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Unit leaders Unit Preparation Term Overview Literacy/Drama Topic/Science Maths Technology Drama Maori (kapa haka) ICT(Word – publishing) PE Graduation

Planner Junior Jane (Reading/Writing) Zeddrick/Junior Continue (Hinemoa to down load Mimio resources) Lisa Jane Hinemoa Junior (Visual language/presenting) Zeddrick – swimming/soft ball Lisa/Junior

Overview Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4

Week 5 Week 6

Week 7 Week 8

Intermediate events


Stand tall interview 10 – 12.30

Gloss H, up-date RA, CM, report IKAN – Tue STAR – Thurs (Hall - Hinemoa) asTTle Reading – Mon (room) asTTle Maths – Wed (room) asTTle Writing – Mon (room)

Southern Zone touch Tues Mangere College testing – Wed Lisa for Samoa – Wed Tagz Out - Thurs Stand Tall graduation – Fri Intermediate – Art Exhibition – Fri assembly Activity week Mon - Thur Halogen trip - Tues Graduation - Thurs

School closes 20th December at 1pm Stand tall – Mentors Graduation week 6  Zumba Activity week – Week 7  Mufti days FUNDRAISER  Hangi Graduation – Week 8  Engraving  House Trophy

Week 9

School wide events

Whanau leaders with Jenna Cowley Target discussion First Aid - Sat

Report due

Target discussion

Topic TECHNOLOGY UNIT PLANNER Unit Title: KIWI CULTURAL WEARABLE ART Duration: 8 weeks DESCRIPTION OF CONTEXT The intermediate school is using kiwi materials to create cultural costume e.g. Cook Islands dance ura skirt, Maori piupiu skirts etc KEY FOCUS ON TRANSFORMATION OF:  Information  Energy √ Materials

Year Group: 7 & 8

LEARNING LINKS KEY COMPETENCIES Thinking Students will critically analyse visual and written information about selected items of clothing and art work, with particular reference to the cultural signifiers they embody

CLASS/TEAM DESCRIPTION/Students’ Past Experiences The majority of the students are of Pasifika or Maori background. The use of recyclable materials is an ever day life resources. The unit will give the students understanding of how to recycle materials, sustain resources and to utilise resources in their community. The student ability includes level 1 – 4 in technology and reading levels ranging from 7.0 to 15+.

VALUES Diversity – student are encouraged to value diversity through the use of costume and wearable art exemplars showing a range of cultural identities CROSS CURRICULUM LINKS Literacy Numeracy Social Science The Arts

ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES Technology Level 4 Technological practice Students will: Planning for practice

Undertake planning that includes reviewing the effectiveness of past actions and resourcing, exploring implications for future actions and accessing of resources, and consideration of stakeholder feedback, to enable the development of an outcome.

Visual Art Level 4 Developing practical knowledge

Explore and use art-making conventions, applying knowledge of elements and selected principles through the use of materials and processes.

LEARNING OUTCOEMS – clear statements of what you expect the students to be able to do and know…

Curriculum: Learning outcomes (based on AO) Assessment in bold

Context: Learning outcomes (based on unit context)

1. Work through tech practice to create 1. Discuss what it means to be an outcome for the project run way ‘entrepreneurial’ 2. Awareness of the impact their *who are entrepreneurial and what defines outcome has on their them as an entrepreneurial? society/community (De Bono) 2. The features of successful art display – 3. Identify key stages, resources and what makes an art exhibition successful? plan for these (Create flow chart) 3. Before art exhibition existed 4. Review student progress through key *How did people display art? stages and resources (Resource list) *What is the differences between ‘Art 5. Model to test concepts (prototypes, Exhibition and Art gallery? mock up , sketches) 4. Impact of Art exhibition on community 6. Identify the evidence functional 5. Skill development for product being modelling have given them produced 7. Use functional modelling to evaluate  Construction skills design concepts  Soldering skills 8. Identify possible impacts of the technological outcome on their community/NZ products on the wider community 9. Describe how these impacts might have changed society TERMINOLOGY embedded within component focus Key stages Functional modelling Stakeholder Prototype Model Design concept Evidence Fitness for purpose


Learning intentions

TERMINOLOGY of specific skills/knowledge Entrepreneur Skill based terminology e.g. solder, baste

... how to identify the features of good market days and what makes entrepreneurs successful

     

Learning experience

We are learning…



Intro to room, expectations, etc Intro to unit context Discuss and brainstorm and record on a group/class sheet about art exhibition - What are Art Exhibitions? - Why have them? - Purpose of our school market day? - Art exhibition potential effect on our community - Their features - what makes

Plastic bags Cans Plastic bottles/lids Foams Sponges A large range for the production of wearable artworks. The materials required will largely be selected and sources by the students.

Assessment strategies


Images of galleries/galas Entrepreneurs stories

them good? Entrepreneurs - What is an entrepreneur? - What makes an entrepreneur successful? - Examples of NZ entrepreneurs - Products and their impact on society (De Bonos black and yellow hat)





... to identify our key stages and resources

Students given teacher brief Brainstorm possible resources (people, materials, equipment) Identify basic key stages that students might be involved in Brainstorm ideas for technological outcomes for the art exhibition ideas generation Discuss possible constraints, limitations that may need to be put on the technological outcome or the practice used to develop it (ie needs to be able to be made inside 4 hours, all student must

... draft a flowchart that shows the process to be undertaken to develop their product

Look at existing flowcharts of technological practice – identify key stages used/followed (e.g. identifying a need or opportunity, identify key stakeholders

Initial flowchart plan identifying possible key stages and resources needed to produce possible outcomes

Flowchart / Graphic organiser

... how functional modelling helps us evaluate our design concepts

Undertake functional modelling to explore potential products that could be made for the art exhibition ... Use functional modelling to test 3 design ideas for a product (e.g. talking to their partner about the concept, drawings the concept, making a card board mock-up of the concept) What does each tell me? How can I the information obtained from functional modelling? How has my functional modelling helped me decide which concept to further develop?

Students identify and record how functional modelling was used to test concept ideas, and what information was gained

Graphic organiser / Worksheet

... create a brief

Write a brief that includes: a ‘conceptual statement’ which describes what the product is that is to be made and why it is being made ‘attributes’ required for the product

Brief to focus on answering questions such as: What will it be used for? What will it look like? What will it be made out of? Where will it be used? Who will use it? Why am I making it? * Using findings from technological modelling to decide on which design idea will be further developed into a product that can be sold at the school art exhibition day


... create our product to address our brief

Students work through the process of creating their product(s)


... review our progress through our key stages

Students have opportunities while undertaking their technological practice to review their key stages

Review flowchart plan identifying possible key stages and resources needed to produce their outcomes. Record review in different colours

Flowchart / Graphic organiser

LITERACY LISTENING, READING AND VIEWING LEVEL 4 ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES Processes and strategies Students will:  Integrate sources of information, processes, and strategies confidently to identify, form and express ideas  Select and use appropriate processing and comprehension strategies with increasing understanding and confidence INDICATORS: - monitors, self-evaluates, describes progress, and articulates learning with confidence By using these processes and strategies when listening, reading, or viewing, students will:

Purposes and audiences  Show an increasing understanding of how texts are shaped for different purposes and audiences INDICATORS - Recognises and understands how texts are constructed for a range of purposes, audiences and situations Ideas 

Show an increasing understanding of ideas within, across, and beyond texts. INDICATORS - make connections by thinking about underlying ideas within and between texts from a range of contexts.

Language features Show an increasing understanding of how language features are used for effect within and across texts. INDICATORS - identifies oral, written and visual features used and recognises and describes their effects. Structure Show an increasing understanding of text structures. INDICATORS - Understands that the order and organisation of words, sentences, paragraphs, and images contributes to and affect meaning in a range of texts.


Inference (continue) Visualising

SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES Visualising Students will be able to:  Select key ideas from the text to help them ‘see’ the story in their heads  Identify clues within the text to create their visualisations  Use appropriate vocabulary to describe their visualisations  Understand that there is no right or wrong visualisation  Be able to ‘fill in the gaps’ of their visualisation using clues from the text

SPEAKING, WRITING AND PRESENTING LEVEL 4 ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES Processes and strategies Students will:  Integrate sources of information, processes, and strategies confidently to identify, form, and express ideas. -


uses an increasing understanding of the connections between oral, written, and visual language when creating texts is reflective about the production of own texts; monitors and self-evaluates progress, articulating learning with confidence.

Purposes and audiences  Show an increasing understanding of how to shape texts for different purposes and audiences -

Ideas  -


Constructs texts that show an awareness of purpose and audience through deliberate choice of content, language and text form.

Select, develop, and communicate ideas on a range of topics.


forms and communicates ideas and information clearly, drawing on a range of sources adds or changes details and comments to support ideas, showing thoughtful selections in the process

Language features  Use range of language features appropriately, showing an increasing understanding of their effects -


uses a range of oral, written, and visual features to create meaning and effect and to sustain interest demonstrate a good understanding of spelling patterns in written English, with few intrusive errors uses a range of text conventions, including grammatical conventions, appropriately, effectively, and with increasing accuracy.

Structure  Organise texts, using a range of appropriate structures. -


achieves some coherence and wholeness when constructing texts organises and sequences ideas and information for a particular purpose or effect uses a variety of sentence structures, beginnings, and lengths for effect

SPEAKING Purpose Students will be able to read their narrative text confidently and fluently. Students will understand how to use their voice to ensure their story is delivered creatively and is entertaining and engaging for the audience.

Narrative Writing

Purpose To entertain and to gain and hold a readers’ interest. May also be used to teach or inform, or to change attitude or social opinions. Features  Characters with defined personalities/identities  Often includes dialogue – tense may be changed  Descriptive language

General structure 1. Introduction – characters, setting and time established. WWWWWH. 2. Complication or problem (often mirrors real-life). Can be more than one. 3. Resolution of the complication (does not need to be a positive resolution) General language features  Action verbs  Written in the first (I) or third (he, she, they) person  Usually past tense  Connectives, linking words to do with time  Specific nouns (eg Oak, instead of tree)  Active nouns  Imagery – simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia, personification  Use of the senses  Variety of sentence beginnings  ‘Show don’t tell’  Writer’s voice Specific learning outcome Students will be able to…  write a narrative text for the purpose of entertainment  use the structure of narrative writing  use correct grammar  use writing features

Grammar focus  use of action verbs  use of specific nous  use past tense correctly  includes examples of simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia and personification.

Planning for writing To help students plan for writing of narratives, focus on:  Plot: what is going to happen?  Setting: Where will the story take place? When will the story take place?  Characterisation: Who are the main characters? What do they look like?  Structure: How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is the problem going to be resolved?  Theme: What is the theme/message the writer is attempting to communicate? This is a style of writing that requires more planning/editing than some other genres. Students need to understand they can’t begin to write their narrative until a detailed plan has been created.

Ideas for editing foci:  Improving language (action verbs, adjectives, specific nouns)  Improving sentence structure (sentence beginnings, active noun usage)  Checking for consistency in tense  Dialogue use – correct use of speech marks, overuse of he said/she said etc, does it match the character’s voice? o Extended writer – dialogue per line o Average writers – speech mark with comma and question mark o Low writers – use dialogue with speech marks  Structure – introduction, complication, resolution  Follow checklist

Assessment of Narrative writing

Purpose  To entertain and draw the reader in

Structure  Has a beginning which explains who, what, when, where, why and how  Provides a conflict/complication/problem  Provides a resolution to conflict/complication/problem Grammar  Adjectives or describing words are used  Past tense is used correctly  Action verbs are used  Imagery is used

Writing features  Writing is planned  Correct sentences are used  The tense of verbs is consistent  The subjects and verbs agree  Plurals and articles are used correctly  Capital letters, full stops other punctuations makers are used correctly  Spelling is carefully checked and corrected


Week 2

Week 3

Week 4 Week 5 Week 6

Week 7 Week 8


Narrative writing *Focus on features *Planning for writing *Procedural writing Narrative writing *Focus on features *Planning for writing *Procedural writing Narrative writing *Planning for writing *Procedural writing

Narrative writing *Planning for writing asTTle writing - procedural Narrative writing *Planning for writing Narrative writing *Reading to an audience Narrative writing *Reading to an audience Narrative writing *Assessment/reflection


C o m p r e h e n s i o n

Activity (Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading Comprehension)  A pair of shoes, p90  Senses chart, p94 Activity(Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading Comprehension)  Picture quilt, p91  Story map, p95 Activity(Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading Comprehension)  Photo album, p92  Word map, p170 Activity(Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading Comprehension)  Nogard drawing activity, p93 Activity  Making a diorama of a scene from the story Activity(Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading Comprehension)  Weekend News, p 96  Filmstrip summary boxes and strips, p131 Activity week

s t r a t e g i Activity(Sheena Cameron, Teaching Reading e Comprehension) s  Draw it!, pg36

Checklist – Narrative Structure Orientation: (first paragraph) * Where did the story take place? * When did the story take place? * How did the story begin? * Who? Complication or problem: a description/ explanation of the problem. The problem usually involves the main character(s). Resolution: how the problem has been solved. Conclusion: a final concluding statement. Characterisation: a description of the main characters. What do they look like? Theme: a clear message. Language Active verbs are used (Instead of The old woman was in his way try The old woman barred his path). The first person (I, we) or the third person (he, she, they). The past tense is used. Conjunctions (linking words to do with time) are used. Specific nouns (oak instead of tree). Adjectives and adverbs are used. Uses the senses: * What does it smell like? * What can be heard? What can be seen? * What does it taste like? * What does it feel like?

A variety of sentence beginnings are used. It has an impact on the reader. The personal voice of the writer comes through. Narratives often use: * Similes (The sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown; The wind wrapped me up like a cloak). * Metaphors (She has a heart of stone; He is a stubborn mule; The man barked out the instructions). * Onomatopoeia (crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom. The tyres whirr on the road; The pitter-patter of soft rain; The mud oozed and squished through my toes). * Personification (The steel beam clenched its muscles; Clouds limped across the sky; The pebbles on the path were grey with grief). Personal Experience Exemplars

SPELLING Switch on to Spelling by Joy Allcock


Students will be able to:  Identify initial blends beginning with s (p176)  identify h diagraph patterns (p178)  identify and use sounds with more than one spelling pattern (p184) SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Week 1 Week 2 – 9 Week 10

Revise anything necessary from term 3 Lesson follow own class assessment (include in weekly plan) Assessment



Statistical Thinking Statistical literacy

Evaluate statements made by others about the finding of statistical investigations and probability activities.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Children will be able to…   

use data to make prediction Identify patterns and trends Communicate findings using data displays

Fractions, Proportions and Ratios Week 1 -8 *use NumPA books

Kapa Haka Te Reo Maori Level 4 Understanding the Arts in Context Dance Students will:  Explore and describe how dance is used for different purposes in a variety of cultures and contexts. Drama

Students will:

 Investigate the functions, purposes, and technologies of drama in cultural and historical contexts. Music – Sound Arts Students will:

 Identify and describe the characteristics of music associated with a range of sound environments, in relation to historical, social, and cultural contexts.  Explore ideas about how music serves a variety of purposes and functions in their lives and in their communities. Progress indicator Singing: Sings unison songs and chants, confidently performing three different styles of waiata powhiri as a group from memory (CI, UC) Music demonstrate an understanding of the tikanga and wairua (spirit) involved in performing a waiata (UC) Specific learning outcomes

Student will be able to…  Explain why music is important to people - Identify why dance is important to a country  Identify some ideas about where, when and why music is used - Identify different countries national dance  Learn the meaning of and to sing the song, Haere mai e nga iwi e - Explore a Maori action song and understand the meaning of the movements SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES Week 1/2 Week 3/4

Introduction: Brainstorm ideas about why music/dance is important? Where and when we listen to and play music and dance? Where/when might we hear/see music/dance at the world cup/what kind of music/dance? Watch a You tube clip of the haka - Respond Watch another country sing their national anthem -Respond Discuss Maori music in NZ, What songs do you know? Why are they special

Week 5/6

to NZ? Respond to dance from another country. Listen to Haere mai e nga iwi e - Watch on You tube. Discuss what the song means. Why is this a good song to sing to visitors to NZ for the world cup? What do they think of the music? Practice the Te Reo Maori kupu, lyrics, singing the song and the actions. Discuss the meaning of the actions to Haere mai e nga iwi e Practice the dance. Discuss the features of the dance, levels and movements. Look at another countries dance and discuss. Similarities/Differences.


Students will: 

Sing the lyrics and demonstrate the correct actions to, Haere mai i nga iwi e


New Zealand Curriculum Exemplars 

The Arts Exemplars

Te reo Māori vocabulary ka pai good! well done kaea leader kapa haka performance group kia tau stop, settle moko tattoo on the face or body piupiu move to and fro, wave about pūkana open the eyes wide and dilate the pupils (men and women) taihoa wait, hold on! takahi ki mua move forwards takahi ki te taha matau (katau) move to the right takahi ki te taha mauī move to the left takahi whakamuri move backwards takahia use the takahi step tīmata start, begin wiri quiver

PHYSICAL EDUCATION Achievement objectives Students will play minor games using modified equipment to extend their personal movement capabilities. Context/Theme Small ball skills

Specific learning outcomes The children will be able to:  understand and apply the basic principles of catching, passing, throwing and hitting while both stationary and moving  develop their skills using refinement of speed and direction through application and success Term lay out Week 1 - 4 Week 5 - 8

Softball Swimming


(2 sessions for classroom teaching during the week if possible so students can practice and reinforce the skills during the second session)

Week 1

Lesson 1 Throwing / Catching Students will be able to throw with accuracy and on target. They will be able to hold a softball correctly and learn the 3 different techniques of catching a softball

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Lesson 2 Batting / Fielding Learning how to hold a bat / eye co-ordination / body positioning / swinging technique and follow through Lesson 3 Base running Learning the simple rules of running from base to base at the appropriate time / stealing bases / body positioning on the bases and communication between runners Lesson 4 T ball game Combine all skills to be tested in a game of T ball. Assess the student’s small ball skills and what they have learnt in the last 3 weeks

Resources  P.E. Unit On Small skills for year 5 & 6 students

SWIMMING Swim Start Lesson Plan Level 4 Follow the sessions in the unit plan as a guide of where to next LEVEL FOUR LESSON PLANS Assistant Swim Teacher Award Manual Page 75-87 Pre Assessment: Learners must demonstrate the following skills before beginning Level 4  Symmetrical Breaststroke leg action with both feet turned out and simultaneous kick  Demonstrate 15m Freestyle with controlled arm actions and breathing  Demonstrate 15m Backstroke with controlled arm action and relaxed breathing

Level Four Learning Intention To develop endurance in Freestyle, Backstroke and Breaststroke swimming with increasingly accurate technique and to increase Water Safety awareness including safe dives.

N.B. Lessons 2-4 focus on Freestyle Lessons 5-7 focus on Backstroke and Lessons 8-10 focus on Breaststroke You may need to “pick and choose” different progressions for different group members as they progress. Focus on:  Free style and Breast stroke Level Four Learning Outcomes Students should be able to consistently demonstrate the following criteria 4.4 25m Freestyle 4.6 25m Breaststroke 4.7 15m Survival Backstroke The following lesson plans are suggested programmes for completing the objectives.

Diving should only ever be taught in pools deeper than 1.2m unless supported from inside the pool.

Pointers • Teachers running lessons for 10min may have to omit some activities where as teachers with 30min lessons may need to be creative and add further activities which enhance or support the activities suggested. • You may, at any time, extend your swimmers learning. • To ensure good technique, start on a shorter distance with lots of rests. Then gradually increase the distance over time as the skill becomes developed. • Details of games and fun activities are listed in the back of these plans. Recommended group size: 6 students, maximum 12 students

Pool depth: Between 0.8m min unless diving, then 1.2m minimum depending on height of student no more than chest depth for the students! 08/02/07 • Size of space: 15-25m mainly lane swimming format. • Lesson duration: 10min to 30min max. • Wherever possible please ensure that all equipment used is maintained and used appropriately. Risk Management considerations:

Assistant Swim Teacher Award Manual Page 10 – 17 Safety management plans for your programmes must include… • Access to 1st Aid, CPR and rescue techniques • Supervision

Special characteristics of this ability group: • Hair must be tied back for breathing • Goggles may encourage children to open eyes; however, goggle straps should be fitted at home and tested in the bath to ensure no leaks. When putting goggles on they should be

held on the eyes with one hand and the other hand used to slide the strap over the back of the head. Encourage for children swimming for 15min or more in chlorinated pools, however, see notes on organisation. • Kick boards are mentioned but any smaller buoyant object may be better. • Lane etiquette/formations should be introduced at this level. • Dry land Breast stroke leg action practices are essential. • All exercises illustrated in these plans may be repeated many times giving one clear focus or teaching point at a time.

Always reinforce good practice with positive comments!

Resources  Winter Skills booklet  Physical Education – Warm ups booklet  NZ Rugby skills and drills cards  New Zealand official Touch rule book / drills

Reminder:  Ensure students are working in pairs to practice the skills and small groups so students stay enthusiastic and motivated. It will be ideal to have enough equipment to cater for your whole class.

ICT Technological Knowledge Technological systems Students will: • Understand how technological systems employ control to allow for the transformation of inputs to outputs. SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students will be able to:  Use word for publishing  Identify main icons in the word programme


Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 5-6 Week 7-8

Identify main icons Save as… Insert Down load Assessment – publishing of narrative/plan for project run way


Based on the short story The Brotherhood of Stars by Carmen Scanlan-Toti ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES

Understanding the Arts in Context Investigate the functions, purposes and technologies of drama in cultural and historical contexts (L4) Developing practical knowledge

Select and use techniques and relevant technologies to develop drama practice (L4) Communicating + interpreting

Present and respond to drama, identifying ways in which elements, techniques, conventions, and technologies create meaning in their own and others’ work (L4) Developing ideas

Initiate and refine ideas with others to plan and develop drama (L4)


Students will be able to:  understand what it means to take on a role  identify traits of a character and translate these into appropriate speech, thought and movement  use drama as a starting point to explore their own ideas, feelings and social responsibility

*Note: some students find it difficult to walk away from a role so you need to give students a clear signal that they can come out of role once the drama has finished, e.g. getting them to literally shake the character off, turning around on the spot, making a certain sound etc SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES Week 1-2 Week 2 – 6

Read story and discuss. List main characters and discuss characteristics (e.g. what they might sound like, act like, their personality etc) Begin lesson with drama warm-up (see below). Use this time to discuss conventions in drama. Use activities to explore dramatic elements in the text. Suggested order of activities:  Teacher in role  Role on wall  Still images/freeze frames  Tableau  Soundscape

Week 8

 Flashbacks/flash forwards  Open and Close  Hot-seating  Mantle of the expert  Conscience alley Assessment – group using flashbacks/forward

Warm-up suggestions

Anything fabric: Participants stand in a circle. Teacher shows the fabric to the participants, saying "What could this piece of fabric be? We’re going to pass it around the circle and each of you will show us something that it could become." The leader demonstrates, turning the fabric into something and stating what it is. The fabric is passed from person to person, with each participant sharing an idea. If an idea is repeated, such as "a hat", the leader asks the participant to be more specific (a turban, a bonnet), thereby making the participant come up with their own idea. A variation on this game is to limit the ideas to a category such as clothing, or things that are the colour of the fabric.

Emotion Party – The host of a party and the guests acquire the emotional state of whoever enters the party. One person begins, as the host, with a neutral emotion. The first guest knocks or rings the bell (saying "knock-knock" or "ding-dong"), and enters in highly charged emotional state. Emotions that work well with this exercise include, excitement, fear, anger, jealousy, joy, sadness, etc. As soon as the host picks up on the emotion, she "catches" it, and interacts with the guest. The next guest enters with a different emotion, and the host and guest "catch" it. Things get more chaotic as more guests enter, as each new guest causes a different emotion to permeate the party. Once the first guest has entered, the participants can interact with different people until they notice a change in the emotion, and then they must adapt that emotion. The participants should not watch the new guests for the emotional state, rather, they should let the emotion "travel" to them as it will. To make things really tricky, two guests could enter at the same time with different emotions. The participants will be really wired after this game, so plan accordingly to use that energy.

Notes: If this has not been discussed before, it might be a good time to discuss with the participants how to express negative emotions such as anger without hitting any other participants- what verbal and physical things show anger (in performance) without hurting anyone in reality. Improvisation – Choose simple situations in which each character has a motivation. Depending on your class you can give groups a couple of minutes to plan and decide what will happen or you can simply pose the scenarios as you go.

Examples:  A mother and son/daughter are shopping for school clothes. The Mother does not think her child’s attire choices are appropriate for his/her age/weight/personality.  One friend tries to convince another that he has seen a UFO. (Is he lying or not?)  A young child is at the doctor’s office with his/her mother to get a shot. The child is very frightened and the doctor has to use tactics in order to give the shot. The mother is very nervous.  One sibling tries to convince another who is shy to come to a party.  A teacher is trying to teach the multiplication table in a one-on-one situation. The student only wants to talk about TV shows.

    

Three friends are in a restaurant. They try to order from the menu, but each has some dietary restriction that requires them to change the preparation of each dish. The waiter is new on the job. Two people are at an amusement park. One wants to ride the newest roller coaster in the park (choose specifics), and the other one is terrified to do so. He/she tries to convince the other not to ride without letting on that he/she is scared. Babysitter tries to get a child to go to bed. The child will not fall asleep, because he/she is afraid of a monster. Four people are going to the movies, but two want to see one movie (choose a type) and the other two want to see a different one (choose something radically different from first). Two strangers are stuck in a room that has a security door. The one is overly concerned with getting out, the other wants to become friends, and so is in no hurry.

Open Scenes – The two lines in each scene are to be repeated over and over again in a predetermined situation, eg., for scene one, character A is stuck underneath a fallen tree, and character B is not strong enough to lift the tree. One A: Help me. B: I can’t.

Two A: I’m sorry. B: It’s all your fault. Three A: Stop it. B: Make me.

Four A: What are you doing? B: What does it look like? Five A: It’s time to go. B: Not yet. Six A: I need you. B: Just a minute.

Follow Your Nose A movement exercise for the whole group. Move around the room, filling up the space, changing pace, changing direction, being aware of other people but not touching them. Now become aware of your nose. Let your nose lead you around the room. Follow it wherever it goes! Develop this by focussing on different parts of the body, so that participants begin to discover new ways of moving. Try being led by your stomach, your little toe, your knee, your back and so on. Essence Machines – mime and movement

This activity provides a useful technique for generating physical and aural ideas around a theme. Explain that the group is going to create a "machine" out of themselves. Name a topic and give the participants a few moments to think of a repeating sound and action linked to that theme. For example, if the theme was "shopping" a participant could mime taking money out of a purse to give to a shopkeeper, whilst saying "I'll have two of those, please." As soon as someone has an idea, ask them to step into the centre of a circle to begin their repeating sound and movement. Ask if somebody else can think of a suitable way to add in their own idea. Gradually, more and more people join in the activity. Some may be linked to existing parts of the "machine", whilst others may be separate. To continue the example above, someone could join the action by becoming the shopkeeper and saying "Shall I wrap them for you?", whilst somebody else could be a cleaner in the shopping mall. You may find that everybody wants to join in the activity, although be careful not to let it go on for too long or get too unwieldy. Once it is set up, the machine can be frozen, then played back at twice or half the "normal" speed.

Count To 20 – group dynamics Sit or stand in a circle. The idea is for the group to count to twenty, one person saying one number at a time. Anybody can start the count. Then a different person says the next number - but if two or more people happen to speak at the same time, counting must start again from the beginning. It is possible to get to twenty if everybody really concentrates but try and be relaxed as well.  Try doing it with and without eye contact  Other variations you can try include members of the group facing outwards and closing their eyes (difficult!) or counting back from twenty to one.

Exercises based on The Brotherhood of Stars

Teacher in role – good exercise to model what you want the children to do. To be in

role, you need to be holding/wearing an object related to the character you are supposed to be, eg the gold locket for Sina, a hat for Papa etc. Teacher enters as the character but can break role by removing/putting down the item if needed. It is important to stay in role whenever you have the object! The class takes turns to ask the character questions and the character answers them. Good for looking at developing characters and a way to break the ice into drama.

Hot seating – after children have seen teacher in role as a character, you can include

them as part of a hot-seating exercise. In this way, children can be part of a ‘panel’ of characters who are then asked questions from the audience, which is less pressure than one person being bombarded with questions from the whole class! Suggested characters include: Sina, Mama, Papa, Lofi, Lagi, Peta, Mr Mikaele. Note, characters do not have to appear in the story to be hot-seated for example you could chose to hot seat Sina’s teacher at school, the lawyer who wrote Lagi’s will etc.

Still Images/Freeze Frames – These two ideas are very similar, the difference being

that a freeze frame depicts a scene in the story which has been frozen and a still image can depict a sentence, a word, an idea or anything else you like. Teacher or students can decide on an idea. Suggestions include  The scene where Lagi is being taken away in the ambulance  Sina and Lofi fighting

  

Sina finding the will/the money/the locket Lomi saying ‘Everyone leave right now!’ Different groups depicting the beginning, middle and end of the story (at performance time the teacher walks between groups in order, to signal the beginning and end of each group’s performance. As you walk away, that group can sit down and watch the other performances)

Flashbacks and Flash Forwards – Development of still images/freeze frames. Performers in a scene are asked to improvise scenes which take place seconds, minutes, days or years before or after a dramatic moment. This enables the exploration of characters' backgrounds, motivations and the consequences of their actions. With a group that has created a still image, explain that when you clap your hands, you would like them to move silently in slow-motion to where their character was a few moments before. When they are frozen still in the new image, you can use thoughttracking to explore character motivation. Now ask them to move back to their original image - which is the present moment. Then you can use Flash Forwards - participants move in slow-motion to indicate where their characters might be a short time after this moment. In this way you have created an episode with a beginning, middle and end and can develop it in any number of ways. Can also include ‘acting’ and dialogue.

Tableau – Teacher describes a situation that relates to the text eg, passers-by watching

as Sina and Lofi fight, Sina finding the stars. One-by-one (at their own pace) the class joins in the scene and freezes in position in character. The characters they are portraying don’t have to be in the story but using clues from the text the purpose is for them to be related to the scene in some way, eg a passer-by, someone related to the characters. And extension of this activity is to call ‘action’ once all class members are involved and each student must begin to ‘act’ as their character, interacting with people around them and remaining in the scene until ‘cut’ is called.

Soundscape – Teacher acts as conductor, whilst the rest of the group are the 'orchestra'.

Using their voices (and body percussion if appropriate!), the group paints a soundscape of a particular scene or mood eg the scene where Sina is finding the stars, the scene where Sina and Lofi fight. The teacher can use hand to increase the volume or bringing it to touch the floor for silence. You can also use simple percussion/melody instruments for this exercise.

Role on the Wall - The outline of a body is drawn on a large sheet of paper, which is

later stuck onto the wall. This can be done by carefully drawing around one of the participants. Words or phrases describing the character are then written directly onto the drawing or stuck on with post-its. This drama technique can be carried out as a group activity or by individuals writing about their own character. You can include known facts such as physical appearance, age, gender, location and occupation, as well as subjective ideas such as likes/dislikes, friends/enemies, attitudes, motivations, secrets and dreams.  You can vary the approach, for example known facts can be written around the silhouette, and thoughts and feelings inside. Key lines spoken by the character can be added.  The class can return to add more ideas, thoughts and feelings as they discover more about the character over time.

Open and Close - This is a simple and effective way for using still images to tell a story. It also mimics the technique of blackouts on stage - with no technical equipment required! Divide the class into small groups and give them the task of telling a story using a specific

number of still images - between three and five images is a good number. Now they must work out the story and practice moving from image to image. When the time comes for sharing the work, the teacher, or one person in each group, should take responsibility for saying 'open' and 'close'. The audience should close their eyes while the first group gets into position. When the group has its first image ready, the designated person says 'open'. The audience opens their eyes for a few moments and look at the scene. Now the same person says 'close' and the audience close their eyes again. Quickly, the group moves into the second position and the audience are asked to open their eyes when the group is ready. The process is repeated until all the still images have been shown. The technique has a similar effect to watching a series of photographs or a flickering film. This could be used to show a scene, eg the star finding scene, or a still from several scenes in order. Can also include ‘acting’ and dialogue.

Mantle of the Expert - Mantle of the Expert involves the creation of a fictional world

where students assume the roles of experts in a designated field. Mantle of the Expert is based on the premise that treating children as responsible experts increases their engagement and confidence.

A problem or task is established and the pupils are contracted-in or “framed” as an enterprise – a team of experts using imaginative role-play to explore the issue. Usually an imaginary client such as a museum commissions the team – for example as a team of archaeologists to excavate a newly discovered tomb in Egypt. The children may be involved in mimed activities, improvisation, research or discussion. While the focus is on the enquiry process, it can often lead to real outcomes such as writing letters, printing leaflets or selling products. The teacher's role is to guide the drama, stepping in and out of role as necessary, providing encouragement and motivation to the experts. This could be used for example to create a panel to discuss what could be done about poverty in the community (with reference to Sina’s family), a group of lawyers discussing Lagi’s will and gifts etc.

Conscience Alley - A useful technique for exploring any kind of dilemma faced by a

character, providing an opportunity to analyse a decisive moment in greater detail. The class forms two lines facing each other. One person (the teacher or a participant) takes the role of the protagonist and walks between the lines as each member of the group speaks their advice. It can be organised so that those on one side give opposing advice to those on the other. When the protagonist reaches the end of the alley, she makes her decision. Could be used for Sina, Mama, Papa, Lagi etc. Resources

TECHNOLOGY UNIT PLAN Term 3 & 4 Unit Title: Extreme Makeover – Gluten Free Dessert

Year Group: 7/8

Duration: 5 weeks

DESCRIPTION OF CONTEXT: Students will be asked to take a family favourite recipe and adapt it, as in the Healthy Food Guide magazine Extreme Makeover section, to make it Gluten Free. Students will work with their family, teacher and classmates to develop their products. KEY FOCUS ON TRANSFORMATION OF: Information / Energy / Materials CLASS DESCRIPTION: This unit will be delivered to mixed-ability classes in years 7/8 2011. Pre-planning The Healthy Food Guide is a good classroom resource, and students enjoy reading it. The magazine has an Extreme Makeover section, in which a popular recipe is made into a healthier version. This will be the basis of a good unit, giving students the knowledge and skills to adapt recipes and make them more wholesome, an important life skill. CONTEXT: Key Focus: The brief: To make over a family recipe (dessert), formulating a healthier, gluten-free version that tastes just as moist, rich and delicious as the original family recipe. Minor Focus: To create a healthy gourmet burger/panini and soup. COMPONENTS OF TECHNOLOGY UNDERPINNING UNIT:

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Brief Development:

Technological Products:

Achievement Objective:

Achievement Objective:

Students will:

Students will:

Justify the nature of an intended outcome in relation to the need or opportunity. Describe the key attributes identified in stakeholder feedback, which will inform the development of an outcome and its evaluation

Key Competency

Understand that materials can be formed, manipulated, and/or transformed to enhance the fitness for purpose of a technological product

How this will be enriched:

Participating and contributing

Cross-curricula Links

  

Students will take on different roles when cooking and cleaning Work alongside stakeholders and clients Co-operate and contribute in a group

How these will be enriched:

Mathematics ICT

 

Financial literacy (budgeting), money, measurement Students will create a portfolio (using the computers) to research, record and review their progress, tests, trials, evaluations and conclusions Students will use mimio-view and the flip cameras to record their cooking experiences to discuss their learning experiences reflect and evaluate.


Demonstrate understanding of technological knowledge:  

Students will create a mini-portfolio on power point (using the computers) to research, record and review their progress, tests, trials, evaluations and conclusions. Students will present their portfolio to show that a final technological solution has been developed

Values 


Title page Contents Brief – Including WALTS & WHATs

Samples of work  

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Innovation, enquiry and curiosity

Stakeholders - Pictures of Stakeholders Image Board – Information about Stakeholders

through the undertaking of technological practice and addresses the requirements of the brief.

     


Copy of original recipe and goals to achieve (reducing fat content, changing wheat for gluten free substitutes Copy of new recipe and changes made Photos of testing, trialling, modifying Present evidence (photos & explanations) that shows that the solution (final product) meets the requirements of the brief. Conclusion Present your work efficiently and effectively


LEARNING EXPERIENCES (Broken into 5 sessions) Week 1 Students will be given a lesson on healthy food (information supplied by a nutritionist from Food for Thought – Naomi Sutton). Students will also be re-introduced to the Healthy Food guide (magazine) which will be the main resource in assisting with their project.

WALT: discuss foods that we think are healthy WHAT: when we can: Brainstorm healthy foods in groups (Eat most, eat moderately, eat least)

Technological Practice will be discussed before using the kitchen equipment and facilities. Students will also learn about how a recipe has to be accurate, straightforward and look like the kind of food that the magazine' readers would want to make. Students will take the time to look through the Healthy food guides at different recipes.

WALT: discuss the healthy food pyramid WHAT when we can: o Check that we have grouped our food correctly (from our brainstorm) and make changes where needed. o Discuss other foods from each section of the healthy food pyramid that we may have missed.

Students will be introduced to the topic and shown exemplars on the projector. Students will learn about the expectations around working with a client. Students will be working with their individual families as they develop their recipe and reporting back to the class. An incentive will be provided for outstanding work: projects will be displayed in the library, uploaded onto the school website and/or published in the school newsletter.

WALT: identify the key features in a recipe WHAT when we can: o Look at different recipes (from the Healthy food guide) and write key words to describe how it looks, the layout, key features and what appeals as a reader.

Homework Activity: Students will investigate their family’s favourite dessert and identify one they can make into a healthier version. Students are encouraged to look through old family recipe books and talk to their families about where the recipes came from, and what made them family favourites. After selecting a recipe they will need to be able to justify why they have chosen this particular dessert. Week 2 Technological Practice also includes the following key factors – a recipe has to be healthier than the original, it still has to

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WALT: discuss the expectations with working with our stakeholders WHAT when we can: o Understand who our stakeholders will be o What their role will be during this project o Establish our goals for our stakeholders WALT:  Identify the nutritional value of our current food choices (focus: desserts) and explore new ideas for a healthier options WHAT when we can: o Taste test a well-known biscuit – Shortbread o Look at a shortbread biscuit recipe

taste good and look good. These key factors are also important to the Healthy Food Guide and will align with teaching and learning during Technology lessons (making concepts more real one for students). Once students have decided on a recipe, they will research the original ingredients, before beginning to experiment on how they could make their dish healthier. As students work on adapting their recipes, the students will investigate which ingredients they might adjust and which would be suitable to substitute, to make something that is more nutritious while retaining the same taste and appearance. Homework Activity: 

Students will find photos of their stakeholders to bring to school to copy, these are family members who are participating in providing feedback/feed forward, including classmates. Students will begin their draft of their Image Board

Week 3 Students will:         

make a list of the ingredients they will need for their adapted recipe visit Pak n Save to purchase these food items (working with flip cameras to record this process). work within a budget and use the ipads to keep track of money spent. cook their dessert following their adapted recipe trial their recipe and take a sample of their cooking home to share with their families. They will consult with them on taste, texture and appearance. They will also consult with other stakeholders (according to their brief). complete their brief begin their Powerpoint, creating a title and contents page save photos in their class files. include the photos they prefer in their powerpoint

Homework Activity:  

Students will give their families a taste test and record their comments made: Students will note down any suggestions or improvements they could make to their final trial before development is complete.

Modify recipe where needed

Week 4

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o o o o

Highlight ingredients we think we could change and list ideas for substitutes. Adapt the recipe and make the healthier/gluten free version. Taste test and compare Reflect and share findings with our group

We are learning about Gluten, what it is and gluten substitutues. WHAT: when we can: o Describe what gluten is o Name foods with gluten o Name substitutes for gluten o Research further information on gluten (on the internet) using the websites noted in the resources WALT: develop our brief for our adapted version of our recipe WHAT: when we can: o Include our stakeholders needs and wants o Include goals and adaptions that will be made to the recipe so it is healthier than the original and gluten free. WALT: research the original ingredients for our recipe and search for alternatives (gluten free) WHAT: when we can: o Investigate which ingredients we might adjust and which will be suitable to substitute Context to set the scene: Soup to be served in a Cafe WALT: make soup (a recipe from the Healthy food guide – attached) WHAT when we can:  Students will identify the steps taken to plan, prepare and cook a meal Students will write a list of ingredients from their recipe and go shopping at Pak n Save to purchase these items Read and follow the criteria in a recipe:  A title stating the goal  List of materials and ingredients needed  Instructions in numbered steps  Measurements in whole numbers and fractions with the temperature in degrees celcius. □ Students work in 2 groups to plan, prepare, cook, serve, and consume. □ In groups of 5, discuss and record how students felt working together to prepare their meal  Time taken to prepare this meal

 The cost of this meal compared to takeaways or prepared meals  Whether they would or would not make the same meal at home Students will clean-up all work spaces Students glue their recipe into their Technology books

Students will make a list of the ingredients they will need for their modified recipe Students will visit Pak n Save to purchase these food items (working with flip cameras to record this process). Students will work within a budget and use the IPads to keep track of money spent. Students will cook their dessert following their modified recipe

Students will trial their recipe and take a sample of their cooking home to share with their families. They will consult with them on taste, texture and appearance. They will also consult with other stakeholders (according to their brief). Students will save photos in their class files. Students will include the photos they prefer in their powerpoint Students will begin to collate their work samples and prepare in a booklet for final presentation. Homework Activity:   

Students will give their families a taste test and record their comments made: Students will use these comments for their report. Students can begin to write their report.

When the development stage is complete, the students are required to write a report on their recipe in the style of the Healthy Food Guide Extreme Makeover pages. Everyone will then present to the class about their product, explaining the changes they had made and their families’ responses to it Week 5 Students will complete their final report and their conclusion – ready to present Students will learn to make a healthy gourmet burger (context: Cafe style) Students will present their project (mini-portfolio) efficiently and effectively to the class Teacher will assess their presentation according to the assessment strategies outlined in plan.

WALT: use the flip cameras to take photos or video our shopping experience WHAT: when we can: o Record our shopping experience, finding the ingredients we need to make our recipe WALT: use the IPads to calculate the money we spend. WHAT: when we can: o Use the IPads to keep account of the money we spend as we shop, ensuring we stay within budget o Take notes of this experience WALT: create our title and contents page WHAT: when we can: o Use Word to effectively design our title page o Use Word to effectively design and number our contents page WALT: make our adapted recipe (Trial 1) WHAT when we can:  Students will identify the steps taken to plan, prepare and cook a meal Students will write a list of ingredients from their recipe and go shopping at Pak n Save to purchase these items

    □

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Read and follow the criteria in a recipe: A title stating the goal List of materials and ingredients needed Instructions in numbered steps Measurements in whole numbers and fractions with the temperature in degrees celcius. Students work in 2 groups to plan, prepare, cook, serve, and

consume. In groups of 5, discuss and record how students felt working together to prepare their meal  Time taken to prepare this meal  The cost of this meal compared to takeaways or prepared meals  Whether they would or would not make the same meal at home Students will clean-up all work spaces Students glue their recipe into their Technology books

WALT: use the camera to take photos of our cooking process WHAT: when we can: o Take photos (to record our cooking process o Print and include these in our portfolios as evidence WALT: make our modified recipe (Trial 2) WHAT when we can:  Students will identify the steps taken to plan, prepare and cook a meal Students will write a list of ingredients from their recipe and go shopping at Pak n Save to purchase these items Read and follow the criteria in a recipe:  A title stating the goal  List of materials and ingredients needed  Instructions in numbered steps  Measurements in whole numbers and fractions with the temperature in degrees celcius. □ Students work in 2 groups to plan, prepare, cook, serve, and consume. □ In groups of 5, discuss and record how students felt working together to prepare their meal  Time taken to prepare this meal  The cost of this meal compared to takeaways or prepared meals  Whether they would or would not make the same meal at home Students will clean-up all work spaces Students glue their recipe into their Technology books WALT: use the camera to take photos of our cooking process WHAT: when we can: o Take photos (step by step) to record our cooking process

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Print and include these in our portfolios as evidence

WALT: look at the extreme make over page in the Healthy food guide and identify what information we need to include WHAT: when we can: o Make a draft of key ideas we need to include in our Extreme Make over page

Context to set the scene: Gourmet burgers to be served in a Cafe WALT: make a gourmet burger (a recipe from the Healthy food guide – attached) WHAT when we can:  Students will identify the steps taken to plan, prepare and cook a meal Students will write a list of ingredients from their recipe and go shopping at Pak n Save to purchase these items Read and follow the criteria in a recipe:  A title stating the goal  List of materials and ingredients needed  Instructions in numbered steps  Measurements in whole numbers and fractions with the temperature in degrees celcius. □ Students work in 2 groups to plan, prepare, cook, serve, and consume. □ In groups of 5, discuss and record how students felt working together to prepare their meal  Time taken to prepare this meal  The cost of this meal compared to takeaways or prepared meals  Whether they would or would not make the same meal at home Students will clean-up all work spaces Students glue their recipe into their Technology books

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Gluten When wheat flour dough is kneaded, glutenin molecules cross-link to make a sub-microscopic network and associate with gliadin, which contributes viscosity and extensibility to the mix. If such dough is leavened with yeast, sugar fermentation produces bubbles of carbon dioxide which, trapped by the gluten network, cause the dough to swell or rise. Baking coagulates the gluten which, along with starch, forms a heat-set skeleton, stabilising the shape of the final product. The glutenin in flour also contributes chewiness to baked products, including desserts. The challenge was to replace this proteinacious skeleton with something else yet retain the texture and 'mouth-feel' of wheat-containing baked goods.

The absence of gluten (or a gluten substitute) in a dough results in a liquid batter that cannot be processed using conventional production-line baking equipment. Products created without gluten or a substitute typically have poor handling and moulding properties, and other post-baking quality defects such as poor shelf life. This process will also need to be cost-effective.

Gluten substitutes The seeds of most flowering plants contain stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination, but true gluten, with gliadin and glutenin, is limited to certain members of the grass family, notably wheat, barley, oats and rye. Because it is the reaction to gliadin that causes Coeliac disease, food technologists seeking gluten-free alternative ingredients must search for gliadin-free glutens or something that behaves in the same way. To replace gluten-containing flours, manufacturers have turned to naturally gluten-free starches and flours such as those made from rice, tapioca, potato, arrowroot, nuts and legumes. However, these alternatives often create as many problems as they solve. Many have distinct flavours and eating qualities. Some replacement starches or flours can be very high in viscosity and exhibit very cohesive texture when baked. But their most fundamental drawback is their protein content. Typically, wheat flour's protein level is around the 10% level, plus or minus a few points, depending on what the intended end product is. The protein content of rice flour is a bit below 6%. It works as an alternative, but because of its low protein content more flour must be used, resulting in a gritty final product. Rice's blandness partially makes up for its grit factor and low protein. But corn, soy, and even potato flours have a much more assertive taste, hard not to recognise. Pea flour, Grace says, tastes unmistakably vile. Attempts to rectify a taste issue may compound the problem rather than solve it. 'Stealth' glutens Because it is such a functional ingredient, gluten is widely used in the food industry and often in unexpected ways. Chewing gum, for example, receives a dusting of wheat starch, and crisped-rice cereal may contain a gluten-containing binder. While the quantity of these so-called 'stealth' glutens – those in flavour carriers, binders, fillers and emulsifiers – can be minute, it's enough for some Coeliacs to leave a product on the shelf. Eliminating these glutens may be relatively simple because their presence is often just an accident of formulation, a consequence of cost, habit or their coincidental association with other ingredients. As a result,

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their role in the finished product is almost always readily replaced, and reformulation is often more the identification and removal of the gluten sources, rather than the restoration of lost function. Manufacturers can supplement gluten-free flours with other ingredients, such as starch and gum products, that replace the functionality of gluten. Gums, like gluten, retain moisture, control water, entrap air, thicken, suspend, and form films. Gums also help stabilise the proteins in a formula, lengthening shelf life by lowering the staling rate. Some gums are heat resistant and maintain their viscosity at baking temperatures. Combinations of gums may be used to impart a range of characters to a gluten-free dough or batter. To identify the ingredients themselves, Grace obtained a range of gluten-free cookies and examined the ingredient lists printed on their packaging. After identifying the good and bad qualities of each product in terms of shelf-life, taste, texture, colour, etc., and correlating these with the listed ingredients, Grace identified a 'starter' list of possible gluten-free ingredients. Some were commercially unavailable in New Zealand, others were artificial and couldn't be used – this was not negotiable. Cookie Time is a quality-driven company and an uncompromising attitude toward natural ingredients is "a company cornerstone, even though it makes our tech team's job harder". Grace spent a lot of time talking with suppliers and reviewing the technical details and functionalities of their gluten-free alternative ingredients, and their costs. She quickly realised why gluten-intolerant consumers had to be prepared to pay a premium. Some natural gluten-free ingredients, such as gums, are relatively expensive, and even in small quantities can significantly add to the final price of the product, although, in some cases, costs can be reduced by pairing a gum with a modified gluten-free starch (something Cookie Time ruled out for a number of reasons, but primarily because it would alter the sensory quality of the dough). The cookie niche is still relatively small, so the company couldn't factor-in the economies of scale available in its conventional products.

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Term 4 Plan