partial charges below:

Chemical Reactions  Metabolism is “the sum of all the chemical reactions in the body.” o

Law of conservation of energy

o

The total mass of reactants equals the total mass of the products.

 Forms of Energy and Chemical Reactions  Energy is the capacity to do work.  Kinetic energy is the energy associated with matter in motion.  Potential energy is energy stored by matter due to its position.  Energy Transfer in Chemical Reactions  An exergonic - ___________________________________________________________________  An endergonic - __________________________________________________________________

 Factors that Cause a Collision and Chemical Reaction 1. Concentration 2. Temperature 3. Catalysts


 Orients molecules  Unchanged in reaction  Catalysts and chemical reactions Types of Chemical Reactions  Synthesis reactions -- Anabolism  Decomposition reactions-- Catabolism  Exchange reactions  Reversible reactions  Inorganic Compounds and Solutes  ______________________compounds usually lack carbon and are simple molecules  ______________________compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen, usually contain oxygen, and always have covalent bonds. Water o

Is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems.

o

Water’s most important property is polarity, the uneven sharing of valence electrons

o

Enables reactants to collide to form products

Water as a Solvent  Substances which contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water are ____________________________.  Substances which contain non polar covalent bonds are ____________________________. High Heat Capacity of Water  Water has a high heat capacity.  It can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only change in its own temperature.  This property is due to the large number of hydrogen ions in water. Heat of vaporization  amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gas  evaporation of water from the skin removes large amount of heat Concentration

a modest


 The concentration of a molecule is a way of stating the amount of that molecule dissolved in solution. `

Dissociation of Acids, Bases, and Salts

Acid – Proton Donor Base – Proton Acceptor Buffer – prevents rapid / large swings in pH

Maintaining pH: Buffer Systems  The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained fairly constant by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base.  convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases.  VERY Important!  CO2 +H20  H2CO3  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-

BIOCHEMISTRY Carbohydrates


Notes:

Lipids


Notes:

Proteins


Proteins (enzymes) Notes:

Nucleic Acids


End of Chapter 2 Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein.

Chapter 2 Review Match the Following terms with the correct definition:


Note: There could be more than one answer!

A.

F. Phosphate Group

K. Proteins

B. Carbohydrate

G. Glycerol

L. Complex carbohydrates

C. Lipids

H. Nucleotides

M. Enzyme

D. Fatty Acids

I.

Monosaccharides

N. Ribose or Deoxyribose

E. Nitrogenous base

J.

Disaccharides

O. Saturated Fatty Acid P. Unsaturated fatty acid

1.

Amino Acid

________ Building blocks of fat (2)

2. ________ Building blocks of protein 3. ________ Components of a Nucleotide (3) 4. ________ Building blocks of carbohydrate 5. ________ Contains C, H, and O in a ratio of 1:2:1 (5 possible) 6. ________Used in the body to synthesize adipose tissue 7. ________Primary component in meats and cheeses 8. ________Primary component of candy and sweets 9. ________Primary component of breads and cereals (2 possible) 10. ________Include collagen and hemoglobin 11. ________Primary component in vegetable oil 12. ________Not soluble in water 13. ________Includes cholesterol 14. ________Table sugar is an example 15. ________ Type of protein that can lower the activation energy of a reaction


16. ________ Building blocks of DNA and RNA (nucleic acids) (1) 17. ________ Building blocks of a phospholipid (2) 18. _________ Contain an R group, H group, Carboxyl group, and amine group 19. _________ A fat that is solid at room temperature would contain 20. _________ A fat that would increase HDL levels would contain Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization Cell FunCtions         

1. Transform Energy 2. Store/Retrieve Information 3. Synthesis 4. Storage 5. Ingest/Process Particles 6. Communication 7. Movement 8. Molecular Segregation/Transport A Generalized Cell

1. Plasma membrane - boundary - ICF / ECF - Selectively Permeable - plays a role in cellular communication Cell Junctions  Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells  5 most common types:     

Tight junctions Adherens junctions Desmosomes Hemidesmosomes Gap junctions

A GenerAlized Cell 2. Cytoplasm- all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus - cytosol - the fluid portion, mostly water - organelles - subcellular structures having characteristic shapes and specific functions 3. Nucleus - DNA


Chromatin Chromosomes Genes  Fig. 3.1 Generalized Body Cell 4. Plasma Membrane - Flexible yet sturdy barrier • The fluid mosaic model • The lipids act as a barrier to certain substances • The proteins act as “gatekeepers” to certain molecules and ions • Structure of a Membrane -

• • • •

Consists of a lipid bilayer - made up of phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids Integral proteins - extend into or through the lipid bilayer Transmembrane proteins - most integral proteins, span the entire lipid bilayer Peripheral proteins - attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane, do not extend through it

Membrane Permeability o The cell is either permeable or impermeable to certain substances o The lipid bilayer is _______________________________________________________________________ o Transmembrane proteins act as channels and transporters to assist the entrance of certain substances, for example, glucose and ions o Passive vs. Active Processes o Passive processes - substances move across cell membranes without the input of any energy; use the kinetic energy of individual molecules or ions o Active processes - a cell uses energy, primarily from the breakdown of ATP, to move a substance across the membrane, i.e., against a concentration gradient

PAssive trAnsPort


Simple Diffusion, Channel-mediated Facilitated Diffusion, and Carrier-mediated Facilitated Diffusion  Channel-mediated Facilitated Diffusion of Potassium ions through a Gated K + Channel  Carrier-mediated Facilitated Diffusion of Glucose across a Plasma Membrane  Osmosis •

Water can pass through plasma membrane in 2 ways: 1. through lipid bilayer by simple diffusion 2. through aquaporins, integral membrane proteins Tonicity and its effect on RBCS


Questions: 1. As talk of celery is placed in a hypertonic solution, what happens? ____________________________ 2. A stalk of celery is placed in a hypotonic solution, what happens?______________________________ 3. What is a concentration gradient? ______________________________________ 4. A solution containing more solute is ___________________________(Hypertonic / Hypotonic / Isotonic) to a solution containing less solution. 5. A solution with 10% salt is _______(Hypertonic / Hypotonic / Isotonic) to a 2% salt solution. 6. A solution with a 15% sugar is _________ (Hypertonic / Hypotonic / Isotonic) to a 25% salt solution? 7. What is hemolysis? ___________________________________

ACtive trAnsPort

Solutes are transported across plasma membranes with the use of energy, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher Concentration Sodium-potassium pump

K+ grad ient

Na+/K+ ATPase

Na+ gradient

C yt o s ol

P 3 Extr + Na 2 Kacell 2 ATP 2 A + 1 impo 3 K+ ular D rted Na 1. Transport influid Vesicles ex P + pel o Vesicle - a small spherical sac formed by budding off from a membrane led 2.

3P

__________________ - materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane o three types: receptor-mediated endocytosis , phagocytosis, bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis) 3. __________________ - vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid 4. Transcytosis - a combination of endocytosis and exocytosis o Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis o Phagocytosis o Bulk-phase Endocytosis Cytoplasm 1. Cytosol - intracellular fluid, surrounds the organelles - the site of many chemical reactions - energy is usually released by these reactions


- reactions provide the building blocks for cell maintenance, structure, function and growth 2. Organelles Specialized structures within the cell The cytoskeleton - network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol -provides structural support for the cell -three types according to increasing size: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules

Organelles __________________ - located near the nucleus, consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material (Fig. 2.7) __________________ - short, hair-like projections from the cell surface, move fluids along a cell surface __________________ - longer than cilia, move an entire cell; only example is the sperm cell’s tail (Fig. 2.8) __________________ - sites of protein synthesis __________________- network of membranes in the shape of flattened sacs or tubules Rough ER o -Smooth ER __________________- - modify, sort, and package proteins for transport to different destinations proteins are transported by various vesicles __________________ - vesicles that form from the Golgi complex, contain powerful digestive enzymes __________________ - smaller than lysosomes, detoxify several toxic substances such as alcohol, abundant in the liver __________________ - continuously destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins, found in the cytosol and the nucleus __________________ - the “powerhouses� of the cell o Generate ATP __________________ - Usually most prominent feature of a cell Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores Nucleolus Genes Chromosomes-


Packing of DNA into a Chromosome of a Dividing Cell http://www.thetech.org/genetics/zoomIn/index.html Overview of Gene Expression – Transcription & Translation • • • • •

Somatic Cell Division – Mitosis Copy 3 billion base pairs of DNA The cell cycle is a sequence of events in which a body cell duplicates its contents and divides in two Human somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (total = 46) The two chromosomes that make up each pair are called homologous chromosomes (homologs) Somatic cells contain two sets of chromosomes and are called diploid cells

Cell Division • Interphase - the cell is not dividing • the cell replicates its DNA o - consists of three phases, G1, S, and G2, replication of DNA occurs in the S phase Mitotic phase consists of a nuclear division (mitosis) and a cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) to form two identical cells The Cell Cycle o • Viral Cancer Causing Genes • http://science.discovery.com/videos/100-greatest-discoveries-shorts-cancertheories-and-di.html DNA Replication • Nuclear Division: Mitosis • Prophase - the chromatin fibers change into chromosomes • Metaphase - microtubules align the centromeres of the chromatid pairs at the metaphase plate • Anaphase - the chromatid pairs split at the centromere and move to opposite poles of the cell; the chromatids are now called chromosomes • Telophase - two identical nuclei are formed around the identical sets of chromosomes now in their chromatin form Cytoplasmic Division: Cytokinesis • Division of a cell’s cytoplasm to form two identical cells • Usually begins in late anaphase • The plasma membrane constricts at its middle forming a cleavage furrow • The cell eventually splits into two daughter cells • Interphase begins when cytokinesis is complete Reproductive Cell Division • During sexual reproduction each new organism is the result of the union of two gametes (fertilization), one from each parent


______________________- reproductive cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes • Haploid cells - gametes contain a single set of 23 chromosomes • Fertilization restores the diploid number of chromosomes (46) • Reproductive Cell Division • Meiosis occurs in two successive stages: meiosis I and meiosis II • Each of these two stages has 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

Summary - Meiosis I begins with a diploid cell and ends with two cells having the haploid number of chromosomes; in Meiosis II, each of the two haploid cells divides, the net result is four haploid gametes that are genetically different from the original diploid starting cell •

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein.

http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=cxfUd3uQ6yQ Amazing Facts

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/

Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization  What is a Tissue?  A tissue is a group of cells  Common embryonic origin


   

Function together to carry out specialized activities Hard (bone), semisolid (fat), or liquid (blood) Histology is the science that deals with the study of tissues. Pathologist specialized in laboratory studies of cells and tissue for diagnoses

4 Types of Tissues 1. _________________ Covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, duct, and forms glands 2. _________________ Protects, supports, and binds organs. Stores energy as fat, provides immunity 3. ______________ Generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and generate body heat 4. __________________ Detect changes in body and responds by generating nerve impulses Cell Junctions Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells 5 most common types:  Tight junctions  Adherens junctions  Desmosomes  Hemidesmosomes  Gap junctions Epithelial Tissues Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers Closely packed and held tightly together Covering and lining of the body Free surface 3 major functions: _________________ that regulates the movement of materials in and out of the body _________________ that release products onto the free surface _________________ against the environment Epithelial Cells Epithelial Tissues Own nerve supply _______________ or lacks its own blood supply Blood vessels in the connective tissue bring in nutrients and eliminate waste High rate of cell division for renew and repair Numerous roles in the body (i.e. protection and filtration) Covering and lining epithelium Outer covering of skin and some internal organs Glandular epithelium Secreting portion of glands (thyroid, adrenal, and sweat glands)


Covering and Lining Epithelium Normally classified according to: A. Arrangement of cells into layers B. Shapes of cells Covering and Lining Epithelium Arrangement of cells in layers Consist of one or more layers depending on function Simple epithelium Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption Pseudostratified epithelium Appear to have multiple layers because cell nuclei at different levels All cells do not reach the apical surface Stratified epithelium Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and tear Different Types of Covering and Lining Epithelium Cells vary in shape depending on their function _______________________ Thin cells, arranged like floor tiles Allows for rapid passage of substances _______________________ As tall as they are wide, shaped like cubes or hexagons May have microvilli Function in secretion or absorption _______________________ Much taller than they are wide, like columns May have cilia or microvilli Specialized function for secretion and absorption _______________________ Cells change shape, transition for flat to cuboidalOrgans such as urinary bladder stretch to larger size and collapse to a smaller size Connective Tissue Most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body Numerous functions 1. Binds tissues together 2. Supports and strengthen tissue 3. Protects and insulates internal organs 4. Compartmentalize and transport 5. Energy reserves and immune responses Extracellular matrix of Connective Tissue Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the material located between the cells Consist of protein fibers and ground substance Connective tissue is highly ________________ Supplied with ____________________ Exception is cartilage and tendon. Both have little or no blood supply and no nerves Cells and Fibers in Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Cells


A. Fibroblasts Secrete fibers (collagen, elastic, & reticular) components of ground substance (Complex combination of proteins and polysaccharides that functions to support and bind cells, store water, and allow exchange between blood and cells) B. Adipocytes (fat cells) C. Mast cells D. White blood cells E. Macrophages F. Plasma cells Classification of Connective Tissues A. Embryonic connective tissue Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue B. Mature connective tissue Loose connective tissue Areolar, adipose, and reticular Dense connective tissue Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic Cartilage Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage Bone tissue Liquid connective tissue Blood and lymph Embryonic Connective Tissue Mesenchyme Gives rise to all other connective tissues Mucous (Wharton’s Jelly) Found in umbilical cord of the fetus Loose Connective Tissue 1._______________________ Tissue Most widely distributed in the body Contains several types of cells and all three fibers 2. _______________________ Tissue Contains adipocytes Good for insulation and energy reserves White (common) and brown adipose tissue 3. _______________________ Connective Tissue Fine interlacing reticular fibers and cells Forms the stroma of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes Dense Connective Tissue Dense connective tissue Contains numerous, thicker, and denser fibers Packed closely with fewer cells than loose connective tissue


1. _______________________ connective tissue Bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns for strength Tendons and most ligaments 2. _______________________ Connective Tissue Collagen fibers are usually irregularly arranged Found where pulling forces are exerted in many directions Dermis of skin and heart 3. _______________________ Connective Tissue Contain branching elastic fibers Strong and can recoil to original shape after stretching Lung tissue and arteries Cartilage Cartilage is a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitin sulfate Chrondrocytes - Cartilage cells found in the spaces called lucunae Pericondrium - Covering of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage 1. _______________________ cartilage Most abundant cartilage in the body Surrounding by perichondrium (some exceptions like articular cartilage) Provide flexibility and support. Reduces friction 2. _______________________ Cartilage Chrondrocytes are located within a threadlike network of elastic fibers Pericondrium is present Provides strength and elasticity 3. Fibrocartilage Chondrocytes are scattered among bundles of collagen fibers within the extracellular matrix Lack a perchondrium Strongest type of cartilage Found in intervertebral disc (between vertebrae) Repair and Growth of Cartilage Cartilage grows slowly When injured or inflamed, repairs is slow due to its avascular nature. Two patterns of cartilage growth: 1. Interstitial growth 2. Appositional growth Bone tissue Bones are organs composed of several different connective tissues: bone (osseous) tissue, periosteum, and endosteum. 1. Compact or 2. spongy Osteon or haversian system Spongy bone lacks osteons. They have columns called trabeculae


Liquid Connective Tissue 1. _______________________ tissue Connective tissue with liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma 2. Lymph Muscular Tissue Consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes Cells use ATP to generate force Several functions of muscle tissue Classified into 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscular tissue _______________________ Muscle Tissue Attached to bones of the skeleton Have striations Voluntary movement or contractions by conscious control Vary in length (up to 40 cm) and are roughly cylindrical in shape Muscular Tissue _______________________ muscle tissue Have striations Involuntary movement or contraction is not consciously controlled Intercalated disc unique to cardiac muscle tissue _______________________ Muscle Tissue Walls of hollow internal structures Blood vessels, airways of lungs, stomach, and intestines Nonstriated Usually involuntary control _______________________ Tissue Consists of two principle types of cells 1. Neurons or nerve cells 2. Neuroglia Excitable Cells Neurons and muscle fibers Exhibit electrical excitability Actions potentials propagate along a nerve or muscle plasma membrane to cause a response Release of neurotransmitters Muscle contraction Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis When tissue damage is extensive both stroma and parenchymal cells are active in repair - Fibroblast divide rapidly - New collagen fibers are manufactured - New blood capillaries supply materials for healing - All of these process create an actively growing connective tissue called granulation tissue Aging and Tissues Tissue heal faster in young adults


Surgery of a fetus normally leaves no scars Young tissues have a better nutritional state, blood supply, and higher metabolic rate Extracellular components also changes with age Changes in the body’s use of glucose, collagen, and elastic fibers contribute to the aging process End of Chapter 4

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Bio 260 notes ch 1- 4 Summer 2013