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Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry RATE EQUATION

EXAMPLE

s

METHOD 1

METHOD 2 When initial [I-] is doubled and initial [H+] is doubled; while keeping initial [BrO3-] constant, the initial rate has increased by 8 times. Since rate order with respect to I- is 1 (given), the initial rate has increased by four times when initial [H+] is doubled. Therefore, the rate order with respect to H+ is 2.


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry

(Advance) OR


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry RATE EQUATION

Example of 1st order reaction:

Example of 2nd order reaction:

ACTIVATION ENERGY

Example 小心中伏

Answer: 33.1 kJmol-1 or 33100 Jmol-1


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry PERCENTAGE YIELD

ATOM ECONOMY

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ MAXWELL BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION

1

1

2

3

2


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry CATALYSIS

When a catalyst is involved in a chemical reaction, it would not be a single-step process. At least two steps are involved. (Combination of catalyst with the reactant to form the intermediate + Regeneration of the catalyst from the intermediate) ENERGY PROFILE EXOTHERMIC REACTION (single-step)

*fast reactions have a lower activation energy, slow reactions have a higher activation energy ENDOTHERMIC REACTION (single-step)

EXOTHERMIC REACTION (two-step)

The activated complex with bonds partially broken and partially formed.

Ea for first step is greater than the Ea of second step

It is very unstable because it has a very high energy.

→ It is called rate-determining step with limit the rate if the overall reaction.


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry INDUSTRIAL PROCESS (1) - Haber process – manufacture of NH3


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry INDUSTRIAL PROCESS (2) - Chloroalkali industry – Manufacture of Cl2, H2 and NaOH Flowing mercury cell

1

2

Membrane cell

2

Membrane:

3

2


Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry INDUSTRIAL PROCESS (3) – Manufacture of methanol

GREEN CHEMISTRY

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Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry (Intensive notes)  

Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry (Intensive notes)

Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry (Intensive notes)  

Topic 13 Industrial chemsitry (Intensive notes)

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