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FORUM: The United Nations Security Council QUESTION OF: Protocol for International Intervention MAIN SUBMITTER: Arab Republic of Egypt CO-SUBMITTERS: Federal Republic of Germany, Federative Republic of Brazil SIGNATORIES: United States of America, French Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, People’s Republic of China, Russian Federation, Republic of Turkey, Syrian Arab Republic, Democratic People's’ Republic of Korea, Republic of Rwanda, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of South Africa. THE SECURITY COUNCIL, Reaffirming Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, outlining the Security Council’s role and powers to maintain international peace and the necessity for a Security Council mandate for a legal intervention; Expressing its satisfaction at the 2011 Libyan civil war intervention, which was small and successful in being a legitimate intervention and freeing Libya from dictatorship; Recalling Chapter V Article 27 of the UN Charter: a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting; Having considered the controversy between concepts of sovereignty, the social contract, and their limits when debating about international intervention; Further considered the indistinct notion of the responsibility to protect and how it can justify international intervention; Keeping in mind the aim of any intervention that would be passed by the Security Council — ending human rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed; Aware of the indistinct terms for an intervention to be passed and operated; basic protocols to carry out the mandate and the need to reaffirm them; the aftermath and consequences of the intervention. 1. Defines international intervention as: military force against another state when the chief publicly declared aim of that military action is ending human rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed

2. Affirms that according to the responsibility to protect: sovereignty is not a right, but entails responsibilities for states to provide protection and security for their populations. If the state manifestly fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and peaceful, diplomatic measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort. 3. Declares that all interventions must gain the approval of the United Nations Security Council with guidelines including but are not limited to: a. In no circumstance shall any member state or military alliance engage in unilateral military intervention without the consent of the Security Council; b. Other alliances can help in the execution of a Security Council mandate without derogating from the mandate and its ultimate aims; c. Further action taken without the authorization of the Security Council will constitute to a breach of the United Nations Charter. 4. Strongly encourages that the execution of Security Council mandates involve regional alliances including but not limited to the Arab League; African Union; North Atlantic Treaty Organization due to their resources and manpower stationed within the region; understanding of the local environment and culture. 5. Calls upon the Security Council to create a Military Intervention Code, outlining the criteria for member states and third party military alliances to intervene to aid the council in its decision; the points including but not limited to: a. Just Cause — where there must be a clear and serious threat to human life such as a high number of deaths and civilian casualties b. Right Intention — military intervention must not derogate from the following motives: i. for the immediate benefit of specified groups of persons in urgent need; ii. to alleviate as much human suffering as possible; iii. to preserve as much human lives as possible. c. Final Resort — where all other resorts have been exhausted and there are reasonable grounds to believe that military action is the most effective solution; d. Legitimate authority — countries, organizations and personnel taking part in the intervention should be agreed upon during the passing of the mandate; e. Proportional means — minimum force should be used to secure maximum protection; f. Reasonable prospect — a cost-benefit analysis should show that military intervention would be likely to succeed in protecting more human rights. The consequences and aftermath of the intervention should be deemed sure not to be worse than no military action at all.

g. Aftermath follow-up — after an intervention, the Security Council should consult with the Economic and Social Council and related committees for further humanitarian aid to achieve maximum stability. The Security Council may also station peacekeeping forces temporarily until the crisis and social order is at an appropriate level; 6. Decides that all justified forms of diplomacy and sanctions must have proven relatively unsuccessful before military intervention may be considered. Methods of diplomacy and sanction include but is not limited to: a. Temporarily removing diplomatic ties of countries toward the targeted nations, such as embassies; b. Imposing armament embargoes and trade bans; c. Imposing no-fly zones d. Engaging in diplomatic negotiations; e. Economic sanctions f. Removal of funding and economic support 7. Requires that the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHCR) create a human rights report on the security conflict to advise the Security Council on courses of action specifically within that conflict including but not limited to: a. extent and human rights violations taking place b. possibility of war crimes c. parties who have committed human rights abuse d. suggestions on further steps for the Security Council to take to combat including the possibility of military intervention where: i. the cost versus benefits of a military intervention be carefully analyzed and weighed, e. incorporating intelligence from independent member states, intelligence agencies, third party organizations and other UN organizations 8. Calls upon the Security Council to create a sub-group within the Security Council to investigate and gather intelligence on any security conflict the Security Council will discuss for better understanding and clarity by member states of circumstances within the conflict and will: a. aim to provide member states comprehensive information on the security conflict allowing member states to make informed decisions including but not limited to the: i. key players in the conflict; ii. scale of the conflict; iii. civilian and military casualties; iv. presence and type of arms and weaponry; v. role and effect on surrounding states; vi. situation on refugees; b. gather intelligence from various member states intelligence agencies, UN organizations, experts in the area and independent organizations

c. send intelligence gathering officers to the security conflict if deemed necessary to obtain the most accurate information possible 9. Requests an expansion in the number of peacekeeping forces and station them near potentially dangerous countries in order for an instant, efficient response once a mandate has been issued; 10. Requires all personnel intervening to follow these basic protocols during the period they are within the borders of another state: a. Follow all existing conventions on war, such as the Geneva and Hague conventions; b. Not use force except in defence of the mandate; Protocols include but are not limited to: i. the use of force at the tactical level with the authorization of the mandate; ii. Intervention should always be calibrated in a precise, proportional and appropriate manner, within the principle of the minimum force necessary to achieve the desired effect, while sustaining consent for the operation and its mandate. iii. No intervention shall produce more harm than it was authorized to prevent. 11. Decides that private military aid agreements between nations are exempt from the permission of the Security Council, but shall not consume any of the UN's resources, nor shall the UN bear any responsibility; 12. Calls for monetary, resource and military contribution from various capable countries for this effort, including the United Nations Peacekeeping Force based on the United Nations Classifications System. Such countries should be ready and willing to contribute to all projects aimed to help uphold the mandate; 13. Reiterates that nations which commit deviations or grave breaches of the above clauses or purposes outlined by any other Security Council resolution in force without reasonable excuse will risk facing international action to be discussed and determined in the Security Council; 14. Clarifies that countries involved in the conflict, including countries intervening without the authorization of the Security Council, are parties to the the dispute and hence may be ineligible to vote; 15. Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

SC Topic 2 Resolution 1  
SC Topic 2 Resolution 1