Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Hoi Yu Lo
(869341) Samuel Lalo - Studio 11
Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age
Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)
Subtractive, addictive and formative fabrication are three types of fabrication techniques. Subtractive fabrication is the process of removing unwanted volume. This method is started since 1970s in the UK where architectural firms started to use CNC machines to produce models and studied construction assemblies. Additive fabrication involves increment forming by adding materials in layers. It has limited sizes, cost of equipment and length of production bring limitations to additive fabrication. Formative fabrication is using mechanical forces, heat and steam to form the material into desired shapes. This method is more precise which beneficial in construction. Above fabrication methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, laser cut is fast but 3d printing takes longer time. But overall, digital means ensure a high degree of precisions in fabrication and assembly. In this module, we will explore the use of digital fabrication to make our panel and 3d model.
- Produce complex geometries - Iterate very fast - Automate things - Allow more imagniation and creativity
Architecture design using grasshopper
The exterior facade of RMIT Building used Grasshopper to make the paneling.
The interior ceiling of the theatre at The Spot Building in University of Melbourne.
Week Three Surface Creation
In the last modeule, I was working on the pavilion Radix. I found it interesting in their design using spheres to create a pavilion. The arch created inspired me to create someting similar. The arch in Radix is self supported wiithout any support on the canel. I wanted to create an arch like structure using two surfaces. And similarly, the space inside have both public and private spaces. The curvature of the surface will create a more private space since the space is more crowed just like the space inside the Radix. So peope can experience different inside the structure.
Thorugh Grasshopper, it is easier to create many iterations which just simply adjust the number slider. This method can help us to adjust the surface and get what we want to make. Surface will not be overlapping since it is hard to create a waffle structure in it afterwards. Besides, surfaces cannot be bended too much as it is hard to create panel on the surface.
Week Four Panels & Waffle
2D PANEL EXAMPLES
Panels & Waffle
3D PANEL EXAMPLES
Week Four Panels
Isometric View of the 3D Panelled surface
Isometric View of the 2D Panelled Surface
I tried different methods on each surface. I used graph map to create 3d panel. The aim of using graph map is to create a variation of height of the panels. So the surface can starts from 2d to 3d. To make it interesting, I blocked some of the perforation by myself after baking the panel out. This give different feelings to people when they are inside the structure.
I used curve attractor to adjust the sizes of the cells on the grid so to make it dynamic. I also use weaverbird to adjust the perforations. I combined 4 differnt adjustments from weaverbird. From the bottom, there are no perforation. Gradually, the perforations are getting bigger and biggger. The sizes of the perforations also maximise the amount of sunlight.
Panels Laser Cutting
Laser Cut of the Panels To make a laer cut file, we have to have out panels ready. Make sure the panels we made can be unrolled. Since some of the panels are challenging and cannot be unrolled, we have to test and see which one is the suitable one. After that, “meshtonurb” and “unrollsrf”. Group some of the panels together and unroll them. The process might be difficult since we have to think and test out the mose efficient way to unroll all of the surfaces. After that, add tabs around the edges and ready to laser cut. In the laser cut file, we have to clear about which lines are cut and which are edged. The cut lines will be the edges around and edged lines will be the fold lines.
3d panels 2d panels
Laser cut is a really fast fabrication technique. We can start folding the panels after the laser cut job is completed.
Week Four Waffle
Laser Cut of the Waffle
The waffle structure is to allow the panels to stay in position. In the process of making a waffle structure, we have to consider the stablility of the surfaces.
Isometric View of the Waffle Structure
Laser cutting the waffle is similar to what we did for the panels. The only difference is the material. 1mm mountboard is used for the waffle since this material is harder in orde to make a stronger structure.
Architectural Meaning 1:75
From the top view, it is more clear of the space inside the structre. The central area is a open area where people can walk through or gathering there. While area on each side are more private. Besides, the sunlight can enter the structure directly from above which provide sufficient sunlight to the structure. The shaded area around the surface provide a resting space for people.
People can enter the structure from both sides. One side is more public and the other side is more private since it is narrower. People can walk from a larger enterance where the surface will lead them walk through the structure and exit from the other side. The curvature of the surface provide more intimate space while the central area is more public.
Making 2D Panel
First create a pattern in rhino, imput the curve to grasshopper. The green outline indicates it is successfully imputed to grasshopper
Use weaverbird pictureframe to adjust the sizes of perforations. And use the red attractor curve to change the size of the cell at the same time
I baked 3 different values from weaverbird. I combined 3 sets into one. I wanted to show the changes of the size of the perforations.
After putting them together, flip the red surface. This is important since it will affect the unrolling surfaces afterwards. The surface will change up side down if you forget to flip!
Group some of the panels together. Using triangles can ensure it won’t overlapped. I didn’t add any tabs. I used pva glue to stick them together.
Unroll all the surface after “meshtonurb”. Make 2d of them and delete some of the unwanted lines. Then copy to fablab laser cut template ready for laser print
Making 3D Panel
Create a 3d brep in rhino. Mine is two triangular shape in a square grid
Use graph map to make variations of the height of the 3d panels. Try different kinds of curve to get the satisfied results.
Baked the surface out and ready to unroll surface.
To make some chnages, I blocked some of the faces of the panels as I wanted to make it more interesting. I have to dupboarder, planarsrf and delete the original surface one by one.
Same as 2d panels, group some of the panels together. Make sure the unrolled surface wonâ€™t overlapp. Change the display colour so can allow me to identify pieces of them.
Keep properties when unrolling them. Explode and make 2d. After that, check there is there any small lines which are too tiny that canâ€™t be laser cutted. Adjust it and find the best way. For this situation, I further break down pieces of them.
Glue Panles and Waffle Use PVA glue to stick the panels together. Since I didnâ€™t add tabs, I had to hold them in postition to allow glue to dry. I found out using pva is a good idea as it is strong and transparent when it dries.
Similarly, by using pva to glue each piece together, it forms a very strong structure.
The panels fit onto the waffle perfectly.
Boolean is a really good chance to explore grassopper using different compoenents. I found it is different from our expectations since the boolean I wanted to create is different from what I can produce in grassopper. I tried many geometries, scale them, rotate them... Finally get what I satisfied.
Week Five Isometric
I used cubes to make this boolean. By scaling and rotaing them, i finally came out this. This structure provides different spacial feeling. For example, poeple gathering at the center feel more free since the space is larger and they can look up to the sky. The area around will be more and more intimate since the height of the ceiling changes when they walk around. The openigns can be as as extrances and windows. It attracts people to come into the structure. There are different shadow at different time. Spaces are created by the light and shadow.
Architectural Meaning 1:100
The center area is a more public place where people can gather and walk pass. The area around the center are more private. The ceiling above can act like a shetler for them which they feel more safe under it. The shelter can also help them to block sunlight and create shadow on them.
By putting human scale to it, it represents clearly when this structure is actually a real architecture. There are openings on each side which people can come in from all directions. Although the spaces inside is small, it is all linked where people can actually walk pass the whole building.
Week Six Task 01
(0,0,0) (30,0,150) (0,75,150)
BASE GRID POINTS
CONTROLL POINTS (X,Y,Z)
(45,150,0) (150,120,0) (150,150,0)
PANELING GRIDS & OFFSET POINTS
Task 01 Matrix The forth iteration is my final choice. I started with something simple and kept developing it. I wanted to have both 2d and 3d on my surfaces. In the forth iteration, I used graph map and curve attractor to make variations to the height of the 3d panels and the size of each cell of 2d panels. I made some changes on the 3d panels after I baked it from grasshopper. I donâ€™t want all 3d panels look consistent. So I adjust the surfaces to make it more special. Some of the perforations are blocked so to create different feelings inside the structure. The 2d panel give a sense of dynamic which give different feelings to the people.
Week Six Task 02
POINT ATTRACTORS (X,Y,Z)
(7,266,150) (60,266,142) (100,191,81)
Task 02 Matrix I picked the last one as my final. From the start, I played with simple sphere. Afterwards, I started to use different shapes. I also change the grasshopper script by adding more components such as rotate and scale in x, y and z way. I explored different iterations and finally came up with something satisfied. This part is a very interesting part. You can see it looks like made from triangular shapes. But this was made from simple cubes. I just scaled and rotated it to achieve this result. The space inside also intereting. Sincethe height of the ceiling is different insidethe structure, it gives different spacial experiences to people. There are also some openings for extrance and sunlight.
Perforations are smaller at the bottom and increase the size towards the top. The variation of the perforation sizes maximise the amount of sunlight penertrate into the structure.
Final Isometric Views
Some faces of the protruding panels are blocked which allow people to have different feelings inside the structure. Protruding forms also cast shadow on different area according to the sun.
A hollow waffle structure creates space inside the structure where provide both public space in the center and private space around.
Final Isometric Views
Intersecting geometries create a hollow structure which allow sunlight to penertrate
Interesting shadow is casted when sunlight penertrate through these triangular openings
Intersecting geometry creates open space in the middle. People feel different at different area since the ceiling height changes accordingly.
First, create a box. This box is used for boolean difference with the geometries
Use the point attractors to adjust the grids inside.
Try different geometries under lunchbox. Different geometries will give different results. By rotating, scaling and adding other components, changes are made
Bake the box and the geometires, and booleandifference them to create soild and voild.
Trim a part off to see the inner section and pick the best one to represent.
I experienced a lot and tried different geometries.