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MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

TTRANSPORTATION+DESTINATION RANSPORTATION+DESTINATION

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MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

TRANSPORTATION+DESTINATION

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MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

TRANSPORTATION+DESTINATION

Heath Lloyd Swindler - Prof. Bob Condia - ADS VIII

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Studio Condia: Fall 2011 - Spring 2012 Project Portfolio: Manhattan Regional Airport Kansas State University: Master of Architecture Heath Swindler, 4441 Wasserman Way, Salina KS, 67401 hlswindler@gmail.com


TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface

9

Project Argument/Reflection Essay

11

Inspiration

14

The Thesis

16

The Program

18

List of Spaces

21

Design

22

Conclusion

26

Visual Argument/Reflection

29

Site

33

Site Analysis

38

Master Plan

43

Massing

55

Plans

63

Structure

73

Articulation

81

Appendix

97

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http://krakowdirect.com/krakow_airport_transfers/


PREFACE This documentation reflects the work of Heath Swindler in the ADS VIII Design Thesis Studio. The project began in January 2012 and was the focus of design for the spring semester. The argument and reflection illustrated confirms many assumptions made about aviation design and represents a particular approach to architectural design. Directly following is the beginning of the project written argument and visual argument. Research and supporting documentation can be found in the appendices.

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PROJECT ARGUMENT/REFLECTION ESSAY

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Design Sketch


PROJECT ARGUMENT/REFLECTION ESSAY INTIMATE GROWTH MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT’S FUTURE MASTER PLAN AND TERMINAL BUILDING The Manhattan Regional Airport (MHK) 2030 is a place that emerges from the landscape. The folding green roof grows out of the earth and shelters space within. Driving along the highway one notices the emerging hill to the north is actually a work of architecture that acts as a gateway to the Flint Hills Region. Cars, buses, and planes seem to be swallowed up and released from the undulating earth. Upon entry, a place of activity opens to the viewer that allows interaction with the manmade and the natural simultaneously. MHK 2030 seeks to be a place of destination rather than a mere gateway. The modern airport focuses on being an efficient gateway and often forgets that people spend a lot of time there. MHK 2030’s goal is to provide amenities and an atmosphere of such high quality that local residents would even go there recreationally for dinner, shopping, or plane watching. At a more functional level, the terminal itself is already undersized. The expected growth the airport is projecting within the next twenty years cannot be supported by the current facilities. The airport also has the potential to be a much greater connector than it currently is. Another goal MHK 2030 seeks to achieve is to become more accessible to its local customer base. Most of the regional travelers don’t use MHK because of cost and lack of services. The new facilities will be able to support greater services which will start a wheel of increased amenities and decreasing cost. This writing reflects my design efforts in the ADS VIII Design Thesis Studio. The project began in January 2012 and was the focus of work for the spring semester.

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INSPIRATION The origin of the project is rooted in design work done in the fall semester. The studio went through a reverse design process studying arthropods. Starting with a bug, the class began breaking them down diagrammatically and translating the diagrams into sculptural art. My study began with the horseshoe crab and finished as a rhythmic structural geometry. With the product of the study present, it was then time to ask the sculpture what it wanted to be. In the words of Louis Kahn, “What do you want Brick? I like an Arch.� This sculpture became the inspiration for designing a transportation hub which ultimately became the Manhattan Regional Airport. Manhattan needed terminal improvements and it was a project accessible and to a scale that seemed appropriate for a single persons studio work. That assumption was later to be confirmed or refuted. The original idea was to establish a place of connection that could define a regions transportation systems; to create a hub that could trigger a paradigm shift away from personal cars to public transit. The expected growth of the Manhattan area is good reason to plant the beginning of a system that can grow with the population. Research proved this to be an

Crab

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/18202103

Sculpture Evolution


admirable, yet tall order for one persons studio project and seemed to be more planning than architecture. The Flint Hills region is growing and needs an airport that can connect it to a fast globalizing world. Air travel is becoming the primary mode of travel over large distances. Global air traffic is expected to double by the year 2030. MHK is currently a growing airport with over 44,000 enplanements in 2010 and a predicted 111,000 annually by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). The MHK 2030 terminal needs to be prepared to support this large growth in traffic and cope with further traffic increases in the years following. The new master plan will enable the airport to support more traffic and also better prepare the facilities for future growth.

Final Iteration

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THE THESIS Project research revealed a problem that needs to be avoided with MHK. Larger airports focus on function which result in uncomfortable and uninviting atmospheres for people. The growth of MHK needs to anticipate and combat this issue by creating inviting, intimate atmospheres. Also the terminal has to be a functional building that is flexible enough to deal with rapid changes of the airline industry. This proved to be one of the major challenges of the entire design and challenged the thesis the greatest. The thesis idea and project defining question then manifested out of this problem: HOW CAN AN ARCHITECTURAL CORRIDOR MANIFEST A DWELLING PLACE? The corridor being the idea of a gateway or a place of movement rather than being. A dwelling place is intimate space humans spend time rather than merely transition through. How do you make an airport a place of desirable dwelling rather than a hallway? The projects goal is to restore the human aspect of the airport experience rather than treating people as mere ticket holders. One of the primary obstacles to such an atmosphere became security. It is one of the most memorable parts of the terminal experience. How do

THE CORRIDOR

THE DWELLING PLACE

http://www.brightideasgloballaw.com/

http://ultimate-wallpaper.com/wallpaper/beach-hammock-1nd9uS/


you minimize this so that peoples experience is focused on the spectacle of flight and not waiting to be searched? TSA is currently experimenting with faster ways to get people through security and the project is making an assumption that in twenty years from now they will have made some progress. Also the architectural move is based on an idea that TSA is actively serving the passenger rather than the passenger serving TSA. MHK will not have one large security checkpoint, but a series of small ones directly outside each gate. This approach enables passengers to spend most of their time in the public realm of the terminal and simply go through security shortly before boarding the plane. This approach will require more of TSA, having to man multiple checkpoints but is a worthwhile sacrifice in creating a more desirable experience. The public airport area will then have a feeling of accessibility where visitors can access most of the building rather than being highly restricted to specific spaces.

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THE PROGRAM The definition of the program was one of the most difficult tasks of the semester. Once the idea was established, determining what the project needed to fulfill the thesis idea took further research and contemplation. MHK needed to introduce new components to serve its users in a public way that draws the locals and travelers to it. The two primary components of the new program are the gateway (airport) component and the dwelling (mixed-use) component. The mixeduse spaces are the new components intended to move this transportation hub towards a dwelling place (place of extended stay), rather than a mere transition point. After some design work it was obvious that a successful project will find a way to integrate these two programmatic ideas into one place; not thinking of these things as separate functions but parts of a single whole. Manhattan Regional Airport Terminal will need to more than double in size to accommodate future growth. The city of Manhattan is predicted to grow 40% in the next 20 years; partially due to its selection of the future site for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Bio and AgroDefense Facility – NBAF (MKS Futures). The terminal will not only need to accommodate more passengers, but for bigger and multiple planes. The current building cannot support more than one plane boarding at a time. It also makes economic sense for the airport to expand its services. For every job created at the airport, it creates a job within the local economy. Currently only 18% of people living around MHK use it rather than KCI. The airport needs more flight options to make it a more viable option for travelers. Making a sustainable building is also of high priority and a strategy to help business. If the terminal costs less to operate then it will be more affordable for airlines to do business in Manhattan and in turn bring lower ticket costs and more traffic.


The terminal is lacking in space for baggage claim, TSA security, public waiting, airline office, departure lounge, and circulation (HNTB M. Plan). All these expansions are needed now which means great improvement will be needed by 2030. Parking is also a considerable issue for future expansion. Today’s auto circulation is awkward requiring all short term passengers to pass in front of the terminal twice before leaving. The existing 367 parking stalls are often near full capacity and projected needs require 672 stalls by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). Considering the addition of the hotel and retail components, the overall goal is to provide over 1,000 spaces. MHK’s mixed-use component will bring a life to the airport that doesn’t currently exist. A hotel, retail, coffee, and restaurants will provide place for people to spend time, rest, and socialize. The designed environment needs to be very intimate, similar to the feeling of a home. A strong connection to the natural landscape and local art distributed around the building will help create a mood or atmosphere that is peaceful. The following is the final program that evolved throughout the project. The early iterations were based off the current HNTB Master Plan. After some development, an official city program projection was discovered for 2030 which helped finalize the program. The city projection didn’t differ much from what had already been established other than the mixed-use components.

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PROGRAM PROGRAM Entry Foyer Information Center Public Waiting/Meeting Space Public Business Lounge Baggage-Claim (500 linear feet) Inbound Baggage Oversized Bags/Circulation Outbound Baggage Baggage Screening Administration Offices TSA Security Office TSA Security Checkpoint Checkpoint Exit Lane Checkpoint Queuing Interrogation Room Car Rental Offices Car Rental Customer Queuing Car Rental Counter Space Airline Offices Ground Service Equip. Storage Ticket Counter (30ft counter per airline) Ticket Queuing Departure Lobby Arrivals Entry Jetways (2-3) Public Restrooms Janitors Closet/Storage Public Circulation Space ATM Space and Queuing Sterile Concessions/Vending Public Concessions/Vending Wheelchair Storage Local Law Enforcement Receiving Mechanical (plum.mech.elec.comm) Parking (1000+ stalls) Bus Stops Auto Drop-Off Total (Basic Terminal Needs) Gallery Space

1,000 300 10,000 100 4,100 2,200 215 3,300 1,600 2,500 350 2,100 300 1,100 100 500 300 230 2,000 2,000 900 2,400 4,500 300 1,800 1,000 12,000 100 800 1,150 65 80 330 3,600

63,420 1,000

Public Business Lounge Baggage-Claim (500 linear feet) Inbound Baggage Oversized Bags/Circulation Outbound Baggage Baggage Screening Administration Offices TSA Security Office TSA Security Checkpoint Checkpoint Exit Lane Checkpoint Queuing Interrogation Room Car Rental Offices Car Rental Customer Queuing Car Rental Counter Space Airline Offices Ground Service Equip. Storage Ticket Counter (30ft counter per airline) Ticket Queuing Departure Lobby Arrivals Entry Jetways (2-3) Public Restrooms Janitors Closet/Storage Public Circulation Space ATM Space and Queuing Sterile Concessions/Vending Public Concessions/Vending Wheelchair Storage Local Law Enforcement Receiving Mechanical (plum.mech.elec.comm) Parking (1000+ stalls) Bus Stops Auto Drop-Off

100 4,100 2,200 215 3,300 1,600 2,500 350 2,100 300 1,100 100 500 300 230 2,000 2,000 900 2,400 4,500 300 1,800 1,000 12,000 100 800 1,150 65 80 330 3,600

Total (Basic Terminal Needs)

63,420

Gallery Space Food and Beverage Interior Garden Lounge/Relaxation Space Coffee Shop Retail Store (electronics) Hotel (80 rooms) Electric Vehicle Charging Station FBO Building

1,000 2,500 2,500 1,000 500 1,500 (40,000)

Total Interior SF:

71,420 MHK TRANSPORTATION MODES

(8,000) 21


DESIGN I began the design process with an effort to understand the site. The area is non urban, lacking adjacent development, and very open. Getting people here became an early apparent challenge. Views of the Flint Hills also became a strong design driver and an essential part of the experience. The entry point into design was a Parti Master Plan. The airÂŹport is small, but at this stage was beginning to feel like a large single person project. Master Planning was essential and a large portion of the beginning stages of design. The first major move was to determine how the circulation works. Taking a somewhat conservative approach, the final proposal reuses portions of the existing highway structure. The new highway construction on Fort Riley Blvd will leave old infrastructure that can be better used in the new airport circulation loop. This loop proved to be effective and good use of infrastructure. It makes the auto circulation much less awkward and more usable. The master plan positions the terminal further south than the existing building to deepen the apron for larger plane circulation on the airside. It also allows a lot of space for southwest linear expansion if the airport continues to grow. In preparation for the next generation of automobiles,

Parti Iterations


there is a new electric car charging station just off the hotel and parking. The positioning of structures in the master plan overall allows for a great deal of expansion without major changes to the circulation infrastructure. All the added mixed-use components are incorporated into the terminal building except the hotel. This enables it to function separately while still having interior access to the terminal via the skywalk. This also creates a public and accessible atmosphere in the terminal with a variety of things to do under one roof. The building design needs a strong relationship to the place. This gateway will be the first and last experience many people have of the Flint Hills area. Considering the context, the primary formal intent is to have the building reflect this idea of rolling hills. The lifting, folding and forming of the landscape to create the building will provide strong visual connections between the architecture and the landscape. The design starts at the highway and slowly lifts the earth towards the terminal. The rising plane provides shelter for the parking and helps maintain a view from the highway of a rolling landscape rather than a sea of cars. That plane then continues over the architecture itself and forms the terminal within it. A green roof system is used to achieve this affect, but doesn’t work everywhere. The vertical surface at the façade of the terminal uses a special green wall system developed by GSky which can be used on the exterior or interior. The layout of spaces within this landscape are strategically arranged so that the massing allowed maximum visual connection to the airside of the airport. The space behind security is contained to a small bar in the rear and the rest of the terminal is open and highly accessible to travelers. This organization proved to be a challenge for someone new to airport design, but resulted in a successful plan. The restaurant, retail, coffee, lounge, baggage claim, departure lobby, and security checkpoints all have complete visual access to the airfield which enable that connection to the activity of the place in which the project is striving for. The primary public place that acts as a destination for travelers as well as a local draw is the 23


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restaurant. It has excellent views of the airfield and is easily accessible from all points of the master plan. The terminal structure demands a modular system. This allows it to be replicated and added on to when expansion projects are needed. It also plans for the interaction of the building with the aircrafts. The most common commercial plane expected in 2030 is the EMB-145 which seats 50 and has a wingspan of 65 feet. The column grid is spaced on a 40 foot module allowing 80 foot bays for planes and circulation space around them. The design goal is to create an honest and sculptural system that mimics the original sculpture that inspired the project. All steel connections and members are left exposed and well detailed. The primary beams supporting the green roof define the bays from the inside out. Reveals allow light to penetrate the roof membrane with slits above the beams. The loads are carried into the ground by spread columns which come down to a single point, taking up less floor space than a traditional frame. The system also allows for a free facade. The exterior membrane is merely a weather barrier and does not need to be structural. This means there is maximum opportunity for glazing on the outer edges. The idea behind an exposed frame is a sense of comfort. When occupants can see and understand how a building is held up, it gives a sense of comfort and understanding within the space.

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CONCLUSION How can an architectural corridor manifest a dwelling place? As the primary question, the search for an answer resulted in a highly defined problem. My understanding of the question has grown and developed greatly. As architecture, there are many successful aspects to the new MHK. It has a new and highly affective master plan. The circulation works well and is more legible than the current arrangement. There is a literal dwelling place, the hotel, now that enables a comfortable extended stay. It is also a forward thinking place with the addition of the electric car charging station. The parking structure is accessible to walk through and roam around on as the green roof is open to the public. The terminal has a highly expressive structure with a high level of visual connection to the site. As an airport and an affective transportation link to the rest of the country, it is a successful project. Back to the main question, did MHK 2030 achieve the thesis goal? Thinking back to the conceptual ideas, it has established a site connection, it has manifested a place of efficient movement, it has maintained a connection to the landscape, and it has provided place for the viewing and appreciation of flight. However, the main and most underdeveloped idea is related to intimate space. The project as a whole has established an effective airport with a lot of flexible space. If one was to ask, where is the intimate space? It would be hard to find from the current available visuals. Intimate space is very important to creating a place that people enjoy spending extended periods of time. When I compare this idea to other genres of buildings it only seems to confirm the notion. Shopping malls are very uncomfortable if you’re not shopping and stadiums are not cozy if you’re not watching a game. When traveling through airports, waiting is part of the game and needs to be planned for in a human way. One of the primary obstacles to achieving that level of detail was the scope and scale of the project. A small airport turned out to have many


unexpected complications that needed to be solved. When the focus becomes the pragmatic issues then the original idea can be left behind or ignored. The restaurant serves as a destinational function, but it was never articulated and detailed in a way that makes it an atmosphere different from the rest of the building. How do you do a building that fosters movement and dwelling at the same time? Upon reflection, the discovered appropriate approach is to design a building that can grow and grow based on a model that keeps an intimate feeling no matter how large it gets. In the case of this project, the question has been answered with program rather than design. The addition of functions that will attract people was the primary strategy implemented well. The idea of intimate space never manifested itself among the large motion filled volumes. The overall design was an iteration short of reaching its main goal. The Flint Hills Region would highly benefit from the addition of this new facility. This new gateway lays down the bones needed to grow provided services at MHK and handle future growth. The final program brings a more complex and comprehensive master plan. MHK 2030 is a gift to the area, making the region more accessible, connected, and inviting to travelers and local residents. The primary shortcoming is the development and articulation of the dwelling space, the slow space in a fast environment. Overall, the place will be a new front door to the region which reflects the vibrant economic growth of the area and provides destination for locals to meet and linger.

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VISUAL ARGUMENT/REFLECTION

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VISUAL ARGUMENT/REFLECTION The following body of work is a visual illustration explaining why MHK needs a new and improved airport master plan and terminal. The resulting design creates place that travelers and the local public see as a destination.

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SITE

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Manhattan Regional Airport Riley County Space: 1,045,440 SF Zoning: AO - Airport Overlay F.A.R: NA Setbacks: NA Located 3.5 miles southwest of Manhattan, the Manhattan Regional Airport offers general aviation and commercial services for the Flint Hills region. It also helps meet the needs of Ft. Riley and serves as a gateway to the area. The site is removed from the city without a surplus of development around it. A large amount of the surrounding land is zoned for agriculture. The placement of the site has the potential to be a connector for the region and help to unify surrounding communities. Ogden, Junction City, Manhattan, and Ft. Riley are within a bus routes distance of each other and the airport will reach all of them to promote the Flint Hills population to fly MHK.

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Current Site

arcgis.com


The existing airport master plan was deemed unsatisfactory and everything between the new highway and the runway of MHK 2030 is being updated and improved.

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SITE ANALYSIS Diagrammatic study of site forces.

Site Boundaries


Views of the site from the highway look slightly down towards the terminal. Views from the site are vast in every direction. The primary visual axis is on the north south line. This is where visitors have the best visuals of the Flint Hills.

Viewing 39


BASE MAP

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MASTER PLAN

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After developing an understanding of the site, it was apparent where the components of the master plan should be placed. Each element needed to be shifted away from its current location to better prepare the place for a larger operation. Circulation, parking, the terminal, and support buildings have all been arranged to maximize flexibility for future growth.


Site Plan

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CIRCULATION The existing site circulation is awkward for visitors and is difficult to merge into highway traffic. All short term visitors must pass in front of the terminal twice before exiting. The new circulation loop resolves both of these issues with an exit ramp off the new highway and a more flexible movement. The next few images illustrate the development of the master plan’s circulation pattern.

Current Conditions

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The yellow path is the old highway that is being diverted. The new circulation loop will use part of the old highway infrastructure.


Circulation Path

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DROP OFF


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PARKING LAYOUT 1,300 Spaces for the hotel, short term, long term, employee, and auto rental parking are hidden beneath the rising green roof.

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MASSING

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The terminal massing is arranged programmatically into three bars. The north bar services the air side, the center bar services the terminal, and the southernmost bar is for the public. Each is arranged to maximize the visual connection of the terminal to the airfield.

PUBLIC SECURE

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PUBLIC SERVICE SECURE


Viewing

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MASSING MODEL After the programmatic massing was established, the next step was to model it. Using the model as a design tool, the architecture began to take shape by physically playing with how the folding earth would shelter the building.

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PLANS

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This is where the programmatic massing idea begins to manifest. The bars of program read in plan and give a sense of scale to how much of the building is public vs. private and secure. The layout of the plan reinforces the idea of connection to the site. The primary inhabited spaces all have a high degree of visual connection to the site.

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STRUCTURE

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Design Sketch


The terminal structure demands a modular system. This allows it to be replicated and added on to when expansion projects are needed. The design goal is to create an honest and sculptural system that mimics the original sculpture that inspired the project. All steel connections and members are left exposed and well detailed. The primary beams supporting the green roof define the bays from the inside out. Reveals allow light to penetrate the roof membrane with slits above the beams. The effort to expose structure creates a high degree of understanding within the space and in turn human comfort.

Design Sketch 75


Section Perspective


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ARTICULATION

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The wall section is cut through the south facade. Details show the glazing system, green roof, green wall, roof structure, and foundation system. The primary goal for this detail was to understand how the vertical green wall can be assembled.

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ENTRY SPACE 1

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MHK 2030 TICKETING


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Final Iteration Model


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VISUAL ARGUMENT/REFLECTION Did MHK 2030 achieve the thesis goal? Thinking back to the conceptual ideas, it has established a site connection, it has manifested a place of efficient movement, it has maintained a connection to the landscape, and it has provided place for the viewing and appreciation of flight. However, the main and most underdeveloped idea is related to intimate space. The project as a whole has established an effective airport with a lot of flexible


space. If one was to ask, where is the intimate space? It would be hard to find from the current available visuals. Intimate space is very important to creating a place that people enjoy spending extended periods of time. The development of the thesis didn’t fully manifest itself due to the many complexities of a large project.

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APPENDIX

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http://vimeo.com/aaronkoblin/videos/sort:alphabetic


APPENDIX Previous Iterations

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Review Handouts

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Precedents

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Climate Analysis

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Consultants

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Cost Estimate

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Bibliography

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PREVIOUS ITERATIONS

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ITERATION 1 This scheme was focused on the transportation aspect of the project. It didn’t win out because there was nothing intimate about its conception, rather it was all about movement which would have been opposite the thesis idea.

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CONCEPT/PARTI ITERATIONS 2


Linear Motion

Parallel City

Transport Circuit 105


ITERATION 3 The main issue with this design as is, was the overly segregated plan. The building was split into cells based on the program and wasn’t integrating functions together to create an intimate architecture.


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REVIEW HANDOUTS

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02/18/2012 REVIEW HANDOUT

MHK

2030

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY How can an architectural corridor manifest a dwelling place? The corridor being the idea of a gateway or a place of movement rather than being. A dwelling place is space humans spend time rather than transition to somewhere else. How do you make an airport a place of desirable dwelling rather than a hallway? The projects goal is to restore the human aspect of airport terminals rather than treating people as numbers. Air travel is becoming the primary mode of travel over large distances. Global air traffic is expected to double by the year 2030. MHK is currently a growing airport terminal with over 44,000 enplanements in 2010 and a predicted 111,000 annually by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). The MHK 2030 terminal needs to be prepared to support this large growth in traffic and cope with further traffic increases in the years following. The two primary components of the program are the gateway (airport) component and the dwelling (mixed use) component. The airport will be designed to meet the future needs of the terminals predicted growth. The mixed use space will be the new component intended to move this transportation hub towards a dwelling place or a place of extended stay rather than a pass through point. Manhattan Regional Airport Terminal will need to more than double in size to accommodate for future growth. The city of Manhattan is predicted to grow 40% in the next 20 years partially due to its selection for the future site of the Department of Homeland Security’s National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility – NBAF (MKS Futures). The terminal will also not only need to accommodate for more passengers, but for bigger and multiple planes. The current building cannot support more than one plane boarding at a time.

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

HEATH SWINDLER FEBRUARY 2012

The terminal is lacking in space for baggage claim, TSA security, public waiting, airline office space, the departure lounge, and circulation (HNTB M. Plan). All these expansions are needed now which means great improvement will be needed by 2030. Parking is also a considerable issue for future expansion. Today’s layout is somewhat awkward requiring all short term passengers to pass in front of the terminal twice. The existing 367 parking stalls are often near full capacity and projected needs require 672 stalls; not considering the addition of the mixed use component (Plan. Advis. Committee). MHK’s mixed use component, the dwelling place, will bring a life to the airport that doesn’t currently exist. A hotel, retail, coffee, and restaurants will provide place for people to spend time, rest, and socialize. The resulting program will bring a more complex and comprehensive area. MHK 2030 will be a gift to the area, making the region more accessible, connected, and inviting to travelers and local residents. A place that was once thought of as a passageway will be a new front door to the region which reflects the vibrant economic growth of the area and provides destination for locals to meet and linger. The human experience will be one of pleasure rather than anxiety.


MHK

PROGRAM

2030

MHK SITE

2030

AIRPORT TERMINAL COMPONENT Information Center Public Waiting Space Gallery Space Food and Beverage (secondary) Baggage-Claim Administration TSA Security Car Rental Airline Offices Ticketing (30ft counter per airline) Ticket Queuing Departure Lobby Employee Break Room Jet ways Restrooms Janitors Closet Circulation ATM/Vending Parking (1000 stalls)

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT Site: 1,045,440 SF Zoning: Airport/Commercial F.A.R: NA Setbacks: NA

Total Interior SF: 40,000

Located 3.5 miles southwest of Manhattan, the Manhattan Regional Airport provides commercial and general aviation services for the Flint Hills region. It also helps to meet the needs of Ft. Riley for troop transportation. The site is removed from the city without a surplus of development around it. A large amount of the surrounding land is zoned for agriculture.

MIXED-USE COMPONENT Hotel Retail (Electronics) Food and Beverage (primary) Coffee/Internet Bar

The placement of the site has the potential to be a connector for the region and help to unify surrounding communities. Ogden, Junction City, Manhattan, and Ft. Riley are within a bus routes distance of each other and the airport will reach all of them to promote the Flint Hills population to fly MHK.

Total Interior SF: 30,000 COMMON Bus Stops Electric Vehicle Charging Station Auto Drop-off Parking

“ARCHITECTURE IS A SOCIAL ACT AND THE MATERIAL THEATER OF HUMAN ACTIVITY. “ SPIRO KOSTOF

111


03/16/2012 REVIEW HANDOUT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY vHow can an architectural corridor manifest a dwelling place? The corridor being the idea of a gateway or a place of movement rather than being. A dwelling place is space humans spend time rather than merely transition to somewhere else. How do you make an airport a place of desirable dwelling rather than a hallway? The projects goal is to restore the human aspect of airport terminals rather than treating people as mere ticket holders. Air travel is becoming the primary mode of travel over large distances. Global air traffic is expected to double by the year 2030. MHK is currently a growing airport terminal with over 44,000 enplanements in 2010 and a predicted 111,000 annually by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). The MHK 2030 terminal needs to be prepared to support this large growth in traffic and cope with further traffic increases in the years following. The two primary components of the program are the gateway (airport) component and the dwelling (mixed-use) component. The airport will be designed to meet the future needs of the terminals predicted growth. The mixed-use space will be the new component intended to move this transportation hub towards a dwelling place (place of extended stay) rather than a mere transition point. Manhattan Regional Airport Terminal will need to more than double in size to accommodate for future growth. The city of Manhattan is predicted to grow 40% in the next 20 years; partially due to its selection of the future site for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility – NBAF (MKS Futures). The terminal will also not only need to accommodate for more passengers, but for bigger and multiple planes. The current building cannot support more than one plane boarding at a time. It also makes economic sense for the airport to expand its services. For every job created at an airport it also creates a job within the local economy. Currently only 18% of people living around MHK use it rather than KCI. The airport needs more flight options to make it a more viable option for travelers.

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

HEATH SWINDLER SPRING 2012

The terminal is lacking in space for baggage claim, TSA security, public waiting, airline office space, departure lounge, and circulation (HNTB M. Plan). All these expansions are needed now which means great improvement will be needed by 2030. Parking is also a considerable issue for future expansion. Today’s layout is somewhat awkward requiring all short term passengers to pass in front of the terminal twice. The existing 367 parking stalls are often near full capacity and projected needs require 672 stalls by 2030; not considering the addition of the mixed-use component (Plan. Advis. Committee).

“ARCHITECTURE IS A SOCIAL ACT AND THE MATERIAL THEATER OF HUMAN ACTIVITY. “ SPIRO KOSTOF

MHK’s mixed-use component, the dwelling place, will bring a life to the airport that doesn’t currently exist. A hotel, retail, coffee, and restaurants will provide place for people to spend time, rest, and socialize. The design of the building needs to have a strong relationship to the place. This will be the first and last experience many people have of the area. Considering the context of the flint hills, my primary formal intent is to have the building reflect this idea of the rolling hills. The lifting, folding and forming of the landscape to form the building will provide strong visual connections between the architecture and the landscape.

MHK


SITE

PROGRAM Entry Foyer Information Center Public Waiting/Meeting Space Public Business Lounge Baggage-Claim (500 linear feet) Inbound Baggage Oversized Bags/Circulation Outbound Baggage Baggage Screening Administration Offices TSA Security Office TSA Security Checkpoint Checkpoint Exit Lane Checkpoint Queuing Interrogation Room Car Rental Offices Car Rental Customer Queuing Car Rental Counter Space Airline Offices Ground Service Equip. Storage Ticket Counter (30ft counter per airline) Ticket Queuing Departure Lobby Employee Break Room Arrivals Entry Jetways (2-3) Public Restrooms Janitors Closet/Storage Public Circulation Space ATM Space and Queuing Sterile Concessions/Vending Public Concessions/Vending Wheelchair Storage Local Law Enforcement Receiving Mechanical (plum.mech.elec.comm) Parking (1000+ stalls) Bus Stops Auto Drop-Off

1,000 300 10,000 100 4,100 2,200 215 3,300 1,600 2,500 350 2,100 300 1,100 100 500 300 230 2,000 2,000 900 2,400 4,500 100 300

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT Site: 1,045,440 SF Zoning: AO - Airport Overlay F.A.R: NA Setbacks: NA Located 3.5 miles southwest of Manhattan, the Manhattan Regional Airport offers general aviation and commercial services for the Flint Hills region. It also helps meet the needs of Ft. Riley and serves as a gateway to the area. The site is removed from the city without a surplus of development around it. A large amount of the surrounding land is zoned for agriculture.

1,800 1,000 12,000 100 800 1,150 65 80 330 3,600

Total (Basic Terminal Needs)

63,420

Gallery Space Food and Beverage Interior Garden Lounge/Relaxation Space Play Space Coffee Shop Retail Store (electronics) Hotel (80 rooms) Electric Vehicle Charging Station

1,000 2,500 2,500 1,000 1,000 500 1,500 (40,000)

Total Interior SF:

72,420

The placement of the site has the potential to be a connector for the region and help to unify surrounding communities. Ogden, Junction City, Manhattan, and Ft. Riley are within a bus routes distance of each other and the airport will reach all of them to promote the Flint Hills population to fly MHK.

MHK TRANSPORTATION MODES

MHK

MHK

113


04/30/2012 REVIEW HANDOUT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY How can an architectural corridor manifest a dwelling place? The corridor being the idea of a gateway or a place of movement rather than being. A dwelling place is space humans spend time rather than merely transition through. How do you make an airport a place of desirable dwelling rather than a hallway? The projects goal is to restore the human aspect of the airport experience rather than treating people as mere ticket holders. Air travel is becoming the primary mode of travel over large distances. Global air traffic is expected to double by the year 2030. MHK is currently a growing airport with over 44,000 enplanements in 2010 and a predicted 111,000 annually by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). The MHK 2030 terminal needs to be prepared to support this large growth in traffic and cope with further traffic increases in the years following. The new master plan will enable the airport to support more traffic and also better prepare the facilities for future growth. The two primary components of the program are the gateway (airport) component and the dwelling (mixed-use) component. The mixed-use space will be the new component intended to move this transportation hub towards a dwelling place (place of extended stay) rather than a mere transition point. A successful project will find a way to integrate these two ideas into one place; not thinking of these things as separate functions but parts of a single whole. Manhattan Regional Airport Terminal will need to more than double in size to accommodate future growth. The city of Manhattan is predicted to grow 40% in the next 20 years; partially due to its selection of the future site for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility – NBAF (MKS Futures). The terminal will not only need to accommodate for more passengers, but for bigger and multiple planes. The current building cannot support more than one plane boarding at a time. It also makes economic sense for the airport to expand its services. For every job created at the airport, it creates a job within the local economy. Currently only 18% of people living around MHK use it rather than KCI. The airport needs more flight options to make it a more viable option for travelers.

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT MHK

2030

HEATH SWINDLER SPRING 2012

“ARCHITECTURE IS A SOCIAL ACT AND THE MATERIAL THEATER OF HUMAN ACTIVITY. “

Making a sustainable building is also of high priority and a strategy to help business. If the terminal costs less to operate then it will be more affordable for SPIRO KOSTOF airlines to do business in Manhattan and in turn bring lower ticket costs and more traffic. The terminal is lacking in space for baggage claim, TSA security, public waiting, airline office, departure lounge, and circulation (HNTB M. Plan). All these expansions are needed now which means great improvement will be needed by 2030. Parking is also a considerable issue for future expansion. Today’s auto circulation is awkward requiring all short term passengers to pass in front of the terminal twice before leaving. The existing 367 parking stalls are often near full capacity and projected needs require 672 stalls by 2030 (Plan. Advis. Committee). Considering the addition of the hotel and retail components, my goal is to provide over 1,000 spaces. MHK’s mixed-use component will bring a life to the airport that doesn’t currently exist. A hotel, retail, coffee, and restaurants will provide place for people to spend time, rest, and socialize. The environment will be very human with a strong connection to the natural landscape and local art distributed around the building.

MHK


SITE

PROGRAM Entry Foyer Information Center Public Waiting/Meeting Space Public Business Lounge Baggage-Claim (500 linear feet) Inbound Baggage Oversized Bags/Circulation Outbound Baggage Baggage Screening Administration Offices TSA Security Office TSA Security Checkpoint Checkpoint Exit Lane Checkpoint Queuing Interrogation Room Car Rental Offices Car Rental Customer Queuing Car Rental Counter Space Airline Offices Ground Service Equip. Storage Ticket Counter (30ft counter per airline) Ticket Queuing Departure Lobby Arrivals Entry Jetways (2-3) Public Restrooms Janitors Closet/Storage Public Circulation Space ATM Space and Queuing Sterile Concessions/Vending Public Concessions/Vending Wheelchair Storage Local Law Enforcement Receiving Mechanical (plum.mech.elec.comm) Parking (1000+ stalls) Bus Stops Auto Drop-Off

1,000 300 10,000 100 4,100 2,200 215 3,300 1,600 2,500 350 2,100 300 1,100 100 500 300 230 2,000 2,000 900 2,400 4,500 300

MANHATTAN REGIONAL AIRPORT Site: 1,045,440 SF Zoning: AO - Airport Overlay F.A.R: NA Setbacks: NA Located 3.5 miles southwest of Manhattan, the Manhattan Regional Airport offers general aviation and commercial services for the Flint Hills region. It also helps meet the needs of Ft. Riley and serves as a gateway to the area. The site is removed from the city without a surplus of development around it. A large amount of the surrounding land is zoned for agriculture.

1,800 1,000 12,000 100 800 1,150 65 80 330 3,600

Total (Basic Terminal Needs)

63,420

Gallery Space Food and Beverage Interior Garden Lounge/Relaxation Space Coffee Shop Retail Store (electronics) Hotel (80 rooms) Electric Vehicle Charging Station FBO Building

1,000 2,500 2,500 1,000 500 1,500 (40,000)

Total Interior SF:

71,420

The placement of the site has the potential to be a connector for the region and help to unify surrounding communities. Ogden, Junction City, Manhattan, and Ft. Riley are within a bus routes distance of each other and the airport will reach all of them to promote the Flint Hills population to fly MHK.

MHK TRANSPORTATION MODES

(8,000)

MHK

MHK

115


PRECEDENTS

117


Fairbanks International Airport Fairbanks, Alaska Bettisworth North Architects Phone: (907) 474-2500 Fax: (907) 474-2513

http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/transportation/10_Fairbanks_International_Airport/default.asp

Bangkok International Airport Bangkok, Thailand Murphy/Jahn Architects Tel - 02 132 1888 Fax - 02 132 1889

http://www.bangkokairportonline.com/ 119


Beijing International Airport Beijing, China Foster+Partners Phone: 010-64541100

http://en.bcia.com.cn/

Dane County Regional Airport Madison, WI Architectural Alliance Phone: 608-246-3380 Fax: 608-246-3385

http://www.msnairport.com/ 121


Changi Airport Singapore Changi Airport Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LP Tel: (65) 6595 6868

http://www.changiairport.com/ 123


CLIMATE ANALYSIS

125


AUTODESK VASARI ARCHITECTURE CLIMATE ANALYSIS Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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*30-year life and 6.1% discount rate for costs

Renewable Energy Potential Roof Mounted PV System (Low efficiency): 47,843 kWh / yr Roof Mounted PV System (Medium efficiency): 95,686 kWh / yr Roof Mounted PV System (High efficiency): 143,529 kWh / yr Single 15' Wind Turbine Potential: 2,335 kWh / yr *PV efficiencies are assumed to be 5%, 10% and 15% for low, medium and high efficiency systems

Project12 Project1 Analysis (1)

Annual Carbon Emissions

Analyzed at 12/6/2011 9:34:17 PM Version 2012.2.21.3448(DOE-2.2-44e4)

Mass

Annual Energy Use/Cost Building Performance Factors Location: Weather Station: Outdoor Temperature: Floor Area: Exterior Wall Area: Average Lighting Power: People: Exterior Window Ratio: Electrical Cost: Fuel Cost:

Manhattan Regional Airport (MHK), 5500 Fort Riley Blvd, Manhattan, KS 665029784, USA 29700 Max: 99°F/Min: -10°F 25,376 sf 13,200 sf 1.01 W / ft² 107 people 0.40 $0.07 / kWh $0.96 / Therm

Energy Use Intensity Electricity EUI: Fuel EUI: Total EUI:

16 kWh / sf / yr 31 kBtu / sf / yr 87 kBtu / sf / yr

Energy Use: Fuel

Life Cycle Energy Use/Cost Life Cycle Electricity Use: Life Cycle Fuel Use: Life Cycle Energy Cost:

12,541,593 kWh 234,217 Therms $524,058

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011


Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Monthly Electricity Consumption Monthly Cooling Load

Monthly Peak Demand

Monthly Fuel Consumption

Annual Wind Rose (Speed Distribution)

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

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Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Monthly Wind Roses

Annual Wind Rose (Frequency Distribution)

Monthly Design Data

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011


Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Revit Conceptual Energy Single Analysis Result

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Humidity

Annual Temperature Bins

Š C opyright 2011 Autodesk, Inc. Allrights reserved. Portions of this softw are are copyrighted by Jam es J. H irsch & Associates, the Regents of the U niversity of C alifornia, and others.

Diurnal Weather Averages

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

file:///C:/Users/swindler/AppData/Roaming/Autodesk/Revit/Autodesk%20Project%20Vas... 12/6/2011

129


CONSULTANTS

131


Bruce McMillan Bruce McMillan Architects Kansas State University Assistant Professor 114D SEATON COURT Manhattan, KS 66506-2912 USA brucem@ksu.edu

Robert W. Stokes Kansas State University Civil Engineering Director Professor 2123 FIEDLER HALL Manhattan, KS 66506-2905 USA drbobb@ksu.edu

Karen Hibbard Convention & Visitors Bureau Manhattan, KS karen@manhattan.org Anne Smith ATA BUS Director Manhattan, KS asmith@rileycountyks.gov Pat Pesci Kansas State University Director, HotelRest Mgmt Prog 148B JUSTIN HALL Manhattan, KS 66506-1404 USA patpesci@ksu.edu Jason Brody Kansas State University Landscape Arch/Reg & Comm Plan Assistant Professor 217 SEATON HALL Manhattan, KS 66506-2909 USA jbrody@ksu.edu 133


COST ESTIMATE

135


COST PER SQUARE FOOT TERMINAL 112,600 SF 1 SF = $268.46 TOTAL COST: $30,228,596 HOTEL 45,000 SF 1 SF = $281.90 TOTAL COST: $13,249,300 BUILDING VOLUME TERMINAL 1,115,620 CF HOTEL 234,595 CF

137


BIBLIOGRAPHY

139


Wells, A. T. (2004). Airport Planning & Management-Fifth Edition. New York, NY. United States: McGraw-Hill Companies Blow, C. J. (1996). Airport Terminals. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford Press. Foster, N. Abel, C. (2010). Beijing International Airport. London, England: Prestel and Verlag. Foster+Partners. Munich. Berlin. London. New York Dovey, K. (2010). Becoming Places : Urbanism/Architecture/Identity/Power. London, England. New York, NY: Routledge. Pallasmaa, J. (2005). The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture for the Senses. West Susex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The Atrium. Southern Gate. Chichester. Dane County Regional Airport, Madison, Wisconsin http://www.msnairport.com/guide/tour.aspx ArchGIS Online http://www.arcgis.com/home/ Spivak, J. (2011/10/07). Top 10 Metro Areas for Economic Growth Since the Recession. Urban Land Magazine. http://urbanland.uli.org/Articles/2011/ October/SpivakTopTenGrowth Google Maps http://maps.google.com/ Shuster, C. N. (2003) The American Horseshoe Crab. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. City of Manhattan. Manhattan, KS: Official Website. Airport analysis data. http://www.ci.manhattan.ks.us/ Merriam Webster Dictionary. Online resource. http://www.merriam-webster.com/


Holl, S. Pallasmaa, J. Perez-Gomez, A. (2006). Questions of PerceptionPhenomenology of Architecture. San Francisco, CA: William Stout Publishers. Belanger, B. Brody, J. (2009). MKS Futures. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University. College of Architecture Planning and Design. Waier, P. R. (2010). Building Construction Cost Data (Means Building Construction Cost Data). Christopher Babbitt (Contributor), Ted Baker (Contributor), Barbara Balboni (Contributor), Robert A. Bastoni (Contributor). Koblin, A. (2010). Transportation Patterns. Video Illustrations. http://vimeo. com/aaronkoblin/videos/sort:alphabetic Autodesk. Project Vasari. Climate Analysis Software Royal, W. (2009). Bettisworth North Channels Alaska’s Frontier Spirit With An Elegantly Rustic Terminal Building. Fairbanks, Alaska: Architectural Record. http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/ transportation/10_Fairbanks_International_Airport/default.asp Bangkok International Airport. Official Website. Bangkok, Thailand. http:// www.bangkokairportonline.com/ Beijing International Airport. Official Website. Beijing, China. http://en.bcia.com.cn/ Dane County Regional Airport. Official Website. Madison, WI. Phone: 608246-3380. http://www.msnairport.com/contact/contact.aspx Changji Airport. Official Website. Singapore. http://www.changiairport.com/

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MHK 2030 Reflection Portfolio  

Written and Visual reflection of my final school studio project.

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