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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

pdw책Zyef;csD cif0rf; Typing

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nyisay

http://mmcpcommunity.net

rS pDpOfwifqufonf 10/3/2011

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

12/ usLApfZif; 13/ yDumqdk&JU usLApfZif ; 14/ uRefawmfwdkUacwf 15/ jynfoltwGufyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cifav;jrifh (ZeD;)

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

xkwfa0ol\ aus;Zl ;wifpum; q&mcif0 rf;\ pdwåZyef;csDpmtkyf udk 'kwd,tBud rftjzpf yHkESdyfx kwfa0&ef tcuftcJrsm;ud k ausmfjzwf cJh&ygonf/ vG,fvG,fulu l tpOfajyacsmarGYp Gm aqmif&Gu f cJh&onfawmh r[kwfa y/ rnfodkYy ifjzpfap ,cktcsd efrSmawmh 'kwd,tBudrf yHkE dSyf xkwfa0Edkif cJhNyD jzpfonf/ ,ckvdk pmtkyfxG uf&Sdv matmif oabmwl cGifh jyKay;olE Sifh uln D yHhydk;ay;olcJ holrsm;\ aus;Zl;ud k av;pm;wefzd k;xm; todtrSw fjyK rSwfw rf; wifvdkygonf/ a&S;OD;pGm pdw åZyef;csDpmtky ftm; tvif;opf pmaywdkufrS 'kwd,tBud r f yHkESdy fxkwfa0&ef oabmwl cGifh jyKay;ol q&mcif0rf;\ZeD; a':cifav;jrifhES i fh rdom;pku dk aus;Zl;txl ; wif&S daMumif; rSw fwrf;wif azmf jyvd kygonf/ q&m cif0rf;\ rdom;pkuom oabmwlcGi fhjyKay;cJhjcif; r&Sd ygvQif 'kwd,tBudrftjzpf pmtkyfyHk ESdyfx kwfa0Edkifr nf r[kwfyg/ xdkYjyif q&mcif0rf; rdom;pk\ cGifhjyKcsuf &&Sdonfr S yef;csDu m;rsm; rSwfw rf;wif "mwfyHk½dkufonftxd pmtkyfjzpfajrmuf a&;twGuf cspfc if&if ;ESD; pdwf jzifh uln Daqmif&Gufay;cJho l jynf NrdK UrS udk Munfp dk; (Happy mart Journal jzefYcsda&;) \ aus;Zl;w&m;udk arhEdk ifrnf r[kwf yg/ q&mcif0 rf;\ yef; csDum;rsm; &SmazG rSwfwrf;wif "mwfyH k½dkuf&ef oG m;a&mufcJho nfh jynfc&D;pOfw Gif nDtudkpdw fjzifh vdkufyguln D tazmfjyKay;cJ hol Owå&vrif; OD;oef;aqG (cHpm;oltBudKuf)? q&mA*sDvif;0PÖ? jynfNrd KUrS aEG;axG;pGm BudK qdk ulnDcJh Muolrsm; jzpfaom OD;Edk if0if ; (q&m0if ;ol[ef ) - 'kwd,ñTef Mum;a&;rSL ;? a&S;a[mif; okawoeOD;pD ;Xme? OD;atmifausmf rdk; - puf½kHrSL;? MRTV jynf NrdK U yef;csD 'DZdkif ; udkoef;aqGE Sifh aus;Zl;wifxdkufo l rdwfaqGrsm;tm; aus;Zl;wif rSwfwrf; jyKtyfygonf/ xdkYjyif jynfNrd KUod kY a&muf& Sdcdku f vdIufvSJ 0rf;ompGm Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

ulnDwwfaom uG,fvGe fol udka ygufBuD; (umwGe f;aygufayguf) udkvnf; owd& vGrf;qGwf rdygonf/ pmtkyfxkwfa 0&ef pDpOfaqmif &Guf& if; q&mcif0rf;uG,fvGef onfh (10) ESpfjynfhES ifh wdkuf qdkifa eygojzifh ydk NyD;trSw fw& jzpfcJh &ygonf/ q&mcif0rf;\ tEkynm zefwD; rIrsm;udk av;pm; cspfc ifjrwfEdk; qJ? owd&vGrf;qGw fq J y&dwfowfr sm; twGuf auseyftvG rf;ajyEdki fvdrf hrnf[k arQmfvifh rdygonf/ tvif;opfpmpOf (1) rS ,cktcsdefxd tpOfw pdkuf 0,f,l zwf½ I tm;ay;cJhonfh pmzwf y&dwfowf\ aus;Zl;txl;udk OD;xd yfwiftyf ygonf/

tvif;opfpmaywdku f

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

pdwåZyef;csDum;wpfcsyf pdwåZyef; csD? teDa&mifaq;puf &J&Jvufu m?pkw fcsuftjyma&mif a'gifvdkuf jzwfrsOf; uefYvefY jzwfr sOf; aq;om;csif;xyf ? pkwf&mxyfí usyfodyfa &m>yrf;? tjrifqef;onf Murf;wrf;rGr G zkxpfx\/ Munfholtrsm; pum;yGufv QH? wD;wk d;nHonf/ ]]&r®uf{u&Dwpf yg; yHkwlum;yJ? &J& Jvufvuf aq;eDpufu ? azmfusL;jywm olr rsufvHk;awGaygh}} ]]vlrrnfuav; at;csrf;wJh yHkwl ? vli,fhtNyHK; tjyma&mifukdoH k;NyD; ½kyfvHk;azmf jyvkd ufwmav}} ]]'g[m cufrmMurf;wrf;? b0vrf ;toGif wifpm;xm;csuf ? azmfusL;csufy J pkwfcsufawG Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

aq;pufawG ? 'gawGu b0vrf;vdk ? Murf;wrf;ygbd}} rnfolawGu ? rnfokdY rnf yHk tawG;pHkum? tm½HkcHp m; awGUxdjim;vnf ;? eH&Hq GJcsdw f abmifuGy fydwfonfh? pdwåZ yef;csDonf aq;&nfzkx ? ½IyfayGyGvsuf rGrGBuJBuJo mwum;/ /

armifn DnGwf? 1970 (0da&m"dt ½kPf uAsmrsm;)

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

pma&;ol\trSm (1) uaeY yef;csDr Sm ta&;BuD;wJh jyóemwpf&yf &Sdygw,f/ jyóemuawmh wm0ef&S dolyef ;csDa&SUaqmifvl BuD;yk dif;u acwfopf yef;csDukd (avhvm rI r&Sdb J? pl;prf; rIr&S dbJ? *CeProd bJ) jiif;y,f½Iwf csNyD ; ydwfyif wm;qD; aewJh jyóemygyJ/ taMumif;t&m wpfckud k txifavmufe JY &rf; NyD; aqmif& GufwJhtcg txl;ojzifh wkd if;jynfeJY csD NyD; rpOf ;pm;wwf&if vlrsKd;wpf rsKd;vHk;udk xdcd kufEkd i f ygw,f/ uaeY acwfopf yef; csD (modernism) [m 20 &mpk&J U 0dZÆ mynm&yfrsm;? odyÜHynm&yfrsm;eJY twl wpf&Sdef xkd; wkd;wufv mw,f/ 'gudk avhvmrIr&Sd wJhvlawG? wkd;wufrIu kd em;rvnfw Jh vlawGuawmh rjrifvk duf? rodvdku fbl;/ 'gayr,fh wdkYawG rodygvm;vk dY rawG;bl;/ 'gawG[m t"dyÜm,fr&S d? t½l;acs;yef; o½kyfysufawGygvdk Y ½Iwfcsvdkuf Muw,f/ olwkdU[m yef ;csDa&Suaqmif awG jzpfwJ htwGuf olwkdU&JUtawG;tac: a[mif;EG rf;rI ? olwkd U&JU acwfaemufusrI[ m yef;csDavmuwpfckvH k;ukd ul; puf oGm;w,f/ wkdif; jynfeJ U vlrsKd; ukdyg ul;pufoG m;w,f/ avhvmrI r&S db J rwkd;wufwJ h acwfaemufjyefqGJorm;awG[ m wkdif; jynf& JU tEÅ&m,fawGygyJ/ acwf[m ajymif;vJ aew,f/ ordkif ;[m wdk;wufaew,f/ vlom;wkdif; eJY wuG pepfawG[m acwfeJYtwl? orkdi f;eJYtwl ajymif;vJ wkd;wuf& r,f/ 'grS orkdif;eJY acwf eJY tH0ifcGifu s jzpfr,f/ Ekd ifiHwumeJY &ifaygif wef;Ekd ifr,f/ olwdkYawGuawmh &mpkES pf0ufausmf a[mif;EGrf;aewJh (S emi-Realism) o½kyfrSefq ef yef;csD enf;udk taozufwG,fx m;w,f/ ygVdxJu ]ydkufqH avQmf} xrf;orm;vkd acwfu ,laqmifvmorQ? ork dif;u ,l aqmifv morQ topftopf aom pepfawGuk d acwfa[mif; pepfa[mif; rSm a[mif ;EGrf ;usefc JholawG yJ/ Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'gayr,fh olwkd Yu a&S Uwef;a&mufaewJhtcg ,kwådaA'enf;twkd if; pepfa[mif;awGuvnf; topfjzpf&jyefa&m/ pepfa[mif;awGy J us,fjyefY xGef;um;aejyefa&m/ wdk;wufwJh ? acwfrDwJh ? opfvGifwJh acwfo pfyef; csD uawmh tjiif;y,f cH&w,f/ t½IwfcscH&w,f/ tykwfcwf cH&w,f/ 'g[m vlrsKd;wpfrsKd; udk acwfrrDr I? tjrifrus,fr IeJY rwdk;wufr I/ aemufqHk ; vlrsKd ;&JU tnGe fUwH k;rIawG u kd jzpfapr,fh tEÅ&m,f ygyJ/ uRefawmfw dkY tm;vHk;[m vlrsKd; eJY wkdif ;jynf &JU wdk; wufrI ? acwfrDr I? EkdifiHw umeJY &ifaygifwef;Ekd ifrI twGuf acwfa jymif;awmfvSefa &;ukd qif E TJ aeMuw,f/ 'DtcgrSm acwfa[mif;u pepfa[mif ;awGudk &J &J0Hh 0Hh pGef YypfE kdifr S? acwfrDwJh pepfawGud k wyfqifay;Ekdif rS uRefawmfwkdY[ m wdk;wufoih f oavmuf wkd;wufvm Ek difw,f/ ½dk;&mpG JzufwG, frIeJ Y rJjymykqdk ; oHBudK ;BuD ; awG[m EkdifiHw dk;wuf rIudk csKyfukdi faESm ifwnf;xm;aew,f/ 'DoHBud K;awGud k uRefawmf wkdY& J&J0H h0Hh jzwfawmuf ypf&r,f/ 'DvdkrS r[kw fb J ta[mif;tjrif ; pepfawG ukd taozufwG,f xm;&ifawmh 'g[m acwfaemufusrI e JY a[mif;EG rf;rIa wGudk jzpfay:aprSmyJ/ wdkif;jynf wdk;wufr Iqdkwmu vufiif; ypöu©umvud k MunfhNyD; a0zef&wmrsKd;/ uaeY uRefawmfwk dY wkdif;jynf&J U tqifhtwef;ukd EIdif;,S O f ajymqdk &wmrsKd;/ 'Dvkdr[k wfbJ yk*Ha cwfwke f;u wdkYvuf &mawG[ m odyfaumif; w,fuGm qkdNyD; ]&Sif jyKwk ef;u a&TxD;aqmif;cJ h&wm} ukd wNrHKUNrHK UeJ U auseyfaeNyD; ypöu©umv&JU wkd;wufrIukd arhavsmha evdkY r&ygbl ;/ wkdif;jynfwpf jynf &JU wdk;wufrI? vlrsKd;a&; pdwf "mwf jrifh rm;rIeJY ,Ofaus;rI [m ½dk;&mxdef;odrf;rIeJYwif rNyD ;bl;/ acwfrD wJh topftopfaom pepfawG u kd zefwD;zd kY? zefw D;Ekd ifpGr f; &Sdzd kYvnf; vdkw,f/ bmyJjzpfjzpf ta[mif;eJYtopfudk cGJcG Jjcm;jcm; toHk;jyK&rSmyJ jzpfw,f/ ta[mif;qdkvnf; 'gyJ? topfq dkvnf; 'gyJ qdk&ifawmh 'g[m wdk;wuf rIrJh w Jh Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

oabmyJ/wpfcgvmvnf; bk& m;? rif;om; rif;orD;? aumifr av;u apmif;aumufwD;/ wpf cgvmvnf;bk &m;? rif;om; rif; orD;? aumifr av;u apmif;aumufwD; ? wpfcgvmvnf; 'gyJ ? wpfcgvmvnf; 'gyJ/ wpfcgvmvnf; 'gyJ/ [dkwkef;uvnf; 'gyJ/ 'gawGukd odzdkUvnf; aumif;w,f/ &Sufzd kUvnf ; aumif;w,f/ EkdifiHw umudk vSrf; Munfhv kduf/ olwdkYqDrS mu acwf&JUo½kyf? acwf&JUpepf/ jrefr mjynf rSmawmh ta[mif;tjrif;awGeJY ukdv dkeDa cwfu( Semi -Realism) o½kyfrSe f qef yef;csD enf; tm;ay;rI tydki f;rSm vnf; olwdk UqDrS m orm;½k;d ;us yef; csDausmif;eJ U acwfopfy ef;csDa usmif ; (Acedemy of Art & Museum of Modern Art) &,fvdkY ES pfykd if; cGJxm;w,f/ jywdkufqd k&ifvnf; orm;½dk;us yef;csD jywkdu feJU acwfopfy ef;csDjywd ku f (Museum of Fine Art & Museum of Modern Art ) &,fvdkY ESpfyk dif; &Sd w,f/ olwkdYqDr Smu 'Dvdk ta[mif;eJY topfudk uefYowfxm;w,f/ cJGc GJjcm;jcm; oHk;w,f/ uRefawmfw dkYqDr Sm acwfo pfyef ;csD jywdku f r&Sdb l;/ acwfopf yef;csDausmif; r&Sdbl;/ 'gaMumifh jrefrmjynfrS m acwfrDrI ? wdk;wufrIuk d tm;ray;bl;/ ta[mif;udk odyfBud Kufw,f/ 'Dvdk jzpfvmw,f/ jyyGJawGrSmvnf; acwfopfyef;csDu kd o½kyfysufvdkY (taotcsm rodbJ) pGyfpGJ NyD; vuffr cHbl;/ 'Ddvdkwdk ;wufrIu kd jiif;qefae&if? ½Iwfcsae&if b,fawmh r S wdk;wufrS m r[kwfbl;/ tNrJ ta[mif; wykdufyk dufeJY aerSm yJ/ trSefu uaeY jrefr mjynfrSm wu,fwdk;wufwJh (qHk;jzwfa0zef EkdifpG rf;&S dwJh) yef;csDorm;awG &Sd ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh olwkdU[m tm;ay;rcH&vdkY oH½Hk;rSm pD;yGm;&S m&wJhtjzpf a&mufaew,f/ olwdkY [m jrefrmjynftwGuf acwf r D tEkynmudk wyfqifay;Ed kifolawGyJ? olwk dYukd toHk;csr,fqdk &ifvnf; wpf zuf wpfvrf;u wkd;wufr I jzpfvmrSmyJ/ ck jzpfa ewJh jyóemu pmrwwf olwpfa,muf udk t*Fvdy f0w¬K pmtkyf 0,fckdi f;wmrsKd; jzpfaew,f/ acwfrDr I? wdk;wufrIu dk ruRrf;usif ravhvmwJh avSeH" m;xpfo rm;BuD;awGu acwf r D Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yef;csDu kd qHk; jzwfv mwJhtcg trSm;t,Gif; awG jzpfvma&m/ wkdif; jynf&J U wkd;wufrI rSmvnf ; aESmihfa ES;oGm ;w,f/ ta[mif;eJY topfukd olYae&meJ Uol oHk;&rS myJ jzpfygw,f/ txl;ojzifh tEkynm ( Art) &JU oabmukd awG ;ac:Ekdif zdkY vdktyf aeygw,f/ tEkynm[m taysmft&Tif pdw fat;csrf; rIukd ay;½Hkwifavmuf rubl;/ tEkynmwpf& yf[m acwf&J Upepfu dk ,laqmifvmw,f/ vlrIa&; pdwf" mwf jynfhp HkrIud k em;vnfEk difpG rf;eJ Y wpfqifh xyfr Hwdk;wufa&;uk dyg zefwD;w,f/ tEkynmwpf& yf[m vlr sKd;&JU wkd; wufrI ? wkdif; jynf &JU wkd ;wuf rIr Sm ta&;ygwJhtcsuf wpf& yfvnf; jzpfw ,f/ tEkynm[m 0dZÆmynmeJU odyÜHe nf; usrIudk qufpyfay;wJ h pepfvnf ; jzpfw,f/ 'gawGudk avhvmrI? &if; ESD;rIawGeJY qHk; jzwfE kdifygap/ tEkynm tawG;tac: (Philosophy of Art) wkd;wufrI? tEkynmpepf (System of Art) ajymif ;vJrIawGukd *CeP oduRrf; rS qHk; jzwf ygap/ txifeJY&rf;NyD; qHk ;jzwf w Jh tcgrSm vlrsKd;? wkdif; jynfeJ Y tEkynm&JU wdk;wuf rIrS m tEÅ&m,f jzpfvmw,f/ uRefawmf ajymwmawG[m ydómav;eJ Y ab;ypfovd k jzpf rSmvnf ; pdk;w,f/ 'gaMumifh vl BuD;awG twåudk cGm NyD; pOf ;pm;Munfh Muyg/

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

(2) Aemufjyóem wpf&yf uawmh yef;csD&JU wkd;wufr I t&if;tjrpfyJ/ b,fpepf ? b,foabmw&m;jzpf jzpf jynf oleJY uif;uG mwJhtcgrSm wkd;wuf r I aESmifha ES;w,f/ wkd;wuf rI[mvnf ; rrSefuef bl;qdkw m tEkynmorm; wkdif; odxm;zdk Y vdkygw,f/ yef;csDavmu&J U wkd;wufr I[m jynf olawGeJ Y tnrn jzpfNyD; wdk;wuf&rSmyJ jzpf w,f/ r[kwf&if jynfolawGu yef;csD& JU wkd;wufr Iudk rodb J rsufjcnf jywfoG m;NyD; 0g;vHk;acgif ;xJ vomaewmrsKd; jzpfoG m;r,f/ jynfol UtwGuf yef;csDq dkwmuawmh tvkyform;? v,form;yHk awG qGJ½Hke JY r&ygbl;/ 'DvdkyH kawG[m b,fvdkrS jynfol awGukd tusKd ;rjyKbl;/ yef; csDq&mawG v,fxJqif; NyD; v,fol ryHkawGudk qGJ&ifvnf; 'g[m jynf oleJY ESD ;ET,fwJ h tEkynm jzpfrvmygbl;/ jynfol Uyef ;csDqd kwJh tawG; tac:[m 'Dxufyk dNyD ; av;av;euf euf pOf;pm;zkdYvd kygw,f/ jynfol Uyef; csD[m jynfolawGe JUyef;csD &JU ul;vl;qufqHrI ygyJ/ jynfo l awGu yef;csDukd odvmr,f/ 'D vdk od& Sdtm;ay;rIay:rSm rSDwnf NyD; yef;csDu wdk;wufr,f/ wk d;wufr Iu jynfolawGud k acwf &JUpepfeJ Y tawG; tac:awG ay;vdkufr,f/ 'gudk jynfo lawG&J U em;vnfrI? rsufjcnfrjywfrIe JY odr,f/ wpfz ef yef;csDu xyfrHw dk;wufv mr,f/ 'Dvd kjynf olawGeJ Y ESD; ET,frI [m yef ;csD&J U wdk;wufrIu kd jzpf apr,f/ uaeUyef ;csD[m &efuk efrSm yJ &Sdw ,f/ e,frSm yef;csDum; vH k;0 r&Sdbl;/ 'g[m yef;csD&J U atmufajcvG wfrIy J/ 'gaMumifh yef;csDukd jynfo lawG rodbl;/ tav;teuf rxm;bl;/ wefzdk; rxm;bl;/ 'gaMumifh r0,fbl;/ 'g[m yef;csDo rm;&J U jyóemyJ/ oH½Hk;eJY tvkyf jzpfwmawmh rSe fygw,f/ 'gayr,fh a&&SnfrS m NyD; awmh ppf rSefwJ h wdk;wuf rItwGuf tEkynm cspfwwfw Jh jynf olawG&J U ESpfNcdKuf0,f,lrI[ m ZdrfcHtvS jy0,f, lrIxuf yk drdkwefzdk; &Sdwmukd odzdkY vdk ygw,f/ Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dtykdif;eJU ywfoufv dkU yef;csDjyyGJ vGwfvyf rIvnf; vdkygw,f/ yef;csDo rm;awG uvnf; e,fud kqif; NyD; jyzd kY vdkygw,f/ uaeY yef;csDorm;awG oH½Hk;avmif;&dyfuxGu fNyD ; jynfolawG&JU rsuf ESmud k Munfhzd kY tcsdefyJ/ jrefr mjynfo l awG[m tEkynmeJ Y (txl;ojzifh yef;csDeJY ) uif;uGmaecJhw m MumygNyD/

Typing

Inc ubuz

14


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

(3) aemufwpf csufu yef;csD &JU tawG;tac: (tEk ynm&J U tawG;tac:) wkd;wufrI yJ/ yef;csDorm;wkdif; [m yef ;csDtEky nmqdkw m bmvJv dkY wdwd usus awG;ac:xm;Ek difzd kY vdkw,f/ 'Dv dkawG;ac:rI[mvnf ; wkd;wuf zdkY vd kw,f/ uRefawmfh cH,lcsufuawmh yef;csDtEkynm[m jynf olawGuk d ynmjy&ef r[kwf/ t½dk;om;qH k;aom pepfeJY pdw åZukd ½dkufcwfEk difpG rf; &Sdr IyJ jzpfw,f/ uRefawmfw kdY tawGUtBuHKt& vlwpfa,muf &JU ynmjyrI[mtcspftcif tESpfoufrcH &bJ ½dk;om;pGmwif jyrI [m wu,fyJ ESpf NcdKuf rIudk cH&w,fqd kwm odMurSm ygyJ/ 'g[m tEkynm&J U tiftm;wpf& yfyJ jzpfw,f/ uRefawmfwkd Y[m wpfpHk wpfa,mufudk ynmjyvdkufw,f qdk&if tJ'D wpfpHkwpfa,mufeJU uRefawmf wdkU[m uif;uG moGm;wwfwm awGY&w,f/ uRefawmfwkdY[ m uRefawmfwd kU&J U cHpm;rI? tEkynm qmavmifrIeJ Y odyÜHe nf;us zef wD;rIawGukd ½dk;½dk;om;om; wifjyvdkuf w Jh tcg 'g[m ESpfoufzG, f jzpfoG m;ygw,f/ uRefawmf htaeeJY tEkynmorm;&J U ½dk;om;pGm wif jy Ekd ifpGr f;[m tEkynm&JU wefzdk; yJ/ 'g[m tvIHUaqmf Ekdif pGrf; eJY Munfh½Iol&J U pdwåZudk tcsKyfukdif Ekdif pGrf; &Sdw,fv dkU ,lqw,f/ tEkynmorm;&JU ½dk;om;pG m wifjyrI[m tNrJqef; opfaer,fh wefzdk; yJ jzpfw,f/

cif0 rf; 'DZifbm 1970

Typing

Inc ubuz

15


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

16


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

tcsD; trSefu (Modernism) ukd acwfopf yef; csD 'grSr[kw f yef;csDopfvdk U jyefMuw,f/ 'gayr,fh Munfh½Iol&J U pdwåZukd csKyfukdif Ekdif pGrf; &Sdzd kY tav;teuf xm;wJh enf;vrf;awG jzpfv dkY pdwåZyef;csD vdkY emrnfay;vd kufw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

17


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

uAsmwpfyk 'f?wa,mwpfvuf eJY uacsonfw pfa,muf vlawG[m uAsmwpfyk 'fukd zwfNyD ; ESpf NcdKufMuw,f/ wa,m wpfvuf&J U aw;oGm;av;wpfausmhukd cHp m;Muw,f/ uacsonfwpfa,muf&J U uBudK;eJYtwl vGifharsmwwfMuw,f/ bmaMumifhvJ/ b,fvlom;jzpf jzpf tEkynm wpf &yf&yf&J U EId;qGrI rSm vGif harsmzdkY toifhyJ/ tEkynm&JU enf ;emtoG,fo G,fwkdi f;rSm cHp m;Muw,f/ bmaMumif h vlawG[m tEkynmukd cH pm;MuwmvJ/ bmaMumifh ESpfouf cHkrifMuwmvJ/ bmaMumifh tEkynm&JU zefwD;rIawG[m vlo m;awGukd pd k;rdk ;Ekdi fwmvJ/ 'gukd ajz&Sif;zkdY uRefawmfw kdY vkdtyfw,f/ tEkynm&JU pGrf;&nfudkod r S pdwåZyef; csD&J U jyóemukd ajz&Sif;Ekdifr Smrdk UvdkY yJ/ vlawG[m t&omqdkwJh oabmukd bmaMumifhESp fouf cH krifw mvJ/ 'grSr[kwf tEk ynmwpf&yf& yf[m bmaMumifh vlawGudk zrf; csKyf Ekdif pGrf; &SdwmvJ qdkwm uRefawmfwkd Y pOf;pm; Munfh&atmif/ 'Dae&mrSm uRefawmfw kdY av;av;eufe uf em;vnfcH, lxm;zd kYu uRefawmfw kdY vlom;tm;vHk ;[m ywf0ef; usif (obm0)&JUtwGi f;rSm &Sifo ef aexkdif&w,f/ 'Dywf0ef;usif (obm0) eJY puúefY rjywf qufqHu l;vl; ae&NyD; 'Dywf0ef;usif &JU ½dkufcwfr Iudk tqufrjywfcHa e&w,fqd kwJh taMumif;w&m;yJ/ qdk&S,fvpf awG;ac:&Sif tdef *s,fu –

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18


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

tEky#davmru obm0udk t&m0w¬KawGeJY tjz pftysufawG[m wpfckeJ Uwpfc k rqufroG, fbJ? wpfc keJYwpfck rSDc dktm;xm; raebJ? rawmfwq pkyHkjzpfysu faew,fv dkY r,lqbJ wpfckeJ Ywpfck quf pyf aew,f/ pkpnf ;aew,f/ t&m0w¬KeJY tjzpftysuf awG[m twGif ;oabmeJ Y qufpyf rSDcd kaew,f/ wpfckudkw pfcku qHk ;jzwf aew,fvd kU ,lqw,f/ (pwmvif tEky#davmr½kyf0g') vkdY a&;om;cJhw,f/ pwmvif &JU pmydk'fxJ u t&m0w¬KeJ Y tjzpf tysufawG[m wpfc kudkwpfck qHk; jzwfa ew,fvdk Y ,lqw,fqdkw Jh pmaMumif ;[m obm0&JU quf pyfaerIrSm ta&;ygwJ h taMumif;w&m;wpf&yfy J/ uRefawmfw kdUawG [m obm0twG if;rS m &SdwJh ypönf;awGyJ/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmfw dkY awG[m uRefawmfwk dY tcsif;csif;a&m? obm0w&m; eJYa&m? wjcm; obm0twGif;u ypönf;awG eJYa&m qufET, frDSwnf aeNyD; wpfc ku wpfck u dk tqHk;tjzwf ay;aew,f/ 'g[myJ uRefawmfw kdY vlom;awG &JU tEkynmcH pm;wwf r I tm½Hk&JU taMumif; &if;cHjzpfw,f/ uRefawmfw kdYeJY obm0[m quf ET,faew,f/ 'gaMumifh obm0u uRefawmfw dkUud k qHk;jzwfay;NyD; uRef awmfwk dY vlom;awG u obm0ukd jyefNyD; qHk;jzwfw,f/ 'Dvdk tnrnqufp yfaerI awG[m uRef awmfwk dY&J U tm½HkcHpm;rI u kd ESpfaygif; rsm;pGm ½dkufcwfoGe foifc Jhw,f/ obm0rSm bmawG&Sd NyD; uRef awmfwk dYudk bmawG oG efoifc hJovJ/ 'g[m t"duuswJh ar;cGef ;wpfck yJ/ 'Dar;cGef; jyóemudk &Sif;vif; oGm;wJhtcgrSm uRefawmfwdkUvlom;awG[m tEkynmtay:rS m cHkr ifESp fouf &wJhtaMumif;&if ;om ay:vmrS myJ/ obm0rSm bmawG &SdovJ qdkw meJU ywfoufNyD; vDeifu –

Typing

Inc ubuz

19


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

obm0w&m;rSm a&G Uvsm;aewJh ½kyf j'yfawGyJ&S dw,f/ 'D½kyfj' yf awG[mvnf; umveJY tmumoxJr SmuvGJ vdkY wnf&S dvdkYr &bl;/ (vDeif pk aygif;usr f; twGJ 4) vdkY a&;cJhw ,f/ vDeifqdkv dkwmu uRefawmfwd kY vlom;tm;vHk;eJ Y obm0 w&m;BuD ; wpfckvHk;[m umveJY tmumoqdkwJ h tpDtpOfBuD;xJ rSm wnf&Sda ewm jzpfw,f/ umveJUtmumooabmw&m;ukd vif;vif; wif jycJ hw,f/

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20


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

oabmeJTwG ifru umvqdkwJ htcsdefoabmvnf;&Sdw,f/ pmtky fwpftkyf ae&mrSm pmtkyfwpftky fudk xm;vdkY &wm tcsdefoabmaMumifhyJ jzpfw ,f/ pmtkyfwpftkyf&J U ae&mrSm aemufwpftkyf xm;r,fqdk& if yxrpmtkyfu dk a&TU&OD;r,f/ NyD;rS xm;vdkY &r,f/ 'Dvdka &TUzdkYeJY xm;zd kYtwGuf tcsd ef (umv) r&S dvdkY r&bl;/ 'gav;udk ayghaygh awG;&ifawmh &,fp&myJ/ uRefawmf wdkY&JU obm0rS m tcsdefqdkwm[m t&m&mudk nDnGwfatmif zefwD;ay;aew,f qdkwm bmrS r[kw fovdkyJ/ 'gayr,fh uRefawmfw kdU&JU obm0twGi f;rSm tcsde f&JU wpf orwfwnf ; a&GUvsm;rIomr&Sd& if uRefawmfw kdU&JU &yfwnfrI[m vHk ;0 jzpf Ekdif rSm r[kwfb l;/ 'g[m &Sif;jyzkdY awmfawmfc ufw,f/ umveJY tmumo&JU oabm[m pdwåZemrfawG jzpfaeavawmh ukd,fwdk ifrpOf;pm;&if em;vnf zdkY rvG,f bl;/ tJ'Dawmh uRefawmfwkdYawG[m umveJ Y tmumoqdkwJh qufp yf nDnGwfrIawG xJrSm touf &Sif aexkdif Muw,f/ 'Doabmw&m;uvnf; uRefawmf wdkYukd ½dkufcwfa ew,f/ uRefawmfw dkY&J U tm½Hkukd pdwåZemrfawG jzpfay:apw,f/ nDnGwfrI ? jynfhpH krI? tpDtpOfusrI? wpfvSn fhpD jzpfay:rI? wjznf;jznf; jzpfa y:rI? tav;csdefukd ufrI pwJh pdwåZemrfawGudk jzpfay:apw,f/ obm0&J U ukd,fykd i f jzpf&yfawGrS m 'DpdwåZ emrfawG tjynfht0&S dw,f/ vlawG[m 'Dp dwåZemrfawGeJ U obm0rSm&S dwJh tjzpftysufawG ypönf;awGu kd jyefNyD; qHk; jzwfjyefw,f/ obm0w&m;&J U a&G;cs,f rIeJY Choice tvdktavsmuf jzpfay:rI Chance awGudk vlawG[m tNrJr jywf BuH KawGUae&w,f/ puúefYrvyf BuHKawGY ae&w,f/ tJ'D a&G;cs,frIeJ Ytvdktavsmuf jzpf ay:rI ChanceawG u dk vlawG[m ukd, fykdi fpdwåZemrf ('guvnf ; obm0w&m;&J U xif[yfcsuftjzpf uRefawmfw ifjycJhjcif; jzpfw,f) awGeJY qHk ;jzwf Muw,f/ a&G;cs,fr I Choice qdkwmu vlawG&J U vkyfudki fzefwD ;rIawG yJ/ 'g[m jyKvky fol&J U OD;aESmuf eJYom oufqkdif w,f/ tvdktavsmuf jzpfa y:rI Chance uawmh obm0tavsmuf jyKvkyo f l&JU OD;aES mufeJY roufqkd ifbJ jzpfay: Typing

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21


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

vmwmawG jzpfw,f/ Oyrmtm;jzih f vlwpfa,muf&J U ukd,fcE¨ m tcsKd;tpm;eJY rsufESm½kyfw kdY[m tvdktavsmuf jzpfay:rI jzpfNyD ; qif,if xHk;zG JYrIuawmh a&G;cs,fr I ChoiceyJ jzpfw,f/ 'Do abmES pfckvk H;udk vl awG[m obm0&J U wHkUjyef r I pdwåZemrfawGeJY qH k;jzwfMuw,f/ 'DvdkqHk; jzwf Mu&mrSm vlom;awG &JU tm½HkcHt*FgawGjzpfwJh em;? rsufp d? ESmacgif;eJY vQmwd kYuwpfq ifh twGif;rodpdwf (pdwåZ) u aeNyD; puúefYrvyf qHk;jzwfaew,f/ 'gukd pdwåaA'orm;awGawmh em;vnfEkd if rSmygyJ/ uRefawmfw kdY jrefrmvlrsKd ;awG[m jref rmh,Of aus;rI &JU ½dkufcwfjcif; cH&w,f/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmfw dkY&J U twGif;rodpdwf rSm jrefr mh,Ofa us;rI pdwåZ jzpfay:aew,f/ 'Djref rmh,Of aus;rI pdw åZeJY uRef awmfwk dYu qHk;jzwfw,f/ uRefawmfw kdU ,Ofaus;rIeJYrwlwJh Oa&my,Ofaus;rI qdk&if uRefawmfwdkY rBud Kuf Mubl;/ 'DoabmyJ/ cyf&Si f;&Si f;ajym&&if Ak'¨bmom&JU ,Ofaus;rI obm0 ½dkufcwfrIudk cHae&wJ h Ak'¨b mom0ifawG[m Ak'¨bmom&J U rleJY yJ Munf hwwfw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Ak'¨bk& m;udk 0wf rjyK&if rBud Kufbl;/ c&pf, mefvnf ; 'DvdkyJ/ rGwfpvifv nf; 'Dvdk yJ/ 'g[m vlawG&JU pdwåZ[m ywf0 ef;usifobm0&JU ½dkufcwfrIe JY xyfw l t&m&mudk jyef NyD; qHk ;jzwfwwfw,fq dkwJh taMumif; Oyrmav;awGyJ/ obm0&J U ½dkufcwfrIuawmh 'Dxuf ykdNyD; tEkpd wfusw,f/ arG ;uwnf;u aoqHk;MuwJhtxd puúefYrvyf ½dkufcwfEkd ifwm obm0yJ &Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh vlawG[m obm0&JU t&nftcsif;awGjzpfwJ h nDnGwfrI ? jynf hpHkr I? tpDtpOfuserI ? wpfvSn fhpD jzpfa y:rI? wjznf; jznf; jzpfa y:rI? tav;csd e f ukdufnDrI pwJh pdw åZemrf awGeJY qH k;jzwfMuw,f/ tJ'Doabm w&m;awG &Sd& if ESpfoufw,f/ r&Sd&if rESp foufMubl;/ cyfyk yk trsKd ;orD;eJY cyf &Snf&S nf trsKd;om; wpfa,muf wGJ oGm;&if rvdku fbl;vdk Ya0zefMur,f/ ESpfouf MurSm r[kwfbl;/ nDnGwfrIe JY tav;csdefu kdufrI r&Sdvdk U pdwåZu vufcH rSm r[kwf bl;/ Typing

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22


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

tEkynmqdkwm[m obm0&J U ypönf;wpfckyJ/ obm0xJu obm0av; wpfckyJ/ tEkynmobm0yJ/ obm0xJr Sm jzpfa y:aewJh zefwD ;rI awGyJ/ 'gawGudkvnf; uRefawmfw dkYu wjcm;obm0enf;wl obm0 pdwåZ eJY qHk;jzwfoHk;oyfrSm yJ/ tEkynmqdkwm[m obm0twGif ;rSm&SdwJh t&dyfta,mifawGu kd obm0 ykdrkdusvmatmif zef wD;olu zef wD;xm;wJh obm0awG yJ jzpfw,f/ Oyrm - aw;*Dw/ uRefawmfwdkYw pfawG[m pm;yG Jukd vuf eJY rawmfwq ½dkufrdw,f/ "m;oGm;csif;ckwfrd Muw,f/ a&xJ ausmuf cJ wpfvHk; usoGm;w,f/ tJ'DtcgrSm toHawG jzpfay:vmw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'gawG[m tpDtpOfr usebl;/ rnDnGwb f l;/ rajyjypfbl ;/ obm0pdw åZemrf awG r&S dbl;/ 'gaMumifh vl awGu 'Dt&dyfta,mif oHawGuk d rawmfwq xGufwJh toHrsKd ;r[kwfb J ydkrdk aumif ;rGef w Jh enf;eJY toHxGufatmif vkyf Muw,f/ tJ'Dvdk zefwD;rIawG jyKvk yfwJh tcgrSm 'DzefwD; rIawGr Sm obm0&J U pdwåZemrftm;vHk; ygatmif zefwD; Muw,f/ 'DzefwD; rI awG[m nDnGwfw,f/ jynf hpHkw,f/ tpDtpOfusew,f/ wpfvSnfhp D jzpfa y:rI? wjznf; jznf; jzpfay:rIawGygw,f/ tav;csdef ukdufn Dw,f/ 'gaMumifh zefwD; rI awG[m vlawG &JU pdwåZtm½HkwGukd ½dkufcwfrI tm;aumif;NyD; vlawG u kd zrf;csKyfEkd ifpGr f; &Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh tEkynm&yfawGudk tm½HkcHpm;zdkY vl awGu ESpfouf rufa rmMuwmyJ jzpfw,f/ tEkynmqdkwm obm0rSm&SdwJh t&dyfta,mif awGukd ykdr dk nDnGw f ajyjypfNyD; obm0&JU pdwåZemrft&nftcsif;awG &Sdvmatmif zefwD;wJh pepf y J jzpfw,f/ tEkynm[m obm0ukd xyfwlul ;,lrI twwfynmr[kwfbl;/ zefwD; rI 0dZÆmynmyJ jzpfw,f/ 'Dtcsufuk d av;av;eufeuf oabmaygufzdkY vdkw,f/ tEkynm[m xyfwlul ;,lrI twwfynm r[kw fbl;/ zefwD;rI twwfynmom jzpfw,f/ ykdrd k jynfhpH knDnGwf atmif zefwD; rIom jzpfw,f/obm0rSm&Sd w Jh Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

t&dyfta,mifawG ukdwky NyD; ykdrd kjynfhpHkw Jh pepfwpfc kudk zefwD;wmyJ jzpfw,f/ obm0rSm toH&Sdw,f/ tJ'gudk wkyNyD; ydkrdk jynf hpHkw Jh? nDnGwfwJh aw;*Dw udk zJGUw,f/ obm0rSm ouf&Sda wG&J U ukd,fv uft*Fg vIyf& Sm;rI &Sdw,f/ 'gawGu kd tEkynmu xyfw lul;rcsbl;/ tJ'D t&dy fta,mifud k ydkr dk nDnGw f jynfhpHk atmif zefwD;NyD; uBud K;uuGuft jzpf zef wD;Muw,f/ tEkynmqdkwm obm0xJr Smvlom;awGu jrifMum;ae&wJh obm0&J U pepfawGud k ydkrdkn DnGwf jynfhp Hkatmif zefwD;wJh pepf jzpfvd kU awGYxd jrifMum;rIr Sm vlom;awGE Spfouf cHpm;Muwmjzpfw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

24


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

25


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

Inc ubuz

26


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

tEkynm&yfw kdif; rSm tenf;qHk; ud &d,mES pfck a'G;oabm yg0ifwmudk Munfh&if tEkynm&J U tiftm;[m tEky#davmryJqd kwm odomEk dif vmw,f/ bmaMumifhvJqd kawmh {uoabmrSm tEky#davmr[m aysmufu G,f oGm;vdk UyJ/ 'gaMumifh tEkynmwpf& yf&J U t"dut&nftaoG;[m tEky#d avmryJ jzpfw,f/ tEkynmqdki f&m tEky#davmr[m [if;wpfcGuf csufyH kudk uRefawmfw kdY avhvmMunf h&if xifxif&S m;&S m; awGY&w,f/ [if;csufw mukd uRefawmfwk dYu ayghayghav;yJ oabmxm;w,f/ edpö"l0 awGYBuHKae&wmrdkY [if;wpfcGu f[m odyfta&;rBuD;bl;vdkY xifMuw,f/ trSe fu [if; csuf wm[mvnf; yef;csDqGJw m? uAsmpyfw mvdk tEkynmwpf&yfu kd zefwD;wmyJ/ yef;csDw pfcsyf[m pu©Ktm½Hku wpfqihf vlY&J U pdwåZukd vIHUaqmfovdk [if; wpfrnf[mvnf ; vl&JU &otm½Hkuwpfqifh vIH Uaqmfw myJ/ ol[mvnf; tEkynmwpf&yf&JU enf ;emOya' twdkif; zefwD; &wmyJ jzpfw,f/ tJ'Dawmh tEkynmwpf &yf jzpfwJ h [if;csufr IuaeNyD; tEky#davmrukd uRefawmfwdkY avhv mMunf h&atmif/

tEkynm&J U

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27


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

nHhoGm;r,f/ csOfaygif& Gufwpf pnf;udk jyKwf NyD; tEky #davmrusatmif qm;eJYig;yd u kd xnfhay;Ed kif&if 'g[m[if;aumif; wpfcGuf jzpfv mrSmyJ/ 'gaMumifh [if;wpf cGuf&J U t"duvu©Pm[m ukefMurf;uk d tEky#davmr uspGm a&mpyfEkd ifrI 0dZÆ mynmyJ/ tEky#davmruspGm a&mpyfE kdifr Iqdkwmu tMurf;tm;jzifh yg0ifw Jh ukefMurf; tcsif;csif;&J U 0da&m"dawGudk aygif ;pnf; Ekdif rIoabmyJ/ [if;vsm wpfck u dk csufwJhtcgrSm tom;&JU tcsKd&,f? tqD&JU tqdrfh ? qm;pwJh [if;cwfy pönf;&J U tief&,f olwdkUawGukd nDnGwfp Gm aygif;pnf; Ekdif rIyJ/ &Sif;&S if;ajym&&if [if;vsmwpfckrS m ukefMurf;tjzpf oHk;wJ h tcsOfeJYttD? tcsKde JY tcg;? tpyfe JY tqdrfhpwJh 0da&m"dawG &Sdr,f/ ta&;BuD;wmu tJ'D 0da&m"dawGukd nDnGwf atmif aygif;pnf;Ekdifz dkYyJ/ [if;csufo l tEkynm&S if[m [if ;ukd jrnf;prf ;r,f? xyfjznfhr,f/ jrnf;prf;r,f ? xnfhjznfh r,fponf jzihf vdktyfovdk tBudrfBudrf jyKvky f r,f/ aemufqHk; rSm [if; vsm[myg0ifwJh uke fMurf ;awGeJ Y tEky#davmr uswJh tqifhwpfcku dk a&mufoGm ;r,f/ 'DtqifhrSm [if; vsm&J U ukefMurf; awG[m jynfhp HkwJh tajctaeudk a&mufa eNyD/ 'Dtqifh[ m [if;vsmwpfck &J U tEky#davmr usrItwGuf ta&;BuD; wJh tqihfyJ/ [if;vsm[m jynfh pHkrItqifh a&mufwmeJ Y zefwD;rI [m NyD; pD;oG m;w,f/

csufjyKwfol &JU tEk ynm

'Djynf hpHkrItqihfqdkw m bmvJ/ jynfhp HkrIqk dwm yg0ifwJh uk efMurf;awG& JU rvkdr ydkwJ htajctaeyJ/ tJ' D tajctaerS 0da&m"dawG[m nDrQpGm 'GefwG JrdNyD; yg0ifwJh b,fuke fMurf ; udkyJjzpfjzpf xnfhjznf hp&mvnf; rvdk? xyfEk wfp&mvnf;rvd kwJh tajc taeyJ/ 'Dtajctae[m [if;vsmwpfck&J U a&mpyfrI b0rsKd;rSm wpfckwnf;yJ &Sdw,f/ pmtky fwpftkyf e JY a&;rSwfvd kY r&bl;/ Typing

Inc ubuz

28


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

teD;qHk; Oyrmjy&if EGm;Ek dYusKdw Jhtcg EGm;EkdY &,f? oMum;&,f ? a&&,f a&musKd Muw,f/ 'Dvd k a&mpyf&mrSm EkdYenf ;&if tqdr fhenf; r,f/ oMum;enf;&if tcsKdenf;r,f/ a&enf;&ifvnf ; tcsKdav; (tayghaygh) aer,f/ EGm;EkdYrsm;&ifv nf; tqdrfhrsm;NyD; oMum;rsm;&ifvnf; tcsKd rsm;oGm;r,f/ a&rsm;wmawmh b,fol r S rBudKuf Muygbl;/ 'DoH k;ck[ m wpfck udk wpf ck xdef ;odrf; (qefYusif)aewJh tajctaewpfck rSm EGm ;EkdY[ m aomufvk dY taumif;qHk;yJ/ 'g[m EGm;EkdY& JU jynfhpHk r I tajctaeyJ/ 'DtajctaerSm bmrSx yfEkw f 'grSr[kwf xyfjznfhvkdY r&awmhbl;/ oMum;xyfxnfh&ifvnf; tcsKdrsm;oGm;r,f/ 'g[m a&mpyfrI tEky #davmrudk ysufpD;aprSmyJ/ xyfEkwf&ifvnf; raumif;awmhbl;/ 'Doabmobm0ukd b,f u@rSmyJ Munf hMunf h awGY&rS myJ/ tck ajymcJhwJ h 0da&m"d rsm; aygif;pnf;rIr Sm taustvnf aqG;aEG;zdk U us,fus,fjyefY jyefY wif jy&r,fh tydkif; awG &Sdygw,f/ yg0ifude f;awG& JU tcsKd;ygyJ/ ckeu Oyrm jyef aumuf& if EGm;Ek dY&,f ?a&&,f ? oMum;&,f a&m&mrSm olwdkYtm;vHk ; 'GefwG J (qefYusif) aewhJ tajctaewpfck &Sdw,f/ tJ'D tajctaerSm ukefMurf;awG a&maygif;rI ( tEkynmypönf; ) [m vl Y&JU tm½HkcHt*Fg (pdwåZtm½Hk) ukd tEId;qGqHk; yJ/ tcsKyfukdi fEkdi fqHk;yJ/ 'gayr,fh 'Dvdk 'GefwG Jaeatmif (nDrQpG m aygif;pnf; rI qdkwJh oabm[m b,fvdktajctaevJvdkY qef;ppfv dkvmw,f/ EG m;Ekd U&,f ? a&&,f ? oMum;&,f&J U pGrf;tm;[m wpf ckeJ Uwpfck nDr Qae&r,f? xdef;od rf;ae&r,fqdk wJhoabmudk EGm;Ekd UwpfZG ef;? a&wpfZGef; ? oMum;wpfZ Gef; 'Dvdk xnfhw m[m nDrQrI yJvm;/ yef;csD rSmqdk &ifvnf ; tyla&mif (teDqdk ygawmh) udk 25 pwk &ef;vuf r oHk;&if tat;a&mif (tjymEkqd kygawmh) udk 25 pwk&ef;vuf ryJ oHk;&r,fvm;/ 'Dv kd apm'u wufp&m &Sdw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm uke fMurf ;wpfck &JU yg0ifudef ;[m 2 rsKd; 2 pm; &Sdaewmudk uRefawmfw dkY owdxm;&r,f/ Typing

Inc ubuz

29


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

1/ t&nftcsif; 2/ ta&twGuf 'Dvkd 2 rsKd; 2 pm; &Sdaer,f/ Oyrmtm;jzih f EkdY[ modyfr csKdbl ;? tcsKdx kxnf enf;w,f/ EkdY &JU yg0ifudef ; t&nftcsif;tm;jzihf enf ;w,f/ 'gaMumifh t&nftwGufBuD; BuD;vd kw,f/ oMum;uawmh odyfc sKdw,f/ yg0if udef;taeeJY t&nftcsif; BuD;w,f/ 'gaMumif h t&nftwGuf avQmhay; &r,f/ 'g[m odyÜHoabmt& uke fMurf ;udk tMurf; zsif; n§dE Idif; rIyJ/ 'gukd nDrQjcif;eJY a&;&if ��� aA + bB + cC = K

t&nftcsif;/Capital letteru t&nf twGuf/ K uawmh aygif;pyfr I&JU jynfhpHk rI tajctaeyJ/ 'gudk ½lyaA'&J U tm;vnfudef;rsm; ed,mrrSm txift&Sm; awGY&w,f/ Small LetterawGu

tEkynmwpf& yf&J U odyÜHoabm[m tm;vnfudef ; ed,mryJ/ enf;enf; yg;yg; &Sif;jycsif ygw,f/

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Typing

Inc ubuz

30


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yHk - tm;vnfu def;&JU aygif;pnf; rI[m b eJY B&J U aygif;pnf;rI e JY nDrQwJhtcgrSm vnfcsuf[ m K rS myJ &S dvmNyD; tm;vnfudef; &JU &yfwnfr I[m cdkifrmvmr,f/ 'Dvdk cdk ifrmpGm &yfwnfEkdi fzdkY tm;&J U vnfudef ;[m qefYusifa ewJhtm;ESpfck &JU tEk y#davmr uspG m aygif;pnf;rIu dk &,l &w,f/ tm; A [m wkwfwHud k em&DvufwHeJY ajymif;jyef vnfa pNyD ; tm; B [m wkwfwH u dk em&Dvufw H twkdif; vnfapw,f/ ½lyaA'rSm em&Dvuf wHtwkdif; vnfwJhtm;ukd (-) tEkwfvu©Pm owfr SwfNyD; em&D vufwHeJ Y ajymif;jyefvnfw Jhtm;udk (+) taygif;vu©PmeJY yl;wG J azmfjyw,f/ tJ'DtcgrSm nDrQjcif;uk d 'Dvdk a&;Ekdifw,f/ a A + (-b B) = K

wu,fvdkYa AeJU b B[m nDrQaer,fqd k&if olwk dUtcsif ;csif; acsNyD ; K&JU &yfwnfrI[ m okn(0) jzpfo Gm;r,f/ 'Dvdk (+) eJY (-) qef YusifbufawG yl;aygif;rI[m b,f&yf wnfrIr Smrqd k rkcsawGY &rSm yJ/ &yfwnfrIw kdif; rSm qefYu sifbufawG yl;aygif; rI &Sd&rSmyJ/ qefYusifbufawG&J U yl;aygif;rIqdkwmuvnf; uRefawmf wif jycJhovdk t&nftcsif;eJY t&nftwGuf vkd ufavsm nDr QpGm yl;aygif;rI yJ/ yef;csDw pfcsyfrSm uRefawmfwkdYu teD a&mif eJY tjymEkuk d yl;aygif;r,f/ teDa&mifeJ Y tjym[m qefYu sifbufta&mifawG yJ/ tJ'D ta&mifawG&J U tiftm;ukd nDrQpGm yl; aygif;wJhtcgrS m ta&mifawG &JU tiftm;[m xkxnf nDnDrQrQeJY xdef;odr f;xm;NyD; wpfck pD[m ykdrd ktm;aumif;vmr,f/ 'Dvdk yl;aygif;zkdY Oyrmtm;jzihf teDu ykdNyD; awmuf w,f? &ifhw ,f? ta&mif t&nftcsif ;rSm rsm;w,fqdk& if olYukdavsmhwJh? ta&miftm;aysmhwJh tjymEku dk ykdNyD; xkxnfrsm;rsm;oHk;/ tjymEkeJY rS rvHkavmufw Jhtcg olYukd tm;ay;wJh tpdrf ;Eka&mifvdk ? rdk; jyma&mifv kd[mrsKd;eJ U xyfNyD; xd ef;ay;/ 'Dvdk yef;csD orm;u ta&mifawG&JU aygif ;pyfr I tiftm;udk zefwD;r,f/ Typing

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31


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dvkd qefYusifbufawGu dk yl;aygif;wJhtcgrSm t&nftcsif; eJY t&nftwGufudk rQwpG m toHk;jyKr,f/ yef; csDwpf csyfr Sm qefYu sifbuf (0da&m"d) oabmawG[m b,fawmh rSajy;rvGw fbl;/ wu,fawmh yef;csD wpfcsyfrS mygwJh ta&mif&,f ? j'yfx k&,f[m t&mra&mufbl;/ Mum;cH oufouf yJ/ 'gawGu kd aygif;pnf;Ekdifr I? 0da&m"daygif; rsm;pGmukd aygif;pnf; Ekdif rI[m yef; csDwpf csyf&J U t"ducsKyfuk difEk difrItm;yJ/ 0da&m"da ygif;pnf ;rI[m yef;csDwpfc syf&J U tiftm;aumif;rItwGu f t"du tcsufjzpfo vdk tEkynmwk dif;&JU tiftm;aumif;rItwGu f t"du tcsuf jzpfw,f/ yef;csDw pfcsyf&JU tiftm;aumif;rIukd ydk NyD; xdef ;odrf; Ekdif pGrf; &Sd wmu pGrf;&nf a&G;cs,frIy J? pGrf;&nfa&G; cs,frI [m tEky#davmr usrI&J U t"du tcsuf jzpfw,f/ tEkynmwpf&yfu dk zefwD;wJhtcgrSm tEkynmorm;[m yxrqHk; rlvukef Murf;ukd ta&twGufa&m t&nftcsif;yg owfrSwf NyD; zefwD;w,f/ NyD;wJhtcg tJ'Dr lvukef Murf; eJY nDnGw faxmuf yhHwJh (Hermonising) 'kw d,? NyD; wwd,?pwkw ¬pwJh tqif hqihf axmufyH hrIuke fMurf;awGud k tEky#davmr userIabmif twGif;u a&G;cs,fz dkUyJ/ 'kwd,? wwd,pwJh axmufyHh rI ukefMurf; awG[m rlvukefMurf;eJ Y tEky#davmr usaezdkY ta&; BuD;w,f/ rlv ukefMurf;awGud k tm;aumif; rSmzd kY tNrJaxmufyhHul nDae&r,f/ 'DvdkpGr f;&nfa &G;cs,frIukd uRefawmfwkdY [if ;csufw myJ &Si f;&Si f; vif;vif; Oyrm ay;Ek difw,f/ Muufom;[if;csufwJh tcgrSm rlv ukef Murf;tjzpf Muufom;uk d xm;NyD; csufw,f/ 'gayr,fh Muufom;udk a&eJY csufvkdu f&if [if ;vsm[m od yfNyD; tm;raumif;vSbl;/ 'gaMumifh [if;vsm&J U tm;aumif; rI twGuf axmuf y Hh ukefMurf;awG xyffx nfhzd kY vdkvmw,f/ uRefawmfw dkU[m tawG UtBuHK &JU ½dkufc wfrIt& axmufyHhr Iukef Murf;ukd toHk;jyKMurSm yJ/ axmufyH hrIuke fMurf;[m wpf cgwpf&Hr Sm a'oqdk i&f m oufouf Typing

Inc ubuz

32


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

jzpfaewwfw,f/ a,bk,s NcHKiHka jym&&if Muufom;[if;&JU axmufyH hrI ukefMurf; tjzpf MuufoGe feD? Muuf oGef jzLeJ Y i½kwfoD;ukd oHk;r,f/ qDudkvnf ; oHk;&r,f/ rqvmudkvnf ; oHk;Ekdif w,f/ 'gawG[m rlv ukefMurf;awGud k tiftm;aumif;zdkY aqmif&Gu fr,fhaxmufyH hrIuke fMurf;awG jzpfw,fv dkY jrefr mjynf a'oqdk if&mrSm trsm;uvufcH Muw,f/ 'gayr,f h bmvdk U rqvmxnfh NyD; axmufyHh Ekdif w Jh Muufom;[if;udk refu snf;oD; rSnfhw kdU? yJig;ydwdkYxnfhNyD; axmufyHh rI ray;Ekd i f wmvJ/

yDumqdkud k,fwdk ifa&;yHkwl

Typing

Inc ubuz

Picasso - Self Portrait (1901)

33


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

uRefawmf tMurf;zsif; ajymEk difwmu 'Dvdka xmufyH hrI[m tEky#davmr rusbl;vdkY uRefawmfwkdY tawGYtBuHKu oifa y;xm;vdkYygyJ/ uRefawmfwkd Y[m obm0 ywf0ef;usif&J U oifMum;rIatmufrS m touf&SifBuD; xGm;vm&w,fqd kwm arhvdkYr jzpfb l;/ aemufNyD; Muufom;&JU axmufyH hrI? ukef Murf;tjzpf axmufyhH Ekdif avh&Sdw Jh rqvm[m ig;pG yfjyKwfeJY a&m tEky#davmr usus aygif;pnf;Ekd if&J Uvm;qd kwm pOf;pm;Munfh zdkY vdkygw,f/ ig;pGyfjyKwf&J U axmufyhH rIuke fMurf ;[m a&Smuf &Gufwdk Y? i½kwfaumif;rIefYwd kYyJ jzpf w,f/ 'Dtwkdif;yJ qDwkd Y? yJwdkY ? ig;ydwdkY&J U rlvukef Murf; eJY tEky#davmr usrIqdkif &m a&G;cs,fjcif; awGvnf ; &Sdao;w,f/ tpu jyefaumuf&atmif/ Oyrm ay;cJhovd k ([if ;csufr I) wu,fw rf; wifjyrSmu tEkynm/ uJ - [if;csufrI tEky nmukd tEk ynm qdkw Jh abmifx J oGif;NyD; jyefaumufEkwf csufcsvdkuf& if tEkynmwpf&yf zefwD;zdk Y pGrf;&nfa &G;cs,f r I qdkwm[m ta&;BuD ;w,f/ wa,mcyfcRJ cRJeJ Y wD;wJh tvGrf;aw;wpf yk'fr Sm axmufyHh rItjzpf vif;uG if;wkdY ? a&Tbd kpnf wd kY oHk;vd kY rjzpfbl;/ 'd k;ywfoH v dk cyfNrd Kif NrdKifrsKd ;rS 'Dvdka xmufy HhrI[m tm;aumif;apw,f/ aemufNyD; 0da&m"drsm;aygif; pnf;rI[ m ta&;BuD; w,f/ taemuf Edkif iHu qifzdkeD wD;0d kif;awG rSm 'Dvdka ygif;pnf ;rI[m xif&S m;w,f/ tiftm; enf;wJh wa,mvdk wl&d,mrsKd;[m rsm;w,f/ wpfcgwpf&HrS m opfom; avrIw f ud&d,mawGu dk ydkNyD;tm;aumif;atmif zefwD ;w,f/ tm;enf;rI? tm;BuD;rIawG u dk a&marTaygif ;pyfavh &Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh tEk ynmwpf&yf (b,ftEkynmyJ jzpfjzpf) &JU vl Utm½Hkukd EId ;qG csKyfukd ifEkd ifrI pGrf; &nf[m tEk ynm&J U tEky#davmr usaerItay:rS m wnfw,f/ tEky#davmr usrIu uif;uGmav tEkynm[m tm;enf;avyJ/ tEky#davmr usrIrSmvnf; t"dutjzpf pGrf;&nfa&G;cs,frIe JY 0da&m"drsm; nDnGwfp Gm aygif;pnf;Ekdifr I qdkwJh u@ESpfck &Sdw ,f/ 'DESpfcke JY nDnGwfae&if tEkynm Typing

Inc ubuz

34


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

tm;aumif;vmrSmyJ/ tEkynm&J U b,fu@ukdyJ jzpf jzpf 'Dtwkdi f; oHk;oyfw,f/ yef;csD yef;yk? uAsm? tqkd? aw;oGm ;? uBudK; tukef vHk; 'DtEky#davmreJY yJ qHk;jzwf&rSm yJ/ tEkynm&JU u@wcsKd Uukd tEk y#davmroabmeJU avhvmMunf h &atmif/ pE´&m;wpfvkH ;udk wD;w,f/

tao;pdw f

yxr cvkwfwpfc kpDud k vufn§dK;wpfacsmif;wnf; oHk; NyD; ES dyfw,f/ oHpOfwpf ckudk qd kygawmh/ avcsKdaoG;um 'Dvkdy Jjzpfjzpf ESdy fMunfh vdkufw,f/ 'Dv dk wD;vdkY em;axmif aumif;yghr vm;/ wl&d,mud&d,mrdkY toHwke fcgEIef ;awG nDnGwfaevd kY em;axmifvdkY awmh aumif;rSmaygh/ 'gayr,fh jynfh jynfh pHkpH k r&SdvSb l;/ tJ'Dawmh vufig;acsmif;ukd oHk;NyD;wD; r,f/ enf;enf ;awmh toH pHkvmw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'g[mvnf; rjynf hpHkvSb l;/ vufig;acsmif; eJY wD;w,f qdkwm[m wu,fawmh rlvoHwpfoHukd axmufyHhoH 4 oHeJUyl;NyD; 5 oHu dk wpfoHwnf; xGuf atmif wD;wJh oabmyJ/ tJ'Dawmh aemufxyf vuf 5 acsmif; eJY jznfhpG ufvdkuf OD;r,f/ 'DtcgrSm aemufxyftoHawG&JU axmufyHhr IaMumifh rlvoH wpfoH[m odyftm;aumif ;vmNyD; em;axmifolawGu w,f NrdKifygvm;qd kNyD ; ESpfNcdKuf Muw,f/ 'Dvkd toHtrsKd; rsKd;udk yl;aygif;wJh tcgrSm (ryl;aygif ;&ifvnf; 'g[m tvum;yJ/) b,fvdk yl;aygif; rvJqdkw m ta&;BuD;vma&m/ tEky#d avmr&J U u@u 'Dae&mrS myJ Oyrm rD (mi) qdkwJ h ]3} oHudk axmufyHhz dkY b,ftoHawG u dk oHk;rvJ qdkwJ h udpö/ 'Dtcsuf[m ta&;BuD;w,f/ tEk y#davmr usatmif yl;aygif;EkdifygrS/ ]rD} qdkwJhtoH[m ydkrdk tm;aumif ; vmr,f/ tEkynmorm; wpfa,muf& JU pGrf;&nf[m 'Dvkd yl;aygif ;Ekdi fpGrf ;ay:rSm wnfw,f/ wu,fvdkYrsm; uRrf;usifo lwpfa,muf[m edrf hjrifhoHp Of wcsKdUudk yl;aygif; zdkY Bud K;pm;NyD/ ol[m rlvoHpOf eJY axmufy HhoHpOfawGvnf; owf rSwfNyD;NyDqkdw Jhtcg olUtzdkY ta&twGufa&G;cs,frI tEky#davmrukd awGUvm&jyefa&m/ 'Djyóemukd tEkynm Typing

Inc ubuz

35


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

orm;u tpuwnf;u qHk ;jzwf wmjzpfcsifvnf; jzpfaer,f/ b,ftoHu kd b,ftwdkif;twmtxd rlxm;NyD ; b,ftwkdif;twmxd axmufyh Hr,fqdk wJhudpö/ Oyrm ]rD} qdkwJh toHuk d qdk (so)qdkwJh 5 oHe JY axmuf yHhr,f qdkwJhtcg wkefEIef ; b,favmufeJ Y axmufyHh rvJ/ tv,foHeJY? atmufoHeJY 'grSr[kw f txufoHeJUvm; qdkwJh [m a&G; cs,f& jyefa &m/ ukdapmndef;&JU aw;oG m;awGr Sm 'DtcsufawGuk d uRrf;uRrf;usifusif pyf[yfxm;wm awGY&w,f/ udkapmndef;&J U aw;rSm Arm*Dwm&,f? wa,m &,f ? yavGBuD;&,fu dk a&mpyfavh &Sdw,f/ r,f'vif[ m odyfus,fus,f avmifavmif (rlvoHtjzpf) 0ifrvmbJ aemufcHoabmrsKd;om wD;ay;w,f/ tJ'D rlvtoH oHk;oH wa,m? *Dw m? yavGwdkY[ m wpfcgwpf&Hp DrSm wpfc kcku ykd NyD;us,fvmwwfw ,f/ *Dwm[m wD;ae&mu jrKyfoGm;NyD; wa,moH[ m tm;aumif;vmwmrsKd;? wpfcgwpf&H *DwmeJY yavGeJY tm;Nyd Kif wD;cwfw mrsKd ;? 'Dvdk xkdufoif hwJhae&mawGr Sm oHpOf&J U tav;csdefukd ufrItwGuf ta&twG ufudk t&nftcsif;eJ Y n§dNyD; yl ;aygif;Ekdifw m[m tEkynmorm; wpfa,muf& JU t&nftcsif; yJ/ 'Dvkd t&nftcsif;eJY ta&twGuf n§dEIdif ;NyD ; jynfhpHk pGm yl;aygif; rI tajctaea&mufatmif yl;aygif;rI[ m tEkynm&yfwkdi f;&J U t"duvu©PmyJ/ uAsmrSm jzpf jzpf ? uBudK;uuGu frSm jzpf jzpf ? [if; csufwJhtcg? rdef; rysKd rsm;&J U t0wfwefqm qif,if rIpwJh b,ftEkynm&yf rSmjzpf jzpf xdyfwef;vu©Pm taeeJY &Sdw,f/ yef;csD rSm uRef awmfwd kUrsufpdudk ta&mif t&ihf tawmuft&JeJ U <u,f0wJh ta&mifawG[m ydkrd kvIHUaqmfEk difpG rf;&S dw,f/ 'kwd,taeeJU rsufESm jyif rsm;rsm; ,lxm;wJh ta&mif eJY j'yfa wG[m vIHYaqmftm;BuD;w,f/ 'gukd uRefawmfwd kYu odxm;wJhtcg yef;csDwpfcsyf&J U tav;csdefuk dufrIuk d 'Dta&mifr sm;&J U t&nftcsif;eJ U ta&twGuf n§dEIdif;ay;NyD; xdef;odrf;&r,f/ a&mif jyifawGeJY qGJw Jh umvm&pfZif; vdk yef;csD rsKd;rSm ta&mif tEk? t&ifh rsufESm jyif, lrIawG[ m ydkrdk ta&;ygw,f/ Typing

Inc ubuz

36


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yef;csDw pfcsyfrSm tvif ;eJUtarSmifq dkwJh t"du 0da&m"dygw,f/ a&mif jyif y J jzpfjzpf ygwmyJ/ 'D0da&m"dudk yl;aygif;n§ dEIdi f;rI (Texture) ac:wJh trm? taysmh n§dEIdif; rI/ 'gawG[m yef;csD&JU qef Uusifbufrsm; aygif;pnf; rI awGyJ/ uRefawmf wifjyNyD ;cJhovdk teDa&mifwpfckudk rlva&miftjzpf xm;r,f/ olU&J U rsufESm jyifudkvnf; owfrSwfw,f/ olU&JU tiftm;udkvnf; owfr Swfw,f/ tJ'Daemuf tjymEku dk axmufyHha&miftjzpf oHk;zdkY owfrSw f w,fqdk&if teDe JY tEky#davmr uswJh tiftm;eJY rsuf ESm jyif n§d EIdif ;rI vdkv mw,f/ 'g[m tEkynm&yfw kdif; &JU wm0ef jzpfw,f/ 'Dvdkt&nftcsif; eJY ta&twGufu kd jynfhp HkpGm aygif;pnf ;rItajctaea&mufawmif n§d EIdif ; Edki fpGrf ;[m yef;csDo rm;&J U todÓPfeJU tawGYtBuHKu oifa y;vdkuf rSmyJ/

Typing

Inc ubuz

37


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

38


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

uAsmwpfy k'frS m bmaMumifh um&efawG ygaewmvJ/ oDcsif; rSm aum (Key) taygufawG bmaMumifh &Sd&wmvJ/ 'g[m arhavsmhxm;MuwJ h xdyfwef ;ar;cG ef;wpf ckyJ/ 'gudk t&if; tjrpfusatmif qk yfukdi fEkdi f&if uRefawmfwd kY pdwåZyef;csD &JU jyóemwpf&yf u kd ajz&Si f;Ekd ifrSm yJ/ 'g[m tEkynm&yfwkd if;&J U t"du toGifwpf&yf jzpfwJ h (Key)&JU t&if;tjrpfvnf; jzpfw ,f/ 'Dar;cGe f;udk av;av;eufeuf ar;Munf hzkdY vdk ygw,f/ 'DtwGuf uRefawmfhrS m tajzwpfck &S dygw,f/ tEkynm&yfwkdif ;&JU rlv taMumif;cH[m uRefawmfwif jycJ hovdk nDnGw frIyJ/ uRefawmfwdk Y[m obm0wGif; rSm &Sdw Jh pepfawGu dk ykdrd knDnGwfatmif zefwD;wm[m tEkynmyJ/ ydkr kd jynfhp Hkatmif zefwD ;rIeJY ywfoufvdkY uRefawmf tcef; 2 rSm aqG;aEG; cJhNyD; jzpfygw,f/ nDnGwfr IeJY ywfoufvdkYuawmh tEkynm enf;vrf; tm;vHk; eJYtwl yef;csD &JU nDnGw frIudk wif jy&rSm jzpfw,f/ tEkynmavmurSm nDnGwfrI (Rhyme)[m awmfawmfav; ajym&cufw Jh pepfwpf ckyJ/ trsm;pk[ m (Rhyme)ukd um&eftjzpfyJ em;vnf Muw,f/ wu,fawmh (Rhyme) [m pum;Murf;taeeJ Y um&efvdkY ajymMu ayr,fh rl&if;t"d yÜm,f[ m nDnGwfa jyjypfrI (Sameness)yJ jzpfw,f/ pepfw pfckr Sm [kd[mu wpfrsKd ;? 'D[mu wpfrsKd; jzpfc sifwmawG y&rf;ywm jzpfNyD;aer,fqdk& if 'gukd rnDnGwfbl ;? tEkynm rqefbl;vdkY ajymr,f/'gudk (Rhyme) rJhw,fv dkY qdkvdkwmyJ/ tEkynmwpf&yfr Sm ol U&JUukd,fy kdif pkpkpnf;pnf; eJY tem;owftwGif;rSm nDnmajyjypf aewJh pepfwpfc k[m rvGJraoG &Sd&r,f/

tnmt&yf pavNrdK Uu yavGrIwfw Jh vlwpfa ,muf Typing

Inc ubuz

39


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

vdkY ajymwJhtcg 'Dpum;awG [m pum;ajymovdk omref pum;awG y J jzpfr,f/ pkpnf;rIr &dSbJ tEkynm rqefwJh pum;pkyJ jzpfaerS myJ/ 'Dvdk ajymwJh tcgrSmvnf; vlawG&J U pdwf0 ifpm;rI? ESp foufrIu dk csKyfu kdifE kdifr Sm r[kwfbl ;/ 'gudk nDnGwfatmif ajyjypfatmif ... pav tnmu yavGq &m vkdY uRefawmfwdkYu ajymvdkufw,f/ 'DtcgrSm pmaMumif;ES pfaMumif; &J U toHxGuf xyf wlrI (Sameness)[m pmaMumif;awG u kd nDnGwfapw,f/ 'DnDn GwfrI[ m vlawG&J U pdw책ZrSm csKyf ukdif Ekdif pGrf; &S dvmNyD; vlawGukd ESpf ouf apw,f/ 'g[m tEkynm&J U oabmyJ/ tEkynmwpf& yf[m abmiftwGif; rSm&S dwJh pepfawGuk d nDnD nGwfn Gw f &Sdaezdk Y aqmif& Gufcsufw pfckvnf; jzpf w,f/ txl;ojzihf uAsm&JU nDnGw frI (Rhyme) oabmukd avhvm Munfh& if uaeY uRefawmfw dkY jrefrmjynfrS m uAsm&J JU nDnGw frI[m um&ef nDw,fqd kwm awGU&w,f/ um&ef[m uAsmwpfyk'f udk csKyfukdifx m;wmyJ/ uAsm wpfyk'f u kd pyfqdkwJ htcgrSm omrefpum;vdk y&rf;ywm jzpfvdk Yr&bl ;/ rnDrnmeJY jzpfuwwf qef; vk yfvkYdvnf; r&bl ;/ 'Dvdk a&;r,fqdk& ifvnf; uAsm[m tEk ynm oabmukd aqmifrS mr[kwfb l;/ tEkynmwpf&yf& JU pepfwkd if;[m a&SUaemuf 0J,m nDnGwfrI (Rhyme)&Sd&r,f/ 'Dvdk nDnGw frI rsm;udk uRefawmfwdkY bkd;bGm;rsm;u bmeJY zefwD ;cJh MuovJ/ uAsmrSm &SdwJh pmaMumif;wpfaMumif;[m wjcm; pmaMumif;awGeJY nDn Gw f ae&r,f/ uAsmwpfyk' f&JU pkpnf; rItwGif;rSmpmaMumif;awG[ m nDnGwf ae&r,f/ 'Dvdk nDnGwfr Iukd b,fvd k zefwD;EkdifovJ/ uRefawmfw dkY&J U bkd;bGm;rsm;[m toHxGu fcsif ; xyfrI [m &Gwf qdkrI rSm vHk ;0 ajyjypfw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'g[m pmaMumif ;wdkif ;&JU nDnGwf rIudk vH;k 0 xd ef;od rf; xm;Ekdi fwm awGU&w,f/ Typing

Inc ubuz

40


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

aemufydk if;rS m ykdrdkus,fjyefYwJh toHxyfr I yHkpHawG ay:vmNyD; um&ef[m wkd;wufvmcJhw,f uRefawmfw dkYacwf rSmawmh Oa&myEk difiH rsm;rSm um&ef roHk;awmhygbl;/ olwdkU[m rsuf jrif nDnGwf rIxuf pmaMumif; &JU zGJYp nf;yH k nDnGwfrIukd ydk r dk tom;ay; pyfqdkvmygw,f/ b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf uAsmwpf yk'f[ m nDnGwf rIrJhvdk U r&bl;/ aemuf *DweJYywfoufvdk U aw;oGm;wpfckukd b,fvdk pyfq dkwD;rIw f w,fqdkwm pOf;pm;Munf h&atmif/ uRefawmfwk dY jrefrmjynfr Sm oDc sif;wpfyk'f ukd ig;aygufeJY wD;Muw,f/ oHrSefponf (Key) awG &Sdw,f/ Oa&myrSm vnf; C. Key D. Key ponfjzihf &SdwmyJ/ aw;oGm;wpfckukd ig;ayguf eJU

Typing

Inc ubuz

41


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

(yHk) - yDumqdkudk urÇ mausmfa pcJhaom *Gm&meD umyef ;csDu m;BuD ;pyde fjynf jycef; (urÇmuke fpnf jyyGJ 1939ck ESpf ? jyifo pfjynf? yJ&pfNrd KU)ü awYG&yHk

wD;r,fqdk &if r,f'vifuvnf; ig;aygufoHeYJ wD;r,f/ wa,mvnf; ig;aygufoHeJY wD; r,f/ qdkoluvnf; ig;aygufoHe JYyJ qd k&w,f/ r,f'vifu ig;aygufoHeJYwD ;? wa,mu ajcmufaygufeJ Y wD;NyD; qdko lu oHrSefe JYqdkv dkY b,fawmhrS r&bl;/ 'D vkd wuG Jwjym;pD wD ;rIwfv kdY r&ygbl;/ 'g[m aw;oG m; pepfwpf ckvHk; &JU nDnGwf rIyJ/ tayguf (Key)[m uAsm&JUum&efvdk aw;oGm;udk csKyfukd ifxm;wJh nDnGwfrI vu©PmyJ/ *DwwpfckrS m Key ukd a&SmifvkdU r&bl;/ 'DtcgrSm *Dw&J U Keytayguf[m uAsm&JU um&efvdk nDnGwfr Iudk zef wD; o,faqmifx m;wmud k uRefawmfw kdY aumuf csufcsvdk Y &vmw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

42


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

ckacwf Oa&myrSm [pfyD; ,Ofaus;rIawG[m awmfawmfav; vIyf&Sm ;cJhw,f/ txl;ojzih f *DweJY yef ;csDyk dif;uk d ½kdufcwfc Jhw,f/ Oa&my aw;oGm;awG[ mvnf; [pfy D;awG& JU awmfvS efrIa Mumif h tpOftvmuaeNyD; xGufvmw,f/ Keywpf ckwnf;rSm wD;rIwfMuayr,fh Key wpfckeJYwpfck Mum;u toHawG? tjcm; Keyu toHawGudk a&mxnfh Muw,f/ 'Dvdk a&mxnfhwJ htcgrSm nDnGwfrI[ m ydkrdk tm;aumif;vmw,f/ Key rwlwJh oHp OfawGuk d Key wpfckw nf; jzpfatmif zGJY&wJhtwGuf aw;oG m;&J U cdkif rm rI[m vGefqGJw JhoabmeJY ydk r kd tm;aumif;wm jzpfw,f/ rdef;ri,fawG&J U 0wf pm;qif,ifrI eJY tcrf ;tem;jyifqifrI awGrSmawmif Key oabm[m csKyfu kdifw m awGU&w,f/

(Decoration)

uRefawmfw dkU jrefrmjynfrS m rdef;uav;awG[m tay:u tjymEk 0wfN yD; atmufu tjym&ih fudk (wu,f vdkY ol[m wefqmqifaewm jzpf&if) 0wfwwfw,f/ a&G;cs,fcG ifh r&S dolawGe JY omref t0wftxnf taeeJY 0wfo lawG uawmh 'Davmuf EIduf EIduf cRwfcRwf rqif,if Muygbl;/ wpfcgwpf&Hr Sm tay:u tpdrf;a&mif tyGihfav;awG0wf NyD; atmufu tpd rf;&if h tyGihf BuD;awG 0wfwwf w,f/ 'gawG[m yef;csD Key&J U oabm awGyJ/ wpf cgwpf&H *Dw &JU KeyeJY uAsm&J U um&ef ET,fwJh 0wfqifrIrsKd; awGvnf; awGU&w,f/ tay:u uefYvefYpif ;? atmufu a'gifvdkufpif ; awG 0wfMuwmrsKd;/ 'Dvkd 0wfqifrIrS m Key oabmawG awGU&w,f/ Oa&my (aiGaMu;wwfEk difolawG&JU) 0wfp m;wefq m qif, ifrIr Sm ydkrkdus,fjyefYwJh Key udk awGY&w,f/ olwkdUawG[m *g0efukd yef;Eka&mif0wfNyD ; OD;xkyf ? vufudkiftdw f? zdeyf? ykdufqHtdwfe JY vufuk dify0guk dyg yef;Eka&mifoHk;wwf w,f/ ykdNyD; wwfE kdifol awGu um;udkyg yef;Eka&mif pD;w,f/ ol[m yef; Eka&mif Keyukd oHk; vdkufw myJ/ tcrf;tem; jyifqifr I DecorationrS mvnf; Key&Sdw,f/ tcef;wpfcku kd acwfrDenf ;eJY jyifq ifr,fq kd&if tJ' Dtcef;xJ rSm a&S;a[mif; aowå mwpfck u kd Typing

Inc ubuz

43


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

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44


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

45


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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46


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

47


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

48


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

Inc ubuz

49


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

50


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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51


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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52


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

qGJrS tm;aumif; r,fxif &if rxnfhbJ qGJ &rSmyJ/ 'Da&mifjyifeJ YyJ jzpfjzpf? tpuftajymufawGeJYyJ jzpfjzpf vlY&J U pdwåZudk csKyfu kdifvI yf&S m;ap Ekdif r,fqdk& if 'DvdkyJ ol[ m zefwD;rSmyJ/ tEkynmqdw k m zefw D;csuf yJvdkY uRefawmfw dkY rSwf,lxm;&r,f/ tEkynm[m ody fvGwfvyfw,f/ vGwfvyfrIabmifukdvnf; tEk ynm&Sifu yJ owfrSw frSm yJ/ tEkynm&Sif wpfa,muf&J U owfrSwfc sufwkd if; [mvnf; wpfacwfwpfcgtwGuf tNrJ rSefu efw,f/ 'gudk wm;qD; vdkY? uefYuGufv dkY r&bl;/ tEkynmwpf&yftwGuf ab;vlu abmifowfv dkY b,fa wmhrS r&bl;/ vlyHkudk qG JrS? tcsKd;tpm;wl rS pwJh orm;½dk;us abmifBuD;uawmh 20 &mpktwGu f odyfusOf; w,f/ 'Dvdk abmifowfolawG [mvnf; 20 &mpktwGu f tkdrif;aeol awGyJ/ 'gu yef;csDu kd abmifrowfygeJ YvdkY uRefawmf ajymaewm r[kwfbl;/ abmifowfc sifowf ? rowfcsifa e/ tEkynmwpf&yf ukd b,fawmhr S abmifowfv dkY r&bl;/ tEkynmqdkw m acwf&J U o½kyfyJ/ acwfa&pD;[m tEkynm&J U a&pD;yJ/ uaeY j'yf rJh yef; csDawG[ m ay: pu tESdyftuGyf cH&w,f/ 'gayr,fh uaeY urÇmay:rSm acgif;axmifaeNyD/ 'Dvkd pepfa[mif; wpfcku pepf opfwpf ck ay: xGufvmwkd if; awmfvS efa&;wpf&yf jzpfrS myJ/ yef;csD[ m pu©Ktm½Hkuwpfqihf pdwåZudk EI d;qGzd kY abmifowfxm;wJh rsufESm jyif wpf ckay:rSm zefwD;wmyJ qkdwJh tqdkuae jyefaumuf&atmif/ 'Dtqdkudk uRefawmfw dkY qky fukdif rdwmeJY uRefa wmfwdk Y jrefrmjynf&J U yef;csD[ m us,fjyefYvmrSmyg/ 'Doabmudk rdrSvnf; pdwåZyef;csD &JU jyóem awGu dk ukdifwG,fa jz&Sif;Ekdifr Sm jzpfw,f/ 'gukd qkyfu kdif NyD; yef;csD um; wpf csyfqd kwm bmvJvkdY tajzxkwf&rS m jzpfw ,f/

Typing

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53


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

54


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

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55


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

56


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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57


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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58


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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59


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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60


cif0 rf; - pdwรฅZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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61


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwรฅZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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63


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yDu mqdk - jrif;wpfaumif Picasso - Head of a Horse (1937)

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64


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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65


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

jrif&rSm r[kwfbl;/ 'Dvdk tjrif 2 rsKd; aygif;pyfNyD; qGJwJ htwGuf bmrSrxl; jcm;wJh jrifuG if;[m pGr f;tm;&S dvmwm awGY &w,f/ 'g[mvnf; av;zuf jrif oabmyJ/ 'Dvdk jrifu Gif;trsKd;rsKd;udk aygif;pyfzdk Y yef;csDo rm;[m qdkwm&,f ? rsufjrifrsOf;qdkw m&,fuk d rkcs arhxm;&ygw,f/

tcsKd ;tpm;

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xm;cJhNyD;

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66


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yDu mqdk- *Gm&meDum Picasso - Guernica (1937)

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67


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'geJY ywfoufNyD; jrefrmjynfrS m tpGef;ESpf zuf awGY&ygw,f/ yef;csD&J U wdk;wufrI t&SdefaES;vdkY ? yef;csD ysHUESHYrI e,fusOf;vdkY pwJh xdawGYrI enf;yg;wJ htwGu f yef;csD &JU oabmud k rSefrS efuefuef odem;vnf Ekdif pGrf; vltrsm;pkrS m r&dSygbl;/ yef;csDo rm;wcsKdU&JU vdr fnm [efaqmifr Iuvnf; rD ;avmifa vyifho vdk jzpfapw,f/ wcsKdU yef; csDorm;awG[m [efaqmifcJ hw,f/ vlawG&J U txifBuD;rI u dk cHcsifwJ h vlawGvnf; &Sdw,f/ wcsKd Uuawmh &Snf&Sn fa0;a0; rajymcsifv dkY acgif;ndwfvd kufolawG jzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh vltrsm;pk& JU wpfp dwfwpf a'ou pdwåZyef; csDukd arSmftwwfe JY zefwD; xm;wJh eufeJcufcJaom vQKdU0Su f tbd"r®mynm&JU tzGihfu m;csyf awGavmufeD;eD; txifBuD;cJ hMuw,f/ pdwåZ yef;csDawGudk bk &m;pifay: wifc JhMuw,f/ 'gukd vnf; yef;csDorm;awGu Nidrfa ecJhw,f/ wpfzufuvnf ; t½l;awG t½l;xqGJwmvdkY xifwJ hvlawGuvnf; xifw,f/ rqGJwwfbJ qGJx m;vdkY yH kyef; ysufaewmvdkY xifwJ h vlawGu xifw,f/ pdwåZyef; csDorm;awG[m aMumifaewJh aumifawG yJqdk NyD; txifukd rBuD;bl;/ pdwåZyef; csDum;csyfawG[mvnf; tvum;yJq dkNyD; vSnfhudk rMunf hbl;/ olwdkU twGuf pdwåZyef;csD&J U ae&m[m acG ;uwufrS myJ/ wu,fawmh pdwåZyef ;csDud k bk&m;pifwifzdkYv nf; rvdk? acG;uwufr Sm cszdkYvnf ; rvdkygbl;/ yef ;csDum;csyf[ m rSefu efwJha e&mrS m &Sdae&rSm yJ/ rSefuef w Jh ae&mrSm (tEk ynmwpf &yftjzpf) yef; cDsum;[m ydkNyD; oefYpifw,f? ½dk;om;w,f? wefzdk;&Sdw,fqd kwm vlwdk if;oabmaygufoihfw ,f/ 'Dawmh yxrqHk; pNyD; 0efcHz dkYu jrefr mjynf rSm oabmayguf em;vnfaeMuwJh pdwåZyef ;csD& JU atmufv rf; arS mfqefw Jh wifp m;rIq dkwm vH k;0 r&Sdbl;/ 'Dvdk ajymwmvnf; vHk;0t"d yÜm,f r&Sdbl;/ 'gawG[m &,fp&mawGy J/

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68


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

t,fvufZ if;'g;'dkife ufcg; - yDx½dk*&uf Alexander Deineka - Petrograds ( 1928 )

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69


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

rHk&Gm0if;az&JU uAsmwpfyk 'frSm –

tdrfBuD;&SifawG ? ckdif; aporQ t00ukd? aeUnrjywf rvpfvyfatmif? aqmif&Gu fíomvkyf&ygvnf ;? rsufESmr& qif;&JvS\? r0w0 pm;oHk;&NyD; ? rvSry olUb0onf atmufusEHkcsmvGef ;wum;/ (yGihfw rmNr dKifu Asmrsm;? 100)

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70


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

wpfaumifu kd MunfhNyD; a0zefykdi f;jcm;olu pepfwpfckvHk ;udk NcHK Munfh&if 'g[m yk*¾vdu oabmyJ jzpfr SmyJ/ 'gayr,fh usaemf ajym&Jw muawmh yDumqd k[m *Dworm; vltkd BuD; (The old griterist)udk qGJaewk ef;rS m tbkd;BuD; &JU oem;p&m aumif ;yHk ? olUb0&J U qif;&Jyifyef; rIudk o½kyfay:atmif yef; csDtEkynmoabmeJY zrf;csKyfEd kifpG rf; BuD;atmif 'Dvdk &nf &G,fcsufyJ &S drSmyJ/ "e&Sif pepfatmuf u ypönf; rJh tvkyform;awG udk wifp m;csuf &,fvdk Y rSef; NyD; tbd"r®mzG ihfzd kY BudK ;pm;rSm r[kwfygbl;/ 'Dvdk b0o½kyfazmf ? ppfo½kyfazmf yef ;csDum;awGukd Oa&myu [ife&Dr kd;qdkw Jh yef;yko rm;vnf ; qGJwwfw,f/ t,fv,fZif;'g;'k difeufcg; qdkw Jh qkdAD,uf ½k&Sm ; yef; csDorm;vnf; qG Javh&S dygw,f/ olwkdU&JU vuf&mawG u dk wifjyxm;ygw,f/ [ife&Dr dk;&J U yef;csDu m;rSm qdk&if ppfa b;'Pfu ckdatmif;aewJh vlawG&J U yHku kd qGJxm;w,f/ ppftwGi f;rSm tkd;tdr f ysufpD ;NyD ; ajratmuf a&ajrmif;awGr Sm cdkvIHae&olawG& JU b0udk wifjyxm;w,f/ yef;csDu m;udk jrifv dkuf&wmeJY ppf'Pf cH&olawG& JU b0udk txif;om; jrifvkdu f&w,f/ bmrS vQKdU0SufwJ h wifpm;rIawG r&Sdygbl;/ bmrSvnf; t"dyÜm ,f zGih fp&m rvkdygbl;/ 'dki feufcg;&J U yef; csD[mvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ/ ppfom;awG ppfa jrjyifudk csDwufa eMuw,f/ ppfajrjyif u jyefvm olawG uawmh 'Pf&m temw&eJY yifyef;ukef cef; NyD; pdwf ysufaeMuw,f/ ppf&J U o½kyf[m csufcsif; ay:vmw,f/ 'g[m o½kyfazmfr IyJ/ 'Dae&mrSm yef;csDo rm;&J U ynmu ppfa jrjyifu jyefv molawGud k a&mrxm;bJ oD ;oefYwH wm;wpf c k xdk;xm;w,f/ 'grS uGJ jym;rI &SdNyD; ½IyfaxG;roG m;rS m/ 'Dvkd vG,fvG,fu lu l jyoGm;Ekdifw mrsKd ; uvnf; tHhMop&myJ/ 'Dvdk yef;csDum;awGrSm zHk;uG,fxm;wJh bmtbd"r®m vQKd U0Su frIawG rS r&SdE kdifbl ;qdkwm &S if;ygw,f/

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71


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

[ife&Dr dk; - a&ajrmif; xJuppfajy;awG Henry Moore - Servioers in the Tube (1941)

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72


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dtcsufukd or® musrf; pm (The Holy Bible)&JU urÇm OD;usrf; tcef;BuD; 8? tcef;i,f 1 u 12 rSm txift&Sm; awGY&w,f/

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73


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

10 xJodkY oGif;av\/ wpfzef ckepf&ufaeNyD; rS 11 xkdcsKd;udk oabFmxJu vTwf jyef\/ nOD;tcsdefü csKd; onf aem{xJ jyefvmí rdrd qdwf,laom oHvGi f&Gufu dk rdr d EIwfoD ;jzihf aqmifcJh aom 12 aMumifh ajrBuD;ay:rS m a&ukefc JhaMumif;uk d aem{ odav\... (,k'oef ESp f 150 jynfh? or®musrf ;pm)

csKd;uav; oHvGi f&Guf csDv mwm jrif &wJh aem{[m olb0&JU at;csrf;rI? wnfNidr frI? aysmf&T ifrIawGudk wvHk;w0wnf; pdw fcsoGm ;&rS m aocsmygw,f/ usaemfwdk Y vlawG[m aem{vd k Nidrf; csrf;a&; csKd; jzLud k arQmfaeygw,fvdkY yDumqdku Oa&myrS m toHk;rsm;wJh oauFwudk ,lo Hk;vdku f wmygyJ/ 'Dvdk vltrsm;pku em;vnfaeNyD;jzpfwJh oauFw oabmawGu dk yef;csDo rm;u ,l NyD; oH k;wJhtcgvnf; &Sdw,f/ 'Dvdk vkyfr I[m o½kyfazmf yef;csDrSm yJ &Sdr,f/ 'Denf;[m qdk&S,fv pfEkd ifiHawGrSm ydkrd k xGef ;um;wm awGY&w,f/ NyD;awmh ykdpwm tEkynmrSmvnf ; ykdrdk us,fjyefYwmudk awGY&w,f/ Oyrm - wlwHpOftvH/ wl[m tvkyform;&JU toHk;taqmif/ wHpOfuawmh v,fo rm;&J U toHk;taqmifqdkw m vlwdkif ; odaeMuw,f/ 'DtcgrSm wleJU wHpOf u dk tvHxlvdkufwJhtcg 'g[m tvkyform;? v,f orm;&JU bufawmfo m;yJv dkY tvdkvdk em;vnfNyD; jzpfvmw,f/ 'gu vlrsm;eJY yGef;wD ;aewJh oauFwawG u dk ,lNyD; oHk; wJh oabm/ wpfcgwpf&Hr Sm yHk eJY o½kyfazmfvdkY rvHkavmuf wJhtcgrSm pum;vHk; awGukdyg a&;qGJ o½kyfazmf w,f/ 'Denf;[m w½kwfjynfeJ U *syefjynf rSm a&S ;ESpfa ygif; rsm;pGm uwnf;u xGe f;um;cJhNyD; jzpfw,f/ w½kwfeJY *syef yef; csDawG rSm uAsmawG xnfhxm;wm awGY& w,f/ 'Dvdk pmvHk;&J U tiftm;udk yl;aygif;rI[mvnf; yef ;csD&J U csKyfukd ifEkd ifpGr f; &Sdvmapw,f/ Typing

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

ta&SU*smreDu yef;csDorm; tkdwdky ifaumuf (Otto Pankok) &JU opfxGif; yef;csDw pfcsyfukd wif jyvdkuf ygw,f/ eD*½dk; uav;wpfa,muf &JU yHk ygyJ/

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

84


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

Inc ubuz

85


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

86


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

Inc ubuz

87


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

88


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

89


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

90


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

Textureukd

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Typing

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91


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dyef;csDum;[m orm;½dk;us ½Icif;yJ/ 'gayr,fh wifjyyHku xl; jcm; w,f/ MunfholawG[m yGJ cif;xJudk a&mufaew,f/ a&mufaewmrS wD;0dkif; &JJU aemuf 2 wef;avmuf rSm a&mufaew,f/ 'Dvdk wif jyenf ;[m odyftouf 0ifw,f/ udk,fwdki f jrif&ovdk cHpm;vm&w,f/ 'Dyef; csDum;rSm rD;a&miftrsKd; rsKd; aMumifh jzpfay:vmwJh ta&mifawG ukd 'J*wf u ykdify kdif qGJ jyxm;w,f/ vIyf&Sm;rI jrefwJ htcgrSm j'yfxk ajymif; oGm;wJ h taMumif; (vIy f&Sm;rI) oabmudk oHk;xm;w,f/ vIyf&S m;rIuk d o½kyfazmfzdkY pkwfcsuf awG zGm&mBuJaeatmif Typing

Inc ubuz

92


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

qGJxm;w,f/ yef;csDu m;wpf ckvHk;udk NcHK Munfhvkd uf awmh pkwfcsufawG e JY wifjyyHkaMumihf yef ;csDum;[m vIyfv Iyf&S m;&Sm ; jzpfa ew,f/ qlnHaew,f/ ta&mifawGuvnf ; vufygbd/ 'Dum;udk Munfh&ol[ m tvkdvdkaysmfvmrSm trSefyJ/ 'Dyef;csDum;[m avmufx&J eJY a&EGm ;wdkYuk d tm;usapcJhw ,f/ a&EGm;&J U yef;csDu m;awG[ m rdef;uav;awG&J UyHk tawmfrsm;w,f/ txl;ojzihf rdef;uav;awG aysmfaysmf&Ti f&Tif &,farmaewhJy HkawG ? 0wfaumif;pm;vSeJ Y oGm;vmaewJh yHkawG/ 'gawGyJ/ tify&uf&Si f;orm;tm;vHk;[m aeUv,fa &mif aeyla&mifudk toHk;rsm; w,f/ 'J*wfwpfa,mufom num;qGJw m jzpfw,f/ a&EGm ;&JU yef;csDum;awG[m aeYv,f aeylatmuf rSm wvufvuf awmufaewJ h ta&mifawG yJ/ olY&JU vuf&muawmh 'J* wfvdk pkwf&mawG zGm aeatmif qGJwJh enf;yJ/ 0dk i f zefcGufuav; udkawmif zGm &mBuJwJh pkwfawG eJU vIyfaeatmif qGJw,f/ rdef;rysKd wpfa,muf& JU rsufvHk;awG? EIwf crf;awG[m Ek ysKdw,f/ vIy faew,f/ a&EGm;&JUyef;csD rSm t&m&m[m EkysKdv Iyf&S m;aew,f/ EkysKdr I? aysmf &Tifr IeJU usef;rmrIudk a&EG m;&J U um;awGr Sm taumif;qHk; awGUEdk ifw,f/ olUum;awG rSm ta&mift&ifh rygbl;/ t&dyfudk c&rf;EkrsKd ;? tjymEkrsKd; oHk;w,f/ Key Tone tEkav;awGeJ Y a&;w,f/ aemuf tify&uf& Sif;orm;wpf a,mufuawmh wdkvkavmufx&J yJ/ avmufx&J[ m i,fi,fu ajcESpf zufvHk; rSm 'Pf& m tBuD; tus,f&cJhw Jh twGuf wpfoufvHk; ajcwdkav; jzpfoGm;cJhw,f/ ol[m 'J*wf&J U vuf&m[efeJ U Subject matter taMumif ;udk ES pfNcdKufc Jhol jzpfw,f/ olY &JU yef;csDum;awG[m olUywf0 ef;usifrSm &SdwJh omrefy pönf;awG ygyJ/ yHkwl wcsKdU? jrif uGif;wcsKd U? uyGJawGu taMumif;t&mawG ? umzDqk dif½Icif; awG? rde f;rysufawG&J U yHkawG e JY vHk;wD;yH k wcsKd UygyJ/ Typing

Inc ubuz

93


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

ol[m pHjyxm;NyD; qGJavhr &SdbJ ½kwfw&uf jrif&wJ h jrifuG if;awGu kd pkwfcsufawGeJY cyf&S if;&S if; qGJavh&Sd w,f/ t&ufjyefa&mxm;wJh qDaq; yg;yg;eJY uwfbkwfjym;ay:rS m qGJavh &Sdw,f/ ol[m ta&mifausmuf ykHE Sdyform; wpfa,mufvnf; jzpfw,f/ ol[m oP²mefYeJY a&GUvsm;rIuk dom t"duxm;NyD; tvif;a&mif &JU ½kdufcwfr IawGudk vHk; 0 pGefYypfcJhw,f/ ol[m yef;csDorm;awG&J U tkyfpkxJvnf; r0ifbl;/ olYbmom oD;oefY yJ qGJaew,f/ olU&J U yHkwl yef;csDum;wpfcsyfu kd wifjyxm;w,f/ ol&JU rdw faqG jzpfw Jh vDvDqkdwJh trsKd;orD;wpf a,muf& JU yHkyJ/ yef;csDu m;xJrS m trsKd;orD; udk *syefuDr DEkdtusÐ 0wfay;xm;NyD; uykdu½dk[efay:atmif qGJxm;w,f/ pkwf&m awG[m tao;pdwf qGJxm;wm r[kwfbJ avQmuf jcpfy pfvdkuf wm awGU&w,f/ 'Dvdk t&Sdef ygwJh pkwf& mawGaMumifh yef;csDum;[m touf0 if aew,f/ avmufx&J& JU yef; csDum;wkdif; [m 'Dvdk pkw f&mawG eJY rGBuJaewmyJ/

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94


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

95


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

96


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Maruru (Offerings of Gratitude), from Noa Noa, 1893/94

Typing

Inc ubuz

97


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

98


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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99


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD Oa&myudk vT rf;rdk ;cJhw,f/ olU&JUb0rSm tpGJtvrf;BuD; cJhw,f vdkU qkd Muw,f/

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

100


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

101


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

102


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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103


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http://mmcp community. net

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104


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

105


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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106


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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107


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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108


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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109


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'gaMumifh ol[m bmrSrjrifbl;/ ol[m olY&JU 'dA Ápu©K eJU vlwpfa ,muf&J U twGif;oEÅmefawGyJ jrifw,f/ 'gaMumifh twGif;oEÅ mef awGukd yJ qGJcJh w,f/ ol&JU ]ynm&Sd vl&T ifawmf} qd kwJh um;rSm vl& Tifawmf&JU rsufES m[m cyftt rsufESm rsKd; jzpfa ew,f/ ol[m 'Do abmudk t"d uxm;NyD; qGJ cJh w,f/ aq;awG[m xpfxaeatmif xlw,f/ aumufa Mumif ; tjym;BuD; awG eJYyJ qG Jwwfw,f/ wpfcgwav olYaumufaMumif;[m ta&mifawG jzpfoG m;wwfw,f/ ol[m qufuyfvl& TifawmfawG taMumif; tqGJrsm;w,f/ 'Dvdk aumufaMumif;xl a&;qGJ enf;[m aemuf ydkif ;acwfo pf obm0yef; csD (Neo-realism)awGrSm vTrf ;rdk; cJhw,f/ ½dkatmh&JU ta&mifawG uawmh cyf&J& J? cyfawmufa wmuf/ wpfcgwpf&H cyf&J &J? cyfazsmhazsmhawG qGJwwfw,f/ ta&mifaygif;pyfrIr Smawmh ½dk;atmh[m q&mwpfqly J/ ta&mifawGukd pkHaeatmif a&marT NyD; qGJwwf w,f/ obm0a&mifudkawmh vHk;0 roH k;bl;/ rdef;rwpfa,muf &JU rsufESm rSm tpdr f;awG? tjymawG xnfhNyD; qGJwwfw,f/ ½dk;atmh[m qDaq;wGifru a&aq;? txltyg;? ta&mif ausmufyHk ESdyf (Lithograph) eJY za,mif; (Pastel) awGukdvnf; us,fu s,f jyefYjyefY oHk;pGJc Jhw,f/ ½dk;atmh&JU ta&mif awGrS m teufa&mif t&ifhawG trsm;BuD;awGY&w,f/ 'Dta&mifawG udk aygif;pyfNyD ; Atmosphere ac:wJh ]0ef;usif[ef}ukd wif jyzdkY BuKd;pm;cJhw ,f/ tcsdeftcgeJY ywf0ef;usifu kd ta&mifouf oufeJY yJ wifjycJhw m[m aemufykd if; Surrealism qm&D&,fvpfZif;uk d tultaxmuf trsm;BuD ;ay;w,f/ ½dk;atmh[m uAsmorm;wpfa,mufvnf; jzpfw,f/ wpfyk'f[ m olU&J U t,ltq wpfykdif;wpfpuk d azmfjyygvdrhfr ,f/

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olU&JU

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110


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

yHkpH? ta&mif? nDnGwf rI tkdatppfvm; wHvQyf vm; rsufvHk;zdkUvm; ESvHk;onf;yGw fzkdYv m; 'grSr[kwf 0dnmOfzdk Yvm; ½kyfjyoP²mefawG &JU a&G UaewJh ork'´&mvdk ]reufjzefawmh vSraygh} vdkY oabFmysufa ewJhaumifu ajy mw,f jiLplw Jh rkd;uk yfrsO f;atmuf raysmufrD Nidrf; csrf;a&;[m tkyfpd k;Ekd ifyHk ray: ylyefvI yf&Sm;aewJh urÇ may: t&dyfawG t½kyfawG&JU urÇ m vuf0g;uyfwdk ifay:u a,½Iu usKyfxuf oifw dkUud k ajymEdkifr ,f *sdrf;&JU twdkcsKy fxm;wJ h xdyfwef ; jyef Mum;csuf uGif;qufawG emrnfr BuD;wJ h 'grSr[kwf &Si f&[ef; eJU tmZmenfawGvdk emrnfBu D;wJh/

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111


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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http://mmcp community. net

112


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Denf;vrf;[m ES pfq,f& mpkavmufrSm acwfp m;vmayr,fh 16 &mpk ywf0ef;usifrS m b½la[; (Bruegel1525-1569) &J U yef; csDum;[m qm&D&,fv pfZif; cyfqef qefyJ jzpf w,f/ b½la[;[m ½IarQmf cif;orm; wpfa,mufy J/ 'gayr,fh tEk ynm psmefBuD;olrd kY tdyfruf&JU oabmuk d ol em;vnf cJhw,f/ olYudk v,form;? ,morm;yef;csDawG qGJvGef ;vdkY ]v,form;b½la[;} vdkY ac:Muw,f/ olU&J UThe Land of Coc-kayneqdkwJh um;rSm xrif ;vHk;wapä acsmufovdk cHpm;rI rsKd;ukd qGJom;cJhw,f/ vlawG[m xrif ;pm;NyD; tdyfa ysmf ae[efyJ/ xrif;pm;yGJ wpfy kdif;wpfpeJ Y/ jrifuGi f;[m tdyfrufxJrSm vdk jzpfaew,f/ b,fbufaxmifhu trkd;atmufrS m oHcsyfu m0wfxm;wJh vlwpfa,muf[m rlrS e f yHkoP²mefr[k wfbJ a>rvd k jzpfa ew,f/ um;&JUa&SUykdif; rSm bJOcGHav;[m "m;av; xnfhNyD ; bJvdk avQmufoGm;aew,f/ aemuf ykdif ;rSm 0ufwpfaumif[m cg;rSm "m;wpfacsmif; pdkuf NyD; avQmufo Gm;aew,f/ olUtay:rSmawmh vlv dk taumifwpfaumif opfukdif ;ay:rSm em;aew,f/ vlawG&JU ab;rSm oHacsmif ;BuD; awG &dSw,f/ tm;vHk ;[m xrif; vHk;wapä acsmufovdk jzpfaew,f/ yef;csDu m;udk jrif vdkuf& awmh tdyfrufwpf ckukd rufaeovdk cHpm;vdk uf&w,f/ ukd,fha&S UrS m tdyfruf[m txif ;om; ay:vmovdk? Ek d;ae&uf eJU tdyf ruf rufaeovdk pdw fxJrS m 0dk;w0g; jzpfoGm;w,f/ b½la[; aemufykdi f;rSm 'D v kd tdyfrufqefq ef qGJom;rI[m aysmufuG,fi kyfvQKd;oGm ;w,f/

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113


cif0 rf; - pdwรฅZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

19 &mpktpykd if;rS m qm&D& ,fvpfZif;[m jyefNyD; touf0ifvm w,f/ qm&D&,fv pfZif;[m wjznf; jznf;eJY ESpfyk dif; uGJvmw,f/ yxrenf; uawmh rsufjrifypรถnf ; (Found Objects) awGudk a&;qGJrIygyJ/ 'Denf;eJU qGJom;rI[m usaemfwdk Y jrifz l;aewJ h ypรถnf;awGu dk ydkrd k 0dk;w0g; jzpfatmif zefwD ;rIygyJ/ aemufwpf enf;u j'yfrJh (Semi Abstract)awGudk qGJom;rI ygyJ/ yxrenf; jzpfwJ h Found Objects awG qGJom;rI rSm pwif qGJo m; oluawmh rGefY csf (Munch 1863-1944)ygyJ/ ol[m wu,fawmh tdyfy&uf &Sif;yef;csDo rm;wpfOD;yJ/ olY&J U ]atmfoH} yef;csDu m;rSm atmfoH wpfcku kd rGefYc sfu wifjyxm;w,f/ t&m&m[m j'yfr Jhovdk jzpfaew,f/ rsOf;aMumif ;awG auGUaumufNyD; atmfoHawG yJ hwifxyfaeovdk yJ/ yef;csD um;&J U jrifuGif ; uvnf; Typing

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114


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD pdwf&Snf vuf&Sn f a&;w,f/ wpfa,mufvnf; jzpfw ,f/

http://mmcp community. net

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116


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dhtjyif usLApfZif;[m yef;csDqd kwJh a0g[m&ukd ykdr dk rSef uefw,f/ wu,fawmh usLApfZif;[m ESpfq,f &mpk yef;csDtm;vHk;udk arG;zGm ;ay;vk dufwmyJ/ t&ifwkef;u yef;csDu m;awG[m vl Yrvkdi fvTmawGeJY jynfhESu faew,f/ eef;awmf awG? a&uefawG ? ausmufawmif BuD;awG&SdwJ h O,smOfawG ? ppfol &Jaumif; awG? rª;rwf BuD;awG&JU yH kawmfawG/ 'gawGyJ qGJcJhw,f/ 'gawGu vGJ&if yef; csDqGJv dkY r&bl;qdkw Jhoabm oufa&mufaew,f/ yef ;csDqk dwm *kPfoa&&Sdw mawG qGJwJh[myJqkdwJ h tajctaersKd ;/ 'gawGudk usLApfZif;u awmfvSefc Jhw,f/ usLApfZif;[m &J&J0 Hh0Hh uk vm;xkd i f wpfck&J U yHku dk csqGJ cJhw,f/ qGJ &ifvnf ; jzpfw,fvdk Y jycJhw,f/ usLApfZif; yef;csD[m 'Dxufykd NyD; vlawmxJudk qif ;vmcJ hw,f/ yef;csDq dkwm jynfoltm;vH k;&J U OpömyJv dkY a<u;aMumfcJh w,f/ omref wa,mwpfvuf? owif ;pmwpfapmif? aqmhaewJh uav;wpfa,muf pwJh vlawG&JU ywf0 ef; usifawGu dk qGJvmMuw,f/ 'g[m yef;csD &JU vG wfvyfr IyJ/ bmudk qGJ&r,f? 'gawGud k yef; csDqGJ vdkY r&bl;qdk w Jh t"dyÜm,fr&Sd owfrSwf csufud k awmfvSef vdkufw myJ/ aemufNyD; oHk;pGJwJh ypön f;awGuvnf ; vGwfvyfv mw,f/ a&aq;eJY puúL 'grSr[kwf uif;bwfe JU qDaq;qdkwJ h abmifudk &J&J0H h0Hh ausmfxGu f vdkufMuw,f/ olwkdU[m pdwf ul; tpte? qDpdrft0wfawG ? oHjzLypönf; wcsKd U? opfom;twkdtpawG udk qufpyfNyD ; toHk;csvmw,f/ pkwftpm; acgif;NzD;wJh bD; 'grSr[kwf "m; (Palette knife)udk oHk;wJhtcgoHk;w,f/ vTpmukd oJeJYa &mNyD; Textureaumif;atmif okH;vmMuw,f/ aemufNyD; enf;trsKd;rsKd;uk d a&mpyf toHk;jyKvmMuw,f/ qDaq; um;csyfa y:rSm cJwHeJ U xyfNyD; a&;wJ htcg a&;w,f/ yef;csD&JU e,fy,f[m odyfus,f jyefYv mw,f/ a&S;½dk;tpGJ BuD;wJh avS eH"m;xpform;awGuawmh wDxGifr I? vGwfvyfrI awGukd ½IwfcsMuw,f/ wm;qD; Muw,f/ 'gayr,fh olwkd Y[m jywfjywfom;om; a&SUukd csDwuf cJhMuw,f/ Typing

Inc ubuz

127


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

olwkdU[m olwkd Yyef; csDum;awGukd vlawGa &SUrSm csNyD; ]]uJ r[mqefNyD; jrifh jrwfwJ h orm;½dk;usenf; yJ BudKufovm;? acwfrD ½dk;om;NyD; yumoeuif; wJh usKyfwdkY yef;csD yJ BudKufovm;}} vdkY a<u;aMumf cJhw,f/ avSeH"m;xpf ½dk;&mpGJ t,loD;olawG[ m awmfvSefa&; a&pD; aMumif;&J U wkdufzsuf rIukd cH& rSmyJ/ usLApfawmfv Sefa&;udk wm;qD;olawG [mvnf; usLApf awmfvSefa &;&J U t&Sdefatmuf rSm epf jrKyfoGm;cJhw,f/ usLApf Zif;yef;csD csyfawG[m r[mqefcsifolawG &JU {nf hcef;udk a&mufvmw,f/ orm;½dk; usyef; csDawG e JY NiD;aiG Yp&m aumif;aewJ h jywdku fawG[m usLApf Zif; yef;csDawGeJ Y pdkjynfvmw,f/ awmfvSef &J&if holawG[ m tNrJatmifvH vTi fhaerSmygyJ/

Typing

Inc ubuz

128


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

usLApfZif ;tjrifu dkawmh tusOf; csKyf NyD; azmfjyzdYk rvG,fvSb l;/txl;ojzifh 'g[myef;csDorm;&JU ukd,fy kdifawG ;ac:rIyJ/ ½kyfNidrf wpfcku dk b,fvdk cGJjcrf;NyD; a&;r,f qdkw muawmh yef;csDorm;&JU ukd, fykdi f qHk; jzwfcsufeJY todÓPf tawGYtBuHKwdkY ay:rS m wnfwJh txda&mufqHk; odrIa y:rSm wnfw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

129


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dae&mrSm b&uf eJY yDu mqdkwdk Y&JU ]r,f'vif eJY aumifrav;} qdkw Jh yef;csDu m;ESp fcsyfu kd wifjyvd kufygw,f/ yef;csDE SpfcsyfpvHk ;[m pHjy wpfckxJ u kd MunfhqGJ cJhwm jzpfayr,f h yef;csDorm;&J U todÓPfeJY tawGY tBuHK jcm;em;rI aMumifh usLApfZif ;csif ; wlayr,fh tajccHrSm tawmf jcm;em;wm awGY& w,f/ yDumqdk&J U yef;csD rSm tvif;tarSmifu kd tajccHNyD ; cGJ jcrf ; cJhw,f/ b&uf[m aumufaMumif; eJY a&mifjyifoabmukd tom;ay;NyD; qG JcJhw m jzpfw,f/ 'Dvkd tjrif jcm;em;rI e JY tawGUtBuHKt& wifjyrI rwlnDvdkY yef ;csDum;awG&J U qGJaqmiftm;[m jcm;em;vmw,f/ 'D ae&mrSm usaemfwdkY em;vnf xm;zk dYu yef ;csDorm;wpfa ,muf&J U t&nftaoG;ay:rSm wnf NyD; yef;csDum;wpfcsyf [m ykd NyD; tm;aumif ;vmEk difw,f/ 'g[mvnf; yef;csDorm;&JU tEkynmt&nftaoG;eJY tawGYtBuHKay:rS m wnfw,f/ usaemfwkd UView masterqdkw Jh uav;awG MunfhwJh t½kyfum; awGrSm jzpfjzpf? yx0D0ifb momrSm aumif; uifu ½dkufwJh ajryHkw pfckud k MunfhwJ htcgrSm jzpfjzpf MunfhwJ htcgrSm j'yfom;awG[m rsufjriftwdki f; xkoH k;zuf Three Dimension &Sd wmudk awG Y&w,f/ 'Dvdk jzpfaerI[m usLApfZif; &JU tajccHyJ/ aqZef;&J U &nf&G,f csuf tqHk;owfy kdif;[mvnf; 'gyJ/ 'Dvdk Munfhz kdU ½dkufwJh Camera [m ESpfv Hk; &Sdw,f/ rsufpdwpfvHk; twGu f wpfckeJY tjcm;rsuf pdwpfv Hk;twGuf wpfck/ uifr&m ESpfvH k;[m rsufp dwpfvH k;pD&J U taetxm;twkdif; ½dkufwJhtcg rsufpdwpfvHk;pDu jrif &wJh tjrif rsKd;udk &vmr,f/ 'DtjrifE Spfcku kd a&myl;NyD; rsufp dESpfv Hk;eJY MunfhwJ htcg rsufpdwpfvHk;pD[m olUtjrif eJYol xyfw ljrif&wmrdkY 'Dtjrif[m obm0 usus jzpfvmw,f/ obm0rSm jrif&ovdk xkoHk;zuf oabmawG jrifvm&w,f/ 'Doabmukd usLApfZif ;u tav;teuf xm;cJhw,f/ usLApfZif;&J U &nf&G,fc sufuvnf; rsuf pdwpfv Hk;pDu jrif&wJ h tjrifESp fckudk yl;aygif;NyD; wpfNyd Kifeuf MunfhEk difzd kYyJ/ xkoHk;zufudk qGJE kdifz dkYyJ/

Typing

Inc ubuz

130


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'Dvdk tjrifE SpfrsKd;udk yef;csDw pfcsyfxJrS m aygif;qGJvk dufw,f/ wpfcg wpf&HrS m xkxnftm; aumif;vmr,fqdk &if tjrifESpf rsKd;xufykdw Jh tjrif u dk yl;aygif;w,f/ 'D vdk j'yfxk &JU buftrsKd;rsKd;u tjrifawGu dk yl;aygif;wJhtcg j'yfxk[ m bmyJjzpfjzpf tmumo SpacerSm &nfwnfrI rSm;,G if;oG m;r,f/ 'Dv dk rSm;,Gi f;rI[m qef;opfwJh tjrifu dk jzpfa y:apNyD; yef ;csDum;&JU zGJY pnf;rI[m tm;aumif;vmw,f/ obm0usrItwGu f usLApfZif ;[m ay:xGufvmwm jzpfayr,fh wjznf; jznf;eJY obm0udk qef Yusifw Jh enf;vrf;bufu dk usLApfZif ;[m a&mufvmw,f/ tEkynmqefwJh zefwD;csuftjzpf wkd ;wufvmw,f/ rlv usLApfZif ;vdk j'yf om;udk a&mifjyiftuGufawG ? rsOf;awG eJY cGJxkw fwm r[kwfbJ a&mif jyiftuGuf awGeJY rsOf; awGukd j'yf rJh usLApfZ if;tjzpf yl;aygif; vkdufwmygyJ/ 'Dvkd yl;aygif; wJh usLApfZif;[m yk drdkxG ef;um; vmNyD; pD ;yGm;a&; aMumfjime,f xJrSm us,fus,f jyefYjyefY vTrf;rdk ;oGm;w,f/ uaeY pD;yGm;a&; aMumfjimawG[ m usLApfZ if;eJ Y rvGwfbl;vdkYawmif ajymEkdifw ,f/ yDumqdk& JU ]atADEGefu rdef ;uav;rsm;} qdkwJh yef;csDum;ukd jyefNyD; aqG;aEG;&atmif/ 'Dum;ukd 1907 ckE SpfrS m a&;qGJcJ hwm jzpf w,f/ usLApfZif ;[m ]'Drdef;uav;rsm;} yef ;csDu m;rSm pw,fvdkY Oa&my a0zefa&; orm;awGu wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwfMuw,f/ tJ'DESpf aqmif;OD ;aygufrS m yDumqd k[m rdef;uav;rsm; yef ;csDum;ukd a&;qG JcJhw,f/ yef;csDu m;[m trsKd ;rsKd; jyifNyD ; qGJcJh &w,f/ xyfcgwvJvJ ajymif; qGJw,f/ aemufqHk; tNyD;rowf bJ 'Dtwkdif ;xm;vd kufw,f/ yxrqGJ wJh yHkr Sm a,mufs m; ESpfa,muf&JU ykH ygw,f/ aemufawmh jyif&if ; jyif& if;eJY aemufqHk; jynfhwefqm ig;a,muf&J UyHky J usefawmh w,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

131


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'DyHkukd Munfh&if rdef;rig;a,muf&J UyHk udk tuGufvkduf tuGufvk du f cGJxkwfz dkY BudK;pm;xm;wm awGY&w,f/ yDyD jyif jyif r[kwfayr,fh yef;csDu m; wpfckvHk ;[m usLApfZif;enf;emawG vTrf;aew,f/ yDumqdk& JU yef;csD a&mif ;&if;awG[m 'Dum;ud k MunfhNyD; vefYzsyfoG m; Muw,f/ vefYvnf ; vefYp &myJ/ rd ef;rawG &JUyHkudk 'Dvdk&uf&ufpufpuf wpfcgrS razmfjyzl;wJ h yDumqd k[m vlaovdk jyL;aewJh rsufv Hk;eJY tom;yHk BuD; vdk qGJxm;wm[m pdwfrcsrf;omp&myJ/ 'Dyef;csDukd qGJc sdwfcsdefrS m yDumqd k[m pydefa&S;a[mif;½kyfwkawG eJY tmz&du rsuf ESmzH k; yef;ykawG&J U vTrf;rdk;rI u kd cHae&ygw,fvd kY 0efcH cJhw,f/ usLApfZif;eJY ywfouf NyD; ... ]]usaemfwdkY usLApfZif;udk qGJMuwk ef;u 'gudk wDxGifr,f vdkY r&nf& G, f ygbl;/ usaemfwkdY cHpm;csuftwkdif ; qGJcJ hwmyJ jzpfygw,f}} vdk U yDumqdu k ajymch Jw,f/ 'Dyef;csDum;[m 1937 ckESpftxd (ESpfaygif ; oHk;q,fw kdifatmif) yef;csD jyyG JawGrS m rjybJ odrf;xm;cJh &w,f/ 'DtawmtwGif ; yef; csDum;ukd Munf h& olawGuawmh olY&J U a&mif;&if;awGygyJ/ tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; b&ufeJ Y yDumqdkwdk Y[m usLApfZif ;udk xlaxmif zkdU Bud K;pm;cJhMuw,f/ olwkdYESpf a,muf& JU vuf&m[mvnf; cGJr&atmif wl cJhw,f/ tJ'Dvdk b0uaeNyD ; zefwD;rI tykdif;udk a&mufvmawmh usaemf wif jycJh wJh ]r,f'vifeJY rd ef;uav;yHk} vkd tajctaersKd; a&mufvmw,f/ aemufydk if;rS m yDumqd k&JU ]wa,m} qdkw Jh tqifhrsKd;xd wdk;wufvmw,f/ 'Dyef;csDum;[m wu,fh owif;pmpuúLeJU uwfjym;awGu kdqufp yfNyD; tay:u qDaq;eJY rsOf;aMumif ;awG? t&d yfawG vd kufxnfh NyD; qGJcJ hwm jzpfw,f/ 'DvdkqGJ enf;[m Mum&Sn f odyfrcHbl;/ 'gaMumifh aemuf ykdif ;rSm 'D enf;ud k qDaq;eJY yJ qGJzdkU wDx GifcJ hw,f/ yDumqdk &JU ]*Dworm;oHk; a,muf} [m 'Dvdk wDx GifrI rsKd;yJ/

Typing

Inc ubuz

132


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

aemufykd if;rS m zefwD; csufouf ouf usLApfZif;awG [m yef; csDavmuukd vTrf;rdk ;oGm;w,f/ a&mifjyifawGeJ Y TexturerwlwJ h ta&mifawGuk d qufpyfNyD; tm;aumif;wJ h aygif;pyfrIa wG[m tEkynm&J U zefwD;csuf xdyfwef;uk d a&mufvm w,f/ usLApfZif;[m uaeYurÇmt&yf&yf ukd a&muf &Sd ysHUESHYa eNyD jzpfw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

133


cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

Typing

Inc ubuz

http://mmcp community. net

134


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

usaemfwdk Yacwfr Sm yef;csD[m ydk NyD; awmfv Sefa&;usw,f/ us,fjyefYw,f/ wpfcgwpf&Hr Sm ydkr dk ½IyfaxG;oa,mif xif&w,f/ wkd;wufrI t&Sde ft[ke f odyfBuD ;vGef;vdkYenf ;vrf;toG, foG,f[m cGJjcrf;vdk Y r&Ekd if avmufatmif ½IyfaxG; qufpyfaew,f/ usaemfwdk Yacwf& JU yef;csDtEkynm&,f ]vGwfvyfrI} qdkwmukd usaemf t&if wifjyygr,f/ yef;csDqdkw m q&mwpfql &JU ynm&yfwpf ck r[kwfbJ jynf olawG&J U tvSty zefwD;rIqd kwJh a0g[m&[m uaeY odyf NyD; us,fus,favmifavmif [pfa<u;vmMuygw,f/ vufawGUrSmvnf ; Oa&myeJ Y tm&S wdk;wufwJh Ekdif iHawGr Sm yef;csDo rm;awG rIdv dkaygufaew,f/ oufarG;0rf; ausmif ; pHkuefNyD; yef;csDaemuf u kd waumufaumuf vdkufolawG &S dw,f/ taysmfwrf; yef ;csDuawmh ajymraeeJ U? pm&if;aumufvdkYawmif r&avmuf atmif aygrsm;w,f/ yef;csD &JU aps;EI ef;[mvnf; avsmhusoGm ;w,f/ yef;csDa&;qGJol txl;ojzihf taysmfwrf;awG t&rf;rsm;jym;vmwmrdk Y yef;csDum;csyfawG[m yvlysHaeatmif ae&mwumrSm awGYv m&w,f/ wpfc sdefu eef;awmfBuD; awG&J U crf; em;wJh taqmif awmfawG? &J wkduf BuD;awG eJY vluHkx HawG&J U {nfhcef; awmfrS mom 0if h0ifh <um;<um;eJY csdwfqGJx m;cJhw Jh yef;csDum;csyfawG[ m omref vufvkyf vufpm; wpfa ,muf&J U tdrfudk qif;vmw,f/ yef;csDu m;&J U wefqmrqifwJh ae&mqdkwm &SmrawGYEk difatmif us,f jyef U vmw,f/ vl&JU rsufvH k;&Sdw Jh ae&mwkdi f;rSm yef; csD&J U t&dyfawGukd awGY&w,f/ txnf tqifqef;awG? ukefy pönf;awG &JU 'DZkd if;awG ? tdrfyHkpH awG ? Taqmuf ttHkBuD;awG? ½kyfwkBuD;awG rsufvH k;eJU jrifEdk ifwJh ae&mwkdif; rSm usaemf wkdUacwf yef;csDtEk ynm&J U vTr f;rdk; aewJh t&d yfta,mifa wG jrifEkd ifwJh ae&mwk dif;rSm usaemfwdk Yacwf yef ;csDtEky nm&J U vTrf;rd k;aewJ h t&dyfta,mifawG jrifw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

135


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'DtcgrSm yef;csD[m wkd;wufvmwmeJYtrQ t½dk;om;qHk; yHkpHu kd a&mufvmw,f/ yef;csDorm;&J U ynmjy? pGrf;&nfjy yHkp HuaeNyD; tvStyukd zGJYpnf; rItjzpfeJU t½dk;om;qH k; yHkoP²mefu dk a&mufv mw,f/ 'DtcgrSm vG,foa,mif eJY cufwJh tqpftykdif;awG &Sdvmw,f/ nHhoa,mif eJY aumif;wmawG? aumif;oa,mifeJY nHhwmawG/ 'gawGukd yef;csD&J U jyóemtjzpf awGUvm&w,f/ bmyJ jzpf jzpf jynfo lawGu tqHk; tjzwf ay;oGm;wmyJ/ yef;csDu m;aumif;wpf csyfeJ U tnHhpm;wpfck[m w'*F rS mom qifwlEkd ifNyD; a&&SnfrS m ,SOfNyd KifE kdifp Grf; b,fvdkr S&Sdr Sm r[kwfygbl;/ yef;csDu m; aumif;awGu kd orkdi f;u a&G;xkw fNyD ; jywdku fBuD;awGrSm tyfE SHcJh wmygyJ/ yef;csD &JU wd k;wufr I[m t&Sde fBuD;vGef;wJhtwGuf usaemfwkd Y acwf& JU urÇ m h yef;csD[ m xkdifae&pfolawGudk ausmuf acwf&J U tpykdif;avmuf ukd ykd Uypfvd kufw,f/ 'gawGukdawmh wcsKd Uu rodvkduf Mubl;/ ]teDa&mif tpuf} uav; wpfpufu kd tm;aumif;atmif xdef; xm;Ek difwJh pGrf; &nf&Sd &ifvnf ; 'guav;[myJ yef; csDaumif; wpfcsyf jzpf vmrSm yJ/ rsOf;aMumif; wpfaMumif;ud k tm;aumif;atmif zGJ Upnf; jyEkd i f &ifvnf; 'g[m yef; csDum;aumif; wpfcsyf jzpfrS myJ/ usaemf wifjycJhNyD;jzpfwJh yef; csDtEkynm&JU usaemfwdk Uacwf rSm ydk NyD; xifx if&S m;&Sm ; awGU&Edkifw,f/

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yef;csD[ m obm0ukd ukef Murf ;tjzpf toHk ;jyKNyD; aemuf vl&JU pu©Ktm½Hk uae wpfqifh vl&J U pdwåZukd EId;qGzdkY abmifcwfx m;wJh rsufE Smjyif wpfcka y:rSm zefwD;xm;wJh 0dZÆm ynm&yfyJ/ 'gudk usaemfwkdYu xyfz efwvJv J pOf;pm;NyD; ESvH k;onf;yGwfxJr Sm epfaeatmif rSwfx m;&if t&m&m[m acwf&J UoabmeJ Yvkdufa vsm nDaxG jzpfay:vmrSmyJ/

Typing

Inc ubuz

136


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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137


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

138


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Inc ubuz

139


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

'DvkdyJ tbufbufrS m usaemfwd kY[m acwfa&pD;&J U tvsOfu kd jrifawG Uae&rSm jzpfw,f/ 'grS usaemfwdkYacwf o½kyfouef[m yDor,f/ usaemfwdk Y qHk;jzwfx m;Ekd ifzkd Yuawmh ]raeUu[mawG[m 'DuaeYypönf ;awG r[kwfbl;} qdkwmygyJ/ uaeUacwf rSm&S dwJh yef;csD&JU tajctaeuk d usaemftaeeJ U tMurf;zsif; yJ wifjyEkdifp Grf; &Sd ygw,f/ usaemf vufvSrf ;rDoa&G U wifjy ygr,f/ uaeY usaemfwdk Uacwf rSm yef;csD[m usaemf ajymcJhovdk odyfNyD; vGwfvyfw,f/ us,f jyef Uw,f/ yef;csDukd Painting wGi frubJ Graphic Arts awGrSmyg avhvm&rSm jzpf w,f/ yef;csDr Smvnf; vuform; twwfe JY yHkESdy ftwwfawGyg a&maygif ;vmNyDvnf; jzpfw,f/ bmyJ jzpf jzpf wif jyrIqkdif &m enf;emawGukd t"dutm;jzihf oHk; ykdif ;cGJvd kY&vmw,f/ 1/ obm0tm; xyfwlnDatmif wifjyrI 2/ ½kyfrJh j'yf rJh zefwD ;rI 3/ pdwåZ vIHYaqmf zefwD;rI 'Dvdk oHk;ykd if;tm;jzihf t"ducGJ jcm;vdkY &w,f/ olYatmufrSm vrf;oG, fawG ra&rwGuf Ekdifatmif &Sdygw,f/ obm0ukd xyfwlnD atmif wifjyw,fqkdw mu usaemfwdk Y 18 &mpkrwk difcif aqZef;wk dY? ulab;wdkYvd kyJ/ vlqdk& if vleJ Uwlatmif ? ypönf ;awG qdk&ifvnf ; cRwfpG yfwlatmif qGJwJhenf;yJ/ 'gayr,fh ulab;wdkY ? aqZef;wkdY vufxufrSm pkwf&mawG rIe fEkaeatmif qGJcJ hw,f/ ckacwfrSmawmh pkwf &m ygcsifvnf; ygr,f/ ygcsifrSvnf ; ygr,f/ ta&mifrS mawmh awmfawmfav; xl;jcm;vmw,f/ odyfawmufywJ h rlvta&mifeJY ESp fa&mifpyfvd kY qGJavh &Sdw,f/ ta&mifrSmawmh xl;xl; jcm;jcm;ukd ajymif;vJoGm;w,f/ Typing

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140


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

Draft Age1965

Jimmy&J U Age

of

Draft

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141


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

olYtaz Andrew Wyeth [m Jimmy xuf yd kNyD ; TexturerSm uRrf;usifw ,f/ Andrew &JU yef ;csDu m;awGud kawmh usaemf rwif jyEk difygbl;/ Andrew &JU yef;csDwkdi f;[m Texture rSm ajymif;xm;wmcsnf; yJ/ txl;ojzihf Texture udk n§dxm;wm awGY&w,f/ Oyrmtm;jzihf yef;uefvHk; udk qGJ&if a<u&J U ajymifvufrI rsKd; ? rmausm rIrsKd; eJY qufpyf wJh oabmawGu kdvnf; ygatmifq GJxm;w,f/ wpfzuf uvnf; yef;uef[ m azmheJY vky fxm;w,fvdkY xif&atmif aysmhy Gaeatmif qGJ xm;w,f/ 'DtcgrSm Munfh& ol&J U tm½Hk[m wpfrsKd; jzpfoGm ;w,f/ olwdkYodwJ h yef;ueftppfyJ/ 'g[m olwd kY oHk;aeus yef;uef wpfcsyfyJ/ 'gayr,fh awGYaeus yef;uefrsKd ;awmh r[kw fbl;;/ xl;jcm;rI awG a&maygif ;aew,f/ 'Dvkd tm½HkaxGjym;rIaMumifh Andrew&JU yef;csD um;[m tm;aumif ;vmw,f/ tckawmh Oa&myrSm Andrew&JY yef;csDenf;[m us,fus,f jyefYjyefY vTrf ;rdk;aeygNyD/ aemufykd if;rS m Andrew xuf ydkNyD; &J&ihfhwJh Textuerajymif;rIawGukdawmif vkyfwmvm awG Y&w,f/ ]½kyfrJh j'yf rJh zefwD;rI} eJY ywfoufvdkYuawmh a&mifjyif0g'awGu kd t"duxm;NyD; wifjy&rSm yJ jzpfw,f/ usaemfwd kY jref rmjynfrS mawmh a&mifjyif 0g'[m odyfrxGef;um;ao;ygbl;/ 'gayr,fh tm;,lp jyKaewhJ a&mifjyif tpteav;awGawmh usaemfw kdYr MumcP awGU&ygw,f/ usaemfhtaeeJ Y yef;csD&J U enf;emtoG,fo G,frS m a&mif jyif0g'[m tiftm; aumif;wJh aygif;pyf r I 0dZÆmynmrdkYa&mif jyify ef;csD[m us,fus,f jyef YjyefY xGef;um;oifh w,fvdkY jrifw,f/ a&mifjyifoabmrSm us,fjyefYw Jh aq;a&miftuGu fBuD; awGudk yef; csD orm;&J U uRrf;usifrIay:rS m wnfNyD; BudKufovkd aygif; pyf,lwJ h oabmyJ/ 'Da&mif jyif yef;csD[m usLApfZif ;eJY qm&D&,fvpfZif;u qif ;oufvmwJh yef; csDenf; yJ jzpfw,f/

Typing

Inc ubuz

142


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

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Typing

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143


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

1/ ½kyf<uyHkE Sdyf

(Relief)

2/ tcsKdihfxGif;

(Intaglio)

3/ rsufESmjyif

(Surface)

1/ ½kyf<uyHkE Sdyf

(Relief Engraving)

jzpfygw,f/

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2/ tcsKdifhx Gif; yHkESdy f

(Intaglio Engraving)

tcsKdihfxG if;awG[ m owåKtjym; (trsm;tm;jzih f aMu;eD ) awGukd xG if;NyD; ESdyfwJh enf; jzpfw,f/ owåK jym;ay:rS tcRefwpf ckcke JY jzpfjzpf csKdi fhaeatmifvkyf/ rifokwf NyD; owåK jym;udk yGwfw dkufvdk ufwJhtcgrSm rif[m csKdifhaewJh ae&mav;awGrSm usef aecJh r,f/ 'gudk yHkESdy f,lr,f/ 'Dvkd yHk ESdyf wJhtcgrSm owåKjym;a&m puúLudk pdkx kdif;vmatmif vk yfNyD; wvdrhfwHk ;BuD; awGeJY n§yf NyD; vdS rfh&w,f/ 'Dvdk tcsKdihfxG if;rS m acwfpm;wJh Typing

Inc ubuz

144


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

http://mmcp community. net

enf;awGuawmh (u) rsOf; aMumif;yHk ESdyf(Line Engraving)? (c) ajcmufaoGUtcRef (Drypoint)? (* ) tufppfp m;wkd U jzpfw,f/ (u) rsOf;aMumif; yH kESdy fuawmh bl& if (Burin)ac:wJh tcRefwpfck eJY owå Kjym; ay:ukd xGi f;vdku fwJhtcg owåK jym;ay:rSm (y) yHkoP²mef cyfcRefcRefeJY xG if;&mudk jzpfay:apw,f/ 'Dv kdud&d ,mukdo Hk;NyD; qGJvdkY&wJhtcg tcsKdihfawGr Sm rifjznfhNyD; yHkESd yf,lw,f/ (c) ajcmufaoGUtcRef yHkESdy fenf;uawmh oHrPdeJ Y vkyfxm;wJh cJw Hwpfacsmif; eJY owåK jym;ay:rSm yHk qGJNyD; ESdyfwJh enf;yJ/ 'Dvdk ESdyfwJhtcgrS m rifprif eawG puúLay:rSm ayusHaeatmif vkyfNyD; tjrifwpfr sKd;eJY vSatmif zefwD;avh &Sdw,f/ (*) tufppfpm;yHkE Sdyf (Ecihing) uawmh za,mif ;oHk;xm;wJh rsuf ESmjyifay:rS m tcRefwpfc kckeJ Y yHkqGJvk dufwJhtcg tcRef[m za,mif ;awGukd azmufNyD; rsufES mjyifudk xdoG m;w,f/ 'DtcgrSm owåKjym;ukd tufppf xJrSm pdrfxm;w,f/ tufppf[m rsOf;aMumif;u0ifNyD; owåKukdp m;wJhtcg owåKay:rSm rsOf ;aMumif;twkdi f; tcsKdih fawG xifv mw,f/ 'gudk yHkESdy f,lw,f/

3/ rsufESm jyif yHkESdy f

(Surface Engraving)

'Denf;uawmh nDnmwJh rsufES mjyifwpf ckuaeNyD; yHkE Sdyfw Jhenf; yJ jzpf w,f/

(u) ausmufyH kESdy f(Lithograph) ausmufjym; 'grSr[kw f aMu;jym;wpfjym;ay:rSm tqDygwJh ypönf;wpfckck e JY yHkqGJw,f/ aemuf NyD; rsufESm jyif udk a&eJY pk dpGwfatmif vkyfw,f/ a&eJ YtqD[m wpfuefYp D jzpfa er,f/ 'DtcgrSm tqDygwJh rif udk vdSrf hNyD ; wifwJhtcg tqDtqDcsif;pGJ NyD; a&pdkwJhtykdif;ukd rifxdr Sm r[kwfb l;/

Typing

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145


cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD (c) ydk;um;yHkE Sdyf

http://mmcp community. net

(Silk-Screen Print)

'guawmh jrefrmjynfrS m tm;upm; pGy fus,fawG wHqdyf ESdyfw Jh enf; yJ jzpfw,f/ ydk;ydw fum;ud k abmif usyf NyD; rif rxifapcsifwJh tyk dif;awG u kd zHk;xm;w,f/ NyD;awmh rifoGi f;vdku fwJhtcg zHk;xm;wJh ae&mawG csef NyD; rifu xifr,f/ ta&mif yHkESd yftwGuf wpfa&mifpDu dkyg ydk;um;csyf wpfck pD oHk;NyD; yHkESdy fw,f/ wcsKdUuvnf ; uRrf;usifr IeJU ydk;um;csyfwpfck wnf;rS myJ ta&mif trsKd;rsKd ;ukd yHkE Sdyfwwfw,f/ tm&Swdkufr Sm xGef ;um;wJh enf;uawmh ygwdwfy ef;csDyJ jzpfw,f/ 'Denf;u yef;csDu m;csyfay:rSm ta&mifwkdu f½dkuf ul;wJhenf; jzpf w,f/ t0wfwpfc ktay:rSm za,mif;eJY yHkqGJw,f/ 'Dt0wfukd qdk;aq;xJ ESpfvk duf wJhtcg za,mif;r&Sd w Jh tykdif;awGud k rifp GJw,f/ aemuf a&aEG;eJY jyKwfvdku f wJhtcg za,mif ;awG aysmfoGm ;w,f/ aemufwpfa&miftwGuf aemufwpfBudrf za,mif;zHk;NyD; aq;qdk;w,f/ 'Dvdk ta&miftrsKd;rsKd;twGuf tBudrf Budr f vkyfNyD;wJhtcg t0wfu kd abmifusyf vdkuf NyD; yef;csDu m;csyf jzpfvmw,f/ 'Denf;[m tm&S Ekdif iHawGr Sm awmfawmfa cwfpm;wJhenf ;jzpfw,f/ aemuf usaemfwkd Yacwf& JU pdwåZvIH Uaqmf yef;csDukd enf;enf ; yg;yg; avhvmMunf h &atmif/ usaemfwk dYacwfr Sm 'Du leif; &JU vuf&mawG tawmf ausmfMum;w,f/ 'Duleif;[m tm½kHcH tZÑwå0g'D (Abstract Expressionism) &J U acgif;aqmifw pfOD; yJ jzpf w,f/ olY&JU yef ;csDu m;awG[m (Semi-Abstract) wpf0ufwpf ysuf j'yfrJ hawGyJ jzpf NyD; 'DvlyH kawG[m jyif y [efxuf twG if; obm0awGudk qG Jxm;avh &Sdw,f/ olY&JU yef ;csDum;udk ½kwfw&uf Munfh &ifawmh ½Iyf,SufcwfaewJh pkwf&mawGyJ/ pkwf& mawGuk d a&marTNyD ; yHkoP²mef[m yD yDjyifjyif r&S dvSbJwpfckck y J qdkwmavmuf od&w,f/ 'gayr,f h yef; csDum;&JU acgif ;pOfvnf; Munf hvkdufa &m olUykHu kd usaemfw dkY jrifoGm;wmygyJ/ Typing

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Willem de Kooning, Woman V (1952-53)

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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j'yfwlu dk rqGJbJ tm½Hkxif ½kyfj'yf (Semi-Abstarct) awG ukdyJ qGJw,f/ 'DvdkqGJ &mrSm vnf; ½kyfj'yf&J U jyifyoP²mef ukd rqG JbJ 'D½kyf j'yf& JU taMumif;w&m; jzpfwJ h twGif;obm0ukdom qGJw,f/ 'g[m 'Dul eif;&JU tEkynmyJ jzpfw,f/ uaeY usaemfwdk Uacwf rSmuawmh Oa&mywpf0dk ufrSm 'Du leif;[m xif&Sm;wJh pdwåZyef; csDorm;wpfO D;yJ jzpfygw,f/ aemufwpfa ,mufuawmh tar&duefu a&m*sifbwf (Ranchenberg)yJ jzpfw,f/ ol[m ypönf;rsKd;pHkukd wG, fqufzefwD;wJh Pop Artudk tar&duefr Sm pwif toHk;jyKol yJ jzpfw,f/ wpfzufuvnf ; Collagesac:wJh enf; pHk yef;csDq GJenf; rSm tawmf MoZm&Sdo lwpfa,muf jzpfw,f/ 1959 ckESpfrSm zefwD; wJh yef;csDu m;wpf csyfrS m qdwfaoaumifu dk tpmoGw f? ½kyfvkH; vkyf? wm,mwpfvHk; eJY pGyfNyD; yef;csDum;ay:rSm wyfxm; vdkufw,f/ 'gukd olu rdkE kd*&rf (Monogram) vdkY emrnfay;xm;w,f/ 'Dvdk wu,fh owå0gukd yef;csDum;ay:rSm wG,fquftoHk; jyKwm a&m*sif bwfwpfa ,mufyJ &Sdw,f/ olY& JU wif jyyH k[m awmfawmf emrnfBuD;oGm ;w,f/ aemufy dkif; rSmawmh ol[m ydk; um;csyfyHk ESdyf e JY yef;csDu dk a&maxG; toHk; jyKvmw,f/ olY&JU yef; csDum;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm ydk;um;csyf yHkE SdyfawG toHk;jyKxm;wm awGY &w,f/ olU&J U ]aumif;uif bm;} (Trapeze) qdkwJh yef;csDum;rSm qDaq;&,f? ydk;um;csyfyH kESdy f&,f a&maxG; toHk;jyKxm;wm awGY&ygw,f/

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Robert Rauschenberg ( 1925-2008 )

olU&J U um;csyfrSm Munfhr,fq dk&if a&S;acwf Oa&my tv,fyd kif; o½kyfrS e f yef;csD (Realism) awG? acwfay: (Photograpih realism)"mwf yHkqef o½kyfrS e f yef;csDawG? a&mifjyifenf ;awG (Futurism) ac:wJh vIyf&S m;rI yef;csDawG a&maxG; toHk;jyKxm;wm awGY &ygw,f/ ol[m ydk;um;csyf yHkES dyfeJ Y qDaq;yef ;csDuk d uRrf;uRrf; usifusif a&mpyfEkd ifpG rf;&Sd olwpfa,muf jzpf wJh twGuf olY&JUvuf&m[m BuD;rm;wJh vIHYaqmfr Iudk ay;ygw,f/ a&m*sif bwf[ m usaemfwdkY acwf&J U tEkynm&SifBuD; wpfa,mufygyJ/ usaemf wdkY[m a&SUavQmuf NyD; a&m*sifbwf&J U vkyf &yfawG u kd rsufjcnfrjywf Munfha eoifhw,f/

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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cif0 rf; - pdwåZyef;csD

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pdwf"mwfyJqd kwm

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usaemfwkd U[m jynfolawGu dk ...

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cif0 rf; - pdw책Zyef;csD

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ESpfNcdKufv mr,f/ 'Dae&mrSm yef;csDa vmu&J U wdk;wuf rIt&dSe f[m rSef uefvmrSmygyJ/ yef;csDo rm;awG [mvnf; olwdk Y pdwfrSm qmavmifvmwmudk zefwD; Ekdif rSmygyJ/ yef;csD &JU abmif[mvnf; vGw fvyfus,fjyefYvmrSmygyJ/

cif0 rf; 1970? 'DZ ifbm

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