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Destination

MOON Department for Building Construction and Design – HB2 Vienna University of Technology Editor


GET THE BOOK! Das Buch kann 端ber die Abteilung Hochbau 2 unter http://www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at/shop/index.php?rr=659269 oder bei shop@hb2.tuwien.ac.at erworben werden.

Get the book at the Department for Building Construction and Design - HB2 at http://www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at/shop/index.php?rr=659269 or mail to shop@hb2.tuwien.ac.at


DESTINATION MOON Future Living and Working Spaces DESIGN STUDIO 2012 Department for Building Construction and Design – HB2 Institute of Architecture and Design Vienna University of Technology


Destination Moon Published by Vienna University of Technology Institute of Architecture and Design Department for Building Construction and Design – HB2 Prof. Gerhard Steixner http://www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at Authors and final editing: Dr. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger Dipl. Ing. San-Hwan Lu Original text and projects by students External project evaluation: Dr. Marc M. Cohen Cover design: Petra Nagy Copyright: Students, Authors, Department Printing: Vicadruck Vienna ISBN: 978-3-200-02861-6

Supported by:


Content

4 The Studio Approach Sandra H채uplik-Meusburger and San-Hwan Lu 6 Structure of the Booklet 6 Evaluation Marc M. Cohen 8 People Students, Instructors, Consultants, Lecturers, Guest Critics 16 Projects 116 Summary Evaluation Marc M. Cohen


The Studio Approach Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger & San-Hwan Lu

Theme Just a three-day journey via spaceship from Earth, the Moon beckons. Only 12 people have set foot on the Moon so far, and since December 1972 no one has been there at all.... During the 2012 spring term students in the Master of Architecture program realized their vision of a future research base on the Moon. This topic was new in every respect to all students. Lunar conditions are completely different to those on Earth, from a physical point of view (gravity, radiation, atmosphere, micrometeorites, etc.) as well as from a social and psychological point of view (limited space, microsocieties, isolation, etc.). Re-thinking design challenges through a change of perspective has been a critical part of this design studio. “When introducing architecture students to a design studio in Space Architecture, it is always a challenge to orient them to the unique and peculiar characteristics of designing human habitation in vacuum and reduced gravity regimes. Typically, the faculty presents a broad overview of the Space Architecture discipline, and to introduce the students to leading concepts and accomplishments. The challenge is a difficult one, given the shortness of time for a quarter or semester, and the variety of the students’ backgrounds, with some stronger or weaker in engineering, human factors, materials science, and physics. Also, the students often start from differing levels of professional preparation and training, so it is inevitable that each one interprets the information differently and takes an individual and often idiosyncratic approach.” [Marc M. Cohen]

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Strategy To prepare for this challenge the students were initially tasked with analyzing selected topics related to building on the Moon, including the physical and geographical characteristics of the Moon, lunar habitats, human factors and habitability. A comprehensive list of the papers and literature in our library was provided, as well as relevant publications from spacearchitect.org. In the first phase of the studio a settlement strategy based on a hypothetical scenario derived from astronauts’ experiences was developed by the students. The emphasis of the second phase of the studio was on the design and implementation of a lunar research station. This course has been accompanied by theme-specific lectures and workshops with space experts (p.8). The ‘Moon Day‘ launched a series of lectures from notable researchers, architects and other experts in the field of space science accompanying the studio and providing the necessary scientific support. Guest speakers included space experts from UNOOSA, OEWF, DLR, ESA and NASA amongst others. This panel of experts also served as guest critics during the whole process and were invited to give comments at various stages of the design process. „The challenge for them is to develop and pursue that concept while also providing for other programmatic needs and protecting the crew against the severe environmental threats of the space environment.“ [Marc M. Cohen]


1

4

10

14

15

1-3 ‚moonday‘ 4-9 concept presentation 10-13 midterm presentation with Franz Viehböck 14 final critic with Marc M. Cohen 15 OctoTV interview

5


Evaluation Marc M. Cohen

Structure of the Booklet The wide range of projects in this booklet reflect the diverse backgrounds of the students, coming from Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey as well as an aerospace engineer from Italy participating in the program as part of his thesis. In contrast to standard studio publications, this booklet introduces all presented projects with an adjacent evaluation by our external reviewer and space expert Marc M. Cohen.

Introduction The studio system has been serving as the primary forum for teaching architecture as a profession and as an art since the mid-19th Century. Faculty approaches vary widely in posing the design problem and critiquing the students as they attempt to solve it. However, there are certain fundamentals that are generally constant. There is one or more faculty who teach the studio. These “home faculty� write a design brief or program that poses a design problem and challenges the students to solve it with architectural concepts and building or landscape design. Students work progressively on the design problem and bring their work to the studio to show the faculty and receive periodic (often weekly) crits. The premise is that the students respond to the crits, revise their drawings or models, and then show them again to the faculty. This process leads through various and optional reviews until the final review at the end of the studio term. Then, a formal review of all the student work takes place. This review follows an approach to teaching in the studio that the faculty or design critic gives the best service to the student by being absolutely honest and stating the assessment directly, fairly, and impartially. It is the duty of the reviewer to identify errors, flaws, and weaknesses in a project and then point them out to the student. Only in this way can the student learn to overcome obstacles and failures. The reviewer would do a disservice to the student by soft-pedaling the analysis and evaluation. At the same time, it is also the responsibility to point out to the student the successes of the project. This duty is important because the students tend to be much more aware of their deficiencies than they are of what they did right.

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Identifying and describing these successes helps the student understand her or his strengths as a designer and architect, which will help focus the design effort the next time. None of this pedagogy means that the critic, faculty, or reviewer should be harsh or unkind to the students. On the contrary, it is the responsibility of the reviewer to study the student project well before the review so that the reviewer can address the project as the student presents it, rather than needing to psychoanalyze everything the student thought and did to arrive at the initial concept. The reviewer should prepare to offer assessments of each project before the review begins, filling in the blanks with statements the students make and the answers that they give during the presentation. This knowledge beforehand, and the insight to ask questions that are concise and to the point enable the reviewer to address the review discussion with empathy and kindness. Evaluation This review takes place in the classic tradition of the architecture studio. In the traditional studio review, the “home faculty” evaluates how well the students solve the problem, meet the requirements of the program, and assess how good their solutions are. This review takes a different approach and offers two kinds of evaluations: of the individual projects and of the set of projects as a whole. Thus, this review offers also an evaluation of the student work, but not within the context of the design brief. Instead, this review takes the perspective of the larger world of Space Architecture and human spaceflight. It assesses how well the students develop solutions that might be reasonable and feasible in the professional practice of Space Architecture.

Architecture studio. When exposed to so much new and often difficult knowledge, rarely is it possible for the students to absorb and process it all when “drinking from the fire hose” of information. The concepts and knowledge that the students do retain show up in their Space Architecture studio projects. The extents to which students absorb and then apply these ideas, criteria, and functions often vary radically from one project to another. Project Evaluation The evaluations cover twelve of the Destination Moon projects. The assessment methodology is to identify first what the student Space Architects put into their projects. There are three broad domains of evaluation: Concept, Representation, and Space Architecture Features. Concept encompasses the generative or inspirational ideas that the students bring to their projects, and derives both from their life experience and the broad sweep of ideas presented to the class. Representation covers the ways in which the students present their ideas through sketches, studies, diagrams, scale drawings whether by hand or by CAD, and scale models; it is a metric for the skill and craft that the students bring to the project, without which there can be no product or result. Finally, the Space Architecture Features make visible the specific knowledge that the students gained and applied in deciding what is important to include in the project and how these elements relate to one another. This set of reviews provides an assessment of each project. The evaluations depend upon the completeness of content, degree of detail, and specificity about function and purpose that the students provide. Where this information is deficient, it is not possible to give as in depth an assessment.

The evaluation of the twelve projects as a set goes to another set of considerations. It poses the question of how students learn when presented with unfamiliar and novel ideas and constraints in a Space 7


Students and Instructors Vienna UT

8

Sandra H채uplik-Meusburger

San-Hwan Lu

INSTRUCTOR

INSTRUCTOR

Sandra H채uplikMeusburger is an architect and expert in the field Habitability in Extreme Environment. She is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Architecture and Design, Department for Building Construction and Design - HB2 at the Vienna UT. Sandra is a member of the Space Architecture Technical Committee of the AIAA, and has worked and collaborated on several aerospace design projects. Her book Architecture for Astronauts has been published by Springer in 2011.

San-Hwan Lu is an architect and Assistant Professor at the Institute for Architecture and Design, Department for Building Construction and Design - HB2 at the Vienna UT. His field of expertise is building technology and design. He has been working with international firms for over ten years in the realization of complex building envelope geometries of large scale projects. Currently he is writing his PhD thesis on the development of sustainability from an international perspective.


Tarik Demirtas Betül Küpeli

Petra Nagy Shi Yin

99

Maximilian Urs Abele 71 Christian Heshmatpour

Aida Mulic

61

Amine Khouni Kerstin Pluch

43

Alexander Kolaritsch David Lukacs

Julia Klaus Christian Mörtl

27

Daniela Siedler

Karl Hengl Mark Steinschifter

17

Yoana Lazarova Alexander Nanu

Miran Badzak Dario Krljes

53

75

107

Stefan Kristoffer

91

Marcus Czech Elisabeth Lang

81

Ottokar Benesch Daniel Galonja Thomas Milchram Vittorio Rossetti

35

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Consultants Lecturers Guest Critics alphabetically

10

Manuela Aguzzi

Werner Balogh

Walter Bein

LECTURER

LECTURER

LECTURER / CRITIC

After a degree in Industrial Design at the Polytechnic of Milan, Manuela Aguzzi achieved a PhD on the topic Research and Design for Space Exploration, during which she analyzed exploration scenarios, design of habitat modules, logistic systems and auxiliary robotic structures. Since 2007 she is working at the Astronaut Center of the European Space Agency as Astronaut Instructor. Her main role is to train the assigned astronauts to perform scientific activities on board of the ISS.

Werner Balogh works for the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs at the United Nations Office at Vienna. Prior to this he was with the Austrian Space Agency, responsible for human spaceflight and space science activities and representing Austria in the ESA Programme Board for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration. He holds degrees from the Vienna University of Technology, the International Space University and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

Walter Bein has studied psychology and meteorology in Graz. He is a qualified expert for flight psychology for the Austrian Aviation Authority with a focus on crew fitness and aircraft accident analysis in close cooperation with flight medicine. He was head of the department for flight psychology of the Austrian ministry of defense as well as military pilot. His work encompassed human resources as well as safety in military aviation. In this context he was also the leading psychologist for the AustroMIR 1991 mission.


Marc Cohen

Sue Fairburn

Norbert Frischauf

Bernard H. Foing

LECTURER / CRITIC

CRITIC

LECTURER

CONSULTANT

Marc M. Cohen is a licensed architect who has devoted his career to design research and development in aerospace, particularly human spaceflight. He worked at the NASA Ames Research Center for 26 years. He was Project Architect for the ‘Habot Mobile Lunar Base Project’, the Inventor and Team Lead of the ‘Suitport Extra-VehicularActivity Access Facility’ and ‘Human Engineering Lead’ amongst other projects. With ‘Cohen Astrotecture’ he consults in Human Systems Integration and Space Architecture to provide services to NASA and the Space Community.

Sue Fairburn has been a Design Lecturer/ Researcher at Robert Gordon University, Scotland in 2007. Prior to that, she held a variety of research and management posts in International Health, Design for Extreme Environments, and Design for Development. Sue holds post-graduate degrees in Industrial Design and Environmental Physiology. Her eclectic work history has helped inform Sue‘s broad ranging research interests, with an approach consistently focused on bridging design and applied human sciences and working between the extremes and the everyday.

Norbert Frischauf is a High Energy Physicist (Astrophysics and Particle Physics) by education and a Future Studies Systems Engineer by training. Being highly interested in all sorts of technologies as well as the micro and macro cosmos his educational and vocational career led him to several distinct places, such as CERN, ESTEC and the European Commission. At the moment he is involved within Galileo and EGNOS, supporting the development and roll-out of the European Global Navigation Satellite System. Norbert is a leading member in various associations (like the OEWF) and is active as science communicator.

Prof. Foing obtained his PhD in Astrophysics and Space Techniques. In 1993 he joined ESA as staff scientist, where his varied roles have included being a co-investigator for missions such as SOHO, Mars Express, Expose-Organics on ISS and COROT. He has been Project Scientist for SMART-1, the first ESA spacecraft to travel to the Moon. He serves as Executive Director of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), Prof. at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and member of the IAA. He coordinated ILEWG design studies and field campaigns to support the preparation to future Moon-Mars bases. 11


12

Michaela Gitsch

Gernot Groemer

Petra Gruber

Michael Hajek

LECTURER / CRITIC

LECTURER / CRITIC

LECTURER

LECTURER

Michaela Gitsch joined the Austrian Space Agency in 1986 and has worked for more than 20 years in space administration. She is responsible for communication, education and outreach at the Aeronautics and Space Agency of FFG and acts as Austrian ISU Liaison Officer. She acted as Chairperson of the Advisory Committee on Education of ESA in 2008 and 2009. She also led the workpackage Education & Outreach of ERA-STAR Regions, within the EU Framework. She has been organizing the Summer School Alpbach since 1986 and took directorship in 2010 from the Founder and Father Johannes Ortner.

Gernot Groemer holds a MSc in astronomy and a PhD in Astrobiology. He teaches and does research at the University of Innsbruck in the field of human Mars exploration and Astrobiology. He is also a lecturer at ISU and a member of the Space Generation Advisory Council (Board of Mentors). Various research sojourns in Italy, USA and Chile include being an Outreach coordinator of the European lunar mission LunarSat, a Simulation of a crewed expedition on Mars in Utah and the Flight Crew 37th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign. He is part of the Programme Management Group for AustroMars and PolAres.

Petra Gruber is an architect and expert in biomimetics and building science with a focus on construction and sustainability. She received her PhD in biomimetics in architecture - architecture of life and buildings and has been an Assistant Professor at the Vienna UT until she founded her own company transarch in 2008. She is currently Professor of Urban Design and Development at the Ethiopian Institute of Architecture and is engaged in various projects in e.g. Indonesia and Saudi-Arabia. Her research focuses on innovation, evolution and adaption of architecture in the context of natural, economic and socio-cultural environment.

Michael Hajek studied physical engineering in Vienna and received his Ph.D. in radiation protection, dosimetry and nuclear safety. He is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics of the Vienna UT since 2006 and holder of the International Sold State Dosimetry Organization (ISSDO) Award. Guest scientist at accelerator centres in Germany, Japan and Switzerland. Head of multiple research projects assessing radiation exposure in space. Long-established cooperation with the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the European Space Agency (ESA).


Joachim Huber

Kabru

Olivier Lamborelle

Regina Peldszus

LECTURER

CRITIC

LECTURER

CRITIC

Dr. Joachim Huber completed his studies to become a trained specialist in internal medicine and cardiology in Vienna. He was educated as Flight Surgeon in Fürstenfeldbruck and at the NATO and became specialist for aerospace medicine in Moscow and St. Petersburg. He is an emergency physician with his practice based in Vienna. He is long-term consultant for ESA, NASA, NASDA and the Russian space agency based on his experiences as Flight Surgeon and Aerospace Medicine Specialist.

Kabru has studied technical physics and industrial design (University for Applied Arts) as well as architecture (Vienna University of Technology). He graduated with honors from the University of Applied Arts and received the recognition award of the ministry of science and arts for his diploma thesis in 1995. He is a member of propeller z since 1994. Apart from being a practicing architect he also has a long-standing involvement in teaching and lecturing, both at a national and international level. Since 2012 Kabru is a guest professor at the NDU Sankt Pölten.

After having obtained a Master of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering in 2001, Olivier Lamborelle floated in the space business and never left it. After working in Paris and Brussels, he is astronaut instructor at the European Astronaut Center in Cologne (Germany) since 2007, teaching space travelers how to perform science on-board the International Space Station. When performing his additional Eurocom duties, he has then the chance to talk to the astronauts while they fly on the ISS.

Regina Peldszus is a design researcher focusing on soft human factor aspects in extreme environments, particularly spaceflight. She has worked with the European space industry and contributed design applications to mission simulations in Russia and the US. Most recently, she has completed AHRC funded doctoral research into design aspects for the behavioral dimension of deep space missions. A member of AIAA‘s Space Architectural Technical Committee, she lives and works in London and Berlin.

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Tomas Rousek

Daniel Schubert

P. Michael Schultes

Ulrike Schmitzer

LECTURER

LECTURER

CONSULTANT

CRITIC

Tomas Rousek has studied architecture at the Czech Technical University and International Space University. As a founder of Futura Pragensis he has organized various international exhibitions. He has helped NASA Habitation Team at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is an international collaborator of the NASA Media Innovation Team at the NASA Ames Research Center. He founded A-ETC in 2005, a design company with teams in Prague, Tokyo and London where he currently lives.

Daniel Schubert is section head (RY-SR) at the Institute of Space Systems (DLR-RY) where he has been working since 2007. He has contributed to several CE-studies on bio-regenerative life support systems. He is also part of the DLR CROP project. Since 2010, he is project leader of the DLR research initiative EDEN, which investigates different Controlled Environmental Agriculture (CEA) technologies for the transformation into space proven hardware concepts.

Born in 1944, P. Michael Schultes graduated from the Vienna UT with a degree in architecture. His main area of interest is membrane building shells. In 2007 he and colleagues founded experimonde in order to create a space for experimentation in the area of sustainable construction. P.M.Schultes lives and works in Austria and France.

Mag. Dr. Ulrike Schmitzer is a science editor at Radio Ö1 (ORF – Austrian Broadcasting Company), an independent film maker and author. Her documentaries in the fields of architecture and space for 3sat include „SpaceArchitecture“ (45 min) and „Space-Medicine“ (45 min). She has received various awards including the Inge-Morath-Award for Science Publishing 2012. Her debut novel „Die falsche Witwe“ (“The false widow”) has been published in the “edition atelier” in 2011.

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Gerhard Thiele

Franz Viehböck

Andreas Vogler

LECTURER

CRITIC

LECTURER / CRITIC

Dr. Gerhard Paul Julius Thiele is a German physicist and a former ESA astronaut. He received a doctorate degree in physics at the University of Heidelberg and conducted postdoctoral studies at Princeton University. He joined the DLR as a science astronaut in 1987, serving as the alternate payload specialist of the German spacelab D-2 Mission in 1993. From 1996 to 2001 he served as a NASA astronaut and flew on the Space Shuttle SRTM mission as a mission specialist in 2000. He was the Head of ESA Astronauts Division until 2010 and is currently Resident Fellow at the ESPI in Vienna.

Franz Viehböck is a scientist and astronaut. He studied electrical engineering at the Vienna UT and was selected to serve as the first Austrian astronaut aboard the Austromir 91 mission. Subsequently he worked for Rockwell as ProgramDevelopment Manager of the Space-SystemsDivision and for Boeing as Director for International Business Development of the Space Systems Group. Since 2000 he is also technology consultant of the province of Lower Austria. He has been working for the Austrian company Berndorf since 2002 where he currently is a member of the board of directors.

Andreas Vogler studied architecture at the ETH Zürich and has worked in London, at the TU Munich, TU Delft and as Guest professor at the Royal Academy in Kopenhagen. His fields of research include pre-fabricated building, light-weight construction and space architecture. In 2003 he founded the research and design studio “Architecture and Vision” together with Arturo Vittori. His works in architecture and aerospace have been exhibited at the Centre Pompidou and are part of the collections of the MoMA in New York as well as the MSI in Chicago. He is a member of the ByAK and of the AIAA.

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2031: the preliminary habitat basic habitability and research functions will be later converted to the surface research laboratory

2050: extended science facilities using lunar topological features greenhouse foodproduction and greenhouse labaratory greenhouse foodproduction and greenhouse labaratory

plants labaratory biological science

private crewquarters sleeping private space social space living, cooking, sport, .... private crewquarters sleeping private space

galler natura


DESTINATION MOON

AYMARA Project by Karl Hengl and Mark Steinschifter

Location Shackleton Crater Year 2031 Mission Objective research and mining Mission Length 6 months Crew members 3 permanent / 3 temporary Typology multifunctional / mobile, surface stationary, underground Specific Characteristics Multifunctional inflatable station, which has an adaptable interior for different functions and uses. Additional permanent underground base with greenhouse and safe-haven.

y al light

+ 17


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard

2018 - automatic scan mission: surfacescans and scan for lavatubes in the region of the shackleton crater. scan for water and other important resources

step 01

temporary human mission, not longer than 6 month per team. ergy production for the habitat and space telemetry.

2026 - automatic robotic mission: by robtots who prepare the lunar surface for the landing and the habitat module. the also look etc.

step 02

solar energy nuclear energy solar energy

step 03 robotic missions

habitat 18 medical,sport,

recycling,

hygienics


DESTINATION MOON

th e ear g to th amin e b y g ener

solar farm energyproduction in space for moon and earth... pure solar energy, no atmosphere

mobile habitat

habitat

greenhouse

medical and recycling hygienics communication sport

biological food science production

roverdock and storage

se ba on mo the to ng mi ea yb erg en

groundbase I

earth

solar sail green transport system for more weight transporting

nuclear energy solar energy

lab and science geological science biometrical science biomedical research

2050 - fully expandable ground base I

greenhouse

get the mobile habitat in the parking position and dock it on the connection tunnel to gound base I.

science and transpor to mobil bases

install power production of the moon and earth with a beaming system for the power transfer. full operation of the resource extraction. extension of the lunar mission... helium III production

2039 - infrastructure expansion

+

expand the solar energy production on the moon surface and reduce the atomic energy to a minimum. dig in the biggest lavatube and break out to the edge of the shackleton crater. ity research....

step 05 + step 04 solar energy

nuclear energy

mobile habitat

labor and science roverdock and storage

labor and science

19


DESTINATION MOON Starting Situation The planning phase starts in 2012. All nations agree to incorporate private companies in order to settle on the Moon, explore it and begin research for a later Mars mission by 2050. 5 Stepping Stones The goal is a functioning lunar base for 12 people by the year 2050. The preliminary research tasks are to study the environmental and physical properties of the Moon, to research possibilities in situ resource-utilisation, to produce Helium-3, and to prepare the way to Mars. Step 1: The surface is scanned for lava tubes and an optimal site near the Shackleton-crater Step 2: Robotic missions prepare the site for human missions Step 3: In 2031 a multifunctional base, called “Aymara3“ is installed. It is sufficient for 3–6 people and an interval of up to 180 days. The base will be the safe-haven, home, and work and leisure site of the inhabitants Step 4: The preparation of the lava tubes / tunnels is complete and the permanent lunar base is installed Step 5: The station will be a permanent living and working space in the year 2050 and should include a large greenhouse etc.

suitlock and rover docking

suitlock module

air locks

but now back in the year 2031....

airtan

20


DESTINATION MOON

cupola

living space

private crewquarters connecting lift

entry and wardroom

nks - fresh and stagnant air

laboratory, control and communication center connecting lift

building services floor

watertanks - drinking water watertanks - grey water

21


DESTINATION MOON

Ground floor 1:50 - Working The main ground floor plan has two docking possibilities for rovers, two suitlock options and one additional docking possibility. The rover, EVA entry, and wardroom are equipped with flexible storage racks for tools, instruments and materials. The medical room is situated next to the EVA area for immediate help. Two laboratories and a communications area are situated next to the passageway to the upper floor and to the lava tube underground station.

emergency airbed

working place I

airlock for rover docking

working area II

suitlocks

control of building services, climate and communication

movable racks for storage flexible walls for separation working area III

airlock for rover docking

working area V flexible room

22


DESTINATION MOON

First floor 1:50 - Public and Private The first floor contains the living functions for a permanent crew of 3 lunarnauts for a maxium stay of 180 days. Temporary crewquarters are available for the shift-turn-over period. The social area, which contains a mobile kitchen, table, benches and public storage space, is located upstairs. The toilet and the bathroom include an infra-red shower and steam function for wellness. The private rooms will be entered through a semi-private space.

1 person variant

storage cooking

plants on the ceiling

sitting movable kitchenracks for eating daily living actions

airbed sitting

suitlocks

private storage storage

2 person variant living, couch, ...

neutral variant infrared and steamshower

23


DESTINATION MOON

24


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen The Aymara combines a sequence of three missions: an automatic scan, then robotic exploration, then human arrival and habitation. It comprises a lander or lander system that stacks two toruses – smaller one on top – on six landing legs with six round windows. On the center vertical “Z-axis” the Ayamara positions a drilling shaft. It is built into the crater rim wall in a manner reminiscent of William Sims’ seminal master thesis in architecture at Princeton in the early 1960s. The architects intend to install the preliminary habitat on a crater rim and the extended habitat in a lavatube. Unfortunately, it is extremely unlikely that a lava tube would occur in an impact crater rim such as Shackleton’s.* “The region around the Lunar south pole was selected as the preferred building site for the studio and the team was informed that there is no evidence for lavatubes. ** However, when this team came up with their approach for the typology of building in a lava tube or ‘holes underground’, we let them work in this setting due to the limited time frame of this studio and in order to have a wider project range. The initial intention to place part of the habitat underground was to protect the living quarters from radiation.” [Instructors]

The Aymara floor plan of the preliminary habitat is a classic radial layout. It seeks maximum flexibility using movable radial walls made from textiles. The vertical circulation core runs down into the crater walls, with a sort of movable platform as the main vertical movement system. The habitat will receive light at depth through solar illumination tubes, although it is not stated whether this device is based on internal reflectivity or a fiber-optic bundle such as the Himawari system. The model is built as a complete transverse building section that articulates the two toroidal inflatables of different diameters. There could have been much more design exploration in working out the relationship and connections between these two diameters and the diameter of the descent stage ring. The vertical circulation system provides single access and egress. The relationship of the habitat to the surface in terms of EVA access for ingress and egress appears to be unresolved. Part of the reason for this lack of resolution maybe that the architects present the lower 2050 addition only in section.

*A lava tube is a remnant of a volcano, which on the Moon tend to be relatively low and flat shield-types. While these volcanoes may have craters, they do not have tall, steep rims. An impact crater such as Shackleton is created by the impact of a large meteoroid or asteroid hitting the lunar surface, throwing up ejecta that form the crater rim. If there were a lava tube before the impact, the crater formation would obliterate it. **Based on a conversation with lunar expert Bernard Foing 25


lunar biodiversity data base Project by Julia Klaus and Christian Mรถrtl

Location Shackleton crater and rim Year 2050 Mission Objective Research habitat and seed bank Mission Length 2050 - 2150 Crew members 24 (to 80) Typology underground and permanent station on the surface Specific Characteristics electromagnetic lunar dust shielding, inflatable structure including internal landscape

27


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard

ISRU

Starting point 1. Species richness: There are about 1.75 million known species on our planet (UNEP 1995). This richness decreases every year

Lunar dust: Positive usage of negative conditions The problem of charged electrostatic lunar dust is used in a positive way: The dust is attracted by an electromagnetic net.

2. Mankind is using the Earth`s resources 1.3 times faster than our planet is able to provide them (WWF)

Building the protection shielding: In situ resource utilization is used to produce building materials: - Cellular structure: A multi-layered shell is plotted as the basic structure in situ. - Inner cell: An inflatable with atmospheric protection is produced and later programmed with different functions. - Outermost layer, electromagnetic protection net: it begins to fluctuate and determine the outer shell, later on building up a protective shield against radiation.

3. Conclusion = from 2050 on we may need another planet Possible future 4. Seed banks: There are about 1400 seedbanks around the world - similar to global gene banks, they store seeds as a source for planting in case seed reserves elsewhere are destroyed 5. Moon seed banks? We suggest a structure for research to build up a biodiversity database in outer space conditions ...

anakin 2 - building robot ISRU 28

protection layer electromagnetic

The habitat is designed as a spatial landscape with a sweeping spiral upon which the various functions are arranged.

lunar dust cell connecting

seed tanks


DESTINATION MOON

CRATER RIM

CRATER

SOLAR FIELD ISRU ZONE ANAKIN 1&2

SEED TANKS MOBILE LAB HABITAT & LAB

seedtank MOBILE LAB 2000 m

LANDING ZONE BORDER

SOLAR FIELD

ANAKIN 1&2

LANDING MODULE

ISRU ZONE

ANAKIN 1&2

habitat&lab

4000 m

2050

earth & space moon

seed sample collecƟon start anakin 1&2 test phase

2060

2070

2080

2090

shield space tests

seed tanks space tests anakin 1&2 builded Įrst basic shells

seed tanks sended to moon basic shell & electromagneƟc protecƟon net

human lifesupport units transfered seed data research & base start human habitat start

anakin 1&2 start ISRU on moon

2100

6 humans robot

total automated roboƟc building by anakin 1&2

2110

2120

2130

2140

2150

mars mission tests research & human habitat start

habitat expansion

12 humans

24 humans

new species created

100 % earth independent

robot maintaince aince and lifesupport

private capsules provide researchers with an individual atmosphere 29


DESTINATION MOON

1

level 1 /

level 2 /

1 3 5

16

10

6 9

9

11 7

4

12

9

11 14

15

13

3 8

1

9

3

1

2

level 1 / laboratory/ entrance/ infrastructure 30

level 2 / community

level 3 / living

level 4 / leisure


DESTINATION MOON

level 3/

level 4 /

9 12 17

10

18 15 9

15

9

9

9

18 9

atmospheric shell/ main inflatable

16

protection/ electromagnetic lunar dust shielding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

gland - airlock and mobile lab dock tunnel - for filling the shell semi atmosphere - infrastructure biolab physical lab geolab algae garden experimental garden greenhouse sanitary unit waste unit control unit food bowl - recreation food unit air lounge private capsules hospital wellness and fitness 31


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation aluation by Marc M. Cohen Biodiversity diversity Base is a project with a 100-yearr timeline the eline to establish a facility on th he Moon to o protect tect botanical seeds from many sspecies pecies off plant catastrophe nt on Earth against a catastrop phe he that destroys Researchers stroys the terrestrial terrest s rial eecosystem. st cosy co s stem m. R esseaarc rch he h ers rs at Biodiversity would grow plants Biodi div rsity Base di dive se wou se uld ld aalso lso gr row ow p lantts aand la nd “develop although the reason velop op new species,” op species eess,” alt th ho ough tth he rre eas ason n ffor orr o breeding not stated. eding g new new varieties varietties is n ot stat ted. ed ed “The for Biodiversity Base derives from e idea a fo or a Biodi iversityy B iv ase de d erive vees fr rom the hee students how human cares about dents cconcerns once c rns ho h ow hu uma man kkind ind nd car res es abo bo b out ut ourr planet planet. Although chosen scenario might t. A lth tth h hough ttheir heeir cho ho oseen n scen nar ario io m i ht ig ht seem science fiction, students took em like sc cien nce ffi nc ictio cttio ion, the stu tud tu ude den ntts to ook o tthe he effort their thoughts into ort to transfer tra an an nsf sffer th sfer heirr thoug ghts htts in h nto ttheir he r heir he design.” sign.” [Instructors] [Instructors [I rs] rs s]

aerobic greenhouses connect the levels and act as green lungs of the habitat

algae pads are connected with “air lounges” inside the atmospheric shell 32

Thee habitable base haabitable portion po ort rtiion of of tthe he b he ase resides under an inflatable infflatablee dome-like dome do me-like l structure. The roof of the dome me e would wou ou uld ld d include several options, including making kiing the inner or outer shell structure from lunar ar regolith concrete with a system of “electrostatic ctrostatic antennae” to attract lunar dust, thereby reby making the base “self-covering.” In this respect, pect, the architects had the only project with a novel ovel and potentially feasible physics idea.

algae pads produce oxygen and provide id the th h habitat bit t diatoms can survive without light and oxygen

structure


DESTINATION MOON MO Although the architects had no estimate of rate of electrostatic deposition, or the time needed to achieve a measurable amount of radiation shielding. The suggestion of this dust-deposition concept shows some original and creative thinking.

The plan conveys a “free organization” with “movable cells.” It is easy to assert the claim of “flexibility” in the absence of a definite design, but in fact this plan offers no clear functional organization. The architects assign the functions of Habitat, Seed-Bank, and Mobile Lab and separate them clearly, but very little within the Habitat presents a raison d’être for where it is positioned or why it is a particular shape or size. Within the habitat dome is a greenhouse tower that features changes of level and sloping floors cum ramps between them. “This team had the ambition to create their architecture as a living organism, to reflect changing needs of future inhabitants. They worked on interesting conceptual models for the ‘habitatscape’. Unfortunately their many ideas were not converted to a credible architectural layout.” [Instructors] One inexplicable feature of the concept was that the actual Seed-Bank modules would be located in tunnel bores situated remotely from the Biodiversity Base habitat, in some distant, unspecified crater. The crew at the base would use robots to store and retrieve seeds from these distant containers. In describing this system, the architects mentioned “mobile atmospheres” and an “infinite plane,” but the connection of these abstractions to the project-as-drawn was not clear. light tube spikes electrostatically attract lunar dust regolith concrete (for shielding) diatoms in treacle pads

outer shell layered construction 33


CyclopsHUB Project by Ottokar Benesch, Daniel Galonja, Thomas Milchram, Vittorio Rossetti Location south pole/Mons Malapert Year 2025 Mission Objective Research Mission Length 25 years Crew members 8 Typology Surface stationary, partly moveable Specific Characteristics Ten inflatable modules

35


DESTINATION MOON Module types

Abstract The Moon ... 2025 ... Phase I In the near future ten inflatable CYCLOPS modules will be sent to the Moon. This will be Phase I: A crew of eight astronauts, supported by a proposed artificial intelligence named A.M.E.L.I., will explore the surface of the Moon and will research materials for building larger structures, gaining water, metal, etc. until 2050. During this research period, phase II begins. In this phase, the first large lunar greenhouse with a diameter of about 60 meters will be built. It will be able to supply sufficient air and food for a much larger crew. After the greenhouse is installed, a lot more CYCLOPS modules will be sent to the Moon. These new modules will dock with the greenhouse and form artificial clusters, such as research, sports and living-clusters. Afterwards phase III starts – building more greenhouses and CYCLOPS-clusters to build up a city-like Moon base where you can do everything you can do on Earth ... and even more!

Transport

36


DESTINATION MOON Phase I

Expansion Options

37


DESTINATION MOON Example of use

The surface of the inner material is coated with a nano-silicon layer. In addition, due to the porosity of the membrane, it acts as an exhaust and provides the fresh air supply. It also filters the water bound in the air and using the utility lines, the water and air will then be forwarded to the Greenhouse. From there, fresh air is sent back to the modules and blown across the membrane again.

38


DESTINATION MOON Floor plan

39


DESTINATION MOON Section greenhouse

40


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen CyclopsHub was the largest team, and so it is not surprising that they produced the largest output in terms of drawings and particularly scale models. They coined an acronym Artificial Multiple Enhanced Linguistic Intelligence (AMELI), but the connection of this acronym to the architectural project was not clear. Perhaps the creation of this secondary title reflects how ambitious this project was. The team stated their approach as “supply by AMELI.” This project took the most truly 3D approach. The design centered on 14-sided (tetradecahedral) truncated octahedron modules. The size of each module is 8.5m in diameter, to fit the dynamic envelope of a 10m, Ares V class of heavy lift vehicle. On the lunar surface, the team applied these modules in a space-filling manner, stacking them vertically and diagonally to build up a matrix of structure and living environment. Each of the CyclopsHub modules would contain a spherical inflatable that houses a living or working environment function. The team demonstrated the erection and deployment of a module by inflating a balloon inside a collapsed structure, deploying it as the balloon expanded to assume its spherical form. The module-to-module interfaces can occur where the CyclopsHubs stack together. However, the team did not develop a systematic approach to determining which faces of the CyclopsHubs would provide module-to-module ports, which would have only flat or blank bulkheads, and which would provide external berthing or EVA ports.

effective plant to absorb CO2 and return oxygen to the living environment. The team apparently read about the forward osmosis membrane and its use in life support (Cohen, Flynn, Matossian, 2012), so they proposed to employ a “superduper membrane” as part of their life support system. In addition, they considered air distribution and water vapor collection as part of integrating life support into each CyclopsHub. The CyclopsHub team did the most to compose their project in three dimensions, and to integrate subsystems into the modularization. Unfortunately, the selection of a single, uniform module type leads to functional restrictions, because all the spaces occur in volumes of the same size and shape, the primary architectural tool of varying the dimensions and proportions of a room were not available for this project. In a future iteration the team could consider an approach using modules in two sizes where the larger unit is another Archimedean or a Fuller geodesic solid that provide faces that (with the judicious use of flex-tunnels) can align to the joining planes of the original CyclopsHub truncated octahedra. “This team consisted of three architecture and one aerospace engineer student, who came especially for this studio to Vienna to work on his thesis. This cooperation proved to be a fruitful challenge, overcoming differences in their professional and personal way of thinking. The students succeeded in working as an interdisciplinary team resulting in a project integrating engineering input with architectural vision.” [Instructors]

The CyclopsHub team thought about innovative approaches to the life support system. They proposed to grow Beema bamboo as the most 41


DESTINATION MOON

42


DESTINATION MOON

DOWN TO EARTH Project by Amine Khouni and Kerstin Pluch

Location PRINZ Crater Year 2050 Mission Objective Recycling, Therapy Research, Step to Mars Mission Length 6 m - 2 Y Crew members 6 - 12 Typology mobile / stationary, surface, u nderground

43


DESTINATION MOON Down to Earth will be the first manned colony on the Moon. The main objectives will be the improvement of lunar based scientific projects and exploration programs as well as waste management and pollution control derived from Earth`s knowledge. Storyboard

After decades of trying to banish plastic from Earth, the Moon has been used as a wasteland. Now this plastic turns out to be a useful raw material in combination with regolith. This key issue will require - for the first time in human history - a lunar colony, which has to be set up in a short period of time in order to last for a long one. The Moon itself offers a lot of answers to the questions we are facing. The most secure and yet simplest way to guarantee protection against external threats is to set up the colony underneath the lunar surface. For this purpose Robotic Drill Technology will be applied to create a protected shelter that will be filled with modules and extended with inflatables. In addition to the underground tubes there will be moving vehicles allowing extravehicular exploration of the surroundings.

44


DESTINATION MOON

LUNAR SETTLEMENT ↘ MISSION OBJECTIVES Plastic Recycling Ground Mining H3 Harvesting Lunar Base Colony Settlement

↘1

↘2

↘3

↘4

↘5

↘6 ↘ ...

45


DESTINATION MOON

INFLATED LEVELS VOLUME PATHS ↘ ↘ INFLATED LEVELS VOLUME PATHS ↘ ↘ INFLATED LEVELS VOLUME PATHS ↘ ↘ INFLATED LEVELS VOLUME PATHS ↘ ↘

HYGIENE SLEEP MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK UNITS BUBBLE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ HYGIENE SLEEP MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK ST UNITS BUBBLE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TA ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ HYGIENE SLEEP MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STOR UNITS BUBBLE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANK ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ HYGIENE SLEEP MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STOR UNITS BUBBLE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANK ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘

MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STORAGE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANKS ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STORAGE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANKS ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STORAGE CARE FITNESSFUTURE ↘ RESEARCH TANKS ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ EXPANSION ↘ MEDICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STORAGE CARE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANKS ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ DICAL EXERCISE KITCHEN WORK STORAGE RE FITNESS ↘ RESEARCH TANKS ↘ ↘ ↘

46


DESTINATION MOON 3m

7m Cupola

CROSS SECTION ↙

Port

LEVEL 1 ↙ +1.0 m

SIDE SECTION ↘ 1

5

10

meter

Climbing Wall

Storage Space

L1 ↙ - 8.0 m

Floor plan Power Supply Unit

TEC LEVEL ↙ - 9.4 m

Life Support System

WORK ↘ - 12.8 m

Communication

L 2 Screen ↙ - 12.4 m

Mirror

D2

Private Drop Double State Transparency

SPORT ↘ - 15.8 m

DETAIL SKIN ↘ 5

20

Recycling

REST ROOM ↘

40

D5

LIVING ↙ - 18.0m

centimeter

Sintered Regolith

Gas Impermeable Layer Multilayer Insulation Smoke Resistant Layer Fire Resistant Anti Microbial Pressure Garment Bladder Coated Neoprene Nylon Ripstop

BUBBLE ↙ - 21.4m COOK KINO ↙ - 23.0m Durable Floor Carpet

Research Sensors

47


DESTINATION MOON CROSS SECTION

WORK SPACE ↘

ANALYSE LAB ↘ Elevator

Medical Operation Back Up

Computer Laboratory

Samples Stowage Exabyte Data Server

Elevator

TEC LEVEL ↘

Air Circulation Vents

Water Purifier Energy Collector

Suit Repair Station Internal Meeting Point

Commnication Station

SPORT AREA ↘

Bio Data Screen Treadmill Stepper

Ergometer Bikking Vapor Shower 6m²

Restroom 3m²

D1

D3

Check In

D2

48


DESTINATION MOON

LIVING AREA ↘

MAIN SLEEP AREA ↘

D5

D5

D6

Private Drop™ 6m²

D4

6 D

Open Greenhouse 8 domestic Plants

Restroom 3m²

Computerized Schedule Planer Vapor shower

Food Storage

14 Days / Nights

6m²

FOOD & LEISURE COURT ↘ Book & Music Tray Common Space

Aquaponic Control Board Stowage Total Area 80 m²

Dining Area 6-8 seats

Food Preparation

49


DESTINATION MOON

v. 1

v. 2

v. 3

open

closed

SLEEP UNIT RISE ↘ 10

50

100

centimeter

Structural Rips Over Head Stowage

3.10m

Reading Light

Adaptive Transparency

Clothing hooks Book Shelves

Inflow Fan

Schedule Reminders Luminescent Skin Day / Night Simulation

Personal Items

2.30m

Ø 1.10m

Suited Personal Ergonomy

Soundproof Shell Body

Inflated Sleep Matresse

Heated & Air Conditioned Environment

Companion Simulation Earth >< Moon VoIP Exchange

Ø 2.10m

50


Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen This habitat derives largely from the TransHab concept for an inflatable toroid around a rigid structural core, much like a “fat tire” on a motor vehicle. The entire habitat, including all the modules will be delivered to Prinz Crater in a single fairing. One issue that was unclear was whether the fairing would accommodate the TransHab-like module inflated all the time from launch to landing, or the module would be deflated during flight and landing, and then pressurized and inflated only after landing and emplacement.

stair concept makes possible the half-floor splitlevel design that develops interest and variety throughout the seven levels. On these levels are some fascinating and attracting outfitting, including the teardrop shaped private quarters.

It has seven “deck” levels, with a small airlock on top being the only visible construction on the surface. Although the architects provide a sort of functional star-diagram, they do not define in detail the nature of the relationships among the functions.

„The students transformed the idea of the spiral stair to a spatial concept, depending the size and height on the function, while at the same time leaving some flexibility. An additional elevator is intended for fast traverse. It would be interesting to see this concept beeing developed in further detail.“ [Instructors]

The concept calls for burying the habitat in a tapered shaft. The habitat incorporates several vertical circulation systems. It shows a “fireman’s pole” running down the center for rapid descent. In addition, there is a suggestion of an “elevator,” but it is not fully represented. What is most impressive, however, is the perimeter spiral stair. This stair provides not only a circulation system, but also creates a sort of grand promenade around the habitat volume. The architects use this stair to connect the various levels within the toroidal/ radial plan. In fact, the implementation of this

The perimeter spiral stair is a great strength of the design. If it would be the only method of traversing up and down it would pose a problem: the treads are very deep and the risers shallow compared to an interior stair in the 1-G field on Earth *.

*Annette Barnes paper “Stairs on the Moon” shows that the effect of the 1/6 gravity is that the risers should be much higher and the treads shallower than conventional Earth stairs. Changing the spiral stair to a much steeper slope would allow the architects to add a second spiral stair on the opposite side of the habitat; the differential levels between the two stairs would create a kind of double helix with dual access and egress for alternate half-levels. 51


The Green Andromeda Project by Miran Badzak and Dario Krljes

Location Shackleton Crater Year 2049 Mission Objective Greenhouse research Mission Length 1 year Crew members 6 (2 female, 4 male) Typology Underground multifuncional station / Inflatable construction Specific Characteristics The Green Andromeda is a 12m diameter Moon base, with one floor on the surface and three floors underground. The Moon base contains six rotatable modules, two bathrooms and toilets, a kitchen and a greenhouse that is extending up to the first underground floor.

53


DESTINATION MOON

What are the human needs? There should be some space to sleep, rest, relax, maintain hygiene, space to work, space for privacy, to meet and communicate with people, friends, family, enjoying nature, etc. And the most important part, space to feel free in.

Enttra nce Comm e-Airlo uniicat ock ion C ente

Dinnin

Sleep

g area - Hyg ie

ing Work in

r

ne

g- Ch illi

ng

Greenarea

The Green Andromeda Why Green Andromeda? Andromeda is a spiral galaxy that has a rotation center and contains a trillion stars. In a similar way, our Green Andromeda contains hundreds of different plants and trees that are growing horizontally and vertically around the center of the base - a fusion of architecture and nature in one place.

continually change. The changes are actually in the nature of all of us, because in nature it is almost impossible to keep something in its original form.

Vertical communication

Storyboard The world`s governments are warning about possible future threats to mankind, such as pollution by industry, war, nuclear weapons and climate change. The world will lose its greenery. For this reason, in 2042, six people will be sent to the Moon base, which in fact is not just a simple base, but a shortcut to a green world, the green base for humanity. There they will perform the research necessary in order to take the next steps in colonising space.

Storyboard

Green

Area

Building development

What is freedom in one place? It`s trying to satisfy all these needs, so that the user can enjoy their stay in that place. That is made possible by creating a multifunctional place, a place that will

54

Circulation Open space


DESTINATION MOON

Greenhouse The greenhouse is proposed to bring life, create a connection between the base users and nature and to play the most important role - to create air and to be the most important food resource on the Green Andromeda. The plants are located in horizontal and vertical cells that permeate all along the floors so that the user can reach them from any part of the base.

55


DESTINATION MOON

Level -2 Separated modules 1. Entrance - suitlock 2. Comunication center 6

7

3. Storage 1 4. Toilets and bathroom with multifunctional sanitary equipment 5. Kitchen and dining area with rotable tables and sitting places 6. Platform 7. Rotateable multifunctional crew quarter modules 8. Greenhouse

A 7 8

Level -1

Level -2 joined modules

3

Level 0 Entrance- exit-suitlock communication- storage

Level -2 partialy separated modules

4

7 7

5

2

Level -3 Greenhouse

8

6

4

8

6 7 8

8

The Green Andromeda is a lunar base that puts the comfort of the astronauts, multifunctional use of space and the connection with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the foreground. That comfort is achieved using multifunctional modules that provide different possibilities of use. Each module contains a folding bed, multifunctional storage space for personal things, a table with a folding chair and a touch screen computer. Like the modules, the bathrooms are also multifunctional and can rotate according to function. The private modules can rotate around the center of the base and can be connected to one large 56

8

8

module, or be completely separated from each other, depending on the users needs. The connection with nature is implemented via the greenhouse, which permeates all underground floors. It can be reached from any part of the base, creating air for the entire base. All facilities are always moving independently of each other and continually create new shapes.


DESTINATION MOON

Glas dome

1. Entrance - Exit

Suitlock

3. Storage

2. Communication center

Level 0

Floor plan

4. Toilets and Bathroom

5. Dining area

8. Greenhouse

Level -1

7. Rotateable modules

Level -2

6.Platform 8. Greenhouse

Multifunctional furniture

Level -3

Multifunctional crew quarter module Personal storage

Picture projection Folding Bed Table with folding screen and sliding chair Section A-A

Plan- Option working

Plan-Option sleeping

57


DESTINATION MOON

58


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen Green Andromeda is a largely agricultural colony that centers upon its plant-growth capability. Unlike the many concepts that separate the plants in greenhouses from the crew, Green Andromeda emphasizes the crew living in the same environment with the plants, as they would as farmers on Earth. The architects developed this concept through a storyboard and a very attractive series of hand sketches. The storyboard includes the obligatory Science Fiction plot device of a nuclear annihilation of human life on Earth, so that the Green Andromeda base becomes the only way to preserve the terrestrial and human ecosystem. However, it would be preferable to not require the threat of extinction before there is a good rationale for building a lunar base. “The first task for the students was to invent their own future scenario for a lunar base. We were astonished, how much the students were aware of planet Earth. Some of them did not believe that human nature will change and therefore developed rather pessimistic scenarios. As a result, many teams put their efforts into developing habitable future living conditions.” [Instructors]

The concept calls for placing the module in a crater, or perhaps excavating a comparable pit if no suitable crater is available. A 12m in diameter inflatable dome covers the module. The module has four levels beneath the dome, although it is not clear the extent to which the inflatable encloses the complete module or whether there is a joint where the structure changes to another material. The upper level has a port for an airlock, and the airlock extends across the crater or pit as a bridge to the rim. The architects provide some steel construction details that are at a much higher level of detail than the rest of the project and somewhat out of place given the need to develop more of what happens on the various levels and in multiple modules. The module includes a center core elevator that provides access to each level. A vertical greenhouse area connects all habitation levels. Within the crew living environment, the private cabins are pie-slice shaped, movable cells. By moving and joining the private modules, the crewmembers can decide to “co-habitate,” or to “breakup” and separate their private living space. The architects went a little further in considering private living arrangements than the other teams.

Never the less, the storyboard and sketches provide considerable insight into the design approach. The sketches in particular show that the architects are thinking in multiple scales from the urban planning scale to the “flower pot” scale. In this way they developed their particular plant growth plus crew living environment concept. The module takes the overall form of a vertical cylinder with a convex top end dome and a flat bottom end dome. The cylindrical form unfortunately seems to be somewhat residual – other than the central core; there is no design driver to suggest why it should be cylindrical. 59


LunaMonte Project by Aida Mulic

Location Malapert/Lunar south pole Year 2050 Mission Objective Research in physics and geology Mission Length 3 months Crew members 5 Typology Surface stationary base, partly in lava tube Specific Characteristics Composed of four modules, main module brought from Earth, with three inflatable and one docking module.

61


DESTINATION MOON

62


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard The Moon base LunaMonte is located at the lunar south pole, at the base of the mountain Malapert. Considering the environment and the typology of the Moon, the suitable habitat is a subterranean structure, placed inside the mountain. In this way, the habitat is protected from outside influences, such as radiation and meteorites. The habitat consists of a main module which is connected to three inflatable modules at its sides. The main module is inserted into a lava tube at the base of Malapart, and then inflated. An important part of the mission is to utilize a maximum of in situ resources and to acclimatize the astronauts to living on the Moon. Therefore, the mission is divided into three stages. In the first stage a temporary habitat is constructed. In the second stage, the construction of the permanent habitat begins. Afterwards the crew begins to research and to prepare for the arrival of new crew members. Stage three involves the construction of a mining plant to extract Helium-3.

63


DESTINATION MOON Formation of Lava Tubes

Lunar lava tubes are sub-surface tunnels that are believed to have formed during basaltic lava flows. When the surface of a lava tube cools, it forms a hardened lid that contains the ongoing lava flow beneath the surface in a conduit-shaped passage. Once the flow of lava diminishes, the tunnel may become drained, forming a hollow void.

Deployment and Insertion

This diagram shows the deployment and insertion into the lunar lava tube. In this manner, the habitat is protected from radiation and micrometeorites.

64


DESTINATION MOON

Functional diagram

Section through habitat and lava tube

65


DESTINATION MOON LunaMonte is a research base that conducts investigations in the fields of physics and geology. The crew is composed of three scientists, one mechanical engineer and one medical doctor. Their mission is to conduct research and prepare for the arrival of new crew members. The interior design of the Moon base focuses on comfort and innovative living. Spending their free time together, the common room is located in the main module, which also serves as a kitchen and dining room. From the common room the crew has a view of Earth as well as the greenhouse. The dining area/kitchen is created as one transformable piece of furniture, of which the table and shelves can be pulled out when necessary. The sleeping quarters offer a special feature, an inflatable live-in-cube. The live-in-cube provides flexibility for various crew activities. The first level is meant to be for relaxing, where one can read, communicate with Earth, etc. The second level provides privacy for sleeping. Each live-in-cube also contains a micro air purifier.

light fixtures

rotating cabinet

sleeping screen hydroponics air purifier relaxing storage retractable ladder 66

rotational pillar

dining table chair storage


DESTINATION MOON Floor plan

Section 1

67


DESTINATION MOON

68


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen The architect presented her concept with a storyboard, at least partially hand-drawn, that was extremely helpful in expressing both the architectural concept and the beginnings of a concept of operations. The LunaMonte was inspired by 1960s projects such as the “Line-inCube,” which seemed a somewhat obscure architectural allusion. The architect provides a complete functional diagram drawn at a habitable house/human scale. LunaMonte was the only project that successfully conveyed the functional relationships in such a heuristic. The architectural concept is to locate the habitat or base “partially” in a lava tube. The configuration of modules consists of a combination of a rigid shell multiple berthing adapter-type (MBA) module with berthing ports for three or four other modules. The modules that connect to the MBA are inflatable. Presumably their bladders can be packaged alongside the berthing pressure ports. When inflated, they deploy away from the MBA. It was not clear the degree to which these inflatables are outfitted – whether they have all the internal structure packaged in the uninflated bladder or the crew installs the internal structure and furnishings after deployment.

The architect devoted a great deal of attention to detail in the design of the kitchen and the sleep compartment, which was helpful to understand the intended quality and human-scale characteristics of the living environment. The placement of two crew silhouettes in the crosssection of the sleep compartment was a little confusing; it appeared to be a “bunk bed” arrangement for two crewmembers, when in fact it was a single room accommodation. „Aida Mulic worked on her own and had difficulties in the beginning overcoming traditional thought patterns. She took a lot of effort in studying relevant literature and communicating with us. Her diligence and attention to detail clearly shows in the resulting project.“ [Instructors]

LunaMonte includes an EVA Access Module attached to the MBA, which provides two pairs of Suitports. It provides also a rover port that connects to the side port of a pressurized rover that resembles the NASA Lunar Electric Rover; the side port is reminiscent of the design for the University of North Dakota EPSCoR rover.

69


Think Globally - Act Locally Project by Maximilian Urs Abele and Christian Heshmatpour Location near Shackleton Crater Year 2093 Mission Objective ISRU Mission Length 2 years + Crew members up to 40 Typology stationary Specific Characteristics first permanent Moon base

71


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard

Specific Characteristics

In the year 2050 the world will realize that Earth`s resources are nearly exploited. World leaders gather and start an international project to colonize other planets.

The main aim was to design a Moon base that uses the Moon`s natural resources and provides high quality living space for the residents.

A first step will be a robotic mission to the Moon. Independent of political and economic changes on Earth, robots start building up a base. In the year 2090, based on the previous successful missions, a larger habitat is planned for permanent residents on the Moon. The aim is to create a base with only little or, in the best case, no support from Earth.

72

Long-term missions have special demands. It is important to provide appropriate leisure time activities. Furthermore it is necessary to adapt the housing to the various needs of astronauts. During long-term missions social needs also have to be considered. The main floor supports these requirements by providing a large variety of possibilities for social interaction.


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen The theme of Lunar Village One is “Think Globally – Act Locally.” The proposal focuses on emplacing a habitat within a cave, or somewhere else close to Shackleton Crater. It includes using sintered regolith to create domes and other types of structures made primarily from in situ materials. The goal is to achieve an airtight sintered structure. The Lunar Village One starts from a good functional layout diagram that assigns functions to each of the major floor areas. The main implementation of this functional arrangement is a central dome with three satellite domes. Each of the satellite domes has a single connection to the main dome; the lack of connection among the secondary domes is a weakness insofar as it does not provide multiple access or dual remote egress. The architectural plan includes a rover garage with rear hatches, in effect bringing their “parking spaces” with them. Within the larger central dome, the architects locate a “plotted regolith structure,” which seems to serve mainly as a sculptural element. Within the central dome, the crew will live in rectangular living modules that feature foldout internal and external components. The model shows that the architects achieved a sufficient level of detail in the central dome, including extensive plant growth areas. However, the three satellite dome interiors remain unrepresented. “The group presented an interesting spatial approach for a dome. Unfortunately the potential of the project was not fulfilled.“ [Instructors]

73


Moon Nomadic Project by Alexander Kolaritsch and David Lukacs Location Shackleton Crater Year 2050 Mission Objective trading Mission Length Crew members 2 Typology mobile Specific Characteristics mobile multifunctional units between future outposts

75


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard Settlement The first settlements were established in northern Africa - close to fountains or places where precious raw materials could be mined. Connect Tribes of the Touareg started to connect these settlements to trade goods between them. For this purpose they used camels and rode them on trading routes. Reach for more The sphere of influence of the Touareg trading routes grew larger and larger. They first gained influence in Africa and later traded between cities all over the world.

floorplan

Think Interplanetary In 2050 mankind started to build the first populated settlements on the surface of the Moon. Most of these bases were located in and around the Shackleton crater, next to the south pole of the Moon. RE-connect Soon after the first settlements, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Moon nomadsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; establish symbiotic trading routes between the settlements on the Moon.

section

settlement 76

connect

reach for more

think interplanetary

re-connect


DESTINATION MOON Specific Characteristics

traveling

assembling

settling

The Base The Moon Nomads lunar base provides shelter for two people on a trading mission so that one of them could move to a lunar base for trading with a rover while the other could stay in the homebase as backup with a second rover. The basic layout of the lunar base consists of two rover modules and two habitat modules. The rover modules are the main working areas. Each of the rovers also serves as bedroom for the astronauts. Also located in the rovers are trading goods and a docking station for the habitat modules. Two cupolas serve as visual connections to the outside world - the front one is also a window for steering. The second one is located on the top of the rover so the astronauts can look at the Earth when in their beds. The two habitat modules include wet areas (sanitary and kitchen) - during particle events their water tanks also serve as storm shields. Medical racks are placed on the walls of the module. A retractable desk and two chairs are placed in racks as well. A retractable node to connect the rover modules as well as an EVA dock is provided. Travelling and Settling Mode Every base contains four units, two rover modules and two habitat modules. When the base is in ‘travelling mode’ the two habitat modules are placed below the rover modules. To ensure that the units are still able to move on uneven terrain the ‘legs’ of the rover are about 5 meters long. In ‘settling mode’ the rovers place the habitat modules on the ground and fold their feet so that the base elements can be connected.

trading

77


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen This concept was based upon the idea of trade routes on the Moon in the future when there are multiple settlements and bases scattered around the surface. The Moon Nomadic base is almost entirely mobile; it draws from a sequence of mobile base and rover concepts that have made an impact upon lunar/Mars exploration thinking over the past quarter century, notably the Habot and the Lunar Electric Rover. To highlight the mobility across empty wastelands, the architects adopted a logo of a camel wearing a spacesuit helmet. This project presented the most “promotional” image of all the concepts. The key design is a habitat on a six-legged rover, reminiscent of NASA JPL’s ATHLETE. This Moon Nomadic habitat incorporates a solar storm shelter beneath the water tanks. The pressure vessel module sitting on the ATHLETE derives closely from John Frassinito’s pressurized rover design with the clear glass hemispherical end dome at the driver’s seat. In one version of the concept, the Moon Nomadic consists of two mobile rovers on the ATHLETE-like base plus two stationary modules of essentially the same configuration. These stationary units appear to consist of “tuna can” units that the Moon Nomadic rover carries beneath the deck of the ATHLETE, such that its legs must stand straight up at all times. However, it is not really clear to extent to which this arrangement could actually travel safely and successfully across the lunar topography. Here is where the architects seemed somewhat unsure in their reasoning. If the designer follows the logic articulated in the Habot project, then all the assets become mobile; the entire base moves together in an ensemble. In the preliminary review, the architects presented the example of trade routes in Eurasia including the Silk Road and the Atlantic sea-lanes 78


DESTINATION MOON

to the Americas and around Africa to India and the Far East. The weakness of this approach was the assumption that trade routes are static. Although this point may seem obscure it goes to an important point for understanding the purpose and application of mobility: in fact the Silk Road and the Atlantic routes did not exist simultaneously. Once the Turkish Empire blocked the overland routes from Europe to China, it gave an impetus to exploration â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to find sea routes either east or west to the Indies and China. In the same way, the mobility systems on the surface of the Moon will need to be flexible and responsive to changes in location, operation, and purpose. The reviewer pointed out this error to the architects during the preliminary review, but they retained the mistaken trade route schema and map.

some ideal economy and program. In Moon Nomadic, the architects attempted to make their project as close to a type of professional precedent as they could; they pursued Space Architecture and mobility realism more than the other projects. However, the faculty found a serious weakness in Moon Nomadic insofar as the architects borrowed so liberally from existing concepts and systems, but did very little to transform these precedents to serve the design brief or to create their own approach.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Unfortunately the group did not make as much of an effort as they could in developing this project. It is a pity because they had an interesting approach.â&#x20AC;? [Instructors] The designers could have done much more to develop the cabin design for the Moon Nomadic rovers. As the drawings were presented, the interiors are represented in a minimal fashion, both in plan and in the interior elevations. The interior elevations are drawn in isolation from the rest of the rover or base module. It would be far more helpful to portray them in a complete transverse building section that would show the relationship to the entry port, hatches, airlocks, and surface. The Moon Nomadic project raises a paradoxical and somewhat troubling question. Architecture studios generally reward creativity and innovation. Space Architecture studios tend to reward designs that are realistic enough to be feasible in 79


myo Project by Marcus Czech and Elisabeth Lang Location South pole Year 2050 Mission Objective Scientific Moon base and spaceport Mission Length 2050 to 2100 Crew members 6 to 100 (+) Typology Surface, compatible Specific Characteristics Adjustable shell, regolith pillows

81


DESTINATION MOON >> Spaceport for journeys to Outer Space <<

Organisation

The Moon - just a three-days trip from Earth has challenged mankind for more than 40 years. Current plans focus on long-term and sustainable missions. In the far future the Moon could also serve as an intergalactic space harbour - a node between different worlds, planets and universes. For this we have to start with a small step - our first module MYO.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Myoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is delivered to the Moon by an Ariane V rocket in a compact package, ready to be deployed on the lunar surface. Soon after the installation of the first habitat, the Moon base is expanded by the addition of further modules allowing for a number of different configurations. The modules are connected by a 5-point-node which also contains the docking ports for the rover and the suitports.

Site Selection The Moon base will be situated at the south pole close to the CABEUS CRATER (the most important deposits of frozen water), the MALAPERT MOUNTAIN/CRATER (with suspected deposits of frozen water and mountains more than 8000m high with the possibility of eternal sunlight) and the SHACKLETON CRATER (high crater walls, protection against cosmic and solar radiation). Function The first phase of the base will be scientific research, in the future the base is projected to serve as a spaceport. The research objectives are the utilisation of in situ resources and the production of liquid oxygen and fuel.

Timeline The project starts in 2050. The lunar lander will land on the surface of the Moon, two weeks later the first module arrives with six astronauts (scientists, one engineer and a physician). Two months later an additional support module arrives that can be re-configured into a scientific research and living module. Six months later an advanced energy module and the greenhouse arrive.

storyboard

...7

LEBEN UND ARBEITEN IN NEW

TAGE SPAETER!

BERLIN

EE VON ROBOTERN GENERATION 1

N WEG...

82

GENERATION X - NEW VIENNA

WELT


TRAUMHAFEN MOND!

DESTINATION MOON

site diagram

landing of the first module

2050 phase 1: preparation - lunar orbit explorer - moon mapping - site selection - robotic preparation

more modules landing

building of the first ring 2055

2051 phase 2: science module - first module - temporarily inhabited - telescope / small geoscientific module - decomposition of the surface (experimental) - oxygen production (experimental) - exploration of the nearer surroundings - building the first science module

2065

30

building of the second ring 2080 100 connecting

phase 3: operation phase - 2 to 3 modules - permanent inhabited - decomposition of the moon resources - processing of the moon resources - experiments for producing food - implementation of the recycling system - exploration, longer distances - development of scientific module - radiotelescope

phase 4: expansion - the first endependent moonbase - satellite outputs - advanced science - autarkic energysupply - agriculture - oxygen production - observatory - longterm explorations

100+

2100

completed expansion

spaceport - for explorations to outer space

radial expansion concept

NAECHSTER HALT... MARS!

83


DESTINATION MOON EVA lock for lunar rovers and astronauts

greenhouse air and food production

?

research scientific labs

energy supply and life support systems

sleeping and relaxing

usable space translation

8,50 3,00

4 6

3 1

2

7

8

5

floorplan 84


DESTINATION MOON

4 3 9,00 4,50

1

4 6

2

4

7

8

9

1 storage 2 working space 3 laundry 4 sleeping 5 hygiene 6 relaxing area and storage 7 kitchen and foodstorage 8 working space 9 technical support 10 screen 11 lightning

16,50 20,00

6 1 6

5

10

11

9,00 4,50

4

4

4

5

1 9

possible spaceconfigurations relaxing area because of folding elements there are more flexible spaces space for hygiene and toilet

vertical and longitudinal section

5,50 8,50

structural concept 85


DESTINATION MOON

removable tmc shell with regolith bag 30 - 1200 mm segmented clamp

mli and micrometeroid layers 30 mm tmc liner segmented clamp

o - ring

bracket

webbing bladder 120 mm removable inner layer 40 mm

detail wall construction

86

regolith pillow


DESTINATION MOON Specific Characteristics The outer layer â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Myoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is based on an inflated element. Covering this volume, which is reminiscent of a ship or submarine, are protective layers. For this purpose we designed a pillow which can be filled with regolith. A net of plugin nodes on the outer layer serves as an installation point for fixed solar panels, radiators, additional protection shielding, gripper arms and other technical supplies.

Structural concept The modules are inflatables with docking rings at both ends that connect to rigid nodes. The modules can be re-configured to meet changing requirements.

possible configuration > stapled <

possible configuration > ring < 87


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen

2 month

1 month

3 weeks

2 weeks

start

timeline growing moon base first landing astronauts preparing the sourrounding 1 scientist 1 engineer

start of the rocket ariane V packed with the first module

landing and unfolding of the first module

first module docking 3 scientists 2 engineers 1 physician

second module - support systems later scientistic module

The MYO Space Harbor is a concept for a transit base for travellers to Mars. The architects developed a structural concept for an expandable steel spring-based compression structure. One unique feature of this concept is that it is the only one packaged for a single launch to deliver it to the Moon, on an Ariane 5. The Ariane 5 would deliver two landers, a small node with five radial ports and five legs, plus the packaged expandable module. The concept for the module is that it has a rigid central axis, portrayed in the model by a wood dowel. To deploy the shell, the module has a mechanism that compresses the ends of the steel spring shell inward along the central axle. Once the compression is completed and secured, the module can dock to the node. Subsequent launches of more Ariane 5s can deliver more modules and nodes. Geometrically, the expansion concept is both linear and radial. The modules expand by actually shortening along the longitudinal axis, and it is possible to line up multiple modules along the central axis. At the same time, the modules attach radially to five-port node, to extend the base in this radial fashion. The base would expand through adding modules and nodes.

1 year

6 month

The transverse section of the module shows lots of construction details, including bagged regolith placed around the module for radiation shielding. Over time, the crew or robots would effectively

88

energy greenhouse


DESTINATION MOON bury the modules under regolith. The architects stated that some of the radial ports would remain exposed outside the regolith cover, but there was some confusion about the number of exposed ports available for crew entry, airlocks, or rover pressure ports. What was missing from the MYO is an architectural plan that has enough design character and specialization of modules to show an allocation of functions. The spring-expansion modules span horizontally between the hubs in a triangular grid pattern with 72° internal angles. However, a grid pattern does not an architectural plan make. The problem with the 72° angle for the grid is that the areas between the “edges” of the triangles formed by the modules and hubs is that they do not form a clean and complete tessellation.

“The first task for the students was to envision a future scenario – leaving them to decide what the larger framework would be. This story then served as a basis for the main task of ‘zooming in’ and concentrating on the habitat itself. In a future studio it would be interesting to develop all other elements as well. They also developed an interesting approach to a flexible space configuration within an inflatable module.” [Instructors]

What is not clear from the design drawings is how the MYO Space Harbor serves its stated purpose of providing a transit point from the Earth to Mars. It does not appear to include any accommodations for visiting space vehicles, no fueling facilities, or accommodations for visiting crews or passengers laying-over between flights. Normally, if a project were simply missing an element, the score for that element would be zero. However, if the concept proclaims the purpose of supporting particular activities and operations, but those functions are completely missing, then it must score a negative for the absence of those elements.

89


touch the moon slightly Project by Petra Panna Nagy and Shi Yin

Location Moon Year 2012 Mission Objective Habitat for research Mission Length Long term mission Crew members 1st phase: max. 5 people 2nd phase: 5 - 10 people (+ research tourists) Typology Modular Specific Characteristics Greenhouse Moon tower Walkers Moon protection

91


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard

biggest advertising blitz ever...

Politics fail, mega-companies gain ever increasing influence on the development of states. The gap between rich and poor continues to grow. And the Earth`s resources are running low. Something has to be done! ...

...To prevent the exploitation of the Moon, an underground movement starts to fight not only for the rescue of the Moon, but also for the rights and freedom of the people.

... Scientists propose to go to the Moon and beyond that, to Mars. On the Moon, they propose to mine Helium-3 and other resources to satisfy the demand on Earth. In silence they also hope to perform other research there. But for the governments the aim is not just the exploitation of the Moon - the Moon becomes an object of desire again. In a certain way, history seems to repeat itself. The megalomaniac race to the Moon (caused by the competition market) turns out to be the

storyboard: negative szenario 92

By and by this underground movement grows until politics (governed by companies) cannot ignore it anymore... ...To prevent a rebellion the governing companies agree to (re-)declare the Moon a neutral zone. Companies and people on Earth declare their aim to rescue the Moon from exploitation and promise to touch the Moon lightly...


DESTINATION MOON MOON LSS

fitness area sanitary

community space leisure area safe heaven

t v

storage

medical help

south pole peak of etarnal light

research points locations are determined by research modules.

research area

sleeping area private space

communication cent

cooking area

working area

luxury plants

agricultural research plants plants

„dark side“ crater nearest point to nucleus lava tubes south pole

Function diagram direct connection

greenhouse

technical connection EARTH view connection

Concept base common lunar bases orientation this lunar base orientation

storyboard: positive szenario

concept masterplan base expansion

93


DESTINATION MOON

sleep, privacy, individual space inflatable space extension

tower floor plan 3 sleep, privacy, individual space quiet leisure

down

sanitary storage, sanitary

inflatable space extension

tower floor plan 2

layer detail

inflatabl for l

leisure fitness eat, leisure

work, laboratory

greenhouse

greenhouse

airlock, suitlock

work suits tower floor plan 1

astronaut walker arrival walker

walker arriving

down floor plan base

LSS storage

section

connection to safe heaven

safe heaven floor plan 4

laboratory, last help, LSS-storage

safe heaven floor plan 3 work, storage safe heaven floor plan 2

safe heaven floor plan 1

94

sanitary, health, fitness, leisure, cook sleep, storage


DESTINATION MOON

About the design

e seat eisure

The base is located at the peak of eternal light at the lunar south pole. After deployment in the initial phase, the growing base shall research Helium-3, the quest for water, the genesis of the Moon, lunar tubes and craters. The research station shall have as little ecological impact as possible on the lunar environment. The interior design is relevant for the psychological and social well-being of the crew. One vital element is the greenhouse, which forms a central element within the base. Different plants and plant chambers shall offer various visual connections.

additional inflatable space

privacy

privacy space health

view

infrastructure view

leisure community view

greenhouse arrival

community space static structure

research + work

suitelock work space

exit to the platform walker / explorer

LSS

LSS

safe haven privacy leisure health

up community

10 astronauts + greenhouse 2 research tourists

research + work

greenhouse welcomeing area

down

function diagram

safe haven

function diagram / base section retractable panels 3 interchangeable for research projects and solar collectors

up 2 fixed panels docking for other modules or inflatable space enlargements

1 pneumatic membrane

up

retractable panels 3 protection against micro meteorites

floor plan safe-haven assembly diagram

95 up


DESTINATION MOON

The Walkers The explorer modules are designed for two people. They can walk, run, jump and climb. The modules have arms with different attachments, which rotate around the explorer’s corpus. These attachments allow the walker to dig, grab, drill or screw. The walking explorer enables the crew to make short missions of up to 3 days. „Swiss pocket knife“, attachments

lss storage

2 beds lss storage

96 9 6

workspaces

1


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen

The idea of Touch the Moon Slightly is to make a minimal impact upon the lunar environment, to “handle it with care,” as if it is fragile. This imported philosophy seems to derive from a misunderstanding of Planetary Protection requirements or perhaps green design guidelines. The way the architects apply the philosophy is to keep the modules physically elevated above the surface on the grid work.

„The students developing this project had an interesting concept as a starting point - to minimize the future human foot print on the Moon. Over the course of the studio they had many different, somtimes disparate ideas, which proved to be a challenge to combine convincingly.“ [Instructors]

The modules consist of four-legged walkers with four arms plus stationary modules. The stationary modules stand on the structural grid deck above the lunar surface. The concept stacks three cylindrical modules vertically to create a tower. The “Touch the Moon Slightly” philosophy seems to extend to installing the modules as far from the lunar surface as possible. This concept also places one module horizontally to berth to the tower at its base. The docking ports in the modules can also double as windows. The configuration includes a “welcoming area” to receive guests and perhaps the crews from the Moon Nomadic rovers. This concept was one of the few to establish a public area for communal activities. The architects provide a functional diagram that explains the living, crew support, and agricultural functions; however the functional diagram does not include work or laboratory areas. Therefore the Touch the Moon Slightly does not seem to include a real functional construct that goes to why the crew is on the Moon and what they will do there besides minimize their interaction with it. The concept includes both mobile and stationary elements, but the functional distinction between them is not clear. In fact, the inclusion of the four-legged walkers is somewhat of a mystery given the “do not touch” design imperative. 97


Resistance/Residence under Cover Project by Stefan Kristoffer Location Shackleton Crater, Lunar south pole Year 2030 Mission Objective Sciences Mission Length 10 years Crew members 12 - 20 Typology Inflatable / Covered / Surface stationary Specific Characteristics Inflatable regolith-covered habitat situated in crater

99


DESTINATION MOON Storyboard

as consumables (utilization period). Habitat

In 2020 the decision is made to plan an internationally manned research mission to the Moon. Lift-off is planned for 2030. The mission objectives are to prove that human habitation is possible within a distant extraterrestrial environment, to research and utilize local materials for consumable production and for construction purposes. The Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is selected as the location for the base because of the access to water resources and the permanent supply of solar power. The crew size during the research and utilization period consists of 12 scientists and 8 engineers in order to maintain the lunar base facilities. During the initial period most members serve the construction of the base. The modules land and deploy before human arrival and are completed by the initial crew.

The lunar environment is not hospitable for human life. The pressurized volume needs to be maintained at a habitable level. To shield the crew from dangerous cosmic radiation the habitat is situated in an impact crater of medium size and additionally covered with lunar soil. Living quarters are located below the crater ring so that protection is provided in the case of Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The solar altitude at the lunar south pole rises to only 1.5° craters are constantly free from solar radiation. The inflatable pressure vessel that contains habitable conditions is connected to a frame structure and has no ground contact itself.

The habitat is connected to a greenhouse (for food production), to ‘supply modules’ and to pressurized rovers. Research facilities are partly integrated, partly connected or located externally. Research topics include: geochemistry (to use lunar soil for consumable production), engineering geology (to build further structures with local materials), gravitational research, agricultural research as well as health science. ISRU: chemically bound water and oxygen resources are planned to be extracted and used Habitat erection 

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DESTINATION MOON Deployment

Site plan

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20m

Soil Processing

Solar Power Plant Automated Rovers

Habitat

Pressurized Rovers

Supply Module

near side

The deploying mechanism is based on a hexagonal platform and can be compactly packed. Two parallel platforms with unfolding outriggers are combined with an inflatable hull. Supports are situated in the center and on the ring of the crater. An additional membrane spans the crater and serves as support for the regolith cover. All interior fittings are either connected to the structure or are placed in or developed from the central core.

far side

Structural solution

far side

near side

Greenhouse

600m External Research Solar Power Plant

1500m Landing Spot Launch Pads



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DESTINATION MOON floor plan crew quarters / safe-haven

floor plan crew quarters / safe-haven

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research / social area crew quarters / safe-haven

102


DESTINATION MOON DESTINAT floor plan research / social area

Detail sintered regolith regolitth

loose regolith

abraison resistant layer tensile span membrane thermal conduction res. I. structural foam layer mulitlayer insulation pressure bladder ďŹ&#x201A;ame barrier interior liner/ thermal control layer habitable volume 0

50cm

lunar conditions additional shielding layer thermal radiation resistant layer

103


DESTINATION MOON

104


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen

This “balloon in a bowl” habitat consists of a deployable, hexagonal plan inflatable. It has an inner deployable/expandable framework that is very clear in the scale mode. The functional modules include the Habitat, Greenhouses, and Regolith Processing. The Resistance/Residence pursues a philosophy of “environmental adaptation.” This habitat design will deploy the inner structure and inflate the pressure bladder envelope at the same time. It offers a complete circulation loop among the functional areas. The design places the living quarters in the “basement,” to afford the greatest radiation protection. To harden the roof structure, the construction method includes placing regolith on the roof and sintering it, at least for the first few centimeters. Each inflatable module includes windows looking horizontally out to the lunar surface. The placement of openings in the surrounding berms to frame the windows is a subtle and effective way of integrating the habitat and other functional areas with the landscape. The concept for an integrated inflatable and rigid structure that all deploys together is quite clever and the model explains it very well. In most respects, this design concept is one of the most mature architecturally, in the beaux art sense of a complete design ensemble.

While all the essential functions are present, the relationship among them is not articulated in a readily perceived or comprehended way. In the Ground Floor Plan, the geometry and structure of the smaller “Soil Processing Module” and “Supply Module” seem arbitrary and not as well worked-out as the main hexagonal-inflatable modules. One function that is either not represented or absent is the EVA airlock. The exterior staircase to the upper left of the Supply Module presumably connects to an airlock, but unless the entire Supply Module is that airlock, it is not in evidence. Also, the Soil Processing * Module appears to have a pressure port to which to dock a rover, but again, there is no development of either an EVA access/airlock function or a “sample airlock” that would allow off-loading of regolith without having to breach the pressure envelope of the module. “Kristoffer’s design method is model-based and this is clearly his strength. He made numerous, highly elaborate working models, some to test the deployment method, some to develop the form. Spending much of his time on the models, unfortunately his plans could have benefited from more attention.” [Instructors]

*It is misleading to refer to the regolith as “soil.” Soil implies a biological process of decomposition, which does not occur on the Moon. The American Society of Civil Engineers has a separate definition of soil referring to a specific particle size, but that is not applicable to regolith as it comes in the full range of sizes.

105


T:W:I:S:T Project by Daniela Siedler

Location Shackleton Crater Year 2037 Mission Objective Research Mission Length 3 years Crew members 8 Typology Inflatable Surface stationary Underground (safe-haven) Specific Characteristics Main habitat is situated on crater wall, research module on the crater ground

107


DESTINATION MOON operate independently.

Storyboard

In 2037 an eight-manned team will be on its way to the Moon, to land on the rim of the Shackleton Crater at the south pole. At the beginning, a preliminary habitat module on the crater wall as well as a smaller research module on the crater ground will be installed. The ground of the crater is permanently shadowed, very cold and thus may contain water ice, making it an interesting location for research. Transportation from the habitat module on the rim to the research module on the crater ground is provided by special lunar vehicles. Contrary to the dark ground of the Shackleton Crater, the rim offers an illumination of about 70 per cent per month, so it serves as an appropriate location for solar energy.

In order to increase habitability in such a hostile setting, the greenhouse forms the center of the station. By passing through this area every day, a positive psychological effect on the astronauts is anticipated. To ensure the optimum utilization of available space, room heights vary according to internal functions. The initial configuration hosts eight people. The habitat expands on the crater wall towards the ground and rim of the crater. The first base will be linear in configuration, additional modules will expand in the other dimension.

Habitat

The lunar habitat stretches along the crater wall like a backbone. The habitat consists of six inflatable modules, which are connected with airlocks. To ensure safety, three modules will be buried and serve as a safe-haven. During solar particle events and other emergencies astronauts are able to live in these modules, which can

 

   



       



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Acht Astronauten starten ihre Mission zum Mond. Unter ihnen befinden sich Ingenieure und Forscher.

108

Das bemannte Habitat landet erfolgreich auf dem Mond.

Functional Diagram

Dort erst mal gelandet, packen die Astronauten auch schon die mitgebrachten Pakete aus. Diese Pakete sind pneumatische Habitate, die nun aufgeblasen werden. Sie werden vorerst als Forschungsstätte und Unterkonft der Astronauten dienen.

Zur Nutzung der vorhandenen Mond-Ressourcen wird mit dem Abbau dieser begonnen. Der Fokus liegt zu Beginn vor allem auf der Herstellung von Beton. Also, Zement, Wasser und Zuschlagstoffe mĂźssen her!




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Zur Energiegewinnung werden Photovoltaik Anlagen am SĂźdpol, wo durchgehende Sonneneinstrahlung vorhanden ist, errichtet.

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Im m Jahr J 2100 werden erste Kinder geboren, die Bewohgebore geboren ner kĂśnnen sich ihre n Freizei z t im Kino oder ode in einem Resta Re urant Rest verbringen. g Und natĂźrlich wird eifrig geforscht, um einen Weiterflug zum Mars bald ermĂśglichen zu kĂśnnen.

109


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The Lunar Greenhouse combines the cultivation of fish with the growing of vegetables. Fish provide rich fertilizer for the plants and in return, the plants clean the water for the fish. The fish and the plants co-exist in a symbiotic relationship.

nutrient-rich water is pumped to the upper plant beds. 2

water follows gravity and provides plants with water and nutrients. 3



     

 

Crewquarters

1 The water is pumped through a bio ďŹ lter to collect ďŹ sh faeces, which are converted into nutrients by nutrifying

The freshly puriďŹ ed water is pumped back into the ďŹ sh tank. 4

111


DESTINATION MOON Structural Concept The packed habitat has a diameter of 5 meters in order to be transported to the lunar surface. The construction basically consists of a structural helix, which is tightened by structural foam. The spiral itself consists of seven inflatable pipes, which are twisted into each other. A deployable U-profile keeps the spiral together and stabilizes it as a guide rail. After construction of the spiral, the habitat will be inflated to fit the shell and put into its final position.

1

3 1

construction spiral, filled with structural foam

2

U-Profile, foldable

3

lock

4

feets, depolyable

2

4

Structure and Deployment of the Modules

   

â&#x2C6;&#x2026;   

    

112


DESTINATION MOON

Working model with tensile fabrics - Form finding with soap bubble experiments

#       ! &  $

          $

Model of twisted tubes for the construction spiral

Form finding with a balloon



    

      "     

  "     

    $

& !    #    

Layering Concept

113


DESTINATION MOON

114


DESTINATION MOON Evaluation by Marc M. Cohen

This concept creates a linear array of units that begins at the upper edge of the crater wall and follows the slope down toward the center. The form of these habitation units derives from the structure, which consists of a spiral “spring.” The crew will deploy this spiral inside the inflatable, giving it form that provides volumes of varying shapes and sizes that can accommodate the living and working environment functions. The spiral will initially be flexible, but its foam filling will harden into a rigid shape. The model, made of plaster of Paris, expresses and explains the concept well, better than the elaborate CAD drawings.

these relationships in the Adjacency Matrix. These relationships, at a minimum, would involve requirements for adjacency and access to functional areas, egress from these areas, and separation of incompatible functions. The final presentation included one module offset from the main axis/spiral and two EVA/”Suitport” modules in line with the main axis, which shows some maturation from the earlier approach.

“Daniela was one of the students that experimented with a lot models. Doing so, she developed an interesting concept for an inflatable structure, the form of which can be adjusted to functional requirements inside.” [Instructors] The areas that need further attention include: The construction of the spiral needs to be further articulated, particularly the outer inflatable layer that would be filled with foam that solidifies; The starting and ending points of the main spiral are ambiguous in the sense that it is not clear why they are positioned as shown; Assuming that there is a reason for the location of the starting point, there does not appear to be a “stopping rule to determine or explain why it the spiral stops where it does on the inward slope of the crater. The main difficulty posed by this sort of predominately linear plan is that it does not allow full and proper architectural programming to develop the relationships among functional areas and volumes. Typically the architect defines

115


Summary Evaluation Marc M. Cohen Evaluation The following tables cover three broad areas of for a student space architecture project. They are Concept, Representation, and Space Architecture. The Concept domain refers to the ways in which, and the degrees to which the project demonstrates identifiable and clear ideas for the project. The Representation domain covers the ways in which the projects present those ideas to make them evident and comprehensible. Finally, the Space Architecture domain encompasses the extent to which the students use the elements and pattern language of Space Architecture. One way to understand these assessment tables is that they account for the various efforts the students made to come to grips with the design problem and to create and communicate a solution. Please bear in mind, that although the scoring for the Sums in the right column assess to a limited extent how well individual projects succeed, what is most important is the evaluation of how the students respond to the design brief and what their projects accomplish as a whole. Concept: Definitions of Descriptive Criteria Analogy, including Backstory: The use of analogy is a time-honored and widespread practice in architecture. Some students use analogy, but that is not a requirement in any sense. However it can add a story line and a degree of richness to the narrative. Formal Concept: Developing such a concept as a discrete physical and visual form is an essential step in architecture. 116

Imported Philosophy: It has become fashionable in recent decades to start an architecture project from a philosophical --instead of a formal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; parti (point of departure). Although the use of imported and possibly irrelevant philosophy sometimes provokes controversy, the recording here addresses only whether it is present in the project. Structural Concept: Because Space Architecture occurs in the extreme environment of vacuum and reduced or microgravity, the structure must not only support conventional live and dead loads, but also the pneumatic pressure of the atmosphere. Geometric Construct: As part of the structural concept or the formal concept, a geometric concomitant often becomes a prominent organizing principle. Science of Physics Concept: Some Space Architecture concepts invoke innovative applications of science, most often physics in developing a habitat project. However, often as much peril can accrue to the project as benefit unless the architect brings a solid grasp of the science to the effort. Representation of the Design Concept Storyboard / Preliminary Sketches / Study Model: The early steps in the creative process serve as a tremendously important viewport into the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design process, and can offer strong first order predictions of how well the project direction will turn out. The point in this criteria is not whether the architect went through these steps or not, but only whether she or he uses them in the review presentation to explain and illuminate the final project. Functional Diagram or Matrix: Mature and serious architectural design usually


demands a symbolic representation of the relationship between functional areas or spaces. This representation can take the form of a table, a matrix, or a diagram that explains the decisions about adjacency, separation, parallel elements, and other supra-design features that shape the entire project, such as the modularization of living quarters, working areas, or agriculture. Adjacency Matrix: An adjacency matrix is a special case of a functional matrix that explicates the importance of connecting or separating individual spaces. Site Planning: The base or habitat sits on or under the surface of the extraterrestrial body. Where the project intersects the surface, the need arises to elaborate that intersection and the relationship between the habitat and the surrounding terrain. Architectural Plan: The plan drawing acts as the heart of an architectural project and probably the most timehonored representation of a building. It provides the shorthand for everything else in the project. Architectural Building Section and Elevations: The building section and elevation articulates the planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s realization in three dimensions. Architectural 3D CAD: Computer Aided Design (CAD) has become the standard means of representation in most architectural project. Structural Detail or Other Detail: Because Space Architecture projects are often innovative, the architects often need to explain how they will make their structural concept or other feature feasible and realizable. The detail conveys understanding of the craft of building. Scale Model: Presenting a project with a 3D scale model helps

the reviewer and the public understand the concept. Scale models are particularly helpful for people who are not trained design professionals and so may encounter difficulty in visualizing a 3D concept from 2D drawings. Working Scale Model: Where a Space Architecture project involves changes in form or structure as part of installation, deployment, or inflation, a working model offers significant help to demonstrate the concept. Space Architecture: Elements and Design Precedents Multiple Access: Multiple access reflects a design that provides two or more means of entry to important areas, rooms, or spaces. There are many functional and safety reasons for why multiple access can be an asset. Dual Remote Egress: Two or more remotely separated exits from a given room or volume is a hallmark of the earliest life safety and fire codes on Earth. It deserves equal or greater attention in a space habitat. Multiple Circulation Loops: A circulation loop refers to a means of perambulating or translating around a space habitat or base. Multiple routes or loops would be beneficial for flexible and varying uses. Public Space: In a space habitat with five to six or more crewmembers, there will be common living, gathering, and circulation areas in addition to shared workspaces. Common living spaces include the wardroom, galley, exercise, and entertainment areas.

117


Vertical Circulation: Nearly all the projects incorporate high ceilings or multiple levels in the habitat. The ways in which the crew can access these parts of the total volume serves as an important functional element. Private Quarters: Providing a private living space and sleep quarter stands as one of the most widely recognized requirements since Raymond Loewyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design for the Skylab sleep quarters. Work or Lab Area: Most crewmembers will go to the space habitat or base to work, doing engineering, research, science, or technology development. They will need suitable accommodations to perform these tasks. Plant Growth Area: Self-sufficiency in food will emerge as a vital capability to sustain human space settlements. In addition, the partial G environment presents opportunities for agricultural research.

Scoring Rubric This scoring system focuses on determining if an abovelisted element is present in a Destination Moon project and, if so, how successfully the architects implemented.

118

Score 2.0

Life Support: Life support is a sine qua non of a space habitat. The issue for Destination Moon is the extent to which the architects recognize the role of life support and make some accommodation or indication for it. Surface Mobility: The ability to travel safely and in relative comfort over distances on the lunar surface while protected from the extreme environment constitutes a vital capability for a range of engineering, exploration, ISRU, and logistical purposes. Use of Robotics: Autonomous, robotic, and teleoperated systems are already becoming ubiquitous in the space exploration environment. Surely these capabilities will act as an integrated element of the Destination Moon base. EVA Access Airlock: Travel on foot to explore and work will remain essential for nearly all EVA activities on the Moon. Therefore, the space habitat should include some type of airlock provisions.

1.0

Title Successful and Outstanding Successful

0.5

Present

0 (1.0)

Absent Failure

Criteria The element is implemented successfully at an excellent level of design. The element is implemented successfully; it makes a credible and potentially feasible asset. The element is present, but the implementation is not fully successful, although there are no major errors. The element is not present in the design. The element is implemented in an incorrect or misguided way that causes it to fail.


Table: Concept Criteria

CONCEPT PROJECTS

Analogy including Backstory

Formal Concept

Imported Philosophy

Aymara

0.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

(1.0)

2.0

Biodiversity Base

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.0

1.0

3.5

Cyclops Hub

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

0.0

5.0

Down to Earth

0.0

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

2.5

Green Andromeda

1.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

4.0

LunaMonte

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

3.5

Lunar Village One

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

3.0

Moon Nomadic

(1.0)

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.0

1.0

MYO Space Harbor

0.0

1.0

0.0

2.0

0.0

4.0

Resistance/Residence

0.0

1.0

0.5

2.0

2.0

0.0

5.5

Touch the Moon Slightly

0.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.0

2.5

Twist

1.0

1.0

0.0

2.0

1.0

0.5

5.5

TOTAL

4

3

13

10.5

0.5

42

Absolute Values

6

3

13

10.5

2.5

42

0.5

11 11

Structural Concept

Geometric Concept

1.0

Science or Physics Concept

Concept Sums

Percent

119


Table: Representation Criteria

REPRESENTATION

120

Â

PROJECTS

StoryFunctional Adjacency Site Plan- Archiboard/ Diagram Matrix ning tectural preor Matrix Plan(s) liminary sketches/

ArchiArchitectectural tural 3D Building CAD Sections/ Elevations

Structural Scale or other Model Detail

Working Scale Model

Sums

Aymara

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

4.0

Biodiversity Base

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

4.0

Cyclops Hub

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

0.0

2.0

1.0

5.0

Down to Earth

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.5

Green Andromeda

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

4.0

LunaMonte

2.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

2.0

2.0

1.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

9.5

Lunar Village One

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.5

0.0

5.5

Moon Nomadic

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.0

MYO Space Harbor 0.5

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

6.5

Resistance/Residence

1.0

0.5

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

2.0

8.0

Touch the Moon Slightly

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.5

Twist

1.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

0.0

7.0

TOTAL

9

3

2

7.5

12.5

11.5

12.5

6

6.5

4

65.5

Absolute Values

9

3

2

7.5

12.5

11.5

12.5

6

6.5

4

65.5


Table: Space Architecture Features

SPACE ARCHITECTURE FEATURES  Multiple Access

Dual Remote Egress

Multiple Circulation Loops

Common or Public Space

Vertical Circulation

Private Quarters

Work or Lab Areas

Plant Growth

Life Support

Surface Mobility

Use of Robotics

EVA Access/ Airlock

Space Architecture Feature Sums

0.0

(1.0)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

3.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.5

6.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

7.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

6.5

0.0

(1.0)

0.0

0.5

0.5

2.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

1.0

6.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

2.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

7.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

4.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

1.0

(1.0)

6.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

5.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

9.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

4.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

5.5

6.0

2.5

4.5

9.5

4.5

12.0

10.0

6.5

2.0

4.0

4.0

6.5

72.0

6

6.5

4.5

9.5

4.5

12

10

6.5

2

4

4

8.5

72

121


Department for Building Construction and Design - HB 2 (Prof. Gerhard Steixner) Design studio 2012 Studio directed by: Dr. Häuplik-Meusburger Sandra & DI Lu San-Hwan External project evaluation: Dr. Marc M. Cohen Projects by: Abele Maximilian Urs, Miran Badzak, Benesch Ottokar, Czech Marcus, Demirtas Tarik, Galonja Daniel, Hengl Karl, Heshmatpour Christian, Khouni Amine, Klaus Julia, Kolaritsch Alexander, Krljes Dario, Küpeli Betül, Lang Elisabeth, Lazarova Yoana, Lukacs David, Milchram Thomas, Mörtl Christian, Mulic Aida, Nagy Petra Panna, Nanu Alexander, Pluch Kerstin, Rossetti Vittorio, Shi Yin, Siedler Daniela, Stefan Kristoffer, Steinschifter Mark Only 12 people have set foot on the Moon so far. Since December 1972 no one has been there at all... During the 2012 spring term 25 students in the Master of Architecture program realized their vision of a future research base on the Moon. Re-thinking design challenges through a change of perspective (i.e. extraterrestrial environment) has been a critical part of this design studio. This course has been accompanied by theme-specific lectures and workshops with space experts. ISBN 978-3-200-02861-6

Destination Moon - Future Living and Working Spaces  

Only 12 people have set foot on the Moon so far. Since December 1972 no one has been there at all... During the 2012 spring term 25 students...

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