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JULY 13, 2015



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Hispanic Students and the Money Mindset By Marvin Lozano, EdD and Miquela Rivera, PhD


n their landmark book Who Owns the Ice House? Eight Life-Lessons from an Unlikely Entrepreneur (2010), authors Gary Schoeniger and Clifton Taulbert note that “Entrepreneurs tend to focus their attention on the things that will advance their goals. They tend to view money as a resource to be used wisely, a resource that will enable them to achieve their goals.” And so it should be with Latino students in higher education. Their time in college is an investment, with an entrepreneurial mindset and focus on the goals that lead to graduation and success. Schoeniger and Taulbert also report that entrepreneurs usually are not prevented from prospering because of a lack of money but because they don’t understand the use of money as a tool. Latinos in higher education are often similar to struggling entrepreneurs. Many Latino college students come from low-income households where making ends meet is the immediate goal, so they don’t always view money as a means to an end. With impoverished families, the means – money – becomes the goal itself, and that mindset differs greatly from what is typically found in higher education. Sometimes Latino college students do not understand the financial aid process (viewing it as a way to survive rather than earmarking it solely for educational costs). Poor planning, frequent demands of extended family, slim savings and spending on wants instead of needs can find the Hispanic student in higher education behind the college 8-ball because of misunderstanding and mismanagement of money. Pressure from family or friends, the influence of media and a new-found power with money can cause the Latino collegian to lose focus of the long term goals and make unwise decisions with resources. Costly vacations, luxury cars, pricey club memberships and expensive restaurants need to take the backseat as the Latino student steers his way through college. “Spare Parts,” a recent movie release starring George Lopez, Marisa Tomei and Jamie Lee Curtis, is based on the true story of four undocumented Mexican high school students in Phoenix who entered the 2004 MATE (Marine Advanced Technology Education) Remotely Operated Vehicle Competition sponsored by the National

Science Foundation, the Marine Technology Society and Oceaneering. Determined to compete against the odds, the teens built an underwater robotic rover out of PVC pipe and spare parts they gleaned from wherever they could find them. Money was necessary to defray some costs, so the self-proclaimed group leader, clad in his ROTC uniform, gathered contributions from local businesses and community members. The rest of their needs were covered by a small contribution from their robotics team coach and a mega-dose of ingenuity. Their rover was aptly named “Stinky” because of the bad smell when they glued their invention together. The team competed against several highly-resourced, prestigious college teams – including MIT. The young, somewhat scruffy Mexican teens defied stereotypes through this David-andGoliath true story. They employed the entrepreneurial mindset with utmost skill regardless of money: they set a goal to compete, solved their economic challenge with resourcefulness and, despite the skepticism of some and to the surprise of many, prevailed – and won. Teachers, parents and mentors can help Latino students cultivate the mindset that money is a means – a way to create value and solve problems – and, in most cases when used wisely, will generate more money. Hispanic students with the entrepreneurial mindset begin to view money in terms of its utility in reaching goals, solving problems and helping others instead of thinking of money as something paid them by the hour, week or task. With that mindset, money is spent on and invested in things that matter. Those students enjoy and benefit from chasing and realizing the dream, not the dollar. • Marvin Lozano, EdD is a faculty member in the School of Business & Information Technology at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque. He is an experienced small business consultant, commercial banker and entrepreneur. He has been honored as a USDA National Hispanic Fellow and as a Sam Walton Fellow. Miquela Rivera, PhD is a licensed psychologist in Albuquerque with years of clinical, early childhood and consultative experience. Dr. Rivera’s column, “Priming the Pump” appears in each issue of Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education. She lives in Albuquerque.

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JULY 13, 2015

Contents 6

Hispanic Health Care Workers: The Need Has Never Been Greater Story and data compiled by Mary Ann Cooper


Medicina Academy: Growing Culturally Sensitive Doctors by Sylvia Mendoza


Is a Latino Elderly Crisis Brewing?


Building an Infrastructure to Train Hispanic Health Care Workers

by Gary M. Stern

by Frank DiMaria


Republican Congress Changes Focus on Reauthorization of Higher Ed Act by Margaret S. Orchowski

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Published by “The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Publishing Company, Inc.”

Departments 3


Hispanic Students and the Money Mindset by Marvin Lozano and Miquela Rivera


Targeting Higher Education Hispanic Health Care Realities and Opportunities for the Future by Gustavo A. Mellander


Scholars’ Corner


Book Review:

by Alma Itzé Flores

Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs Reviewed by Mary Ann Cooper

Interesting Reads by Mary Ann Cooper

Back Priming the Pump Cover Creating the Environment for Student Success by Miquela Rivera, PhD

Publisher José López-Isa Executive Editor Marilyn Gilroy Senior Editor Mary Ann Cooper Washington DC Bureau Chief Peggy Sands Orchowski Contributing Editors Carlos D. Conde, Michelle Adam Contributing Writers Gustavo A. Mellander Chief of Human Resources & Administration Tomás Castellanos Núñez Chief of Advertising, Marketing & Production Meredith Cooper Research & Development Director Marilyn Roca Enríquez Art & Production Director Ricardo Castillo Director of Accounting & Finance Javier Salazar Carrión Article Contributors Frank DiMaria, Alma Itzé Flores, Marvin Lozano, Sylvia Mendoza, Miquela Rivera, Gary M. Stern Editorial Office 299 Market St, Ste. 145, Saddle Brook, N.J. 07663 TEL (201) 587-8800 or (800) 549-8280 Editorial Policy

The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine® is a national magazine. Dedicated to exploring issues related to Hispanics in higher education, The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine®is published for the members of the higher education community. Editorial decisions are based on the editors’ judgment of the quality of the writing, the timeliness of the article, and the potential interest to the readers of The Hispanic Outlook Magazine®. From time to time, The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine® will publish articles dealing with controversial issues. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and/or those interviewed and might not reflect the official policy of the magazine. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine® neither agrees nor disagrees with those ideas expressed, and no endorsement of those views should be inferred unless specifically identified as officially endorsed by The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine®.

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HISPANIC HEALTH CARE WORKERS: The Need Has Never Been Greater Story and data compiled by Mary Ann Cooper


hen studies are conducted about what professions will be in high demand in the future, health care tops most lists. It makes sense that Hispanic health care workers would be a significant part of that demand, but until now no empirical evidence existed that measured Hispanic health care needs of the present and future. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has taken a closer look at how to provide medical services to a burgeoning Latino population. The schools on our top 25 list conferring the most healthcare related degrees to Hispanics are important to fulfilling the health care needs to this growing demographic. Here is the CDC’s summary of their report: The first national study on Hispanic health risks and leading causes of death in the United States by the CDC showed that similar to non-Hispanic whites (whites), the two leading causes of death in Hispanics are heart disease and cancer. Fewer Hispanics than whites die from the 10 leading causes of death, but Hispanics had higher death rates than whites from diabetes and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. They have similar death rates from kidney diseases, according to the new Vital Signs report. Health risk can vary by Hispanic subgroup. For example, nearly 66 percent more Puerto Ricans smoke than Mexicans. Health risk also varies partly by whether Hispanics were born in the U.S. or in another country. Hispanics are almost three times as likely to be uninsured as whites. Hispanics in the U.S. are on average nearly 15 years younger than whites, so taking steps now to prevent disease could mean longer, healthier lives for Hispanics. “Four out of 10 Hispanics die of heart disease or cancer. By not smoking and staying physically active, such as walking briskly for 30 minutes a day, Hispanics can reduce their risk for these chronic diseases and others such as diabetes,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Health professionals can help Hispanics protect their health by learning about their specific risk factors and addressing barriers to care.”

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This Vital Signs report recommends that doctors, nurses and other health professionals: • Work with interpreters to eliminate language barriers when patients prefer to speak Spanish. • Counsel patients with or at high risk for high blood pressure, diabetes, or cancer on weight control and diet. • Ask patients if they smoke and, if they do, help them quit. • Engage community health workers (promotores de salud) to educate and link people to free or low-cost services. • Hispanic and other Spanish-speaking doctors and clinicians, as well as community health workers or promotores de salud, play a key role in helping to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate outreach to Hispanic patients. Vital Signs used recent national census and health surveillance data to determine differences between Hispanics and whites, and among Hispanic subgroups. Hispanics are the largest racial and ethnic minority group in the U.S. Currently, nearly 1 in 6 people living in the U.S. (almost 57 million) is Hispanic, and this is projected to increase to nearly 1 in 4 (more than 85 million) by 2035. Despite lower overall death rates, the study stressed that Hispanics may face challenges in getting the care needed to protect their health. Socio-demographic findings include: • About 1 in 3 Hispanics have limited English proficiency; • About 1 in 4 Hispanics live below the poverty line, compared with whites; and • About 1 in 3 has not completed high school. These socio-demographic gaps are even wider for foreign-born Hispanics, but foreign-born Hispanics experience better health and fewer health risks than U.S.-born Hispanics for some

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key health indicators such as cancer, heart disease, obesity, hypertension, and smoking, the report said. The report also found different degrees of health risk among Hispanic by country of origin: • Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are about twice as likely to die from diabetes as whites. Mexicans also are nearly twice as likely to die from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as whites. • Smoking overall among Hispanics (14 percent) is less common than among whites (24 percent), but is high among Puerto Rican males (26 percent) and Cuban males (22 percent). • Colorectal cancer screening varies for Hispanics ages 50 to 75 years. • About 40 percent of Cubans get screened (29 percent of men and 49 percent of women). • About 58 percent of Puerto Ricans get screened (54 percent of men and 61 percent of women). Hispanics are as likely as whites to have high blood pressure. But Hispanic women with high blood pressure are twice as likely as Hispanic men to get it under control. “This report reinforces the need to sustain strong community, public health, and health care linkages that support Hispanic health,” said CDC Associate Director for Minority Health and Health Equity, Leandris C. Liburd, PhD, MPH, MA. Through the Affordable Care Act, more people than ever qualify to get health care coverage that fits their needs and budget, including important preventive services. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) data, the uninsured rate has dropped across all race and ethnicity categories since passage of the Affordable Care Act, with the greatest declines occurring among Hispanics where the uninsured rate dropped by 12.3 percentage points, resulting in 4.2 million Latino adults gaining coverage. •


2014 Health Care Professions Degrees Granted by 4 Year Schools 2014 Health Care Professions Degrees Granted by 4 Year Schools 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Miami Dade College Keiser University-Ft Lauderdale The University of Texas-Pan American Florida International University Nova Southeastern University The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 7. The University of Texas at El Paso 8. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center 9. University of Central Florida 10. Grand Canyon University 11. Florida National University-Main Campus 12. South Texas College 13. The University of Texas at Arlington 14. The University of Texas at Brownsville 15. University of Florida 16. University of South Florida-Main Campus 17. California State University-Fullerton 18. Dade Medical College-Miami 19. Monroe College 20. University of New Mexico-Main Campus 21. Chamberlain College of Nursing-Illinois 22. Loma Linda University 23. California State University-Long Beach 24. University of Miami 25. California State University-Fresno



Total Hispanic Latinos Latinas % Hispanics 1,259 2,845 606 926 2056

704 662 541 480 442

261 142 140 100 80

443 520 401 380 362

56% 23% 89% 52% 21%

500 1,808 2,058 4,139 341 314 2,354 297 2,050 1,521 756 240 543 579 4,235 1,189 914 687 640

330 319 318 306 301 279 257 256 227 216 203 200 197 189 185 183 180 174 170

82 74 57 46 85 74 40 74 60 44 24 48 23 37 12 54 31 42 30

248 245 261 260 216 205 217 182 167 172 179 152 174 152 173 129 149 132 140

66% 18% 15% 7% 88% 89% 11% 86% 11% 14% 27% 83% 36% 33% 4% 15% 20% 25% 27%






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2014 Health Care Professions Degrees Granted by 2 Year Schools 2014 Health Care Professions Degrees Granted by 2 Year Schools 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ASA College Central New Mexico Community College El Paso Community College San Joaquin Valley College-Visalia San Joaquin Valley College-Fresno San Antonio College Fresno City College San Joaquin Valley College-Bakersfield 8. Del Mar College 9. Mandl School-The College of Allied Health SABER College 10. Dade Medical College-Miami Lakes 11. Pima Community College 12. Heald College-Hayward 13. San Jacinto Community College 14. San Joaquin Valley College-Hesperia 15. San Joaquin Valley College-Ontario 16. Lone Star College System 17. EDIC College 18. Houston Community College 19. Ultimate Medical Academy-Tampa 20. Heald College-San Jose St Philip’s College 21. Amarillo College 22. Mt San Antonio College 23. Heald College-Salinas 24. CUNY Bronx Community College Heald College-Fresno Texas State Technical College-Harlingen 25. Hillsborough Community College






% Hispanics


714 631 275 516 332 389 513 309 287 313 157 147 427 314 433 225 217 759 103 431 1951 258 252 367 219 212 223 287 107 516

318 263 223 216 185 182 162 162 136 132 132 129 125 115 113 111 108 107 103 100 99 98 98 97 91 90 88 88 88 87

25 43 49 35 29 37 34 15 18 7 23 24 26 8 14 18 20 19 23 35 4 17 18 17 17 11 17 11 12 28

293 220 174 181 156 145 128 147 118 125 109 105 99 107 99 93 88 88 80 65 95 81 80 80 74 79 71 77 76 59

45% 42% 81% 42% 56% 47% 32% 52% 47% 42% 84% 88% 29% 37% 26% 49% 50% 14% 100% 23% 5% 38% 39% 26% 42% 42% 39% 31% 82% 17%

Note: Heald College, a subsidiary of for-profit Corinthian Colleges, closed this year. The colleges remain on this list which reflects degree totals from last year.

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Washington State Convention Center | Seattle, WA | November 11-14, 2015


ow in its fifteenth year, ABRCMS is one of the largest, professional conferences for underrepresented minority students, military veterans, and persons with disabilities to pursue advanced training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). ABRCMS provides students with the opportunity to: • present research at a national forum, • expand scientific and professional development through innovative sessions, • interact with peers through multiple networking opportunities, and • explore graduate schools, summer research opportunities, and postdoctoral fellowships through the robust exhibits program.

2014 ABRCMS Exhibitor Types Industry 4 Associations/Non-profits 45 Foundations/ Research Hospital 3 Federal/Gov. Agencies 16

2014 Distribution of Scientific Disciplines Unspecified - 710 (9%) Cancer Biology 681 (9%) Immunology 562 (7%) Developmental Biological 588 (7%) Social & Behavioral Sciences & Public Health - 463 (6%) Physical Sciences & Mathematics - 362 (5%) Physiological - 389 (5%)

Biochemical - 855 (11%)

Educational Institutions 254

Cell Biological 885 (11%)

Chemical 487 (6%)

Molecular 496 (6%) Microbiological 800 (10%) Neuroscience - 669 (8%)

Important Dates: • September 11, 2015: Abstract Submission Deadline • September 11, 2015: ABRCMS Student Travel Award Deadline • October 19, 2015: Discount Registration Ends


Medicina Academy:

Growing Culturally Sensitive Doctors By Sylvia Mendoza

“In some areas, there can be 3,000 Latino patients to one doctor,” said Olaguez. Often times, these doctors are not culturally adept at treating Latino patients. It is HCOE’s goal to train medical students to be linguistically prepared and culturally sensitive to the population they will serve and provide a holistic support system for younger students wanting to explore health science careers.

Dr. Jorge Girotti, Hispanic Center of Excellence in Medicine


he need to increase the population of Latino doctors in underserved areas is very real. At the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, there is a mission to meet that need. The Hispanic Center of Excellence in Medicine (HCOE), established there in 1991, has very real initiatives: to increase the interest and motivation of Latino students pursuing health sciences careers, to boost attendance of Latino students in medical school, to transition them into Latino communities more culturally sensitive and linguistically competent, and to close the disparity gap between the quality of care between Latinos and non-Latinos. Since HCOE was established, the university has remained committed in its responsibility to produce a diverse physician workforce, says Dr. Jorge Girotti, who has been at the medical center for 34 years, and has also served as dean of admissions. “We’re aware that the health needs of Latinos and corresponding medical services are lacking. Early in my career it was about increasing the numbers of applicants, more quantity than quality. But now we need the quality of doctor to offer quality care to Latino patients.” The workshop, “Rompiendo Barerras: Developing a Cadre of Physicians and Health Practitioners,” was presented at the 2015 annual AAHHE (American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education) conference by university representatives Kendy Olaguez, senior research specialist and project director at the Hispanic Center of Excellence in Medicine, Medical Education, Diana Rodriguez, project associate director, Medicinal Education, and Michael Almodovar, coordinator for the Latino Health Science Enrichment Program (LaHSEP). 12 | JULY 13, 2015


The Programs The outreach by the HCOE has become an intensive and expansive labor of love, resulting in high school, undergrad and medical school programs that will develop Latino medical leaders and help transition them into residency programs. They must be in good academic standing, have a strong interest in Latino health, and a desire to work with the underserved. They must know and practice conversational Spanish.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Program on Health Disparities (SURPHD) • 10-week summer program provides research opportunities to third and fourth year undergraduate Hispanic students. • Aims to improve the quality of health care by providing students with practical knowledge of research studies and its importance in the medical field.



Medicina Fellows Program • Seminars offered to first and second year med students focus on cultural, social, and economic factors that can influence or obstruct Latino health. • Students explore specialties that can improve Latino health risks and impact Latino community. 

The high school pipeline provides hands-on education and an overview of a variety of careers in the medical field. With a holistic support system and development of a social network, the programs assist with prep and transition to college and med school. Because of the concern of students already getting burned out due to factors like testing (SATs), HCOE developed a balanced curriculum. “We put lecture into perspective with interaction with peers, interpersonal issues with advocacy, team building and professional development with social and more personal approaches for better balance,” says Olaguez.

The Summer Medical Student Research Program • For second year medical students only; 10week opportunity to conduct research on health disparity issues that impact Latino and other minority communities. Biomedical or clinical research topics can include diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, pathology, transplant surgery, global health, and ophthalmology. • Weekly seminars presented by faculty. • Students can obtain critical feedback of their research and help to present their research at local and national conferences. UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS The Medicina Scholars Program • Designed to introduce undergraduate Latino scholars to the medical profession. • Three-year curriculum gives students a strong basis to succeed and become competitive applicants for admissions to medical school.

“My favorite part of the program is the exposure students get to health professionals, which truly breaks down barriers and expands horizons.” Michael Almodovar, coordinator for the Latino Health Science Enrichment Program JULY 13, 2015 | 13


The Medicina Academy Apprentice Program • Students selected during freshman year are placed on a four-year track to engage in activities that prepare them to be successful applicants for college and eventually pre-med programs. • Work in partnership with Chicago area high schools to provide pathways for Latino students to prepare for professions in the medical field. • Emphasis on labs, hands on research and mentorship. • Practical and fun workshops and programs, such as field trips to a cadaver lab, Red Cross CPR training or working with undergrad students on research. →

Michael Almodovar, coordinator for the Latino Health Science Enrichment Program

The Latino Health Science Enrichment Program (LaHSEP) • A six-week summer academic enrichment program; approximately 75 participants. • Develop skills and confidence to pursue careers in the medicine and health sciences. • Track 1 focuses on ACT prep, resume building, self-improvement, self-motivation, and team building. • Track 2, for juniors and seniors, focuses on research skills development, working with undergrad mentors. • Medical and health workshops led by UIC Medical students • Meet and network with different health professionals such as medical students, doctors, veterinarians, and nurses. • Field trips to other campuses. Hands on projects like learning how to suture on pigs’ feet, work on a cow’s heart, research in science labs, first aid, and CPR. Almodovar, who began working as a mentor in this program before becoming coordinator, says, “My favorite part of the program is the exposure students get to health professionals, which truly breaks down barriers and expands horizons.”

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Academia de Padres In a study of high school students in Chicago and how they identify with a career in medicine, a strong support system with peers and parents is needed, says Girotti. Parents are crucial to their children’s motivation and success. As they commit to the program alongside their children, fears and uncertainties are addressed and their knowledge base grows. “They were as hungry for information as the kids were,” says Girotti. The program is a one-year training for parents with kids interested in the medical/health careers. It is based on five pillars of awareness, community service, leadership, parenting and communication. Parents learn to be best advocates for their kids and themselves as they explore tools and resources to better support the child’s development, interests and educational trajectory toward medical field careers.

Linguistically Competent/Culturally Sensitive The admissions process for the programs is bilingual. Some Latino students do not speak Spanish for a variety of reasons, but med school students of any background who are concerned with the Latino community must speak and understand Spanish to improve the quality of care, explains Girotti. “They may settle where there are no Latinos, but the likelihood is less and less. You have to speak the language. If you’re not bilingual and your name is Rodriguez, you might as well be Dr. Smith.” A Medical Spanish class, which is dialogue oriented, is offered the last year of med school. There is always a waitlist. “Working in clinics and hospitals through their schooling, the students get it and see the need,” says Girotti. Being culturally aware goes beyond language, however. Culturally sensitive doctors need to know where their Latino patients live, where they work, what kind of work they do, how educated they may be. If a doctor just gives them a directive without knowing their background or sensitivities, sometimes they cannot follow doctors’ orders. “Maybe they don’t live in a safe area to walk daily, maybe they work two jobs, maybe they’re nodding their heads so you think they understand you, but they don’t,” said Girotti. “You need to be aware and adjust the way you treat your patients.”

In some areas, there can be 3,000 Latino patients to one doctor.” Dr. Jorge Girotti, Hispanic Center of Excellence in Medicine


Kendy Olaguez

Up And Coming Doctors Girotti encourages other universities to apply similar teaching and outreach models so that in 20 to 30 years, they won’t still be lamenting the same issues. “If you’re not into this in the next five to 10 years, you’ll be out of the game. Your med school students will be out of the game.” The HCOE is on track. Currently more than 1,000 have graduated from the Medicina Academy. It’s a start, says Olaguez. The programs can continue to help more students thrive and stay on track. “We want to give them all the tools we never had,” she says. “We want them to know what to expect so they won’t have any excuses to quit. We want them to be the doctors we need.” • JULY 13, 2015 | 15


Is a Latino Elderly Crisis Brewing? By Gary M. Stern


n the book, Latinos in an Aging World, Ronald Angel and Jacqueline Angel, who are married and sociology professors at the University of Texas at Austin, pinpoint the issues triggered by the growing elderly population of Latinos in the U.S. Many Latino seniors are poor, haven’t saved enough for retirement, rely mostly on Social Security, Medicaid and Medicare, and often must depend on their families to get by. The authors raise a bevy of questions concerning how the growing Latino populace of seniors will thrive and the role elderly services can play in alleviating problems. At every level, the intensifying baby boomer population is altering the demographics of the U.S. In 1960, there were five employees for every retiree, but by 2010 that number dwindled to only three workers for every retiree. The 2010 U.S. Census counted 50 million Latinos. Of that number, Mexicans accounted for 63 percent followed by 24 percent from Central America and South America, 9 percent Puerto Ricans and 4 percent Cubans. But the authors noted that 40 percent of Mexicans in the U.S. drop

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out of high school and only about 10 percent of Mexican-Americans earn bachelor’s degrees, and that can create problems saving for retirement. About 40 percent of all American workers maintain any kind of retirement plan, and that number dips for Latinos. Indeed many low-income Latinos borrow from retirement plans to pay for emergencies and everyday expenses, damaging their long-term portfolio. Slightly over 50 percent of Latinos in a 2011 survey said they were not financially prepared for retirement. In 2012, among Latinos receiving Social Security, 40 percent of elderly married couples and 62 percent of elderly unmarried people relied on Social Security for 90 percent of their income. Questions triggered by the Angels’ book include: What can society do to prevent these elderly issues from mushrooming into a crisis? What related job opportunities are out there for undergraduates? In this Q&A, Ronald and Jacqueline Angel address the issues triggered by a rising elderly Latino population.


Hispanic Outlook: What prompted you to focus on the growing number of elderly Latinos? Jacqueline Angel: We have spent over 30 years looking at issues that affect the way race and Hispanic ethnicity influence one’s life chances. Two factors have motivated our study of Latino seniors: intellectually, we’re interested in vulnerability and the role of the state, individual, families and the market on influencing who’s going to take care of us when we no longer can take care of ourselves. Practically speaking, we wanted to better understand where we can make a difference in improving the lives of people of Hispanic origin. Roger Angel: As a Mexican-American, born in a small town in Northern New Mexico, I have been aware of the social and economic situation of Latinos all of my life. Most of the older Mexican-Americans I knew had very little wealth and at most owned a modest home. But even those who work full time all of their lives can end up with very little in old age.

Roger Angel, sociology professor at the University of Texas

HO: Why is this problem often overlooked? Roger Angel: The Latino community is largely invisible, to most, or at least many, non-Hispanics. They may know a few middle-class Latinos, but most people really do not know or understand Latino neighborhoods or sympathize with the plight of undocumented individuals. HO: Name the key issues created by the number of Latino seniors who are unprepared financially for retirement. Jacqueline Angel: The biggest problem with this population, despite its low economic status, is that Latinos outlive every other ethnic and racial group. In fact, their life expectancy is three years higher than any other group of seniors (based on statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics). Many Latinos are culturally protected by large families that provide social support and a positive influence on their overall well-being. HO: What are the consequences of Latinos living longer than any other group? Jacqueline Angel: They’re living longer lives but facing sicker lives. And they can’t afford to grow old because they have health care expenses and their retirement income is far lower than they need. Even Social Security isn’t sufficient. For those who own homes, the taxes they pay exceed their monthly income. This whole question of how they can afford to grow old, given their lifelong expectations, creates particular challenges for themselves and their children. HO: What solutions spring to mind? Jacqueline Angel: The solutions are financial literacy and education to develop more financial capability. Not when they reach age 65, but earlier, when they’re involved in the workforce. Because many people are unable to contribute to retirement plans, making automatic enrollment mandatory in private retirement plans or employer-based 401Ks is one solution. JULY 13, 2015 | 17


HO: Describe some innovation solutions to better prepare low-income Latinos for retirement. Jacqueline Angel: Having any kind of new community models for education makes a difference. Most foreign-born Latinos don’t have the social capital that other groups have. Because of that, it’s critical that they take advantage of community-based programs. HO: You describe one community-model, the PACE program in San Francisco, as being successfully. Why? Roger Angel: PACE is an acronym for Program for All Inclusive Care for the Elderly, a program that attempts to keep older individuals with disabilities in their homes in the community. To the

The biggest problem

with this population,

despite its low economic status, is that Latinos outlive every other

ethnic and racial group. They’re living longer lives but facing sicker lives.” Jacqueline Angel, sociology professor, University of Texas at Austin and co-author, Latinos in an Aging World

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extent that PACE or similar programs can help older individuals remain active and engaged in the community, they could potentially enhance the quality of life for everyone. However, we’re still in an experimental phase and must determine how practical and effective they are and how to make them culturally appropriate. HO: What role can colleges play in creating solutions for elderly Latinos? Jacqueline Angel: Colleges can help students understand the complexity of aging and the effect it has on an ethnic population. Universities offer different perspectives on Latino aging such as sociology, psychological, and demographic. HO: Describe some jobs that talented Latino undergraduates might choose to handle these senior issues. Jacqueline Angel: These jobs are in government including working in housing, health and welfare departments, looking at issues of immigration. There are also opportunities in non-governmental agencies such as eldercare, health, housing and human services. It’s a fertile area to study in trying to identify innovative models for long-term care. Most Latinos end up staying in the community because they can’t afford long-term care or nursing homes. HO: The book states that 80 percent of minorities depend on $14,000 to $18,000 annual Social Security payments for retirement. How do they live on that? Jacqueline Angel: In the Latino population, one key way for survival is to double up. You form a multigenerational household with your children. Secondly, many elderly Latinos are eligible for public programs, such as the PACE model, which provides all inclusive care for the elderly. This option allows them to stay in the community without entering a nursing home. Ironically, they’re eligible because they make so little.


availability of higher quality nursing homes, not having the income or resources. And many aren’t eligible for Medicare. HO: What specifically can be done to encourage more Latinos to take out retirement plan and increase savings? Jacqueline Angel: The key to improving the retirement income for the Latino population begins with the workplace. Meeting with HR officers enables someone to know what options are available in the company, enroll automatically, and set up a system where there will be money available to invest each month. There’s a lack of financial literacy for all racial and ethnic groups, and because of lower education levels, it’s harder to understand these complex financial instruments. HO: Ultimately, what can be done to change the plight of the growing elderly Latino population?

Jacqueline Angel, sociology professor, University of Texas at Austin and co-author, Latinos in an Aging World

HO: Many Latinos therefore avoid nursing homes? Jacqueline Angel: Most seniors don’t want to live in a nursing home regardless of their ethnic background. For Latinos, there is a preference for families first to take care of each other. Familism is the cultural preference to want to take care of parents and provide support and succor. With non-Hispanics, there is a propensity to enter a nursing home. Latinos lack several factors (for entering nursing homes) including lack of

Jacqueline Angel: What we need to do as a nation is to be on top of the issue and make sure our Latino population is getting the education they need. We have to do everything as a nation to provide loans for college education, and make sure that these community-based models of education enable students to graduate high school at a higher rate. Making sure Latino seniors are aware of all of these programs would help. Roger Angel: The problems we discuss in the book are interrelated and result in old-age financial insecurity. Addressing them requires higher levels of education early in life, which would result in better jobs and more savings for retirement. Although the book focuses on the elderly, we spend much time talking about the earlier stage of life because the issues are all front-loaded. It is imperative to address problems of high school dropout rates and low levels of college. Higher levels of education in the Latino population would provide children with more effective role models and examples of how best to get ahead financially. Improved self-sufficiency is preferable to dependence on government programs. • JULY 13, 2015 | 19


Building an Infrastructure

to Train Hispanic Health Care Workers By Frank DiMaria

‘Image licensed by Ingram Image

20 | JULY 13, 2015



n America’s business world corporations protect their information and talent and are loath to share best practices or training strategies with their competitors. Coca-Cola keeps its secret recipe in a vault. Health care is the exception. “When I first came to health care I came from the consulting world and I wasn’t aware of the spirit of cooperation that takes place in workforce development. It’s a little bit different from anything I have seen in business,” says Jan Hunter, program director at CareerSTAT, a project of the National Fund for Workforce Solutions and Jobs for the Future. “In the health care arena, organizations are more open to partnering to ensure there are plenty of workers available.” CareerSTAT, now in its fifth year, is an employer-led national collaboration of health care leaders who promote employer investment in the skill and career development of frontline health care workers. It’s a clearinghouse for best practices in health care and it encourages health care companies to share information and training development. Currently over 100 health care organizations, such as Kaiser Permanente and Banner Health, partner with CareerSTAT. Many of the initiatives these organizations advance focus on early college and career pathway programs providing low-income and minority students with access to in-demand health care careers. One of the goals is to ensure the demographics of their caregiver population match that of the community. “A lot of the organizations we work with have large Hispanic populations and have started working on initiatives that would get Hispanic youth engaged in health care careers,” says Hunter.

JULY 13, 2015 | 21


One health care facility working to ensure its workforce mirrors that of the community is City of Hope, a leading research and treatment center for cancer, diabetes and other life-threatening diseases. It is located in Duarte, California, which is 71 percent Hispanic. City of Hope’s primary objective is to deliver the best possible care to its patients. To do that in a community that is 71 percent Hispanic its frontline workers must understand and appreciate the cultural, ethnic and religious sensitivities of Hispanics, says Stephanie Neuvirth, chief human resources and diversity officer at City of Hope. “It’s all about gaining the trust of the patients, their families and of the community,” says Neuvirth. “We believe that we have a role in making our community thrive through better understanding about how to live in a healthy manner.”

Jan Hunter, program director at CareerSTAT

A lot of the

organizations we

work with have large Hispanic populations and have started

working on initiatives that would get Hispanic youth engaged in health care careers.” 22 | JULY 13, 2015

Jan Hunter, program director at CareerSTAT

City of Hope educates Hispanics in Duarte about nutrition, exercising, early screenings and vaccinations. “We believe all (these) different variables are important to support the community,” says Neuvirth. “To best understand how to support them we have to understand the community at large. If our employees mirror the community, we believe that will help us to better serve our patients and understand our patients’ needs.” City of Hope has implemented a number of initiatives to lure talented Hispanics into the health care field. “We have substantial efforts to recruit existing health care professionals as well as college students to join City of Hope,” says Neuvirth. Only 6 percent of the physicians and 8 percent of the nurses in the U.S. are Hispanic, according to Neuvirth. “This is a very small number com-


Stephanie Neuvirth, chief human resources and diversity officer at City of Hope.

pared to the demographic that we’re trying to serve,” she says. But Neuvirth has turned this negative, into a positive. “We have a huge opportunity to improve the pipeline to serve the community,” she says. City of Hope seeks the brightest students from its community. To attract them Neuvirth starts recruiting as early as the third grade, hoping to spark an interest in science that will encourage the young people to hone the skills necessary to gain a clinical perspective and ultimately lead to a career as a physician or nurse. Not everyone, however, has the aptitude or desire to be a physician or nurse. And that’s OK. “There are lots and lots of jobs in health care that are called the middle skill jobs that do not require a four-year degree and are not clinically focused,” says Neuvirth. Some don’t even require strength in math or science. Jobs in accounting, finance, IT and administration are plentiful in health care. Although these jobs provide the infrastructure for the health care industry, parents, guidance counselors and students don’t realize they exist. The most innovative project that Neuvirth oversees is the TEACH Project (Train, Educate, and Accelerate Careers in Healthcare). Under City of Hope’s guidance, the Duarte United School District and Citrus College developed a curriculum that allows students to earn college credits and certifications while still in high school. The classes meet on the high school’s campus. The TEACH Project seeks to create skilled workers in health IT. “We think this is a real winwin for the hospital healthcare community because we need health IT,” says Neuvirth. The most intriguing aspect of this project, says Neuvirth, is that the high school students transition directly from 12th grade to college without leaving the school and their comfort zone. “They just keep taking classes…By the time they graduate they have the beginnings of an AA degree,” says Neuvirth. The program’s price tag makes it even more attractive to the low-income student. Because TEACH students do not receive their high school

diploma until they complete the program, they are considered public school students. All the courses they take on the high school campus are free. In addition to classroom experience, TEACH students visit City of Hope and work side-by-side with current employees and during the summer they participate in internships. Once students make it to the second or third year of the program, they start taking their courses at the Citrus College campus. With its outreach programs that build the pipeline of Hispanics in health care and its high profile within the Hispanic community of Duarte, City of Hope is trying to improve the quality of life for those in its community. But it’s a challenge. “Even when you recognize that an organization should mirror the community, it’s not as simple as may seem. It takes time to develop the paths and the relationships and the pipeline to make real and sustainable change,” says Neuvirth. • JULY 13, 2015 | 23


Republican Congress Changes Focus on Reauthorization of Higher Ed Act


By Margaret S. Orchowski

national election can make a difference – especially when one party takes over both houses of Congress. It especially impacts the passage and tone of major bills such as the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA). The focus for that must-pass reauthorization has changed over the past eight months from a Democratic party, one of broad comprehensive improvements in college accessibility and affordability for students, to a more narrow Republican focus on accountability and efficiency of higher education institutions. Last August when the Democrats still controlled the Senate, both chambers were clashing on how to reauthorize the mammoth law that includes funding for the entire federal student loan system, the Pell Grant tuition assistance program for low- and middle-income students, teacher-preparation provisions, and various programs that help disadvantaged students access higher education. It also includes funding for the U.S. Institute of Peace. The (Democratic) Senate was taking a “holistic approach” (similar to their insistence on a “comprehensive” immigration bill). The Demo-

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cratic chairman of the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, Sen. Tom Harkin from Iowa (now retired) had issued a 785- page “discussion draft” of a massive 10-year ‘comprehensive’ bill with a priority on college affordability. He felt confident, at the time that a broad bill could become one of the few bipartisan victories in the fading 113th Congress, especially after the more than 1000-page comprehensive immigration bill had passed in the Senate in June 2013. But the Republican House wanted HEA reauthorization to be proposed, discussed and passed in pieces, not in a massive omnibus bill. During the summer, the Republican Chairman of the Education and the Workforce Committee, John Kline,R-Minn., pushed three small bipartisan pieces through the House. They focused on sharing outcomes and other college data with prospective students, reducing costs, and holding colleges more accountable – elements that many Democrats also supported. Chairman Kline planned to tackle large pieces of legislation “by giving priority to proposals with the best chance of attracting support from both sides of the aisle.” Democratic Senate leaders however disagreed.


Senator Lamar Alexander, R-Tenn., chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions

JULY 13, 2015 | 25


… colleges have to operate in a

jungle of red tape that should be an embarrassment to all of us in the federal government.” Republican Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee

But that was in 2013 – after President Obama had won his second term election and before the comprehensive affordable health care law failed to launch on Nov. 1, stumbled badly and publicly for the next three months and was renamed “Obamacare”. That was before comprehensive immigration reform died in the House in favor of a piecemeal approach, which Democrats refused to accept (and the media failed to cover). And that was before the November midterm elections where Republicans took over the Senate in a sweep and increased their majority in the House to historic levels. Desperate to refocus the overall bill to a cause all could jump on, Harkin in his last weeks in office in 2014, changed the focus of HEA reauthorization mainly to student debt. It’s a popular Democratic fallback, starting by giving a senator that majority leaders want to showcase, the inevitably popular bill of “making college more afford-

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able” by reducing the interest percentage rate on student loans, even as tuition goes up and demands for new programs and expanded funding continue. But in fact, the 432-page HEA touches nearly every aspect of federal higher education policy. Its reauthorization comprises much more than student debt. The HEA was first signed into law in 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson as one of many programs comprising his “Great Society” initiatives. Throughout the decades, reauthorizations of the law have established new programs and spending, and changed borrowing limits and grant eligibility. Reauthorization initiatives over the years include the1968, federal TRIO programs, Pell Grant creation in 1972, and Pell eligibility expansion in 1976. Other programs include The Middle Income Student Assistance Act of 1978; The Parent PLUS loan program of 1980, expanded borrowing limits in 1986, and the unsubsidized Stafford loan program in 1992. The maximum Pell Grant award was increased in 1998, and interest rates on federal student loans were lowered. The reauthorization of 2008 attempted to simplify the process for accessing federal student aid. In 2008 the Higher Education Opportunity Act, federal student aid authorized under Title IV of the act, topped $169 billion in the 2013–14 academic year—an increase of 105 percent over the past decade. Ten other titles also allocate funding for various higher education programs and institutional grants, establish regulations, and define eligibility for access to federal student aid. It is unlikely, however, that in a Republican Congress, increased funding for programs will be passed. So now in 2015, what might a new higher education authorization bill look like? In late April, the new Senate HELP Committee Chairman Republican Lamar Alexander of Tennessee said in a press release: “As the committee continues its work to reauthorize the Higher Education Act this year, I am asking the higher education community—including students, parents and others interested in our colleges and universities—to tell us their thoughts on three important issues: how to improve our accreditation system, how to give colleges some ‘skin


in the game’ as one way to discourage student over-borrowing and excessive student debt, and how to make sure that data being collected to help students and their families be better consumers is useful, clear, and concise. All of these comments will be considered during the bipartisan reauthorization process that ranking Democratic member Sen. Patty Murray of Washington and I will be developing.” His focus seems to be on efficiency and accountability of colleges. In late February Alexander released a report by a task force of college and university leaders commissioned by a bipartisan group of senators including Sens. Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., Richard Burr, R-N.C., and Michael Bennet, D-Colo. The report “showed colleges have to operate in a jungle of red tape that should be an embarrassment to all of us in the federal government,” wrote Alexander. “These should not be excused as normal, run-of-the-mill problems of government. These examples, and others like them, are sloppy, inefficient governing that wastes money, hurts students, discourages productivity and impedes research,” Alexander concluded in a hearing. “The committee will be seeking specific recommendations on reducing, eliminating or streamlining duplicative, costly or confusing regulations as it works on the ninth reauthorization of the Higher Education Act.” Alexander and Kline (the ongoing Chairman of the House standing Committee on Education and the Workforce) like to ask for help from the stakeholders. There also is a new mood of seeking bipartisan support – now that Republicans control both houses. At a hearing in May on “consumer information” it was Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass., who complained passionately that the Department of Education would not release outcome data that she knew it had. “We’ll work on that together” said Alexander as they both nodded in agreement. He was silent however when Democrat Patty Murray urged that they include increased accountability on campus sexual assaults in the new bill. That is the kind of “social” issue that might get into a broad Democratic omnibus HEA bill, but unlikely in a more focused Republican one. • ‘Image licensed by Ingram Image’ JULY 13,

2015 | 27

Hispanic Health Care Realities and Opportunities for the Future By Gustavo A. Mellander

The dreary news first. Hispanic health realities are dismal for many in this country. The reasons stated include far too many Hispanics living in poverty, their inability to access assistance and inferior health care systems. It’s getting better but progress is slow and the scars are deep. Latino Health Disparities In 2014, Families USA published “Latino Health Disparities Compared to Non-Hispanic Whites.” It lists health disparities which undermine the stability of Hispanic families and communities. Latinos are more likely to suffer from a greater variety of health conditions and they are more likely to get sicker, develop serious complications and not infrequently die from them. Here are the most common problems: • Hispanics are twice as likely to contract asthma. • Hispanics are six times more likely to have tuberculosis. • Hispanics are 15 times more likely to suffer from liver disease. This is particularly noted among those recent immigrants who may be heavy drinkers and smokers. Many agricultural workers perhaps due to environmental realities, insecticides and other chemicals, suffer from liver and kidney problems. • Hispanics are 55 percent more likely to have deadly renal end diseases. • Hispanics are 2.5 times more likely to die from HIV. Cultural machismo and embarrassment have kept many victims from coming forth and seeking treatment in a timely fashion. • Sixty-five percent, male and female, are more likely to develop diabetes. Hispanic Children Children face a variety of serious health obstacles. Thirty percent are more likely to die as infants than Anglo children. Sixty percent are more likely to attempt suicide in high school, and 35 percent are likely to be obese. The need for serious restructuring of the health care system is obvious. In January of 2015, The University of California –Los Angeles published a study about Hispanic health from the prospective of the changing Latino demographic in the United States. That cohort presents a number of challenges to health care policy and led scientists Alexander N. Ortega, Hector P. Rodriguez, and Arturo Vargas Bustamante to study the issue. They noted previous studies had demonstrated that “Latinos tend to have the worse patterns of access to, and utilization of, health care than any other ethnic or racial group.” It is hoped that with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) some of the age old inequities will be addressed and ameliorated. However, even with the ACA, it is expected that Latinos will continue to have problems accessing high-quality health care, especially in states that are not expanding Medicaid eligibility as provided by the ACA. The report identified four current policy dilemmas relevant to Latinos’ health and ACA implementation:

28 | JULY 13, 2015

(a) the need to extend coverage to the significant number of undocumented residents; (b) the impact of growth of Latino populations in states with limited insurance expansion; (c) demands on public and private systems of care; and (d) the need to increase the number of Latino physicians while increasing the direct patient-care responsibilities of non-physician Latino health care workers. Let me end this dismal litany on a lighter note: sedentary life. For a number of years, Allied Health professions have circulated study after study strongly suggesting that a sedentary existence can lead to a series of cardiovascular diseases and premature death. People, it is generally recognized, can be grateful for their inherited genes. Good genes will pull you through many childhood diseases. Even our adult years are heavily influenced, read protected, by the genes we inherited. But as we age, into our 60s, their influence can be diminished by our lifestyle choices. Smoking, excessive drinking, and poor eating habits wreck their havoc on us in our later years. We can no longer count on good genes to pull us through. In retirement, heretofore recommended behavior characterized by sedentary living is now being criticized by health professionals. Instead one is now encouraged to be as active as possible, walking, swimming, dancing and just moving the body regularly is highly recommended. At least that has been touted for the general population. I wondered if any studies had been done on Hispanics. I searched and found that earlier this year, the American Health Association did indeed issue a report based on research conducted among Hispanics. Titled “Sedentary Behavior and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Hispanic/ Latino Adults: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.” Dr. Qibin Qi, et al. Between 2008 and 2011, sedentary behavior and diminished physical activity were measured among 12,443 Hispanic participants between the ages of 18 and 74 years from households in four cities. Participants wore an accelerometer at least 10 hours a day for at least three days. What were the results? Once again Hispanics led the pack. “Sedentary time is high among U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults. Which leads to adverse cardiometabolic biomarker profiles.” The researchers strongly recommended that Hispanics “change their sedentary behavior to reduce deadly diseases.” We just can’t win! Higher Education Is there light at the end of the tunnel? As readers of Hispanic Outlook know, Hispanics participation in higher education has grown tremendously over the past few decades. Every year more Hispanics attend college and more graduate. Many have gone on to notable careers in all professions. But, as noted in previous columns I’ve written, an educational attainment gap with other Americans still exists and

some studies indicate the gap is growing. What about Hispanics and the health fields? Luckily, Excelencia in Education, the respected Washington D.C.-based research and advocacy organization has just published Finding Your Workforce: Latinos in Health. This 20,000 word document is a treasure house of information. I have studied it and present some key points. For those who want more details, the entire document can be downloaded at Overview Health needs will continue to grow as the nation ages, as many companies and public agencies provide good health plans and as the Affordable Care Act surges to cover hundreds of thousands of individuals. These needs and changes in the ever-growing health fields are spawning a veritable revolution of opportunities. Thus a variety of education opportunities for Hispanics to meet health needs are sprouting up nationwide.’ The authors of the Excelencia study, Deborah A. Santiago, Emily Calderón Galdeano, and Morgan Taylor, present a detailed overview of Hispanics working in these burgeoning fields. As is well known, Hispanic presence is minimal, not enough to meet the needs of present-day Hispanics, much less the ever-growing demands that are developing. The authors suggest specific steps the academic community and the public in general should undertake to prepare for the future. They wisely highlight a number of realities such as the one of proportionality that I have been writing about for 25 years. To wit: too few Hispanics enter the higher level health professions, MDs, etc. A single example, although the number of Hispanics studying nursing increases every year, they are concentrated at the lower levels, such as certificate and two-year associate level diplomas not bachelor of nursing or graduate programs. Follow the Money! Fourteen of the top 20 occupations in the U.S. with the highest median annual income in 2012 were in health professions, such as dentists, physicians, and surgeons. Health professions requiring advanced degrees (MD or PhD) have median annual salaries from $80,000 to over $185,000. Conversely, six of the 20 fastest growing health care occupations had lowest annual pay. They are personal care aides, home health aides, and physical therapist aides. Their median annual pay is from below $20,000 to around $32,000. The entry-level education required for these health care support occupations is less than high school, a high school diploma or a certificate. As noted most Hispanics are at these lower levels. The die is cast, but it can and should be changed. Exceptionality Most Hispanic college students are first generation and many have to work to support themselves. Some face cultural, family or neighborhood, pressures they must overcome. Many attended less than stellar high schools. They are as bright as any other cohort but their exceptionality must be addressed if they are to succeed. Not to do so will doom too many to the failure-laden sink or swim environment of the past. Luckily, a number of very good higher education institutions have developed programs that successfully educate and graduate Hispanics at all health-profession levels. This study highlights some of them and those institutions have been generous in sharing their strategies and experiences in the hopes of encouraging other institutions. (See cited download for details.) The task of recruiting more Hispanics for all professional health levels and helping them through graduation is a for-

midable one but clearly a needed one. How to begin? Some Strategies for Institutions 1. Engage alumni to share workforce experiences and employment opportunities. 2. Develop closer links between academic departments and student career services. 3. Workforce councils should establish relationships to connect graduates to employers within the institution’s service area. 4. Apprise students of employment opportunities and salary ranges in various professions to encourage them appropriately. These goals may seem familiar to many readers for most of our institutions have adopted them or a variation thereof. They are common sense suggestions which have worked at some institutions but many lost their initial vigor and the goals were sloughed off. Persistence is the glue that is necessary to succeed. The Power of Population Changes Malthus was wrong about the world not being able to absorb enormous population changes. This nation has and more is yet to come. By 2020 Hispanics are projected to account for 75 percent of the nation’s labor force’s growth. In spite of jingoistic rants, most of those Hispanics are native born. Over 20 percent of babies born in the United States are born to Hispanic mothers. These infants and mothers can be better served if their health care providers shared linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Which institutions graduate the most Hispanics in health fields? In 2013 only a few conferred degrees in health fields. The top 25 institutions offering Latinos health field education awarded more than 25 percent of all health credentials to Hispanics in 2013. In 2013, 16 of the top 25 institutions conferring bachelor degrees to Latinos in health fields were Hispanic-Serving Institutions. That is colleges whose student body is at least 25 percent Hispanic. Other Data The top 25 institutions at each academic level were primarily located in three states - California, Texas, Florida - as well as Puerto Rico. The top 25 institutions at the doctoral level awarded 66 percent of all doctoral degrees in health fields earned by Hispanics in 2012-13. Several of the top 25 institutions graduating Latinos in health fields in 2012-13 stand out at multiple academic levels. For example, Miami Dade College and South Texas College were represented among the top 25 at both the certificate and associate levels. Bachelor and graduate programs are found at California State University-Long Beach, Florida International University, Nova Southeastern University, The University of Texas-Pan American, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The University of Texas at El Paso, Texas and Tech University Health Science Center. I know it’s a long list but all are worthy of examination. Bottom line: The need for more Hispanics in the health fields is enormous and many student-oriented avenues are open. Good colleges have special programs for Hispanics. Fresh financial assistance is also available. Encourage students to aim high even if they have to take a step at a time. • Dr. Mellander was a university dean for 15 years and a college president for 20.

JUNE 15, 2015 | 29

From the

Scholars’Corner By Alma Itzé Flores, Doctoral Candidate, Social Sciences and

Comparative Education University of California, Los Angeles, 2014 AAHHE Graduate Fellow


y education aspirations are rooted in a history of struggle and resiliency. My family and I immigrated to the United States when I was 8 years old, because, like other countless families, the financial instability in México pushed us to look for better opportunities. We moved to Santa Barbara, California, where my grandfather had made his home after years of low-wage labor as a Bracero worker. While I benefited from growing up in a fairly affluent city, the supremacy of whiteness led to many instances of racism and the devaluing of my identity. Fortunately, I found strength in my family’s stories of sacrifice and survival; I knew that although we had little, our perseverance was enough to carry us far beyond what we could imagine. I knew when I left to attend UCLA that I carried the responsibility of the first in the family to go to college, but I also understood how important it was to create pathways for others to be able to pursue an education. As I started at UCLA, I struggled. I did not feel like I belonged and lacked the confidence to succeed in such a large university. It was through my ethnic and education studies courses, along with a great community of friends, mentors, and professors, that I was able to overcome this. These courses led to a deep desire to understand myself. I realized that my experiences of marginalization in Santa Barbara left deep wounds, which manifested into internalized racism. As I learned

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more about myself, I became empowered to work toward creating transformative educational spaces for Mexicana/o/Chicana/o students. I understood that through knowledge of self we could restore our humanity and envision a more just society. Yet most importantly, I learned that I could not do this work alone, that true change comes from working with community. As such, I have worked hard to surround myself with others who share this passion and can provide the guidance I need. This is what the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education has provided me: a national support system. Earlier this year, I attended the annual conference, and I recall how down I was feeling at the time. My doctoral program had been much more psychologically challenging than I ever imagined. The AAHHE conference experience proved to be quite healing for me; I found the passion and hope that I had been lacking. The other AAHHE Graduate Fellows reminded me that I was not alone in my struggles as an aspiring Chicana professor. I was especially happy to reconnect with old mentors through the AAHHE Faculty Fellows Program. Their invaluable consejos through their own graduate school stories made me recognize how important it is to build community that can be there in both the good and difficult times. I am grateful for the warm welcome into the AAHHE familia, and I hope to continue giving back in honor of all those who have given me so much •

Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs. by Lauren A. Rivera. 2015. 392 pp. Cloth. $35.00. ISBN: 9780691155623. Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.J. (609) 258-3897. www.

Moon Cuba by Christopher P. Baker. In 2014, the United States began re-establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. For the first time in decades, every U.S. citizen can now travel to this eccentric, enigmatic island. In this book, renowned Cuba expert Christopher P. Baker tells you everything you need to know to make this trip possible. Choose the best guides, tours, and means of transportation. Join in the cultural feast in Havana, a city like no other. 2015. 660 pp. ISBN: 978-1612388243. $24.95. paper. Avalon Travel Publishing; Sixth Edition Berkeley, Calif., (510).809.3800.

Portraits of Hispanic American Heroes

by Juan Felipe Herrera; Illustrator: Raul Colon An inspiring tribute to Hispanic Americans who have made a positive impact on the world. This visually stunning book showcases 20 Hispanic and Latino American men and women who have made outstanding contributions to the arts, politics, science, humanitarianism, and athletics. The book is designed for readers ages 8 through 12. 2014. 96 pp. ISBN: 9780803738096 96. $19.99. cloth. Dial Books, New York, N.Y., (212)-366-2000.

Latino Families in Therapy, Second Edition

by Celia Jaes Falicov This book provides an up-to-date conceptual framework and hands-on strategies for culturally competent clinical practice with Latino families and individuals. Through many in-depth case illustrations, the author shows how to apply a multicultural and social justice lens to assessment and intervention that draw on each client’s strengths. 2015. 484 pp. ISBN: 9781462522323. $25.00. paper. Guilford Press. New York, N.Y. (800) 365-7006.

As the wealth gap widens, the public perception grows that the money buys power. It not only buys access to lawmakers and lawmaking, but it also can influence chances of landing a big job. This flies in the face of the American Dream. The one thing we all learn in school is that we can do anything we set out to do. To put it another way, Americans are taught to believe that upward mobility is possible for anyone who is willing to work hard, regardless of their social status, yet that isn’t always the case. It is often those from affluent backgrounds who land those great jobs. This is the thrust of Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs. The book lets readers go behind the closed doors of top-tier investment banks, consulting firms, and law firms to reveal the truth about who really gets hired for the nation’s highest-paying entry-level jobs, who doesn’t, and why. Pedigree tells its story through the in-depth interviews it has conducted with those on both sides of the hiring desk. It also features firsthand analysis of hiring practices at some of America’s most prestigious firms. Lauren Rivera, the author, who is an associate professor of management and organizations at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management, shows how, at every step of the hiring process, the ways that employers delineate and assess merit are strongly tilted toward job applicants from economically privileged backgrounds. She reveals how decision makers draw from ideas about talent—what it is, what best signals it, and who does (and does not) have it—that are deeply rooted in social class. Displaying the “right stuff” that elite employers are looking for entails considerable amounts of economic, social, and cultural resources on the part of the applicants and their parents. Could it be possible that applicants with such a “pedigree” have no chance at all? Shining a light on this bias is the first step toward leveling the playing field and enlarging the workforce pool. Hopefully, Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs can be part of that process. As the author notes, “Challenging our most cherished beliefs about college as a great equalizer and the job market as a level playing field, Pedigree exposes the class biases built into American notions about the best and the brightest, and shows how social status plays a significant role in determining who reaches the top of the economic ladder.” Reviewed by Mary Ann Cooper

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CHANCELLOR The University of Arkansas System announces a global search and invites nominations and applications for the position of chancellor of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Founded in 1871, the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville is the flagship, land-grant, research institution of the U of A System, offering more than 200 baccalaureate, master’s, doctoral, professional and specialist degree programs. The university’s annual budget is approximately $800 million, with 1,200 full-time faculty and more than 26,200 students who represent all 50 states and 120 countries. The university is the state’s foremost partner and resource for education and economic development. It serves as the major provider of graduate-level instruction in Arkansas and its public service activities reach every county in Arkansas, throughout the nation and around the world. The U of A’s growing enrollment has also yielded an increase in academic quality, with a 43.2% increase in the number students who have an ACT of 30 or higher since 2008. Retention and graduation rates continue improving. Presently in the planning phase of a major capital campaign, the U of A seeks to raise funds to catalyze the next wave of campus transformation. The previous campaign raised $1.046 billion and endowed 1,700 scholarships and fellowships and 130 faculty chairs and professorships. It also endowed the Graduate School and created an undergraduate Honors College a decade ago. The endowment today exceeds $920 million. Fayetteville is routinely considered among the country’s finest college towns and the surrounding Northwest Arkansas region is regularly ranked one of the best places to live in the U.S. Proximity and partnerships with numerous Fortune 500 companies based in the area including Walmart, JB Hunt Transport Services Inc. and Tyson Foods, provide opportunities for students as well as philanthropic support. A 36-mile Razorback Regional Greenway trail system connects the region. Farmers markets, fine dining, casual lifestyle, nature, arts and cultural amenities round out the quality life enjoyed by residents. The University of Arkansas System enrolls more than 60,000 students, employs over 17,000 employees and has a total budget of over $2 billion. The Chancellor’s Position The chancellor reports to the president of the University of Arkansas System and serves as the chief executive officer of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. The chancellor is responsible for all operations of the university, including overall leadership and management of the institution, its academic and research enterprises, fundraising and mobilization of all constituents including faculty, alumni, staff, students, community, corporate, foundation and local and state government leaders to meet the institutional, system and regional goals. The chancellor will continue leading the transformative academic and research advances and propel the institution among the nation’s top 50 public research universities. The chancellor will display the following important attributes: superior management, communication, interpersonal, budget and strategic planning skills. An inclusive approach to management and leadership, the ability to introduce innovative funding initiatives, experience managing complex budgets and a record of success in this critical area are desired. The chancellor will promote world-class research, diversity within faculty ranks, staff and student body, a focus on student-success and will be a strong advocate for public higher education. Preference will be given to candidates with an earned doctorate, progressive administrative leadership experience, a track record of successful fundraising, experience establishing and maintaining strategic partnerships, exposure to and support of the athlete/scholar and fiscal management of large, complex organizations. Land-grant, flagship, research university experience is desired. Greenwood/Asher & Associates Inc. is assisting the University of Arkansas System in the search for the chancellor of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Applications and nominations are being accepted. References will not be contacted until advanced stages of screening. The selection process will continue until the position is filled and applications are encouraged to be submitted by August 28, 2015. This position is subject to a pre-employment criminal background and financial history background check. A criminal conviction or arrest pending adjudication or adverse financial history information alone shall not disqualify an applicant in the absence of a relationship to the requirements of the position. Background check information will be used in a confidential non-discriminatory manner consistent with state and federal law. Application materials should include a letter addressing how the candidate’s experience and skills match the position requirements, a résumé and contact information for at least five references. Individuals wishing to nominate a candidate should include the name, position, address and telephone number of the nominee. A letter addressing how the nominee’s experiences match the position requirements is recommended. Consultants Jan Greenwood and Marion Frenche may be reached by phone at 850-650-2277 or 301-292-6615. Inquiries, nominations and applications should be directed to: Jan Greenwood, Marion Frenche or Betty Turner Asher Greenwood/Asher & Associates, Inc. 42 Business Center Drive, Suite 206 Miramar Beach, FL 32550 Phone: 850-650-2277 / Fax: 850-650-2272 E-mail:

For more information on the U of A, visit For more information on the U of A System, visit The University of Arkansas System is an Affirmative Action/EOE institution and encourages applications from all qualified candidates. All applicant information is subject to public disclosure under the Arkansas Freedom of Information Act.

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AAHHE in partnership with Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC) proudly announces the

2016 Outstanding Thesis in Food and Agriculture Sciences Competition! The competition is open to any Hispanic (must be a U.S. Citizen or U.S. Permanent Resident) individual who has completed a thesis that focuses on the Food and the Agricultural Sciences between December 2013 and August 1, 2015. These are eligible if they are in domains that are related to the USDA priority areas, including Food Safety, Climate Change, Sustainable Energy, Childhood Obesity, and Global Food Security and Hunger. Theses in the humanities or social sciences are not eligible. The first place winner of the Outstanding Thesis in Food and Agricultural Sciences Competition will receive an award in the amount of $3,000. The second place winner will receive an award of $2,000. The third place winner will receive an award of $1,000. The three finalists will also be invited to present their thesis at the 2016 AAHHE National Conference in Costa Mesa, California. The deadline for submission is August 14, 2015, 5 p.m. CST. This competition is made possible thanks to a grant provided by The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The grant coordinator is Dr. JoAnn Canales (, Professor and Founding Dean of the College of Graduate Studies, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC). For further information regarding all aspects of the competition, including guidelines and requirements, please visit the AAHHE website:

(Go to the main page of the AAHHE website (, click the Outstanding Thesis Competition button at the top of the page, and click the link on the left side of this general info page that reads Outstanding Thesis Competition)

JULY 13, 2015 | 33

FACULTY SEARCH Rutgers University–Camden is the southern campus of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. It is located in a dynamic urban area, just across the Delaware River from downtown Philadelphia. The campus includes undergraduate and graduate Arts and Sciences programs, a School of Business, a School of Law, and a School of Nursing. Teacher Preparation Program Instructor of Education (full-time, non-tenure track) For specific information about the position, including qualifications and deadlines, see our website at: Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, is an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action Employer. Qualified applicants will be considered for employment without regard to race, creed, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, national origin, disability status, genetic information, protected veteran status, military service or any other category protected by law. As an institution, we value diversity of background and opinion, and prohibit discrimination or harassment on the basis of any legally protected class in the areas of hiring, recruitment, promotion, transfer, demotion, training, compensation, pay, fringe benefits, layoff, termination or any other terms and conditions of employment.

Associate Vice President for Academic Programs Start Date: January 4, 2016 The Associate Vice President for Academic Programs (AVP-AP) provides leadership in ensuring that academic programs at both the graduate and undergraduate levels are of the highest quality. Working with the deans and faculty, the AVP-AP coordinates the development and evaluation of academic initiatives, fosters a community dedicated to learning; implements effective review of academic policies and procedures related to curriculum, course scheduling, and assessment of academic programs; collaborates with representatives of key university units to promote and implement campus-wide initiatives; and establishes and maintains strategic networks within the broader education community. This position reports directly to the Provost/ Vice President for Academic Affairs. For complete advertisement, application instructions, and detailed job description for this position, please visit our webpage at CSUB is committed to Equal Employment Opportunity. Applicants will be considered without regard to gender, race, age, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, genetic information, marital status, disability, or veteran's status.

DEAN OF LIBRARIES The University of Kansas is conducting a national search for the Dean of Libraries. The Search Committee invites letters of nomination, applications (letter of interest, full resume/CV, and contact information of at least five references), or expressions of interest to be submitted to the search firm assisting the University. Review of materials will begin immediately and continue until the appointment is made. It is preferred, however, that all nominations and applications be submitted prior to August 26, 2015. For a complete position description, please visit the Current Opportunities page at Laurie C. Wilder, President Porsha L. Williams, Vice President 770-804-1996 ext: 109 || The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, retaliation, gender identity, gender expression and genetic information in the University’s programs and activities.

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Hispanic Outlook Issue 7-13-15 Deadline 7-2-15 2/3 page

Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Environmental Health Sciences

ROBERT J. VLASIC DEAN OF ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Ann Arbor, Michigan The University of Michigan invites nominations and applications for the position of Robert J. Vlasic Dean of Engineering. Offering classes since 1854, the College of Engineering is an international leader in engineering education at the undergraduate, masters, and doctoral levels. It maintains topten rankings in nearly every undergraduate and graduate engineering program. Renowned for its extensive research program, the College leads in developing new applications for technologies and transferring knowledge to industry, and in 2014 its total research volume was $217 million. An outstanding faculty, diverse and talented students, a committed administrative staff, and a superb physical plant set the College apart by its scale and scope of activities. Over the past ten years, the College has invested in significant growth of its faculty and facilities; the number of tenure-track faculty members has grown to 388 across twelve departments, along with over 100 research faculty members. The Dean is the chief academic and executive officer of the College and reports directly to the Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs. The Dean provides leadership and is responsible for all matters relative to the administration of the College, including academic programs, personnel, budgets, alumni relations and fundraising. Working collaboratively with faculty and staff to advance the College’s mission, the Dean represents the College within the University and among a wide range of external constituencies.

The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health invites applications for full-time, tenure track faculty positions at the rank of Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Candidates with specific interest and experience in the following areas are encouraged to apply: 1) applied and population based research in any of the topical areas of environmental epidemiology and 2) water, emerging contaminants, and health. The full position descriptions, and how to apply, can be found at:

Qualifications include an earned doctorate, a distinguished research and teaching record appropriate for a tenured appointment as full professor in the College, proven leadership and management ability, excellent communication skills, a track record of effectively supporting diversity and inclusiveness, dedication to promoting collaboration across the University, an understanding of budgeting processes in a complex research university, and an aptitude for fundraising. Nominations and applications will be reviewed beginning July 1, 2015, and will be accepted until the position is filled. Individuals from underrepresented groups are encouraged to apply. The University has retained Isaacson, Miller, a national executive search firm, to assist in this search. All inquiries, nominations and applications, should be directed in confidence to: Isaacson, Miller John Muckle, Principal Vijay Saraswat, Associate 263 Summer Street, Boston, MA 02210 The University of Michigan is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.

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Oakton Community College employs individuals who respect, are eager to learn about, and have a willingness to accept the many ways of viewing the world. Oakton serves the near northern suburbs of Chicago with campuses in Des Plaines and Skokie. Individuals with a commitment to working in a culturally competent environment are sought to fill the following administrator level openings:

• Executive Director of Development • Dean, Science and Health Careers The full consideration deadline is: July 27, 2015.

To learn more about these positions, and to complete an online application, visit our Web site at: Click on “employment”


The University of Chicago Booth School of Business is seeking to appoint outstanding scholars to tenure-track positions in Marketing beginning in the 2016-17 academic year. We are seeking the best possible candidates without regard to subfield of specialization. Applications are invited from individuals who have earned a PhD (or equivalent) or expect to receive a doctorate in the near future. Members of our faculty are expected to conduct original research of exceptionally high quality, to teach effectively, and to participate in and contribute to the academic environment. Junior candidates will be judged on potential, and we will rely heavily on the advice of established scholars. Each candidate should submit a curriculum vitae, job market paper, and at least two letters of reference from scholars qualified and willing to evaluate the candidate’s ability, training, and potential for research and teaching. Applications will be accepted online at: . We will begin formally reviewing applications on July 1, 2015 and strongly encourage you to complete your application by then. We will continue to accept applications until February 28, 2016.

Oakton Community College is an equal opportunity employer.

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The University of Chicago is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity / Disabled /Veterans Employer.

Faculty Position – Assistant Professor of Strategy Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University • Ithaca, NY

Cornell is a community of scholars, known for intellectual rigor and engaged in deep and broad research, teaching tomorrow’s thought leaders to think otherwise, care for others, and create and disseminate knowledge with a public purpose. ANTICIPATED START DATE: August 2016 RESPONSIBILITIES: Outstanding applicants are sought in any area of management strategy at the Assistant Professor rank. The successful applicant will have demonstrable capability of producing research publishable in leading academic outlets and excellent teaching skills. We have particular interest in candidates whose research is in the following areas: business analytics, corporate governance, data science, environmentally sustainable business, entrepreneurship, international/global business, or technology and innovation. While the research focus of the position will be in management, the ideal candidate will have interests spanning the other research pillars of the School, including finance, marketing, international and development economics, environmental, energy and resource economics, and food and agricultural economics. The successful candidate will be expected to maintain a highly impactful program of research relevant to broad societal, economic and business issues and to communicate results to public audiences and practitioners as well as academic peers. It is also expected that the incumbent will be actively engaged with undergraduate and graduate students as a teacher, adviser and mentor. OPPORTUNITIES: The Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management is an internationally renowned school in the areas of management, international and development economics, environmental, energy and resource economics, and food and agricultural economics. The undergraduate program is consistently recognized as one of the elite accredited business degrees in the U.S. The graduate program, consistently ranked among the top ten in the country, awards research degrees at the Doctoral and Master’s levels and a professional Master’s degree. Dyson faculty members often work with faculty and students in the Johnson Graduate School of Management, Department of Economics, Computing & Information Science, the School of Industrial and Labor Relations, the School of Hotel Administration, and many other units at Cornell. There are strong cross-campus research concentrations in the areas of behavioral science, innovation and entrepreneurship, sustainability, quantitative analysis and big data, emerging markets, applied microeconomics and industrial organization, and agricultural and life sciences. The Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University embrace diversity and seek candidates who will create a climate that attracts students of all races, nationalities and genders. We strongly encourage women and underrepresented minorities to apply. QUALIFICATIONS: A Ph.D. in management/business, economics, or a related field conferred prior to the start date, and significant research and teaching potential. APPLICATION: Electronically submit via your letter of application summarizing research and teaching interests; a curriculum vitae; a current research paper and any other publications; copies of teaching evaluations; and have three references submit their letters directly. SALARY: Competitive with other leading business schools and commensurate with qualifications and experience. An attractive fringe benefit package is included. CLOSING DATE: Review of applications will begin July 15, 2015 and continue through the fall and possibly winter until an outstanding candidate has been identified and hired. We anticipate interviewing at both the AOM and ASSA meetings. Cornell University is an innovative Ivy League university and a great place to work. Our inclusive community of scholars, students and staff impart an uncommon sense of larger purpose and contribute creative ideas to further the university's mission of teaching, discovery and engagement. Located in Ithaca, NY, Cornell's far-flung global presence includes the medical college's campuses on the Upper East Side of Manhattan and in Doha, Qatar, as well as the new Cornell NYC Tech campus to be built on Roosevelt Island in the heart of New York City.

Diversity and Inclusion are a part of Cornell University's heritage. We're an employer and educator recognized for valuing AA/EEO, Protected Veterans, and Individuals with Disabilities.

Hispanic Outlook Issue: 7/13 Due: 7/9 Size: 4.875 x 7.25 Cost: $875.00 Can post in color for no additional fee (if so, which colors would you want to use)





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JULY 13, 2015 | 37

Priming the Pump... Creating the Environment for Student Success By Miquela Rivera, PhD


rotective factors – the attributes, skills and resources individuals, families or communities use to help people cope with stress and reduce risk of harm – are as important to Latino students in higher education as they are to young Latino children growing up. Effective parents embody traits and attributes that develop a child’s resilience and ability to weather difficulties; instructors and administrators in higher education do the same for Latino students. Love, attachment, a sense of protectiveness and actual protection during the child’s early years teach the young Hispanic to know that home is a comfort zone where they are safe and protected. The Latino college student is more likely to work through challenges and difficulties when faculty members make college a safe place by taking a strengths-based approach to teaching. Instead of blaming students for what they do not know (admittedly difficult to do when students are not adequately prepared), mentally healthy instructors get to know the students and find approaches and services to help them complete school. They do not necessarily make things easier for the student, but they help the student find ways to master challenges more easily. These are the faculty members that students go to for help – and find it. Parents who know child development set appropriate expectations for their children. They set the bar appropriately high so the child will strive but not so high that it saps motivation. Higher education instructors who understand the students’ abilities craft the teaching appropriately, then challenge the students to push themselves to the next level. A good parent presents opportunities for the young Latino child to explore and satisfy their curiosity. The skilled college instructor sets course goals and learning objectives and uses effective approaches to adult learning so Hispanic students call upon life experiences and what they know and connect it to the new material they are learning through activities, assignments and interaction. Effective parents are skilled communicators. They provide the respectful authority that a child needs by setting parameters and providing an example of how to manage. Effective college instructors know how to teach. A common complaint among college students is that instructors appear to know the subject matter but do not know how to teach it. Highly-rated instructors can communicate with Latino students while providing the

| JULY 13, 2015

structure and process by which the student can master the material and seek help with confidence. Effective parents and college instructors set rules that provide the framework in which to operate; effective students know how to follow the rules to get things done. Children watch parents; college students watch faculty. Both parents and faculty model how to handle stress, challenges and politics (including dynamics in families and academic departments). While Hispanic children or students do not always understand the details of challenges faced, they can see how adults respond – and either respond in kind or draw their conclusions about leadership. The foundations of professionalism are laid at home and at school. Students will emulate what they have seen, so parental and faculty resilience matter. (If you don’t believe it ask: how often do coaches scream at players, threaten officials or tantrum in public? Ever see bad behavior among athletes at play?) Parents provide the food, clothing, shelter, finances and health care necessary for a child to survive. Universities typically offer support for the same through student services. Community colleges do not offer places for students to live but they often refer students to community-based resources to get what they need. The more that support is provided, the less time the student must spend on issues of survival and the more they can spend focusing on academics. Social connections are very important for students of any age. Social media outlets now help Latino students make friends, connect with classmates and reach other resources to develop support networks. Some higher education institutions are forming more in-person groups to counter the isolation that students often feel when most of the social interaction is electronic rather than face-to-face. Universities that develop policies and offer resources to provide protective factors for students are actually investing in the students’ well-being and retention. When the faculty and administration provide a hospitable environment for Latino students, the students are free to trust, connect and thrive. Like parents, that caring is not about money – it’s about commitment. • Miquela Rivera, PhD, is a licensed psychologist with years of clinical, early childhood and consultative experience. She lives in Albuquerque, N.M.

HO 07/13/2015  

Health Care Professions Issue. Hispanic OutlooK Magazine

HO 07/13/2015  

Health Care Professions Issue. Hispanic OutlooK Magazine