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CONSTELLATIONS OF THE SKY OBSERVING STAR PATTERNS

BY: HOLLY MOONEY 26 NOVEMBER 2016


TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Constellation Intro………3 II. Dorado……………………......4 III. Gemini………………………...10 IV. Pyxis……………………………16 V. Hydra…………………………..22 VI. Vulpecula……………………..28 VII.Lupus………………………….35 VIII.Ophiuchus…………………..41 IX. Sagittarius…………………….4

Each Constellation includes: History of Constellation, Myth or Story associated with it, Location/Coordinates, any Astronomical Objects, (including Galaxies, Nebulae's, Supernovas, Stars, Cluster, etc.…) and a Reference page.


INTRODUCTION Looking at the night sky and you can just imagine what there is out there. This Constellation Guide will describe in details, 12 of the 88 constellations in the night sky. This presentation is a beginning guideline to what ultimately could be the answer to the biggest questions out there. It contains information about 12 out of 88 Constellations of the Night; as well as their history of discovery; location and coordinates; and most importantly, the Astronomical Objects within them. These Astronomical Objects also known as Deep-Sky Objects includes: Planets, Exoplanets, Dwarf Planets (Brown, White, and Black), Moons, Nebulaes, Galaxies, Messier Objects, Stars & Star Clusters, Supernovas, Natural Satellites, Asteroids, Meteoroids, Meteor Showers, Comets, Planetesimals and Circumstellar Disks (did I miss any?). There may be some questions

unanswered, but after viewing the information of our Constellations in this presentation, one can begin forming their own belief of the formation of our Universe. With a little motivation and research, there is so much intriguing information and unknown knowledge to gain that you will be very mesmerized!


CONSTELLATION | DORADO “DOLPHIN FISH”


HISTORY OF DORADO HISTORY

A Dutch astronomer names Petrus Plancius, created the constellation from observing information obtained from two navigators, Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman. The constellation was first illustrated in Johann Bayer’s star atlas, Uranometric, in 1603.

INTERESTING FACT There are no myths associated with this constellation, however there is an interesting story of how Dorado got its name, meaning “the dolphinfish”. When looking at the sky, the Dutch navigators noticed the dolphinfish chasing a flying fish. This is why Dorado was placed in the sky next to the constellation Volans, representing the flying fish.


LOCATION The constellation Dorado is located in the First Quadrant of the Southern Hemisphere Right Ascension | 05h Declination | -65ยบ Latitudes between | 15 and -90 degrees

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Dorado are Caelum, Horologium, Hydrus, Mensa, Pictor, Reticulum, and Volans.


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS LOCATED WITHIN LMC: Supernova Remnant SNR 0519-69.0 NGC 2070 The Tarantula Nebula MGC 1978-Globular Cluster 1948-Stellar Association Blue Reflective Nebula N49-Supernova Remnant N55-Emission Nebula NGC 202-Open Star Cluster

Supernova Remnant


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS CONT… OTHER GALAXIES IN DORADO: NGC 1672 - Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1566 - Spiral Galaxy The brightest star is Alpha Doradus. No Messier Objects No Meteor Showers NGC 1672


CITATIONS Constellation Guide. (2016). Constellations: A Guide to the Night Sky. Dorado Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellationguide.com/constellation-list/dorado-constellation/ Amazing Space. The Stars Witness: The Constellation Dorado. Retrieved from http://amazingspace.org/news/archive/2012/01/ill-01.php Hawaiian Astronomical Society. Constellations Dorado: What Hawaiians call the Mahi-mahi. Retrieved from http://www.hawastsoc.org/deepsky/dor/


CONSTELLATION | GEMINI


HISTORY OF GEMINI HISTORY It’s one of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. The constellation is named after the twins of Greek Mythology, Castor and Pollux. In 1771, Charles Messier discovered a set of astronomical objects known as M35. This cluster of stars, located near the "feet" of the twins, is estimated to be about 100 million years old.

MYTH The twins Castor and Pollux, who the star is named after, have an interesting story behind how they ended up in the sky. They shared the same mother, Leda, the Queen of Sparta, yet they had different fathers. Castor's father was, the King of Sparta making him mortal. Pollux's father was the Greek God known as Zeus, thus making Pollux immortal. When the Castor died, Pollux was frenetic and distressed. He then begged his father to make Castor immortal, and his father granted his request. Now the two of them are together in the sky forever as the constellation Gemini.


LOCATION

In the northern hemisphere the constellation can be viewed from winter to spring, and in the southern, it can only be seen in the summer months. It’s located just northeast of Orion, between Taurus and Cancer in the elliptic. Right Ascension | 7 Hours Declination | 20 Degrees Latitudes between | 90 and -60 Degrees

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Cancer, Lynx, Auriga, Taurus, Orion, Monoceros, and Canis Minor


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS The two brightest stars are named after the heads of Castor and Pollux, the two Gemini twins. Another significant star is Mekbuda, a super-giant star with a radius approx. 220,000 times the size of the Sun.

Another interesting object is the Neutron Star, Geminga. It’s an isolated pulsar, Gemini’s gamma-ray source with the magnitude of 25.5!


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Other Deep Sky Objects: The Eskimo Nebula (Left) | Medusa Nebula (Middle) | Open Clusters M35 & NGC | Planetary Nebulae's J 900 & NGC 2371(Right) | IC 443 Neutron Star J0617


CITATIONS Zimmermann, Kim A. (2012). Science and Astronomy. Gemini Constellation: Facts About the Twins. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/16816-geminiconstellation.html. McClure, Bruce. (2016). EarthSky. Gemini? Here’s your constellation. Retrieved from http://earthsky.org/constellations/gemini-heres-yourconstellation.


CONSTELLATION | PYXIS MEANING: THE COMPASS BOX Constellation original name is Malus (the Mast) Also known as Pyxis Nautica - Latin for a mariner's compass


HISTORY OF PYXIS HISTORY

INTERESTING FACT

Pyxis was one of the constellations discovered in the 18th century, by the French astronomer, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille. Pyxis now belongs to the Heavenly Waters family of constellations, along with Carina, Columba, Delphinus, Equuleus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, Puppis and Vela.

There are no myths associated with the constellation. Interestingly, it was originally part of the large constellation Argo Navis, which represented the Argonauts’ ship. When the International Astronomical Union officially defined the 88 constellations and their boundaries, they split Argo Navis into 4 parts: Carina (the keel), Vela (the sail), Puppis (the poop), and Pyxis (the compass).


LOCATION Pyxis is a very small, faint constellation located in the second quadrant of the southern hemisphere, occupying an area of 221 square degrees. Best seen at 9PM in March. Latitudes between | +50° and -90°. Right Ascension | 8h 55m 31.5s Declination | -27° 40 55“

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Antlia, Hydra, Puppis and Vela


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS The most memorable star in the constellation is probably T Pyxidis, which is a cataclysmic variable star or recurrent nova (Right). It’s a Binary Star composed of a star similar to the Sun and a white dwarf. This galaxy is similar in type and size to the Milky Way, approx. 60 million light-years in distant. Pyxis contains three stars with known planets. The brightest star in the constellation is Alpha Pyxidis (Left)


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Main Stars: 3 Bayer/Flamsteed designation: 10 Stars with Planets: 3

NGC 2613 | Barred Spiral Galaxy (Left) NGC 2627 | Open Cluster NGC 2818 | Planetary Nebula (Right)

This constellation has no Messier objects and no meteor showers related with the constellation.


CITATIONS 21 Sept. 2016. "Star Tales – Pyxis." Star Tales – Pyxis. Retrieved from http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/pyxis.htm 21 Sept. 2016. "Constellation Guide." Constellation Guide.. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/pyxis-constellation


CONSTELLATION | HYDRA Hydra, known as the Water Snake as well as the multi-headed giant


HISTORY OF HYDRA The constellation was first classified by the Greek astronomer known as Ptolemy, in the 2nd century. The history of this star is greatly connected with the Greek and Babylonian myths.

GREEK MYTH

BABYLONIAN MYTH

The Hydra constellation is correlated with the mythical multi-headed creature that Hercules was sent to encounter for his 2nd labor. Hydra was said to have nine heads, one of which was immortal and every time Hercules destroyed one, it would gain two. Heracles was able to defeat the Hydra when Iolaus assisted him by burning the stumps right after they were cut off, until eventually Heracles destroyed the immortal head

In the Babylonian myth, Hydra is believed to be a Water Snake. It starts when Apollo’s sent a bird blaming the water snake for being slow when gathering water with a cup. The bird was distracted by a fig tree and stopped to eat. When it finally returned to Apollo, it said the water snake was to at fault, but the god saw through the bird’s lie and punished it by placing it into the sky, along with the Hydra and the Cup. In the sky, the Water Snake (Hydra) eternally prevents the Crow (Corvus Constellation) from drinking out of the cup (Crater Constellation).


LOCATION Hydra’s head is located south of the constellation Cancer and its tail lies between Centaurus and Libra. It is the largest of the 88 constellation, crossing over an area of 1,303 square degrees in the sky (3.158% of the sky). It’s spread through such a large area that it takes more than six hours to rise completely.

Visible at Latitudes between | +54° and -83° Best seen at 9PM in April The Constellation lies in the Second Quadrant of the Southern Hemisphere.

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Antlia, Cancer, Canis Minor, Centaurus, Corvus, Crater, Leo, Libra, Lupus, Monoceros, Puppis, Pyxis, Sextans and Virgo


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS INTERESTING STARS Alphard | An orange giant representing the heart of the snake R Hydrae | A Myra-type variable star, a red pulsating variable star in the late stage of evolution Epsilon Hydrae (Left) | A multiple star system consisting of four stars: main component, the binary star, yellow giant, and a yellow dwarf The Site Of Six Known Supernovae Messier 48 | The Open Cluster Messier 68 | The Globular Cluster Messier 83 (Right) | The Southern Pinwheel Galaxy


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS The Ghost Of Jupiter Nebula (Left Top) ESO 510-G13 | The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3109 | Spiral Or Irregular Galaxy NGC 3621 | Spiral Galaxy NGC 3054 | Intermediate Spiral Galaxy NGC 5078 | Spiral Galaxy NGC 3314 | Pair Of Overlapping Spiral Galaxies NGC 4980 | Spiral Galaxy The Hydra Cluster Of Galaxies (Right) NGC 5694 | Tombaugh’s Globular Cluster (Left Bottom


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/hydra-constellation/ 2012. Astronomy Trek: Hydra, the Night Sky’s Largest Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.astronomytrek.com/hydra-the-night-skys-largest-constellation/


CONSTELLATION | VULPECULA MEANING “LITTLE FOX” IN LATIN It was originally named the constellation Vulpecula cum ansere, or Vulpecula et Anser, which means the little fox with the goose.


HISTORY OF VULPECULA HISTORY

STORY

The constellation was introduced by a Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius in 1687. Vulpecula and Anser were later divided into two constellations, the Fox and the Goose, and then were later combined together again. Vulpecula belongs to the Hercules family of constellations.

It is not associated with any myths, although it has been known to have a pretty interesting story related to it. Hevelius said that Vulpecula et Anser or the little fox with the goose, represented a fox carrying a goose to Cerberus, the dog that guarded the entrance to the Underworld in Greek mythology. The goose was left out of the constellation’s name, but instead the brightest star, Alpha Vulpeculae, carries the name Anser.


LOCATION Vulpecula constellation lies in the northern sky covering over 268 square degrees. It is located in the fourth quadrant of the northern hemisphere. It lies in the middle of the Summer Triangle, an asterism formed by the bright stars Vega in the constellations Lyra, Altair in Aquila, and Deneb in Cygnus.

Right Ascension | 20 hours Declination | 25 degrees Visible at Latitudes between | 90 and -55 degrees

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Cygnus, Delphinus, Hercules, Lyra, Pegasus and Sagitta


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS MAJOR STARS

*Several stars within Vulpecula have been established as a Planetary Systems. Anser - Alpha Vulpeculae | A Red Giant Star, brightest in Constellation 23 Vulpeculae | Binary System 31 Vulpeculae | Variable Star V452 Vulpeculae or HD 189733- Binary Star The primary component is believed to be an Orange Dwarf , and the other star is a Red Dwarf. It has been classified as a BY Draconis variable, meaning it’s luminosity varies from the effects of star spots. Water vapor has also been detected in this planet's atmosphere, which gives it the possibility of exoplanetary life. In 2005, an extrasolar planet, HD 189733 b, was confirmed to be orbiting the primary star, containing the first extrasolar planet with carbon dioxide in its atmosphere.


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS PULSARS PSR B1919+21 (Below) was the first pulsar ever discovered in 1967, identified as rapidly rotating neutron stars that had very strong magnetic fields

Messier 27 | NGC 6853 | Dumbbell Nebula This is the first planetary nebula to be discovered with the largest known White Dwarf. Formation begins when a dying star releases its gas. It consists of rarified gases that have been ejected from the hot central star and is now in one of the last evolutionary stages.

Dumbbell Nebula

PSR B1937+21 is the first millisecond pulsar ever discovered in 1982, with a rotational period of 1.557708 milliseconds <642 rotations per second>!!


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Brocchi’s Cluster | Open Star Cluster NGC 6823 | Open Cluster NGC 6885 - Caldwell 37 | Open Star Cluster ASTERISM – The Coathanger NGC 6820 | Emission Nebula (BELOW)

NGC 7052 | Elliptical Galaxy Blue Pulsar Space Stars


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/vulpecula-constellation/


CONSTELLATION | LUPUS MEANING “WOLF” IN LATIN


HISTORY OF LUPUS HISTORY

STORY

Lupus was first catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. The stars in the constellation represented a sacrificed animal speared by the centaur, who was holding it toward the constellation Ara, The Altar. The constellation was not associated with any animals until the Renaissance times. Around then, the Latin translation of Ptolemy’s work was identified as “the wolf”.

The Greeks knew the constellation as Therium, a wild animal, and the Romans called it Bestia, the beast. In Greek times, the constellation was probably taken to represent a creature based on the Babylonian figure of the Mad Dog. The creature was a hybrid, with a human head and torso and legs and tail of a lion. It was associated with the sun god and Bison-man, which is another creature from myth, a large carnivore, which could have been a lion, wolf, or a dog.


LOCATION Lupus constellation lies in the third quadrant of the southern hemisphere, between Centaurus and Scorpius. Visible at Latitudes between | +35° and -90° Right Ascension | 14h 27m 12.2s Declination | -46° 8 4

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Centaurus, Circinus, Hydra, Libra, Norma and Scorpius.


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Lupus contains two stars with known planets and no Messier objects. Lupus is home to a number of notable clusters and other deep sky objects such as: Globular Clusters | NGC 5927, NGC 5986, & NGC 5824, Open Clusters | NGC 5749 & NGC 5822, & Planetary Nebula | NGC 5882 & IC 4406. Also, the dark nebula IC B 228, a cloud of dust and gas blocking light. There are no meteor showers associated with the constellation.

SN 1006 | Historic Supernova No companions of the original star were found, which suggests that the supernova had a double degenerate descended and was a result of two merging white dwarf stars.


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS The brightest star in the constellation is Alpha Lupi, a Blue Giant classified as a Beta Cephei variable.

Beta Lupi | Blue Giant It lies approximately 524 light-years from Earth.

Lupus-TR-3 | Dim Orange Main Sequence Star, which contains an Exoplanet in itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orbit.


CITATIONS Constellation Guide. (2016). Constellations: A Guide to the Night Sky. Dorado Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellationlist/dorado-constellation/ 2016. Varies Scholars. TopAstronomer. Retrieved from http://www.topastronomer.com/StarCharts/Constellations/Lupus.php.


CONSTELLATION | OPHIUCHUS Greek meaning: “The Serpent Bearer” | Latin meaning: “Serpentarius”


HISTORY OF OPHIUCHUS HISTORY Ophiuchus is the 11th largest constellation in the sky, Ophiuchus was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Ophiuchus is one of thirteen constellations that cross the ecliptic. It has therefore been called the '13th Sign of the Zodiacâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;. The Babylonians associated the constellation with Nirah, a god who was sometimes depicted with a human upper body and legs that were serpents.

MYTH Ophiuchus most common story is associated with the Greeks mythical figure of Asclepius, son of the god Apollo. He was said to be able to bring people back from the dead. This skills became a threat to the gods. Zeus, the god of Thunder, believed that the human race would become immortal with a healer around. Hades, god of the Underworld, was concerned the flow of dead souls would depreciate. To protect the balance of the world, Zeus killed him. He was later placed him in the sky to be remembered for all his good deeds.


LOCATION Visible at Latitudes between | +80° and -80° Right Ascension | 17.18 hours Declination | -4.24 degrees Best viewed in July around 9 p.m. Ophiuchus Constellation is located around the celestial equator, in the Third Quadrant of the Southern Hemisphere and occupies an area of 948 square degrees.

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Aquila, Hercules, Libra, Sagittarius, Scorpius and Serpens


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS SEVEN STARS WITH KNOW PLANETS. There are four meteor showers associated with the constellation: the Ophiuchids, the Northern May Ophiuchids, the Southern May Ophiuchids & the Theta Ophiuchids. Ophiuchus contains several star clusters, such as IC 4665, NGC 6633, M9, M10, M12, M14, M19, M62, and M107, as well as the nebula IC 4603-4604.

M10 | Global Cluster

Nebula | IC 4603-4604

Zeta Ophiuchi


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Below: Stars located in the Ophiuchus Constellation Interesting Fact: The unusual galaxy merger remnant (two disk galaxies merge to form a new elliptical galaxy). This starburst galaxy (NGC 6240) is at a distance of 400 million light-years, and contains two supermassive black holes about 3,000 light-years apart.

Epsilon Ophiuchi | Red Giant Star

Barnard's Star | Red Dwarf

NGC 6633 | Star Cluster


CITATIONS Constellation Guide. (2016). Constellations: A Guide to the Night Sky. Ophiuchus Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellationlist/ophiuchus-constellation/ McClure, Bruce. 2016 August 18.Constellations Born under the sign of Ophiuchus? http://earthsky.org/constellations/born-between-november-29-and-december-18heres-your-constellation. 2013 June 27. Zimmermann, Kim A. Science & Astronomy. Ophiuchus: Facts about the Snake Bearer. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/21759-ophiuchus.html.


CONSTELLATION | SAGITTARIUS Latin meaning: “Archer”


HISTORY OF SAGITTARIUS HISTORY Sagittarius was recorded in the 2nd century by the Greek Astronomer Ptolemy. Sagittarius is at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The brightest star in Sagittarius and the 36th brightest star in the sky, Epsilon Sagittarii is 125 light-years distant and 375 times brighter than the sun.

MYTH The Greeks identify Sagittarius as a centaur. The creature is aiming an arrow toward its neighbor Scorpio. The legends have Sagittarius, the Archer, shooting “Scorpio” the Scorpion, which had been sent to kill Orion the Hunter. The Babylonians associated Sagittarius with the god Pabilsagĝ , who had two heads (one human, one panther), wings and was sometimes called "The Wild Bull With Multicolored Legs."


LOCATION Right ascension | 19.11 hours Declination | -25.8 degrees. Visible at Latitude | 55 degrees and -90 degree Sagittarius is the largest constellation in the Southern Hemisphere. Best viewed around 9 p.m. in the month of August This constellation occupies approx. 867 square degrees and contains the most stars with known planets (22).

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Aquila, Scutum, Serpens Cauda, Ophiuchus, Corona Australis, Telescopium, Indus and Microscopium


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

The Luminous Pistol Star

Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Barnardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Galaxy The Bubble Nebula Sagittarius Star Cloud - Messier 24 The Omega Nebula - Messier 17 Open Cluster - Messier 18 The Lagoon Nebula - Messier 8 The Trifid Nebula - Messier 20 Sagittarius is also home to some interesting objects. Most notable is a bright radio source called Sagittarius A.. Scientists think that area of space may hold a black hole!!

Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

Left: Forming the top of the Teapot, lambda Sagittarii is 77 light-years from the sun and an orange giant. Right: The arrowhead is marked at the tip by gamma Sagittarii, an orange giant that is about 95 light-years from Earth. Middle: Sagittarius is home to the bright blue hypergiant Pistol Star, one of the brightest stars discovered in the Milky Way.


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/sagaittarius-constellation/ Zimmermann, Kim A. 2013 June 20. Science & Astronomy. Sagittarius Constellation: Facts About the Arche. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/21653-sagittariusconstellation.html.


CONSTELLATION | PEGASUS The name Pegasus is derived from the Greek word pegai which means “springs” or “waters”


HISTORY OF PEGASUS INTERESTING FACTS

Pegasus constellation was classified by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. Pegasus Constellation has a very rare and unique quality. It consists of the only known quasar, Einstein’s Cross! What you’re seeing here is a visual anomaly caused by gravity. In the center of the image is the galaxy NGC 7331; surrounding it looks like four identical quasars, when there’s actually only one – the same one – which is directly behind the galaxy from our point of view, so the gravity of the galaxy is bending the light of a single quasar around it on four different sides. Due to “gravitational lensing” we are able to see the quasar. The galaxy itself is only 38,000,000 light-years away, but the quasar behind it is eight billion light years away. It is one of the older objects in the universe and is extremely brighter than the galaxy.


MYTHICAL STORIES OF PEGASUS MYTH | STORY The Constellation is named after the white winged horse in Greek mythology. Legend says he was born after Perseus beheaded the Gorgon Medusa and used her blood mixed with seawater to create Pegasus.

Another myth, one of the most famous involving Pegasus, is the one of Bellerophon. The hero who was sent by King Iobates of Lycia to kill the Chimaera, the fire breathing monster that was destroying the king’s land. Bellerophon found Pegasus and tamed him using a golden bridle he received from the goddess Athena. The only way to kill the Chimaera was by surprise, so with Pegasus’s help, he swooped down on the Chimaera from the sky and killed the monster. After this and many additional heroic deeds for the King, Bellerophon started becoming conceited. Without approval, he tried to fly to Olympus and join the gods. He was rejected and sent back to Earth, while Pegasus stayed. There, Zeus used Pegasus to carry his thunder & lightning and was eventually placed as a constellation in the sky. INTERESTING STORY: After he was born, Pegasus flew away to Mount Helicon in Boeotia, and became friends with the Muses that lived there. He created a spring that was named Hippocrene by striking the ground with his hoof. The name Hippocrene means “the horse’s fountain.” It was said that those who drank from the spring were blessed with the gift to write poetry.


LOCATION Fourth Quadrant of the Northern Hemisphere Visible at Latitudes | between +90° and -60° Right Ascension | 22 hours Declination | 20 degrees Best seen in October (at 9:00 PM) Pegasus is the seventh largest constellation in the sky, inhabiting an area of 1121 square degrees. Above the Equator, the constellation is high in the sky starting near the end of summer all through autumn season. Below the Equator, Pegasus can be seen in late winter through spring season.

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Andromeda, Aquarius, Cygnus, Delphinus, Equuleus, Lacerta, Pisces and Vulpecula


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

Pegasids Meteor Shower

Stephanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Quintet | Galaxies 7317-7320 NGC 1 (the very first one recorded)


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Einsteinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cross The phenomenon of gravitational lensing is one of the effects predicted by the general theory of relativity and was originally proposed by Albert Einstein once he realized that gravity would be able to bend light. Einstein's Cross under Gravitational Lenses

ADDITIONAL GALAXIES INCLUDE: NGC 1, 7479, 7814, 23, 7673, 7217, 7331, 7742, 7315, 7078, 7725, and 7753


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS The Great Square of Pegasus Asterism This Asterism represents the main body of Pegasus. It is made up of three bright stars in Pegasus and Alpha Andromedae. The other stars that form the Great Square of Pegasus are Markab (Alpha Pegasi), Scheat (Beta Pegasi), and Algenib (Gamma Pegasi). Cumulo de Pegaso | Messier 15 | (M15, NGC 7078) Messier 15 | Globular Cluster believed to be 12 billion years old, which makes it one of the oldest known. It contains more than 100,000 stars, among them a significant number of variables and pulsars, including the double neutron star M15 C.


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/pegasus-constellation/


CONSTELLATION | PHOENIX Phoenix is named after the mythical bird that rises from its own ashes


HISTORY OF PHOENIX Phoenix was one of the constellations first mapped in the late 16th century by the Dutch astronomer/cartographer Petrus Plancius, from the observations of Dutch navigators, Frederick Houtman and Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, on an expedition to the East Indies. It was then first depicted on his globe in 1598 and later appeared in Johann Bayerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atlas Uranometria in 1603. In many cultures, the phoenix is associated with death and rebirth.


LEGENDS OF PHOENIX The mythical bird phoenix is known as the sacred fire bird across many mythologies such as Greek, Persian, Arabic, Egyptian, Roman, Turkish, Indian and Chinese among others. The phoenix was said to have resembled an eagle with purple, red and gold feathers, and a scarlet and gold tail. Ovid wrote in his Metamorphoses, that the bird lived for 500 years, then built itself a nest made out of cinnamon bark and incense on top of a palm tree. It would then ignited the twigs to end its life in the fire and a new bird would be born from the dead phoenix. According to legend, when the young phoenix was strong enough, it would take the nest and carry it to the Temple of Hyperion, one of the 12 Titan deities and the lord of light. In another version of the tale, the young phoenix would preserve the ashes of the dead phoenix in an egg made of myrrh and carry the egg to the Egyptian city Heliopolis.


LOCATION Visible at Latitudes between | +32° And -80° Right Ascension | 1h 50m 20.2s Declination | -47° 48 59“ Magnitude | 6.14 Located in the First Quadrant of the Southern Hemisphere Phoenix constellation is easy to view in Australia and South Africa during southern hemisphere summer, but typically can’t be observed from north of the 40th parallel, since it is so low in the sky for observers north of the equator.

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Eridanus, Grus, Fornax , Hydrus, Sculptor, and Tucana


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Main stars: 4 Bayer/Flamsteed designation: 25 Messier object: 0 Stars with planets: 10

Hlx-1 |Hlx-1, Or Hyper-luminous X-ray Source 1 Intermediate-mass black hole in the galaxy ESO 243-49. It is believed to be a galactic remnant of a dwarf galaxy that was absorbed by ESO 243-49 after a galactic collision. NGC 625 | Barred Spiral Galaxy.

Meteor Shower | The Phoenicids, which occurs around December 5.


MORE ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Robertâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Quartet A compact galaxy group approximately 160 million light-years away in the constellation Phoenix. It is a family of four very different galaxies in the process of colliding and merging. Its members are NGC 87, NGC 88, NGC 89 and NGC 92.

The Phoenix Cluster One of the most massive Galaxy Clusters known. It is showing star forming activity at the highest rate ever recorded, with the recent creation of 740 solar masses per year. The cluster is also emitting more x-rays than any other known massive galaxy cluster.


SPECIAL STARS ANKAA – Α PHOENICIS | Brightest Star in constellation – Spectroscopic Binary Star – Approx. 85 light years distant. Β PHOENICIS | Binary Atar composed of two class G8 yellow giants – Magnitude of 3.32 – Approx. 198 light years distant from the solar system Γ PHOENICIS | Classified as a Red Giant – variable star – Magnitude varies from 3.39 and 3.49 Κ PHOENICIS | Magnitude of 3.90 – 77 light years distant from the Sun Ζ PHOENICIS | Eclipsing Binary Star classified as an Algol-type variable – Magnitude varies between 3.9 and 4.4 over a period of 1.66977 days Ν PHOENICIS | Magnitude of 4.96 – 49.3 light years distant from Earth. Similar to the Sun, slightly more massive and luminous, believed to have a dust ring that extends several astronomical units from an inner edge that starts at 10 astronomical units. SX PHOENICIS | Magnitude by up to 0.7, and exhibit short period pulsation over periods of 0.7-1.9 hours (0.030.08 days). HE0107-5240 | One of the most metal-poor stars known in the Milky Way. It has only 1/200,000 of the metal that the Sun has. The star’s low metallicity indicates that it is one of the oldest Population II stars to have formed. Population II stars are metal-poor stars that formed during an earlier time of the Universe and are believed to have created all the other elements in the periodic table other than the more unstable ones. If the star was completely metal-free, it would belong to Population III, the hypothetical, extinct first generation of stars. HE0107-5240 | Magnitude of 15.86 – Approximately 36,000 light years distant GLIESE 915 | Degenerate star – a white dwarf – located only 26.7 light years from the solar system.


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/phoenix-constellation/ 2016. Varies Scholars. TopAstronomer. Retrieved from http://www.topastronomer.com/StarCharts/Constellations/Phoenix.php


CONSTELLATION | CETUS The constellation was named after the sea monster from the Greek myth about Andromeda Also known as “The Whale”


HISTORY OF CETUS Cetus is one of the largest constellations in the sky; fourth to be exact, expanding an area of 1231 square degrees. The constellation Cetus lies in the region of the sky called the Water. It was recognized by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century.


LEGENDS OF CETUS Cetus represents the sea monster from the Greek myth about the princess Andromeda. Her mother, Cassiopeia, infuriated the sea god Poseidon and the Nereids (sea nymphs) by claiming that the princess was more beautiful than any of them. From the arrogance of her mother, a sea monster was sent by Poseidon to punish the king and queen, or destroy their land. As their punishment, they chose to appease the sea god and the nymphs, by forcing Andromeda to be sacrificed to Cetus. She was chained up, and just as Cetus was going to demolish the princess, Perseus rescued her and killed Cetus. Cetus was commonly portrayed by the Greeks as a hybrid creature, with four feet, a huge jaw, and a scaly body, similar to a giant sea serpent.

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LOCATION Visible at Latitudes between | +70° And -90° Right Ascension | 3h 19m 21.7s Declination | +3° 22 13" Magnitude | 4.83 *Best seen at 9:00PM *Located In The First Quadrant Of The Southern Hemisphere

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Aquarius, Aries, Eridanus, Fornax, Pisces, Sculptor, and Taurus


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS Main stars | 15 14 with known planets Bayer/Flamsteed designation | 88 Messier object | 1 Stars with planets | 23 Meteor showers | 3

NGC 1087 | Intermediate Spiral Galaxy The galaxy’s nucleus is extremely small as well as it’s central bar – several irregular features in the disk of material that surrounds it.


ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

NGC 17 | Spiral Galaxy, The formation is believed to be the result of two disk galaxies merging together. – there is recent starburst activity in the core regions

Messier 77 | A Barred Spiral Galaxy The galaxy’s core is a strong radio source & has an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) which isn’t visible due to intergalactic dust.

NGC 247 (Caldwell 62) | Intermediate Spiral Galaxy Gravitationally bound to the Sculptor Galaxy


METEOR SHOWERS The Omicron Cetids One of a only daylight showers that takes place from about May 7th to approximately June 9th, with a peak that occurs between May 14th to 25th. When Daylight happens the meteors in this stream are all invisible, but with accurate radio-echo equipment they can possibly reveal up to 18 meteors per hour during the peak period. The Eta Cetids This shower has a long duration, from about September 20th to about November 2nd, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activity for the most part is almost non-existent. Large fireballs have been known to occur unexpectedly at any time. This shower generally peaks during the first week of October. The October Cetids The highest meteor count in this shower happened in 1916; when the peak rate reached 4 meteors per hour. The peak is unknown and the shower must be seen with an optical aid, between October 20th to October 25th/26th.


SPECIAL STARS ® Alpha Ceti (Menkar, Menkab) | Red Giant Star – 220 lights year away – Magnitude 2.54 ® Deneb Kaitos (Diphda, Beta Ceti) | Orange Giant Star (Brightest)– 94 light years away – Magnitude 2.04. ® Mira (Omicron Ceti) | Red Giant – 6 billion years old – 420 light years away – One component of a binary system, which consist of a red giant and a companion star. It is also an oscillating variable star that defines an entire class of stars, known as Mira variable stars. There are between 6,000, and 7,000 stars in this class, all of which are Red Giants with surfaces that oscillate in a way that produces variations in their luminosities that can stretch from about 80 days, to periods of more than 1,000 days. ® Mira B | A hot white dwarf that is busy pulling material off Mira A, thus forming the closest symbiotic binary system to the Sun. It is interesting to note that Mira A is shedding material as it moves through space. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope has revealed a 13-light year-long trail of stellar material behind the star. ® Tau Ceti | a rather unremarkable yellow dwarf star | 11.9 light years away – Magnitude 3.5. It has about 80% of the Sun’s mass, and only 55% of the its brightness.


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Cetus Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation- guide.com/constellation-list/cetus-constellation/ Christoforou, Peter. 2012. Star Constellation Facts: Cetus Retrieved from http://www.astronomytrek.com/star-constellation-facts-cetus/


CONSTELLATION | CANES VENATICI Its name means “hunting dogs” in Latin. The constellation represents the hunting dogs of Boötes the Herds, a bordering constellation. The dogs are known as Asterion and Chara.

Main stars: 2 Bayer/Flamsteed designation: 21 Messier object: 5 Stars with planets: 4 Meteor Shower: 1


HISTORY OF CANES VENATICI HISTORY The Greek word for cudgel in Ptolemy's original version, Almagest, was translated is Arabic meaning "the spearshaft having a hook." When it was later translated in Latin, the translator misinterpreted the word "al-kullab" for "kilab," and the "spearshaft having a hook" became "spearshaft having dogs.â&#x20AC;&#x153; In Latin, Canes Venatici means "hunting dogs." The Greek astronomer Ptolemy included the stars of Canes Venatici in the constellation Ursa Major not fully identified but just as an update, but the constellation was not introduced until 1687, when the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius introduced it from the dim stars located under the big bearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tail.

MYTH | STORY In mythology, the constellation is recognized as the dogs Asterion and Chara, held on a leash by Bootes as he hunts for the bears (Ursa Major and Ursa Minor).


LOCATION Visible at latitudes between | +90° and -40° Right Ascension |13 hours Declination | 40 degrees Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM) Canes Venatici is the 38th largest constellation in the sky, occupying an area of 465 square degrees. It is located in the Third Quadrant of the Northern Hemisphere (NQ3)

BOARDING CONSTELLATIONS Booö tes, Coma Berenices, and Ursa Major


MESSIER OBJECTS | GALAXIES DEEP-SKY OBJECTS The Globular Cluster Messier 3 Whirlpool Galaxy (M51) The Sunflower Galaxy (M63), The Spiral Galaxies Messier 106 Below: The Whale Galaxy & The Hockey Stick Galaxies

Core of M94, Starburst Ring Galaxy

(M51)


CANES VENATICI SUPERVOID Meteor Shower: Canem Venaticids

The Giant Void, discovered in 1988 in a deep-sky survey, is an extremely large deep-sky objects located within the vicinity of this constellation. This enormously void is a part of the universe that contains very few galaxies. It may be possibly the largest void ever discovered.


SPECIAL STARS & GALAXIES Cor Caroli, alpha Canum Venaticorum | Binary Star with a magnitude of 2.81, approximately 110 light-years distant. The brighter of the two components, alpha-2 Canum Venaticorum, has a magnetic field about 5,000 times as strong as the Earth's and shows a excess of certain elements, such as mercury, silicon and europium. Cor Caroli and La Superba are two more famous stars.

The Spiral Galaxies Messier 94 | NGC 4736 A face-on spiral galaxy 15 million light-years from Earth & 7,000 light-years in diameter. It has very tight spiral arms and a bright core. The outskirts of the galaxy are extremely luminous in the ultraviolet because of a ring of new stars surrounding the core.


THE UNIVERSE From many hypothesis, knowledge and observations can be obtained to develop ones ideal belief of the existence of the universe. This includes Hypothesis that have been questioned and explored for numerous years by many different philosophers, scientist, and even astrologist. Some would even dedicate their lived to observing the sky and obtaining astronomical information about the universe to form hypothesis. Everyone wants to know “where this all comes from,” which is how one creates their own ideas and logical explanation to obtain answers. The Universe can be defined as everything that exists in the present time, previous, as well as the future. “Everything,” consist of such as forms of energy (electromagnetic radiation and matter), physical laws (gravitational attractions, friction, quantum, and time itself), formation of elements (atom, electrons, isotopes, and also hydrogen, helium, etc.…) and the evolution of matter (substances of which any physical object consists or is composed). After billions of years of scientific evidence, theories, and observations, it’s still unknown to the very beginning. Evolution of everything has been advancing to form what the universe is today and will continue for an infinite number of years to come…..


CITATIONS 2016. Constellation Guide. Hydra Constellation. Retrieved from http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation- list/canesvenaticiconstellation/


Mooney field guide