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BEMBO. say that five times fast.


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n typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed with stylistic unity, each comprising a coordinated set of glyphs. A typeface usually comprises an alphabet of letters, numerals, and punctuation marks; it may also include ideograms and symbols, or consist entirely of them, for example, mathematical or map-making symbols. The term typeface is frequently conflated with font; the two terms had more clearly differentiated meanings before the advent of desktop publishing. The distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a “family� or related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Bembo may include roman, bold, and italic fonts.

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Francesco Griffo (1450–1518), also called Francesco da Bologna Francesco Griffo was a fifteenth-century Venetian punchcutter. He worked for Aldus Manutius, designing that printer’s more important typefaces, including the first italic type. His romans show a degree of abstraction from calligraphy not present in the work of the earlier master Nicolas Jenson, while his italic and Greek types are notably cursive. Just as Manutius had achieved a monopoly on italic printing and Greek publishing with the permission of the Venetian government, he had a falling out with Griffo. In 1516, after he returned to Bologna, Griffo was charged with the murder of his son-in-law, who had been beaten to death with an iron bar. This is his last appearance in the historical record.


O Typefaces based on Griffo’s work include Monotype Poliphilus roman, Bembo Book roman, and Bembo Titling, Morris Fuller Benton’s Cloister Old Style italic, Jack Yan’s JY Aetna roman, Bitstream Aldine 401 roman, and Franko Luin’s Griffo Classico roman and italic; more distant descendants include the romans of Claude Garamond, Giovanni Mardersteig’s Dante, and Robert Slimbach’s Minion.

In traditional typography, punchcutting is the craft of cutting letter punches in steel from which matrices were made in copper for type founding in the letterpress era. Cutting punches and casting type was the first step of traditional typesetting.The cutting of letter punches was a highly skilled craft requiring much patience and practice. Often the designer of the type would not be personally involved in the cutting.


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minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters minimal variation in thick and thin stroke weight small x-height ascender height exceeding cap height oblique stress short, bracketed serifs with cupped bases angled top serifs on lower case letters


understanding bembo Bembo is the name given to a 20th-century revival of an old style serif or humanist typeface cut by Francesco Griffo around 1495. Bembo is a classic typeface that displays the characteristics that identify Old Style, humanist designs. The typeface Bembo seen today is a revival designed under the direction of Stanley Morison for the Monotype Corporation in 1929. It is considered a good choice for expressing classic beauty or formal tradition in typographical design and is generally held to be a good book face.


this line of text.

bembo italic 100 pt

Italic Bold

bembo bold 100 pt

this line of text.


Italic type is a cursive typeface based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, such typefaces often slant slightly to the right. Different glyph shapes from roman type are also usually used—another influence from calligraphy. It is distinct therefore from oblique type, in which the font is merely distorted into a slanted orientation. However, uppercase letters are

often oblique type or swash capitals rather than true italics. This style is called “italic” for historic reasons. Calligraphic typefaces started to be designed in Italy, for chancery purposes. Ludovico Arrighi and Al-

dus Manutius (both between the 15th and 16th centuries) were the main type designers involved in this process at the time. Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius and the Aldine Press in 1501, in an edition of Virgil dedicated to Italy. Based on the Humanist cursive script first developed in the 1420s by Niccolò de’ Niccoli, it served as a condensed type for simple, compact volumes. The punches for these types were cut by Francesco da Bologna (whose surname was Griffo). In 1501 Aldus wrote to his friend Scipio: “We have printed, and are now publishing, the Satires of Juvenal and Persius in a very small format, so that they may more conveniently be held in the hand and learned by heart by everyone.” Unlike the italic type of today, the capital letters were upright roman capitals which were shorter than the ascending lower-case italic letters and used about 65 tied letters (ligatures) in the Aldine Dante and Virgil of 1501.This Aldine italic became the model for most italic types. It was very popular in its own day and was widely (and inaccurately) imitated. The Venetian Senate gave Aldus exclusive right to its use, a patent confirmed by three successive Popes, but it was widely counterfeited.The Italians called the character Aldino, while others called it Italic.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M NOPQRSTUVWXYZ

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M NOPQRSTUVWXYZ

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& The art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers, and often typographers. In digital typography, type designers are also known as font developers or font


regular italic semibold semibold italic bold bold italic extra bold extra bold italic

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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789 the type faces’ font size is default at 11 pt on page


The size of typefaces and

fonts is traditionally measured in points; point has been defined differently at different times, but now the most popular is the Desktop Publishing point of 1â „72 in (0.0139 in/0.35 mm). When specified in typographic sizes (points, kyus), the height of an em-square, an invisible box which is typically a bit larger than the distance from the tallest ascender to the lowest descender, is scaled to equal the specified size.


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ff W m q W a In typography, a counter or aperture is an area entirely or partially enclosed by a letter form or a symbol (the counter-space/ the hole of). Letters containing closed counters include A, B, D, O, P, Q, R, a, b, d, e, g, o, p, and q. Letters containing open counters include c, f, h, i, s.

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glyphs

bembo Alphabets

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Small Caps

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Numericals Fractions

Punctuations

Special Characters Symbols Math Symbols Currency Ligatures

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Pt sizes

48 pt

36 pt

This is text used to show

24 pt

how bembo looks as

18 pt

the point size changes. As

14 pt

you can see it affects the type face

12 pt

greatly. That’s why it’s important to see

8 pt

what happens when the point size changes. Don’t read this.


designed by hayley martell maryland institute college of art typography 1 fall â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;10 using Adobe InDesign, CS5.



Bembo Type Specimen