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HKMUN 2012 Security Council Topic 1 Country Position Papers Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Afghanistan I. The situation in Iraq has become a major problem unsolved through the international society for a long time. After the independence of Iraq back in 1932, all the way to the rule under Saddam Hussein, the war between Iraq and Iran, Gulf War in 1991, to the recently Operation Iraqi Freedom. All these wars and battles separate Iraq and its people from prosperity, and peace. Conflicts between the Sunni and Shia Muslims within the country are indeed, the major conflict within the country. While the United State withdraws the troops from Iraq recently, it leaves uncertainty on whether the government has the ability to develop the country, peacefully, and cooperate with the international society in long term. ii. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is extremely concerned about the progress towards peace in Iraq. This is in fact one of the biggest issues in the region, yet it has been unsolved due to the conflict between different groups of Muslim. The future of Iraq is also significantly important to Afghanistan and our people, as the solution in Iraq’s discussion should act as a fundamental framework towards the future of our country. Afghanistan supports UN’s act upon calling the international society in protecting the civilians from sectarian violence within the country, and that any person suspected of perpetrating acts of violence is held accountable according to the respective law. We also believe that, by drafting long term plans for the internal security and social well-being, is essential in this stage. iii. Our country believes that building a stable and creditable central government, tackling the increasing level of violence, particularly in the southern and eastern regions of Iraq must be addressed immediately. Moreover, in order to solve the conflicts between the different branches of Islam, Sunni and Shia Muslims in particular, our country encourages to call for a peaceful negotiation under the fundamental ideologies of Ukhuwah Islamiyah, instill the fundamental values of Qu’an and Sunni as the sole reference point for ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community and state. Conflicts will be eliminated through understanding the fundamentals. We call on negotiations with the 3rd party shortly in proposing an agreement between the parties in order to achieve a peaceful and prosperous future of Iraq. The international community should therefore, provide financial support for the reform of the security sector. At last, the neighboring countries for which engagement with Iraq is a necessity to help and tackle the issues together.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Brazil The disputes between ethnic minorities and militant groups in the region make it difficult to ensure political and social stability within the country. All US military troops had withdrawn from the country by the end of 2011, leaving Iraq’s guard to be maintained individually, by Iraq’s own military forces. The military forces are newly trained by the US and do not have the ability to fend off large-scale attacks. Brazil reaffirms the need of financial and technological aiding schemes for the defense of the nation, and in order to achieve political and military stability in the region Iraq’s military power must be equal to that of other nations in the area. Being the first country to reopen its embassy in Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War, Brazil had always shown interest and vigilance towards the issues in the Arab Country. With the withdrawal of the US military, Iraq is left with a rather destabilized political situation. Brazil and Iraq had strong trade relations and in the current days Brazil continues to find investment opportunities with Iraq. Before the Gulf War in the 1980s bilateral trade (aggregate imports and exports) was US$2.9billion. Recently the planning minister of Iraq, Ali Youssef al-Shukri, called for Brazilian Firms to invest in the country. The Brazilian Ambassador added, “Brazil is able to develop the agriculture in Iraq, because it possesses huge potentials in this regard”. This entails the need for Iraq not only to develop a structure of security but also its own sustainability that had been hampered over the years of disputes. Although during the Gulf War Brazil had voted in favor Iraq sanctions in the Security Council, the due date of the trade embargo on 2003 nevertheless brings positive actions. As Brazil will always remain as Iraq’s strong commerce partner, Brazil will not miss any single opportunity. The Middle East crisis is a long running issue that many nations had tried to resolve. The disputes between ethnic groups, especially the struggle for political power. Ever since the US occupation of Iraq and the ousting of the former president Saddam Hussein in 2003, the Iraqi government became a vacuum, with the US Middle East Policies that keep the country running. With the recession of US troops, the nation is now guarded by its own armed forces. Iraq is now in a vulnerable position that is susceptible to large-scale attacks by militant groups such as the Shia. Brazil had always been supportive towards Iraq’s initiatives for technological advancement, both in the private and public sector. Brazil sees the window of opportunity for the Arab nation to be a forefront in technology in the region. Being a founding member of the United Nations, Brazil hopes to expand the market of foreign trade and technological frontiers of Iraq.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: China Madam Chairwoman, Secretary General, Delegates of the Security Council: We have seen the last of the American troops withdraw from Iraq less than a month ago. They have left behind a war-torn nation in considerable turmoil. Eight years of war were the product of an entirely unjustified claim of Iraq possessing weapons of mass destruction, used as a pretext for invasion and subsequent occupation. The war has left behind a fragile democratic system, millions homeless and an aggressively fanatic insurgency. China has from the very beginning denounced the barbaric American invasion of Iraq. We want no further American intervention in the country. China has donated more than 50 million Yuan to Iraq in 2007 to help with its health and education programmed. We therefore demand that the United States and the United Kingdom, who were the aggressors of the War; to compensate for the infrastructural and humanitarian damages they have irresponsibly left behind. China will also gladly aid the revitalization of Iraq’s economy by securing further oil contracts with the country. China has cancelled 8billion USD’s worth of Iraqi debt in 2007, and will continue to do so in the future. Finally, we would also like to see negotiations take place between the Kurdistan Regional Government, the Sunni and Shi’a militants and the present government of Iraq. China hopes that international efforts of reconstruction and reconciliation will be helpful to the future development and recovery of Iraq.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea The republic of Iraq was undoubtedly a country of purity and peace; the same prosperous nation that cradled the grand civilizations of Babylon and Akkadia; a veritable shining star in the inspiration of all mankind. Yet, on 20th March 2003, this country was invaded by Western imperialist radicals under the nefarious instigation of capitalist America. Homes were torn down and then drowned in oceans of fire. Children lost their parents; women lost their husbands; hundreds upon thousands of innocent lay dead in the streets as casualties of war. And what did the Americans want? WMDs? No, they knew that reports for WMD presence in Iraq were fraudulent; they knew the Iraqis had no plutonium, no poisonous gas, no biological weapons, no yellowcake uranium and no aerial armadas. All they wanted was oil! And through actions of utter barbarity they got what they came for. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea understands the pain and anguish of our tormented brothers. We will stand by your side and resist Western imperialist expansionism until the very end. Long live the people of Iraq! Long lives the Iraqi proletarian revolution! Death to America!

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Germany The Federal Republic of Germany reaffirms its rejection and its unwillingness to support or get involved in the Iraq Invasion of 2003 due to the lack of concrete evidence Iraq was in possessions of weapons of mass destruction. Article 2(4) of the UN Charter bans the use of force by states except when carefully circumscribed conditions are met. The illegality was further agreed upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, speaking on the invasion said, "I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN Charter. From our point of view, from the charter point of view, it was illegal." In addition, the Federal Republic of Germany believes that Iraq should continue to concentrate on building a fair democracy, observed by independent observers from groups including the EU, United Nation, and the Arab League. The Federal Republic of Germany also urges Iraq to support Freedom of Speech, freedom of access by the media, and participation of the opposition party/group regardless of their religious affiliations, which is key to building a successful democracy and a sustainable future. However the Federal Republic of Germany believes that Religion and Secularism should have a delicate balance without violating the human rights of Iraqis. The Federal Republic of Germany calls for Iraq to continue building relations with other neighboring countries to maintain peace in the region. Germany enjoys close and friendly relations with Iraq with economic relations reaching new heights. Trade volumes surpassed 1 billion euro ($1.5 billion) for the first time between the 2 nations since the US-conflict. Close economic ties can help in the reconstruction of post-war Iraq and have a positive impact on the country’s political stabilization. Hence, Germany further recommends Iraq to build economic ties with other nations.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: India Since its invasion in 2003 Iraq has existed in a constant state of turmoil, its people living under the terror and uncertainty of constant violence and unrest. While the gradual stabilization of the nation are cause for celebration, we the Republic of India feel that we must be prudent and progress must be made at a measured pace. Since the normalization of relations in 2005, the Republic of India has remained committed to the redevelopment of Iraq through revitalizing their links to the broader diplomatic and business world. Today Iraq stands on a precipice. We have already seen how lingering ethnic and religious tensions have threatened to shatter the fledgling democracy and we must do our utmost to protect the legitimacy of this new Iraqi government, but we must not overstep our bounds. A light hand must characterize any continued involvement. Our efforts must be focused on redevelopment and unification of this fractured nation but we must be cautious lest our efforts simply provoke further division and resentment in these people that have already suffered so much. As a nation rife that is no stranger to cultural divides, we the Republic of India look with great concern upon the continuing strife in Iraq, as attempts to establish peace and order have been undermined by long standing divides between Sunnis and Shiites. While the greatest responsibility no doubt falls on those most directly involved, it is the duty of the United Nations Security Council to ensure that Iraq prosper and become a model for the Middle-East. Too often nations have failed to learn from the consequences of their past actions and have left nations as divided breeding grounds of discontent that have fostered extremists and terrorists. India has suffered at the hands of Islamic extremists and we aim to see that no nation should have to suffer as we have. Ultimately it is the duty of the United Nation’s Security Council to protect, preserve and encourage the growth and redevelopment of Iraq but ultimately we must leave it to the people of Iraq, for they are the only ones who can heal their country and serve as inspiration to the Middle-East.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Iran The Islamic Republic of Iran and that of Iraq have maintained a long history and now enjoy a positive, thriving relationship. Iran would like to reiterate its commitment to world peace and peace in the Middle East, and asserts that the independence of Iraq from the western invaders is key to the stability of the Middle Eastern region and the world. Iran, in close proximity to Iraq, believes that the sovereignty of the Iraqi people can only be preserved when it is undisturbed by the interventions of other countries, in particular the American imperialist scums. Iraqi government of the last few years has been unstable due to instances of foreign military interference, which has frustrated attempts at cultivating peace in the all-important Gulf region. We strongly oppose any effort at undermining the government of Iraq, in order that all nations will be able to benefit equally and fairly from that which Iraq is able to offer. This includes especially the stock of energy supplies, an important export of Iraq. We applaud the Iraqis for their patience and persistence in the time of the occupation by the United States. Liberation of Iraq is an important step forward for the proud nation, and the Islamic Republic of Iran will offer any assistance to Iraq to truly ensure peace and freedom for Iraqis. As of January 2010, Iraq and Iran has signed over one hundred economic and cooperation agreements to help Iraq rebuild its ravaged infrastructure and industry. Iran remains a strong proponent of the current Iraqi government and its attempts to distance itself from the clutches of western infidels, as well as to stop becoming a slave to American imperialism. The improved relationship can be seen by our President Ahmadinejad’s visit to Baghdad in 2008, the first visit by a leader of Iran to Iraq since the glorious Islamic revolution of 1979. The delegation of Iran would like to reaffirm that the nations of Iraq and Iran shares a deep, historic and cultural bond, which, like our beliefs and freedoms, can never be severed by any petty attempts by America or any of its deluded puppets.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Iraq Honourable Chair, Secretary General and fellow delegates, During the past decade, Iraq has been in a state of turbulence and insecurity. The Iran-Iraq War, the Gulf War, the US invasion, the overturn of Saddam Hussein’s regime and numerous incidents of sectarian violence has deeply shattered Iraq’s peace and prosperity and with that its economy and infrastructure. Among the aforementioned conflicts, the as yet unjustified Iraq War has especially brought significant harm to the citizens of Iraq, resulting to an alarming death toll of 109,032 deaths including 66,081 civilian deaths and 1.5 million displaced persons. We strongly condemn the United States for their gratuitous invasion of Iraq and the various war crimes committed during the Iraq War including the massive use of firepower against civilians, the use of illegal weapons and the destruction of humanitarian infrastructures such as the water treatment systems. These acts are not to be tolerated under international war. Thus, Iraq strongly calls for the United States and any other violators to be brought to justice according to the mechanisms provided by the United Nations Geneva Conventions. Despite the above note of censure, the Iraqi Government wishes to thank the US for their involvement in reconstruction works after wrecking Iraq to the hilt. Another matter that is of the greatest concern of the Iraqi government is the sectarian conflicts escalating within Iraq. The Sunnis and Shias has long been in disagreement, causing instability to the citizens. The Iraqi government desires to foster unity and peace between the two parties and urges cooperation and compromise under the condition that Iraq remains as a whole and intact country. The northern Kurdistan Region was, is and will always be a inseparable part of Iraq’s domain and therefore there should be no dissimilarity in the sharing of oil revenue in the Iraqi Kurdistan. Moreover, in order for Iraq to efficiently progress to a self-sufficient, sovereign and secure state, much effort has to be put in the training and expansion of the Iraqi army and the construction of a stable economy. The Iraqi Government calls for the enlargement of the air force to advance national defense in order to ensure internal and regional stability. Currently, Iraq’s economy is hugely dependent on oil exports causing it to be vulnerable to fluctuations in the oil sector. Measures such as diversifying the economy, introducing foreign investment and further exploration of Iraq’s oil reserves are essential to the reconstruction of Iraq’s economy and shall be put forth strategically. Lastly, the Iraqi Government calls for assistance from the UN Refugee Agency to oblige in the repatriation of displaced persons and provision of humanitarian aid to civillians living under harsh conditions. While reaffirming sovereignty, Iraq also welcomes financial and technical aid from neighbouring Arab nations as well as China and Russia in the reconstruction of a strong Iraqi nation.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Israel We, representing the state of Israel, are fully aware of the current devastating situation and challenges faced by Iraq. We do recognize the work done by the MNF-I from 15 May 2004 to 1 January 2010,which was mandated by Security Council resolution 1546 (2004), and was subsequently extended by resolutions 1637 (2005), 1723 (2006) and 1790 (2007). It has tried to eradicate terror and help build a democratic state. However, certain problem like sectarian disputes, poor health care, children-mistreat issue, national insecurity and others still remain unsolved The present Iraq is clearly not capable to solve it alone, let alone the complete withdrawal of U.S troops recently, at the end of 2011. Therefore, expanded UN role and presence in Iraq is needed. In here, we urge for continual support from the international community, so as to observe and monitor the situation in Iraqi while providing essential assistance and guidance---until Iraq is proven to be able to handle its own domestic affair and safeguard its own nation. We also recognize the important milestone in Iraq’s first step to hold an election in 2005. However, we acknowledge a certain domination of ethnic group in the present government, which would cause imbalance in the political structure, and could not fully represent its citizens convincingly in present stage. Thus we come in the questioning of whether true democracy could be fully achieved. Thereby, we suggest that the United Nations could establish ‘’UN monitors’’, which could serve a role in supervising the elections in Iraq. It could enhance transparency and ensure that democracy could be upheld in decisions making. In addition, we strongly oppose any entry and interference of individual country forces into Iraq. This problem could only solve by the COLLECTIVE Corporation of the whole international community. A democratic and stable Iraqi state is essential in maintaining national security of neighboring countries. Furthermore, in obtaining general peace in the Middle-East region. Therefore today, we urge for ALL NATIONS to stand forth, together assist Iraq in build a stable and democratic country. Thank you.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Kenya Since the state’s artificial inception at the demise of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq has had a sad history. Even before the imposition of democracy onto the Iraqi people in 2003, its legacies of sectarian discord, extremism and dictatorship are not problems that can be so simply solved through regime change. As Iraq faces its next crisis, namely the withdrawal of the last remaining American Personnel back to the United States, the question that the Middle East faces is this: How will Iraq survive this transition? The Republic of Kenya is full of solidarity for the peoples of beleaguered Iraq. Despite all the challenges that the nascent state faces, Kenya believes that there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future of the Iraqi state. However, confidence cannot be morphed into idealism, and Kenya recognized the important role of the International Community in facing the crises in Iraq. With specific regards to the Security situation in Iraq, we believe that the International Community should continue to support the training of Iraqi Army and Police, even after the withdrawal of American staff. Though the security forces of the current state, especially the army, have become much more professional in the past few years, much remains to be done to secure the future of these institutions. More importantly, given the relatively high degree of trust that the people of Iraq traditionally place in the army, both the State of Iraq and the International Community should capitalize on this by supporting the training of its units, and the diversification of its roles into social reconstruction. Beyond the domestic security forces, the Iraqi government should take steps to address the separatist calls of the Kurdish peoples of the North. Though Kenya does not support the creation of an independent state of Kurdistan, we believe that the self-determination of the Kurdish peoples should be taken into consideration. The Republic of Kenya recognizes that only through mutually accepting negotiation and compromise can we truly find a solution to the dilemma of the Kurds, and that the international community should remain open and supportive towards the idea of opening dialogue with the Kurdish people as a whole, instead of simply channeling their wishes through parliament. Next comes the issue of the Sectarian divide. The Republic of Kenya believes that for the Iraqi state to properly function, it has to ensure better representation of both the Shi’a majority in the legislative process. With Baghdad geographically situated between the Sunni Shi’a divide, and historically being the base of the Islamic Caliph, fairer and better representation of both sects within the Holy City of Baghdad can send a very powerful message to the Islamic world. The Iraqi state under President Maliki has to take steps to make this reality. Furthermore, within the halls of Parliament, the Republic of Kenya believes that President Maliki should take stronger steps to push through meaningful legislation. Corruption and nepotism need to be challenged, and it is imperative that the government proves itself accountable to its own promises by having the president step down upon the completion of his current term. The Iraqi people need to regain faith in their government, and only through accountable acts can this be regained. Finally, Kenya looks towards the humanitarian and economic situation of Iraq. The government should take steps to secure the oil revenue of the country and direct it to better use for social reconstruction, employment and welfare – starting on the road to the provision of basic socioeconomic necessities. Also, facing one of the largest crises of internally displaced people in the world, with a significant proportion of those being children, the Iraqi government, international 10


community and non-governmental organizations should cooperate in securing basic security and living standards for these people. Despite the considerable challenges that Iraq currently faces, it is the belief of the Republic of Kenya that there are clear steps that can be taken to set the country upon the path to peace and prosperity. Kenya holds the people of Iraq to heart, and hopes to see a gradual stabilization of the country, which has suffered for so long.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: Russia Iraq has been, and will always be, the center of the Arab world. In 2003, although the Russian Federation supported investigations in Iraq, we remained strongly against the US invasion and occupation. Now, with the end of the Iraq war and US intervention that was announced on December 15 last year, we hope to put an end to the insurgency and sectarian killing in Iraq, and go on to have the opportunity to establish strong social and economic relations with Iraq. However, although all US troops have been withdrawn, this does not mean that all the problems created by the invasion are solved. The Sunni vice president Tariq al-Hashimi has been warranted for arrest accused of running a death squad. Kurdistan will not allow his arrest to happen. Reporters call this the new Iraq Crisis. Clearly we can see that there is still a lot of tension and political conflict in Iraq that must be resolved. Russia is willing to aid in UN efforts to relieve such tensions, but we would like to stress that military intervention has never been and is the solution. The imperative here, as we would like everyone to understand, is to prevent a potential dissolution of Iraq’s fragile government. As weak as it currently is, Iraq’s political system must not unravel. At present, we do not believe that caving into radical demands for new Parliament and polls will solve anything. Iraq has to prevent violence, but also violent solutions to violence. Especially within such a divided population. Russia will urge and encourage all member countries of the United Nations Security Council to help Iraq, its political parties and its leaders, to bring them to common ground and resolve the current crisis in the country.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Country:

Situation in Iraq Somalia

I. General Statement For the past 8 years from 2003 to 2011, Iraq has been at war with USA. USA have most recently had all their troops withdrawn as of 18th December, 2011, and now is the time for Iraq to recuperate and rebuild itself. With nearly 30 years of war, Iraq is now facing the tolls of war with repairs and rebuilds on damaged Iraqi infrastructures, including water supply systems, sewage treatment plants, electricity production, hospitals and health clinics, schools, housing, and transportation systems. Despite having large oil revenue, the oil production in Iraq is only at 2.5 million barrels per day. Most funds are utilized already in daily activities including electricity production, food and clean water; therefore Iraq also relies on international funds administered by the UN and the World Bank for reconstruction efforts and recuperation. Problems have arisen in Iraq from utilizing international funds. These include inadequate security, and pervasive corruption, leading to insufficient funding and poor coordination among international agencies and local communities. The Somali Republic deeply empathizes and understands Iraq with its current situation as it is a reflection of our country’s own current situation. The Somali Republic also faces the detrimental effects of corruption and war-led insecurity, which is why we strongly emphasize and strongly believe that corruption and security are the two main aspects in which must be resolved first-hand in order for an efficient and effective reconstruction of Iraq. The interests of the people of Iraq and Somalia must be considered as both parties are most directly affected by the two country’s similar situations. Problems including famine, AIDS/HIV, malaria, unsanitary water and hidden bombs, which litter the streets, are problems, which need to be dealt with immediately in order for a positive recovery of Iraq and for the well being and fair treatment of the people of Somalia. The Somali Republic’s main interest is in bringing back stability to our people. They have long suffered the burden of war and deserve a better quality of life. Health is a basic necessity of human beings and both Iraq and our country do not have the sufficient revenues and resources in battling medical epidemics like malaria. II. Particulars Somalia’s war situation is slowly getting under control as Al-Shabaab troops are growing weaker with the help of the Transitional Federal Government's troops and their peace-keeping AMISOM allies, and Iraq’s situation is slowly moving towards a more peaceful future. To ensure a bright future however would require the building of a stable situation in our two countries, especially Iraq, as it is still a highly volatile place for war. The Somali Republic therefore genuinely suggests a trust fund set by the UN for funds solely focused on redevelopment and medical reasons. Funds should be monitored by the UN and should go directly to medical institutions and construction projects. We also propose a government-monitoring scheme, in which the governments of the countries under this scheme are closely monitored in the aspect of financial management. We also highly recommend implementing a more open market for the two countries, lifting comprehensive economic sanctions and inducing free trade to help individuals economically for support on food and medical care.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: United Kingdom Honorable Chairs and Fellow delegates, After much blood, sweat, and tears, the war in Iraq is finally drawing to a close. Though from the beginning, the burden of sacrifice has been borne first and foremost by the United States, the United Kingdom has contributed the second largest contingent of troops, and in June became the second to last NATO nation to withdraw. This appears a dubious honor, however, as it has been well-established by this point that we were misguided in the initial war aims: to flush out terrorist organizations which were actually hiding in Afghanistan, and to destroy weapons of mass destruction which proved to be nonexistent. However the war still has its share of successes, which we are proud to share in; it has replaced an authoritarian dictatorship with fascist sympathies with a democratic government and secured the safety of the Kurds within the Iraqi nation. Nevertheless, we must also share in the concerns at the great human cost of the war and at the apparent fragility behind our ostensible success; the government appears both far less stable and potentially less democratic than we would like. In particular, the position of the Kurds in Iraq appears increasingly at risk of renewed persecution by the central government, while sectarian conflict seems more and more likely with each passing day. We also worry about the potential influence of Iran, and the possibility of its brand of militant Islam taking hold in the power vacuum across the border. Accordingly, we believe in the necessity in strong support for continuing efforts to rebuild Basra and other damaged cities in order to help stabilize the situation in Iraq, and in emphasizing continued engagement with the Iraqi government to prevent a relapse into conflict. As such, although it may appear that the Mission has been Accomplished in Iraq, we must make sure that we remain actively seized on this matter.

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Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation In Iraq Country: United States of America The Republic of Iraq, as an emerging democracy after several decades of political and social chaos, still needs to complete the transition to democracy in the best way possible, with the help of the international community. As of the guardian and protector, by excellence, of international democratic rights and values, the United States of America reaffirms its belief that fundamental democratic values are the true foundation of stability and nationhood. For this reasons, we are convinced that lasting stability, security and prosperity in the Republic of Iraq can only be possible once the Iraqi people enjoy the fundamental values that we all cherish: freedom, human rights, equality and democracy. The United States of America, as one of the Permanent Members in the Security Council, as well a nation that has always stood to protect and champion the values of the United Nations, urges the international community to take further actions to establish a solid state on Iraq, and invites all member nations to join efforts in fulfilling the United Nations’ mission: to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. The most crucial external problem that Iraq currently faces is surely the new Iraqi government's instability and it’s susceptibility to being influenced by Iran-supported terrorist bodies, such as radical groups in Najaf and the violence between the various religious and ethnic groups within Iraq. In addition to this, the Iraqi government's economic insecurities and its high level of corruption, also means that the country has been put in a potentially catastrophic economic and social situation. Firstly, the United States recognizes in the particular case of Iraq that its recent transition to democracy represent a step towards stabilization. However, in order for the transition to be completed, long-term support from the international community is required. Secondly, the ideological conflicts between ethnic and religious groups in Iraq – particularly between the Shi’a and the Sunnis - represents a major obstacle to the installation of a unified State under democracy, and therefore, when taking action, the international community should supervise the post-conflict situation of the area and promote communication between conflicting parties; to guarantee the rights and safety of all citizens. Lastly, it is clear to this delegation that further development of the Iraqi police and military training programs is needed in order to ensure a state of continued peace. In order to confront the acknowledged issues, the United States of America relies on the United Nations organs responsible for institution and democracy building, to promote human rights and the rule of law, such as the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq. Furthermore, as one of the major members of North Atlantic Treaty Organization, we strongly believe in the use of institutions within NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force, which will aim to in the near future assist and support the Iraqi authorities in the rule of law area, specifically in the police, judiciary and customs areas. The United States calls upon the NATO members, and particularly to the United Kingdom and France, who also hold a permanent seat in the Security Council, to join the United States cause, and establish a framework of international cooperation to work on training the Iraqi armed forces. Finally, the United States of America reaffirms the importance of international performance on designing programmes to support good governance, institution building and the rule of law as well as the development of a market economy. The United States recommends the further investment on physical infrastructure, environmental protection, social development and the strengthening of civil society in Iraq. Thus, the aim would be to reinforce the area’s own reform processes by strengthening the “state machinery” of central and local administration, the police, the 15


judiciary, public finances and state utility provider, in order to promote self-governance in future. In conclusion, the delegation of the United States of America reiterates that we are a nation of integrity and that we keep our promises. The United States of America finished the evacuation of its Army from Iraqi territory a few weeks ago, as promised by our government. However, it is clear for our country that the Republic of Iraq was not yet completely ready to assume so many responsibilities. Because of this, the United States is ready to help control the situation in Iraq, and, along with the United Nations and its members, the United States hopes that they will be able to guide Iraq into becoming a fully democratic and secured state.

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SC Issue 1 Country Position Papers