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E DI T O R ’S NO T E This is the fourth of the HKDI Architecture Projects Review publication #04 – ISLAND and PERIPHERIES, which offers an overview of selected BA (Hons.) Architecture Graduation Projects, HKDI X University of Lincoln (UoL) from 2015-2017. Departing from the research and re-inventing architectural propositions on the urban fringe districts in the territory of Hong Kong, the focus of last two year shifted to the peripheries of the archipelago, a fringed and undermined geography from the governance. Yet, throughout the long history in the Pearl River Delta region, the islands were not “Fringed” and acted as part of the linkage to hub of commerce from Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Shanghai of China to the South East Asian and stretched far West to Europe during 5th- Mid 20th Centuries. The Archipelago of Hong Kong consists of 262 islands lying at the outskirt of the Pearl River Delta. Geographically, the 146 islands of Zhuhai province, PRC fall into the similar land/island formation that may trace back to pre-historic time. Such proximity in location, geography, ethnic and culture, marine based economy was segregated after 1898 – the colonization of Hong Kong by the Great Britain. Major urbanization of the colony since then was focus in the Victoria City and then spread along the railway system to the North. Satellite cities rapidly expanded in New Territories alongside with the metropolitan high-density development in CBD. Islands were alienated and perceived solely as leisure and recreational zones before this century. Nowadays, some outrageous artificial islands reclamation have been proposed by the Hong Kong Government, of which suggested to adopt last century’s practice on massive architectural and infrastructural excessive urbanization. In view of the immediacy of city development with respect to some universal values of the 21st century, such as sustainability, regional ethnic and culture, new age living philosophy, alternative housing, etc., more curtail studies and critical review on the island conditions is needed. History may repeat by itself. There is a pressing political and economical drill to re-develop the islands to become “ New Metropolitans “ by extensive reclamation, deforestation and infrastructural link to the CBD. In response to the debate and exploration of the future urbanization in the fringed islands, the faculty and students examined and identified various issues and topics in the shifting anchor of the archipelago city development. Projects were developed throughout a year-long work based on research of the local socio-economical, historical and cultural dilemmas or opportunities on the islands. The objective of the publication is to bring the good quality works produced by the school to the public audience and contribute to our profession’s discussions on the “Islands Re-developments” in the context of both local and neighboring cities/countries.

Carol Leung Visiting Fellow HKDI 1


© Google Map


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Lamma

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Di scover y Bay

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Mui Wo

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Tung Chung

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S t u dio Ped a gog y & Insi ghts on Isl and and Per ip h er ies in Pear l R iver Delta Reg ion Manish Mandhar (University of Lincoln, the Lincoln School of Architecture and the Built Environment) The University of Lincoln’s graduation year studio in Hong Kong acts as a catalyst for our students to seek and discover their own voice as a designer. The collaborative studio run by Lincoln and HKDI academics, aims at preparing enabling, coordinating, and integrating designers possessing an excellence in architectural design, and proficiency in construction and technology that can be seen integrated in the student’s exemplary design propositions. ‘Sustainability’ as a theme has been an overarching ideology across the various studios set up with projects and schemes focussing on showcasing a thorough understanding of environmental design and application of principles of sustainability, but also equally demonstrating knowledge and respect of the socio ‑ economic, political and cultural tenets of sustainability. The architectural responses display a broader contextual study, rigorous research and its applicability to real-world problems, which is a strength and highlight of this Undergraduate top up architecture degree programme. At the University, and in this partnership between Lincoln and HKDI, we foster a student-centred approach to learning called ‘student as producer’. Students are thus challenged to be active problem-solvers, and are not just passive recipients of standard wisdom, and hence are co-creators of new knowledge and architectural discourse which is exemplified thorough sharpening their research skills, using research tools, methodologies, theoretical perspectives and writing dissertations alongside designing practical, imaginative, and meaningful buildings.

The Studio pedagogy around “an exploration of Hong Kong island and its peripheries is underpinned by a civic natured, people ‑ centric architecture, and sustainable urban communities”. Students in the studio, work on creating imaginative design responses to a variety of site conditions in and around Hong Kong, each with its own unique set of challenges and contexts. These exemplary selections of architectural projects that focus on tackling real-world issues in Hong Kong, and its environs (Lamma island, Lantau island, and more recently Macau) offers a rich and democratic platform for discussion, dialogue and experimentation in order to develop in students a holistic view of sustainability that incorporates and emphasises equitably all the different manifestations of sustainability. The innovative and people-centric, sustainable design solutions that our students have developed for the largely urban societies of Hong Kong and range from schools, libraries, nurseries, markets, heritage trails, re-cycling centres, entertainment hubs, youth hostels, prisons, community centres, active ageing centres etc to name a few, all attempt to provoke thought and debate around the usually narrow and simplistic view of urban liveability and a sustainable green agenda. These projects aim to improve the general public’s awareness about the role architecture and environmental design can play in achieving the goals of a well-rounded sustainable development for enhancing the city’s fabric and built environment, and improving people’s quality of life and well-being. The inspiration of the studio theme ‘Island Peripheries’ came from the Lantau Island, which, despite of being a peripheral island of Hong Kong, became a hot bed of discussion with on-going development and visionary plans due to its proximity to the other cities around the Pearl River Delta. The 16/17 studio asked one important question: Between the traditional, historical settlements of fishing, farming villages and mega-scale infrastructure and master planning, where and how do the two extremities meet? The interdependency of the two is more intimate than the physical abruptness of their juxtaposition - new towns and infrastructure bring people and capital to the slowly degrading old settlements for a chance of revitalization and continuation. The variety of student proposals demonstrated creative possibilities that architecture can serve as a bridge between the new and the old, allowing new inhabitants to give life to the old settlements and older residents to inhabit the new cities. Architecture of the peripheries is proposed to soften, broaden, enhance, and integrate boundaries of social, geographical, and infrastructural separation. In the coming studios, we will continue to study different peripheral conditions around the Pearl River Delta (UoL Project Brief, 2017, P:1).

Fig1: Archiplego Old Map, source: wikipedia

Fig2: Hong Kong Map(1841), source: AMEE & Co

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problems, issues around water and ecology, alongside generic urban developments models that are being transplanted haphazardly fail to appropriately respond to the specificities of people and societal needs. According to Nijhuis, in ‘Delta Urbanism in the Pearl River Delta’, “Such developments are seriously damaging the spirit of the region, making it difficult for residents to identify with it and thus making the area unsustainable at various levels”. Hence, spatial and historically sensitive geographical understandings of islands and their peripheries including their development and urban morphology are vital for understanding the urbanisation of these coastal regions.

I firmly believe the view, that no place is any longer an island, especially with the advent of heightened globalisation, and as Urry has pointed out in (John Urry cited in Goggin, P.,2016; Redefining the Picturesque in Urban Archipelagos) that there is limited existence of a mainland/mainstream perspective in popular and scholarly discourse that shows differing ways of seeing islands and their perspectives as a place/thing relationship sitting outside of the dominant mainland global reality. As an example, Hong Kong on its way to global modernity, is no exception in comparison to other contemporaneous global cities which have an abundance of world class shopping complexes that dictates a consumerist and capitalist way of life, and as a consequence makes human activities bounded with indoor living environments. Shopping malls are homogenous with similar types of food, clothes, products sold and consumed, and this lack of heterogeneity some would argue like (Fong,I.H.,2016;Walking towards Tangential Intimacy) further transcends into the City’s architecture with the appearance of super modernist buildings that are generously pasted with glass and steel. The materials not only exude a cold to touch feel, but the extraordinarily clean surfaces and artificial interiors, unnatural and singular palette of sound and aroma scapes, can collectively make the entire lived experience numbed and muted. Hong Kong has many outlying islands that are comparatively less developed due to isolation from the urban core areas and offer unique opportunities for study of island peripheries. Hong Kong government’s plans of increasingly viewing peripheral islands as spaces for urban expansion and by constructing more bridges and tunnels favouring land based modes instead of waterways I support (Tanko,M.,2016,Bridge them up or improve the Ferries :Challenges to the Mobility and Sustainability of Hong Kong’s outlying islands) view that constrained development may occur due to limited mobility and accessibility issues. These concerns coupled with lack of affordable innovative connectivity options, and a plateaued population can cause vulnerability to the sustainable communities on the peripheral islands. Islands have often been world over portrayed as a conceptual testing lab and a repository for futuristic ideas about how the world may or may not be as islands are on many accounts perfect embodiments of reflection, contemplation, experimentation and a living laboratory (Auger,J.,2016;The possibilities of an island). Many including Davis,R.,(2016, Urban Islands: A view from the sea), are of the view that Islands and their peripheries should not be analysed in isolation from the maritime space that surround them and there are thus emerging significant developments that need studying including impact of high population density, dependence on maritime space for food and transport, issues around land reclamation, marine pollution, food and coastal security, marine living etc. Since early1970s, the Pearl river delta has witnessed unprecedented transformation and today with a booming population of 66 million, it is the biggest city region in the world. As the cradle of a new born economic order, this region has given rise to new everyday urban experiences for its residents. The completion of the Hong Kong – Zhuhai - Macau bridge and the Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen - Hong Kong Express Rail link will further advance the Pearl River Delta region into the Greater Bay Area, a strategic urban cluster that many economists and scholars are concerned will bring its own set of risks and uncertainties. As a result, academics and researchers are suggesting that there is an impending need to revaluate the role of the Pearl River Delta in the current global and more immediate local contexts (Symposium on the trajectory of urbanisation in the Pearl River Delta,2017, West Kowloon Cultural District). Others such as Nijhuis,S. from TUDelft are also suggesting that climate change is another factor that needs to be kept in mind which has the potential to leash havoc and cause severe problems in the rapidly urbanising Pearl River delta. Hence, a conflict is most likely possible between people and nature in this densely populated region. The megacities do not seem to be only under the threat of rising sea levels and excessive rainfall, but the rapid growth of areas such as Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenzhen and Hong Kong are also having a major impact on the ecological landscape in the region. Vast Eco systems are rapidly being overhauled and this in return is placing demands on studying and analysing this region from a planning and design perspective. Social

Fig2: Lantau island, source: wikipedia

Manish Mandhar is the Programme Leader of the BA (Hons) Architecture course at Lincoln School of Architecture and Link Tutor & Joint Programme Leader of UG Architecture degrees @ HKDI Hong Kong and LSAD Lincoln, UK. Manish contributes to both ‘Design & Humanities’ teaching across a range of modules spread throughout different levels of the programme. He is a studio tutor in Year One and Three and a design critic in the M.Arch (International) course. Manish delivers a lecture series on ‘Non Western Architecture’, ‘Orientalism & Occidentalism’ and also runs a dissertation seminar group. As a member of the Liveable Cities Research and Consultancy group, he has contributed to various participatory design consultancy projects run by the group. He is also the admissions tutor for International students and is currently Art, Architecture and Design faculty’s designated Country Champion for India.

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LA M M A I S L A ND Lamma island lies on the south of Hong Kong Island facing South China Sea and in proximity to the “old fishing village” and “new middle-class residential area”. It only takes 20minute walawala (small engine boats) to travel from Aberdeen to the Lamma Island. In the 80s, young “hippies” and cultural adventurers moved to the island in favour of the low rent and easy seafaring to Central. Later on, some “bohemian” expatriates discovered the charm of the little island and made Lamma a hotspot for cultural exchange between local islanders and foreign “slow-living” visitors. Lamma developed in it’s unique way in terms of tourism (both local and foreign) and village type of residential development. It also housed a electricity generating plant on the edge of the island but also being the last breeding ground for extinguishing Green Sea Turtle…a place of harmony and contradiction. How should this particular habitation and settlement develop in a sustainable and humanity way? That is a question yet to be answered.

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Man & Nature Rediscovering the Lost: Learning Complex in the Forest Lamma Island

The learning complex creates a platform for children to discover and learn in nature, the architecture co-exists with the trees and topography, that make kids not only absorb knowledge from books but also the environment. It also suggested eco-protection to Yung Shue Wan, letting people enjoy the nature and involve them to love and care the nature. The site location is on a slope which is near the centre of the settlement of Yung Shue Wan, and close to the existing primary school. Due to the undulating terrain of the site, the design generated multi-level platforms across the valleys, hilltop and among tree crowns, all linked by green walkways and bridges. The design included the library, public area, and rural school and is intended to serve not only the students and children but also other people living on the island or even outsiders.

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Tree Plan

Void Among the tree crowns

Hidden Path

Toppgraphy

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Meanings of Education Another form of human survival. The mature pass on life experience to the immatures

Knowledge Skills

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Values

Beliefs

Habits


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The architecture of the learning complex tried to celebrate the existing landscape and environment. Existing tree locations, size, and types were studied and the design was developed based on such data, trying to avoid tree felling, aiming to achieve a sustainable way to construct the building. The experiences among natural elements from earthy mud, fallen leaves, tree trunk, and tree crown are being celebrated when people walk along the passage and journey across the clusters of buildings. The building is constructed with lightweight steel structure while the skins used perforated materials to blur the boundary between indoor and outdoor. The learning complex aimed to re-establish the lost relationship between man, nature, and architecture.

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Roof Plan 1:300 Roof Plan 1:300

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The buildings let people explore different experience with nature, including the terraced ground levels and different parts of the trees. How the kids or adults interact with nature, the sense of scale and let them enjoy the beauty of the site. On the Ground level, people can hide in the Pit, experience the earthy ground condition; the leaves and soil can be stepping on, and create interesting acoustics in the wood; the trunk layering the space allows people to

Hide in the Pit Earthy experience for playing

Exploring on Ground Level Sound of kids stepping on leaves & soil Gather & Play around the Trunk

Outdoor Teaching

The Site Chosen is the nearest natural area among the Yung Shue Wan. People ignore and treat this piece of hill unfriendly. The Purpose of the scheme is to reveal the beauty of the hill and trigger people’s awarness on protection of their own envirnoment

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Inside the Foliage Sunlight slip through the leaves Children hide behind the shade of foliage Natural enclosure


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / LA MMA

RoofPlan Plan 1:300 1:300 Roof Plan 1:300 Roof

N NN

play and gather together. On the terrace platform, there is outdoor teaching area and all the classrooms are not completely blocked. Inside the “foliage�, sunlight slip through the leaves, the enclosure itself is a part of nature, providing shading to children. Decks on the top of the tree crowns allows the users to enjoy breeze and sunlight area with wide view of the surrounding. The vertical connections echo with the structure of trees. A Pavilion invited people to meditate and enjoy the moment.

On Top of the Crown Breeze and sunlight Wide view of surrounding

Forest of Vertical Contrast

Pavilion

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Enclosure


The Library

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+30m

The site like a hidden gem was originally isolated from the seaside settlements. The tranquil ambiance and the existing small school hinted the poetic potential of new learning facilities design. The design is creating a retreat from crowded and disorder Lamma Island, a journey up to the hill and green valleys for knowledge and spiritual exchange, between adult and children or between man and nature. The cluster like hubs is with diffused boundaries and with a strong dialogue with the landscape, which can enhance proactive learning and sharing. +29m

+36m

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Ground Floor Interior

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Main Access View Small Basketball Court

Glass Steel frame Corten Steel Mesh Perforated Corten Steel panel

ETFE

Hidden Path

Operable ETFE Panel

Void, View, Outdoor deck

View

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‘’Education is one of the biggest examples of ideology exchange, from early childhood education to middle education, and life-long learning is the ultimate goal of everyone (Althusser, 1971,108-123).’’ The learning complex encourages local, even outsider, to have ideology exchange, gathering and connect the people who love the Island and want to protect the environment here. The exterior nature is framed, the building tries to be light and celebrating the existing environment. The building material referenced to the context by using wood, louvers, and glass. Openings and fenestrations are provided for enjoying the exterior view and most of the spaces are naturally ventilated. The architecture created a sanctuary good for reading and reflecting. The dialogue of the building to nature brings back the broken connection between architecture, people, and nature, hoping to encourage people revealing selves.

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Cultural Retrieval - Temple and Festival The Event Leisure Hub in Lamma Island The Event Leisure Hub provided a prime performance and leisure space for visitors, locals, and tourists during festival celebrations. The selected site is near to the Tin Hau Temple and located at the endpoint of Yung Shue Wan Main Street. The existing facilities and condition of the site are not good, the football field blocked the view of the waterfront and also occupied by some public service storage, it becomes a dead end that people need to turn back. The design intended to reorganize the area, providing a better quality of public space, together with a leisure and Chinese Opera performing space, which can help to preserve the cultural traditions of Yung Shue Wan. Visitors, locals, and tourists can be integrated together during the local traditional festivals or any kind of events.

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Pier Road Street Primary Path Seconary Path Main Path for tourist Public Space The pier link up to main street, and guided people walk one way

Issue of Football field; - occupied water front - the fence block the view of main street - close to residential

Midway: Fork road to Hung Shing Yeh Beach & Sok Kwu Wan & Tin Hau Temple

The end of Yung Shue Wan Street

Way to Hung Shing Yeh Beach & Sok Kwu Wan

Infracstructure: Waste station, Gas Store, Police Post

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+3.8

+3.3

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Enclosed Space Entrance West side

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Walkw ay

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Enclosed Space

A Public Space

Children Playground

Entrance to platform

Football Field

Music Room

Police Office +4.8

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Entrance West side

Promenade

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Cafe Semi-Open

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Shelter

The arrangement tries to make the site a junction instead of a dead end, which connects people from the main street and make it into a continuous journey. The view will open up for Tin Hau Temple, which also creates a plaza in-between Temple and The Leisure Hub. The leisure hub is covered by a bamboo shell, which references the material of tradition scaffolding stage(戲棚) structure, and with a gesture suggesting the circulation path to walk on a journey.

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Performance Hall

Building Promenade Green

Circulation


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ETFE Lightweight & High Transparency

Bamboo Panel Create Dynamic Curve & Sustainable Bamboo Woven Panel Provide Lighting Shadow & Protection

Bamboo Member Install Bamboo Panels

Steel Frame Structure Support

Traditional Bamboo Scaffolding Dynamic Roof & Relate to Bamboo Theatere in Festival

Glass Provide Visibility

Concrete Low Cost

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History, Chaos & Rhythm Re-Masterplanning of Lamma Waterfront & Market

Re-Masterplanning of Lamma Waterfront & Market is a project located at the heart of the island which provokes ideology exchange. It introduces different layers of Lamma Island to the visitor, designing a path of ‘live exhibition’ through observation of the local lifestyles and embracing of their historic values. The design proposition explored how architecture contains and encourage ideology exchange through walking along a journey of programmes and framed views along the Lamma waterfront. 28


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Existing master layout plan Seafood Restaurant Grill or bars Residential Boutique Snack Store Butcher shop Strimp paste shop

Grocery Plumbing & Elec. Pet care House selling agency Pier Clinic Movable market

Master plan area programs count House & Apartment Fruit, meat, snack Restaurant & Bar Boutique & Salon Plumbing & Elec. Clinic

G/F Visual Connection

Tree Beach Ocean Fabric & Steel roof in leftover space Ground floor plan Circulation & Flowing

Pedestrian flow Small truck flow Small ship flow

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2/F

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The site covers three extreme spaces in Lamma Island, including the clean main street all the way leading from the main pier, the chaotic secondary street which is used as the back of the house for the shops, and the seafront disused historical pier of Lamma. The design proposed additional programs for re-organizing the public space including an Open Market which allows local selling their goods to visitors, a promenade for historical reminiscence and sea viewing, and re-designed shop houses.

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Sea Food Market

Retail

Store

Groceries

Salon

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Pier

Restaurant

Bakery

Residential

Bar

Food Market

Leisure


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Demolished Buildings

Proposed Zoning

Proposed Zoning

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The master planning intended to overlay the historical value on existing Yung Shue Wan Main Street and by analyzed how to keep the existing fabric of the area, yet improving the sense of experience. The material used was inspired by the texture of the pier and beach, with a framed view to let people have a reflection on the site. The duality of tidiness and chaos of Lamma is expressed in the staggering form of the design. The visitors enter the market, guided by the expressive roof. Next to discover will be the pier with sea view and open fresh air. Return back to the path, the existing facade of the church at the entrance becomes the landmark in the maze-like pathways. Walking through the market, one can shop the local vegetable and snack foods. Informal sharing will be encouraged while the visitors mingled with the locals in the market plaza. The buildings guide visitors to walk and reveal the interesting journeys on the Island. Existing programmes are kept in the new master planning and the structural design referenced to the stilt houses. A nice waterfront view was enhanced and improved by the promenade design.

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LA NTA U I S L A ND Lantau Island is the largest island in Hong Kong, situating on the periphery of the Hong Kong SAR territory and the Pearl River Delta. Historically, it was the home to many fishing and farming villages; owning to the tranquil quality of the Lantau bays, it becomes a desirable location for resort-like residential, monasteries, correctional facilities, theme park and other recreational facilities. The northern Lantau has been rapidly developed into a new town of over 110,000 populations since the construction of the current Hong Kong International Airport in the 1990s. Nowadays, with a mixture of modern satellite towns and indigenous settlements, the peripheries of Lantau are developed into very distinct self-contained communities, separated by the natural boundaries of the mountainous landscape. Post Millennium – Further Expansion of Northern Lantau The on-going HKZM Bridge project connecting the three major cities of the Pearl River Delta (Hong Kong, Zhuhai & Macao) set its foot on Lantau as the gateway to Hong Kong, comprising a series of bridges, highways, tunnels, and a 130 hectares artificial island. Together with the expansion of the Hong Kong International Airport, the development is anticipating a continuous increase of tourism, logistics and commercial activities from the point of arrival to the heart of Hong Kong. Alongside the P.R.D. link, the government is also making proposals to further connect Lantau to the rest of the city by developing the South-Eastern part of Lantau, with more artificial islands and infrastructure between the Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula and Lantau. From convention centre to nature reserve, Lantau Island is becoming a hotspot that can satisfy all the needs for both local and foreign. Despite of all the promising proposals to make Lantau a ‘Space-forAll’, the natural/historical habitat is being neglected; the rural tranquility is slowly eaten away by foreign systems and aesthetics (e.g. Disneyland, Discovery Bay, high-density towers in Tung Chung). How is it possible to protect the natural and cultural richness of the island while allowing for expansion and growth? How can architecture work as an interface between all the different development forces and users to inform alternative ways to interact with each other, and with the city? ‘Today, it seems an almost impossible task to define a contemporary peripheral condition; and yet it is that very quality, its extreme exclusiveness, that ensures its attractiveness for debate.’ Architectural Design - The Periphery Introduction by Jonathan Woodroffe, Dominic PaPa and Ian MacBurnie

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Sun Shading Device

Concrete Cover with zinc sheet

400x900mm I Beam with 300x500mm secondary beam structure frame

Column Layout

Level 1

This project located at a fringe area of Discovery Bay along the old commuting path to Mui Wo where the Catholic Our Lady of Joy Abbey located in between. The village was neglected by both communities in Discovery Bay and Mui Wo and is currently inhabited by Phillipino foreign workers. The villagers, mostly female domestic helpers, built small scale organic farms for their own consumptions during leisure time. Further research on the demography and local food supply in the area revealed the potential of a larger scale community based organic farming programme and center on this site.

Learning Resource

Exhibit

Workshop

Kitchen

Learning �esource

Toilet Fitting Centre Courtyard & Tool

Organic Food Market & Kids Facilites Communal Kitchen & Cafe

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Ground Level

Souvienir & Exhibit Entrance &Lobby

Staff Office Delivery & Recycling

Building Service


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

5955 m2

Organic Food

Mileage of Organic Food Other Country / Far away Farm

Farming

Waste

Post Havest & Grinding

Customers

Warehouse / Processing

Long Distance & Pollution

Own Organic Farm All in one

Retailer/ Distriubutor

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Proximeity

Discovery Bay

Discovery Bay

Education Benefits

Nim Shue Wan Village


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

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B

A

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C

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G/ F Plan

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1/ F Plan


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

1940

Farming Land Resourse Idle Land Resourse Own by other villagers

1945

1985

1975

1995

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2000

2005

2020


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Centre courtyard allows natural ventilation and sun light

Indoor & Outdoor space balance can reduced use of air-con.

Sun shading device reduce heat, which reduced interior electricity use

Rainwater harvesting system

Cantilever creates shaded area

Louvers to reduce heat on West side

Existing farm and proposed site area

A Horizontal path created witch can connect two organic farm spots and community kitchen.

A Horizontal path creates which can connect two organic farm spots and community

Linear Roof to emphasize�moving space�

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Community Kitchen

Community Kitchen

Community Kitchen Kids & Leisure

Market Exhibition

Community Kitchen

Market Exhibition

Kids & Leisure

Cafe

Learning Resources Inner Courtyard

Community Kitchen

Workshop

Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture

Delivery

Site

Site +49.2

+73.9 +44.9

+73.9 +38.4

+38.4

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+20.6

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11300 mm Workshop & learning resource 7400 mm 6000 mm 5200 mm Glass window in Courtyard Public front of community with kids corridor kitchen facilities

Organic food market

Exhibition & Sovenir

11300 mm 7400 mm

Delivery & recycling

Fitting, tool & toilet

Public route

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Public route

Learning

4200 mm 3800 mm


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

Island Peripheries Trash Club ‑ Discovery Bay

road to d-bay pedestrian pathway

to nim shue wan golf cars garage bus deport service vehicle parking lot pier refuse collection

to Marina club staff quarters

‘off-site’ refuse collection point trash comes and trash goes on off-site transfer hub with no identity

can it be a place that is not ‘off-site’? can it be a place that is more open to people? can it reduced waste that is being transfer to landfill? can citizen participate in the programme? how does it relate to the site?

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What role is the ‘off-site refuse collection point’ playing? Can it not only be a transfer hub of trash but a place to process trash and reduce waste? Can it be an architecture that is not off-site but in situ? Can it be a programme that people can engage or even enjoy to participate? Can it be an architecture that brings a different perspective on how we see trash? Transportation

2016 Discovery Bay Artifical area

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1976 Tai Pak Wan Disappeared villages


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

winter prevailing wind north slope help to block winter prevailing wind

gabion wall is used to wall define exterior and interior space and sun shielding

building main orientation

1991 census population 50 person = 1 block

2011 census population 50 person = 1 block

10O south

summer prevailing wind

Spatial Hierarcy

Contrast of D-Bay & Nim Shue Wan

Population

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what is the role of ‘off-site refuse collection point’? Domestic waste (out of sight, out of mind)

What is the role of ‘off-site refuse collection point?

domestic waste We of put sight ‘trash’ out in rubbish bag, then wash hand and not [out of mind]

responsible for the waste treament

we put everything considered as ‘trash’ into a rubbish bag, then we wash our hands and the responsibility of waste treatment seems to be ended

what is trash club?

landfill Landfill trash club is an alternative approach to traditional refuse collection point (r.c.p.) in hong kong Refuse Transfer Station there are three landfills in trash club is a place where...Three hong kong which is in located landfills HK, they are Decrease the mass trashof is seen as resources to in the tseung community kwan o, tuen mun trash are treated in order to expected minimized waste tobe dump into landfillin and fanling to saturated ‘trash’ before it go to people can fix and exchange things that they want or dont want anymore refuse transfer station people can workout and contribute energy toto the trash handling process theytheir are expected bethe sat2019 it is open to anyone to enjoy the space and surroundings landfill refuse from different areas in urated in 2019 hong kong are transported to refuse transfer station (rts) before going into the landfill

off-site refuse collection Off-site refuse collection point point [out of site out of mind] (out of site,out of mind) the aim of the refuse collection point is to bring trash off-site Aims to bring trash off-site the design of the building is to chop-off from the street, four walls and an opening big enough for a refuse collection truck to get in

What role is the ‘off-site refuse collection point’ what role is the ‘off-site refuse playing? collection point’ playing? is there

any alternative solution that architecture can provide in order to provoke change on how we see trash?

Trash club is a place where.... trash seen as resources to the community.....trash are treated in order to minimized waste to dump into landfill Do people see trash differently?

50


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

Refuse collection point programme re-imagination shared economy food club members / public workshop

product

repair / upcycle upcycle

flea market

sand

fertilizers

upcycle

plastic 2000 kg/day

fertilizers

plastic 300 kg/day

food waste 4700 kg/day

trash being trash intake seperated by 10 000kg/day residents basic: wet & dry landfill incinerator recycling industry

import trash export 3100kg/day

balistic seperator

real rubbish 1000kg/ day

paper 1900kg/day metal 200kg/day

export

51


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

52


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / D I SCO VERY BAY

The site initially is ‘off-site refuse collection point’ which is located at the periphery of Discovery Bay, a back of house area where the management company transfers the trash from the housing estates to landfill. As time goes by, Discovery Bay population is growing, and the pressure of solid wastes is scoring. Can the building not only be a transfer hub of trash but also a place to process trash and reduce waste? This project is trying to explore how people can engage or even enjoy in doing waste processing. A “Trash Club” with recycling, eco-gymnasium with self-driven types of equipment, up-cycling design and flea market is proposed to bring a different perspective on how we see trash.

53


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Historical Building Extension - Yuen’s Manison, Mui Wo Revitalization of Yuen’s Mansion to a museum will showcase the works of the local artists and also the history of the building itself. Yuen’s Mansion is listed as a grade 2 historic building but has been abandoned currently. It is a small but mighty granite mason structure. Part of the building is used as the defend function, some of them is a residential and storage. The project inherits the old texture of the existing building and provided some additional extension, involving people to experience the historical building, enjoying the architecture with the work of local artist, which brings the sustainability and extended life to the historical building.

Working process

Before

After

1

52 Staircase/ Escalator

Entrance hall


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Roof 2 (New Building)

History Museum 2/F

Structure System 2 (New building)

New added area Art Museum Area (Merge with existing)

Roof 1 (New Building)

Staff Office 1/F

Structure System 1 (New Building)

Entrance Hall G/F

Staircase / Lift

53


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Existing StaffStaff Resting block Existing resting block

Yuen’s mansion included 8 parts: a small house, the east watchtower, the front house, a barn, the main house, the west watch-house, staff resting house and livestock shred. The material and spatial quality are very different. To reinforce the historical value of the building, the new extension part is using white concrete and glasses, that makes visitor a clear reading of old and new, and let the material be honest to the visitor.

Shell, concrete reinforcing steel

Concrete beams & roof plate

Livestock (1930’s)

7. Staff Resting House (2000’s)

Interior situation

West watch tower

Main house

Livestock Livestock

1.

Study of Yuen’s Mansion Fishing pond

2.

Material n’s Mansion is a graded 2 building& in structure Mui Wo,

1930’s. The building onwers since the WW2 Mui Wo and shettle in here. So the building like nd all community can maintain of themself.

time, Yuen’s Mansion can hold 50-80 peoples e building was classify different types of the ngs, those building have their functions. For le, part of the building be the defend function, of them is a livin area and storage.

East Eastwatch watch tower tower

Research of Mui Wo Small House

3.

M

Small house ( Destroyed )

Front House

Front house

Barn Barn

1. Small House (1930’s)

2. East watch tower 3. Front House (1930’s) (1930’s)

ui Wo is a rural town on the eastern coast of Lantau Island in Hong Kong. Mui Wo is located on Silvermine Bay, so named for the Concreteonce beams &worked roof plate along Interior silverMaterial mines that were the situation Silver Material & structure & structure Material & structure

days, the Yuen’s Mansion most of the building ’s Mansion location in Muithey Wo and of the villagers get into the eady abandoned. People can the onlyroute watchge. Shell, concrete reinforcing steel n the outside Granite can not stone investigate.

54 Prior to the Airport Core Programme and the sub-

West watch tower


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Rusted Steel Window Bar

Material & structure Material & structure Material & structure 6. West watch Tower (1930’s)

5. Main House (1930’s)

4. Bam (1930’s)

3. Front House (1930’s)

2. East watch tower (1930’s)

1. Small House (1930’s)

Granite stone Shell, concrete reinforcing steel Concrete beams & roof plate Granite stone Shell, concrete reinforcing steel Concrete beams & roof plate Material & structure Granite stone

Shell, concrete reinforcing steel

Destroyed Roof

Int

Concrete beams & roof plate

West watchWest tower watch tower West watch tower Livestock

Livestock

1. Shell, &concrete reinforcing steel situation Concrete beams 1. & roof plate Concrete beams roof plate Interior

Granite stone ell, concrete reinforcing steel 4. Bam (1930’s)

Main h Main house

5. Main House (1930’s)

6. West watch Tower (1930’s)

Livestock

7. Staff Resting House (2000’s)

2. West watch tower

Shell, concrete reinforcing steel

Fishing pond

Fishing pond Livestock

West watch tower Interior situation

Concrete beams & roof plate

1.

Main house Fishing pond

Livestock East watch tower

West watch tower 55

2.

Main house

8. Livestock (1930’s)

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Front house

Sm

Front house Barn MainFront house house

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East watch t


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Interior - History museum

Visitors enter the building via the new additional part and reach to the experience hall, which is an info center, staff area, and gathering space. Walk through the new extension, of which built on existing buildings, visitors can observe and feel Yuen’s mansion. A pathway directs to the exhibition and museum space, which incorporated two existing stone building with the juxtaposition of old and new materiality. Artworks of the local artist or historical artifacts collected from villagers will be part of the permanent collection, while temporary exhibition space can provide event space for the community. The outdoor area of the design providing greenery and allows outdoor activities, which let local people enjoy and rest on the historical site.

56


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Interior - Entrance hall

Interior - Covered existing building 57


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

Intertwined : Co-working space @ Mui Wo

Intertwined co-working space included three main programmes: a workspace on the top level, the middle zone as a production space and the activities space is located on the ground floor. The social space in central atrium improves the visual connection of different zones and the scenic site, also provides a platform for users and villagers to communicate. Drop the levels Drop the of the levels pavement of the pavement along the along river, Before the river, entering Beforethe entering the wide Create Create rampwide as public ramp space as public for space public use. for public use. Drop the levels ofview the pavement the river, Before entering the building, enjoy building, the enjoy of the the view natural ofalong the river. natural river. building, enjoy the view of the natural river.

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58


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO Mui Wo is a town known for the feral water buffalos and cows that roam the area. It is located in the South Eastern part of Lantau Island, and the main beach is called Silvermine Bay Beach. In the past, silver and lead were mined near the Pak Ngan Heung village up along the Silver River. The demographic profile changes lately in Mui Wo with new populations moved in that do not need daily commute for work. The new residents like to stay away from the rapid urban life, advantaged by the low-rent housing situation. As there are more people working in “SLASH” or “ Home office” style are staying in Mui Wo, a programme to promote co-working with shared equipment and facilities or even ideas would definitely help the solo-working people. The event space can provide a communal gathering hub where the new residents can share with local villagers.

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Isla ong gK Hon 50 min 25-

Organic Bread

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Singing Song Writer

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nature

'LYHUVLÀFDWLRQRIZRUNDJJUHJDWLRQWUHQG According to the Concept Plan for Lantau, Mui Wo will towards at developing into a "Leisure historic rural township ". Mui Wo's economy will not have much change, the low-rent housing situation will continue to believe.

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low-cost

low-cost rental rental housing housing situation

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Turn Cow Dung into mosquito coil

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equipment equipment

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concentrate concentrate neighorhoods neighborhood relationship relationship

59


ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

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Intertwined forms explore the possibilities of a co-working space. Connectedness between the user, spatial, activity, and spatial functions are studied. The lower part of public area inviting people to explore the building, through walking the slope, people will see the great view of the river. The atrium gives a brief view of the interior, what kind of work that others do, and allows some connection with others. The working environment faces east and west, which brings the sea and mountain into the interior. The open co-working space is provided on the top floor for local use where the life and work of the local people have been taken into the design consideration. Work place Work place Work placeWork place

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ISLAND and PERI PH ERI ES / MU I WO

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ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G

YAT TUNG ESTATE, TUNG CHUNG

As a continual evolutionary state, the public housing in Hong Kong should aim to achieve a better living quality with limited space provided. The Vertical Community is designed to encourage more interactions between the residents by providing new features such as sky gardens and services facilities and by doing so, it can result in the establishment of a new center of activity. Introducing low-rise plugin that creates a sustainable and walkable community clearly demonstrates how to design structures and space for everyone’s benefit.

62


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G Existing Public Housing Structure Study

Remove existing structural wall, add column

A: Existing

Type A

Type B

Keep existing structural wall, add column

Keep existing structural wall, add column

New Lift & Fire Staircase

Remove existing structural wall, add column

New Structure wall/ column Existing Structure wall

Dance Studio

Partition wall

B: Filling

A-A2

A-A1

A-B1

A-B2

B-A2

B-A1

B-B1

B-B2

C-A2

C-A1

C-B1

C-B2

Roof 40/f 39/f 38/f

Dance Studio

Cafe

Precast Facade

C: Extension (Left/Right)

D: Extension (Upper) -maxium extension -edge side

C-B3

Open Space

Residence Garden

Art Workshop Art Exhibition

Cafe D-A2

D-A1

D-B1

D-B2

5/f 4/f 3/f 2/f 1/f G/f

Music Studio

E: Combine (2 Towers)

New lift & Fire Staircase Garden

E-A2

E-A1

E-B1

Student Study Room

E-B2

High Zone

F: Connected

Extension Length

H/3

Extension Length

Residential

High Zone

F-A1

F-B1

F-C1

H

Yat Tung Estate is a high-rise building adoped core wall structure, the lower part bares greater building pressure and the structural walls diminishing in size at upper levels.

Low Zone Residential H/3 Building A

Structural Wall/ FRP Wall Partition Wall Exisiting Typical Floor Plan

Building B

Hong Kong Cap. 123 building (planning) regulations - Toward buildings within same site (With the consideration of the lighting regulation, the new design form cannot be extented over 3m.)

Precasted Facade

63


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G

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ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G

65


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G

Vertical Community humanizes the Yat Tung Estate public housing, an alternative typology of public housing, keeping the density but consider about green and living quality for people. Analysis the existing building structure and redesign the Yat Tung Estate’s planning with a better spatial quality, which makes high-rise public housing multi-functional skyscrapers, and proves architecture can work with nature in parallel.

1/F

2/F

66


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / TUN G CH U N G

New residential

Removed low use car park

3/F

4/F

5/F

67


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / PUI O

68


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / PUI O

Tea Retreat, Pui O The Tea Retreat is a cultural center, inspirited by the site Pui O and the surrounding ecological wetland and mountains. The environment was destroyed lately because of people building houses on top of it, and that affected the ecology and biological diversity. The design attempts to build the architecture in harmony with nature and Old Man Mountain, which provides green open space for local and visitors, yet minimize the visual impact to the site. Advantaged by topography, the Tea Farm design has enough natural ventilation and sunlight, which helps to improve the sustainability and quality of space. By providing more opportunities to let people know about Pui O, e.g. farming, drying, frying, tasting tea, people can fully understand how nature works and start to respect it throughout this process. 69


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / PUI O

Stair

Path

Green Roof

Tea Farm

4/F

3/F Retaining Wall

2/F

1/F

G/F

Column & Beam

70


ISLAND a nd PERI PH ERI ES / PUI O

After analyzing the rain, solar and ventilation of the site, the Tea Retreat project makes use of the abandoned rice and paddy field to reinstate the damaged environment and wetland. The project explored the relationship that involves the local villagers, visitors, native water buffalo and architecture in the neighbourhood and green area of Pui O. By designing terrace like tea farm and retreat on the mountain in Pui O, the building reduce the obstacle of the view, and also shaded by the existing tree to block the some of the solar heat and also as camouflage. The soil goes around the retaining wall are used as a green roof and growing tea and herbs, forming a green communal open space to villagers and revitalizing the village in a sustainable way.

Water Proof Material 100 (mm) Cocrete Roof 450 (mm) Cocrete Wall 150 (mm) Cocrete Column300x300 (mm)

Openable Skylight Window 1000 mm (D)

Soil,Sand, Stone Filter Water Proof Material Water Drain

Movable Recyled Wood Panel

Ventilator 400mm(D)

71


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

IN and OUT Prison, Shek Pik This “IN and OUT Prison� project proposed an expandable prison addressing the shortage of land to accommodate criminals, and suggested a plug-in system allowing structures and blocks to be inserted. Also, the existing prison will be moved to the new one to free up existing land. Facing the limitation of land in the whole world, especially Hong Kong, the IN and OUT Prison provides a solution that increases the density of the isolated peripheral site, Shek Pik. Shek Pik is an area known as a highly secured prison. Those prisoners are 12 years term or above and there can accept 426 prisoners. In addition, a Sha Tsui Correctional Institution located in Shek Pik, which is the lower-security prison with 121 prisoners. Those prisoners are 5 years term or below. By combining the two prisons with a planned hierarchy of security, it provides a high-rise version prison that allows expansion.

72


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / SHEK PI K

Compare three security Single layer barbed wire 1 Staff to 2.5 Prisoner

12 yrs or above

Prisoner have own cell

Prisoner live in a cell block

1 Staff to 1.4 Prisoner

Watch Tower

Two layer barbed wire

Developed area near to existing prison

5 year below

High Concrete Wall

Prisoner live in a cell block

Psychiatric Centre Rehabilitation Centre

5-12 yrs or 5 year below

Juvenile Prison Watch Tower

High Security

Two layer barbed wire

Medium Security Male Prison

1 Staff to 2.5 Prisoner

Female Prison Number of Prisoner

73


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Circulation and Prisoner daily in Prison

0630 - Wake up and Freshen Up

0700 - Clean Up the cell

0800 - Breakfast

0900 - Work

1230- Lunch

1330 - Free Activity

1430 - Work

1700 - Dinner & Recreational Activity

1/F Plan

15/F Plan

16/F Plan

31/F Plan

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Core Control Room MEP Room Entrance Hall Sally Port Meeting Room A Meeting Room B

Core Control Room MEP Room Dinning Area Kitchen Store Room

Core Control Room MEP Room Cell Block (10 person) 5 Workshop

74

Core Control Room MEP Room Cell Block (10 person) Cell Block (6 person) Cell Block (2 person) Cell Block (1 person)

1830 - Back to Cell


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

30/F - Religion Area

27/F - Library

35/F - Roof Garden

Common Space

Library Free activity

32/F - High Security Cell & Workshop

Wake & clean Up

Library Free activity 15/F - Low Security Cell & Workshop

30/F - Religion Wake & clean Up

15/F - Low & Middle Security Dinning

Dinning

G/F Welding Area Sally port

New Prisoner 15/F - Low Security Cell and Workshop

The prisoners in Hong Kong need to work based on their skill and being assigned to different positions, including 5 main categories: woodworking, cleaning, repair, crafting shoes, signboard and clothes making. Their daily life included leaving from their cell to canteen (breakfast), then being escorted to the work area, going back to the canteen for lunch following by free activity time in the library and outdoor area, after then they work until dinner and back to their cell.

G/F Welding Area Sally port

Visitor 1/F - Sally port & Meeting Area

75

Recreational activity after Dinner

Working in Welding Area

Enter Cell

Library Free activity

Dinning 27/F - Library

G/F - Welding Area & Sally Port

Free Activity in Common Area

Library Free activity

Waiting Prison Term of People 3/F - Reception

Working in Welding Area

G/F Welding Area Sally port

Reception

Staff 4/F - Admininstration and Dorm

Sally Port

Sally Port G/F

29/F - High Sercurity Dinning Area

Work in Workshop

13/F Common Area

Work in Workshop

Reading & Write letter

Sally Port

Admininstration

Meeting Rm G/F


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

High security part 1.5 M

4M 2.5 M Cell Block For 1 Prisoner

Corridor Common Part

8M Cell Block For 6 Prisoner

7M

5M

Dorm For Staff

5M

6M

2.5 M Cell Block For 2 Prisoner

Low & Middle security part

10 M Meeting Room B

13 M

7M

10 M

10 M

Meeting Room A

7M

Store Room

12 M

5M

Cell Block For 10 Prisoner

13 M

10 M

Kitchen

Staff Part

Public Part

30 M 10 M Dining Area

Zoning

76


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

The structural and modular block system of the IN and OUT Prison allows plug-in and growth, foreseeing the number of prisoners might increase and giving extra pressure to the shortage of land grim. The new typology of expandable and shrinkable prison can provide the secured area that suitable for criminals, which also helps to free up the land in the rest of Hong Kong in a humane way. The truss is the major structure which can increase or decrease

New plug in Staff Dorm

New plug in Common Area

New plug in Low & Middle Security

New plug in High Security

Public Part

77

Core is major circulation

Block can plug into the space between core and truss


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

160

160 156

1. Welding Cell block in workshop

High security Section

152 148 144 140

Common

132 128 124 120 116 112 108 104

2. Put Cell block on elevating platform

100 96 Low and Middle security Section

92 88 84 80

• • • • •

• • •

3. Elevating Platform move to the floor

• • • • •

Sally Port Staff office Reception Staff Dorm Open area for Prisoner Dinning Area Workshop Cell Block (12) Cell Block (16) Library Health Care Religion Roof Garden

Staff Section

76 72

64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28

20 16 Public Section

12

4 4. Elevating platform plug cell block on beam

78


ISLAND PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

I S L A N D a nd P E RI P H E RI E S / S H E K P I K


I S L A N D a nd P E RI P H E RI E S / S H E K P I K

3 Journeys: Pilgrimage-Journey-Penance, Shek Pik Reservoir Lantau Island is an important center of Buddhism of Hong Kong. There are great differences of distinctive qualities in Ngong Ping & Shek Pik: the great virtue and the great guilt. The analysis examines these two very contrasting perspectives and the relationship between them. The proposed site will stand at the boundary between Ngong Ping, Luk Wu & Shek Pik, physically and conceptually, with the programmes for Buddhist meditation, thinking, and contemplation. A platform that with the power of perception where Buddha, human and water coexist.

Ngong Ping Big Buddha

Shek Pik Prison

最大慈悲

最大罪


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

A gateway that signals the Meditation with environment Cultivator live on the reservoir hidden corner for long- term transition from the profane pratice to sacred

Yoga

Zen Calligraphy

g bo oks Staff check

Tripa ita Libra ka ry

phy

Read in �oom g n tio mp de e R

Bell Tower

Reading Redemption �oom

Inmate

Ngong Ping

Big Buddha Statue

Luk Wu

20 M

20 M

Shek Pik

81

C En ome from te Shek rt Pik he tu nn el

5 people Tea Meditation r Wate ng Meditation offeri Hall ting Chanm R

alligra

Chanting Rm

20 people

Zen C

Tripaitaka Libbrary

Tea Meditation

up

Water offering Meditation Hall

Cultivator

d Indiv

me

g

Back to Shek Pik m e roo on se oth pti m e d Re

u ed to Allow

Read in

Pin

dit ati o

ng

Gro

gat e Lunch

the

Ent er

in h all Tea break n itatio d e ual m

up ke wa ng rni om o in M itation ro Med Breakfast Me dit ati on in r oo m

ch

Ngo

r ca

15 people Yoga

Visitor

dita tion

n Lu

le

b ca ke Ta

h

it t

Vis

me

Com

e fr om

m roo all wn h to o in e tim n

tio es up

Leave tre en ec

re Reti

Qu Gro

n in ha l Indivdual meditationl

3 Neighbour - 3 Paths


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Journeys look at the reservoir A1 A1

C1

B1 B1

D1

A2 A2

D2 B2 B2

A3

A4

A6 A6

A7 A7

82

E2 E2


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Ngong Ping is a highland in the western part of Lantau Island, many Buddhist monks and nuns from China moved in due to political instability by the end of the 19th century, the peaceful and tranquil has emerged as an important site for spirituality. On the Big Buddha statue’s back, following the slope of the hill and river estuary to the Shek Pik reservoir, is a catchment area. The reservoir intercepts and gathers the gully water flowing from the neighbouring mountain ridges on its three sides. Today, only isolated correctional facilities, special need school are found in this peripheral site.

The reservoir Reservoir Fact The fact D1

y

D1

The great virtue zone The great virtue zone

D2

D2

The great survive zone/ The great survive zone/ The great moderation zone The great moderation zone 3.34 km km 3.34

great sin zone TheThegreat sin zone

Big Buddha Big Buddha

E2

E2 A7

1.54 km 1.54 km Reservoir Reservoir

A6

50m

4 Dead village 4 Dead village

C1

A2

A2

B2

B2

B1 A3

A4

B11 B

A5

A4

1.54k

m

km

A3

1.54

Shek Pik Tai Tseun, Fan Pui Pui Tsuen ( 崗貝村 ) and Hang in the valley. The residents as part of the reservoir

A6

A5

villages, 背村 ), Kong n ( 坑仔村 ), relocated ion

A7

C1

E2 construction of the reservoir, there

A1

A1

950s, there is the water shortage in . To relieve the problem the Hong Kong t decided to build a reservoir in Shek g valley and to further develop Shek peripheral site. Put the Offensive s such as prison, correctional, special ol.

The 4 dead village position

1,039,494 m2 24.461 million m3 1,034,494 m2 24.461 million cubic meters

83

Road Road

Prison Prison

Sea Sea

Delivery to HKto HK Delivery


room aga room Yoga room room room

ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

pool Water pool Yoga room WaterWater poolWater Water pool pool Water pool Water poolWater Waterpool pool Water pool

Water pool

Water offering

aation meditation ion meditation

WaterWater offering WaterWater offering Water offering Water offering offering Water offering offering Water offering Water offering

Water offering

Tea meditation

meditation eaTea meditation meditation

Roof

of

Water Offering

Four villages, Shek Pik Tai Tseun, Fan Pui Tsuen ( 墳背村), Kong Pui Tsuen ( 崗貝村) and Hang Tsai Tseun ( 坑仔村), was under the reservoir in the valley. When HKGov tried to relieve the water shortage problem in the 1950s. The design proposition and its journey tried to reveal the trace of the village and designing a path to reflect and meditate. It provides 3 levels of experience. Firstly, visitors and pilgrims can meet and gather information about Buddhism and its history here; Secondly, through the Buddhism and meditation, help the criminal who imprisoned in Shek Pik Prison to relax and the redemption of their soul; Thirdly, the high-level master of a hermit and spiritual cultivator can live in a floating house on the reservoir.

84


Preliminary y studies

hidden road

Concept

ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

People are rapidly

The meditation journey make people claim down

Individual walk without noise

ortable Take a comfortable ation place to meditation

People are rapidly

The meditation journey make people claim down

Individual walk without noise

ortable Take a comfortable ation place to meditation

The tourist can take the cable car

The cultivator use the ex. hidden road

The tourist can take the cable car

Concept Concept The meditation journey for people walk

Free up the reservoir space

The meditation journey for people walk

Free up the reservoir space

Site Site Site Site position position position position study study study ystudy yy y

journey Individual walk Take aTake comfortable ortable ortable Themeditation The meditation meditation The journey meditation journey Individual journey Individual walk Individual walk Take awalk comfortable aortable comfortable Takeortable a comfortable People People People areare rapidly rapidly arePeople rapidlyareThe rapidly Mind make people claim down without noise place toplace meditation ationation ation make make people people claim make claim down people down claim without down without noisenoise without place noise to meditation toation meditation place to meditation

People in rush

The tourist come from the main road

Bus stop

meditation silence place for journey indivdual meditation Body & Mind calm people walk Mind

Open the worhship space

Free up space People explode byspace own space Open Open the Open the worship worship the Open worship space space the worship

TheThe cultivator The cultivator cultivator use The use the cultivator use the ex. the ex. ex. use the ex. Cultivator use ex. hidden hidden hidden road roadroad hidden road The The tourist The tourist tourist cancan The take can take tourist the take thecan the take the hidden road tourist can cable cable car cable car car cable car take cable car

Free up space Basilica Monastery Basilica Basilica Monastery Monastery Monastery People explode by ownBasilica

Basilica and Guest room andand Guest and Guest room Guest room room Monastery & Guest Rm

The center of the reservoir position

Bus stop The head and tail position

The center of the reservoir position

The head and tail position

The tourist come from the main road

Build up by the 4 dead village position Build up by the 4 dead village position

links Ngong Ping & Shek Pik 4.4. Hermit Hermit Living Living Master Living 3.4.3. Master Hermit Living Living Beginner Living 2.2.3. Beginner Master Living Living

Body & Mind

Open the worhship space

Water Facade Recycle Water Connect Ngong Ping & Shek Pek

Dormitories Dormitories Dormitories forfor cultivator cultivator for cultivator Dormitories for cultivator

TheThe meditation The meditation meditation journey The journey meditation journey journey meditation forfor people people for people walk walk for walk people walk jourey for people to walk

Connect Ngong Ping & Shek Pek

1. Center 1. Center

Luk Wu

Bus Stop

BusBus stop Bus stopstop Bus stop

The Thecenter The center center ofThe ofthethe of center reservoir the reservoir reservoir of the position position reservoir positionposition The Centre of the Reservoir Position

2. Beginner Living

Connect Ngong Ping & Shek Pik

Free up the Free Free up Free up thethe up reservoir the reservoir Freereservoir up the reservoir space space space space Reservoir

tourist come from main road

TheThe tourist The tourist tourist come come The from come from tourist from come from thethe main main theroad main roadthe roadmain road

The Thehead The head head and and The tail and tail head position tail position and position tail position The head and tall Position

Built up by 4 dead village position

Build Build Build upupbyup bythe Build the by4the 4dead updead 4bydead village the village 4village dead position position village positionposition

Lok Wu Luk Wu

Spacial study

Focus on reservior

Spacial study

Focus on reservior

Focus on Reservoir

Based on the peripheral road to be position

Belong Belong Belong thetheperipheral Belong the peripheral peripheral thehiking peripheral hiking hiking road roadroad to hiking tobebe toposition road position be position to be position

TThraeffi trafcfic Rrooada d The

traffic ro

ad

Zone definition

Zone deifinition Zone definition

4.4.Hermit Hermit 4. Hermit Living 4. Living Hermit Living Living 3.3.Master Master 3. Master Living 3.Living Master Living Living 2.2.Beginner Beginner 2. Beginner 2.Living Beginner Living Living Living Connect Connect Connect Ngong Ngong Connect Ngong Ping Ping&Ping Ngong &Shek Shek & Shek Ping Pek Pek&Pek Shek Pek

1.1.Center Center 1. Center 1. Center

Luk LukLuk Wu WuWu Luk Wu

Focus Focus Focus ononreservior reservior on Focus reservior on reservior

Separate the paths

Open Grid

ThTeheThe The tratrffafftraff traff ic icroroic ro ic ro adad ad ad

Zone Zone Zone definition definition Zone definition definition

Follow the high level

use the wall to separte targets & play the sound

85

offset the site to seek form

The option


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Plant g fferin o r e t Lift Wa Chanting Staff Info.

+5.00

Yoga Rm

Boat

n Rm itatio Med

erence Circulation reference

Lift +3.00

+3.50

Lobby

+0.00

Boat Parking

-0.50

Pool

+3.00

Boat

Wood chip bridge -1.575

Wisdom Path road Sculpture

Wisdom Path

me Journey Scheme

Wisdom Path +0.00

+6.00

Woodroad chip bridge Stone

+9.20

Tea Medi.

+15.0 +7.00

+7.00

+6.00

+4.40 +6.00

grip Follow theOpen high level Separate the paths

yths study Paths study

Stone road Pond Greenwood

+5.00 +6.20

+4.40

Open grip

1/F Plan +5.10

Water-crossing

+7.00 +6.00

Open grip

Water-crossing Water-c

Stone road

+7.00

paths

Water-crossing

Stone road

+5.00

ower Bell T +7.00

ry

Stone road

Wood chip bridge Wood chip bridge G/F Plan

Wood chip bridge

+3.00

phy

Wisdom Path

ka Lib ra

g tin ee m MRoo

Wisdom Path

Tripita

+3.20

lligra

Tr Libipraitraka y

a Zen C

+4.40

Read Rooming

road

+3.25

+6.00

+6.00

Follow the high level Follow the high level

Use the wall to separate Use the wall to separate

+6.00

offset the site to be the form offset the site to be the form

The o

targets & play the offset soundUse high level thetowall to form separate offset the site to be the form Use theFollow wall totheseparate the site be the The option Follow the hightargets level & play the sound Use the wall to separate Roof Plan offset the site to be the form Open grip 2/F Plan targets & play the sound targets & +7.10 play the sound targets & play the sound +15.00

ogress Model Progress

86

Stack the box for the each ox' appropriate 3 box for 3 target in p r o g r a m r e l a t i o n 3s hbox i p . for 3Stack program floor Using the 'Box' Th e pure fo r m b uthe i l d ithe n g ground target theinbox for theStack each the box for the each Using 'Box' appropriate 3 box appropriate for 3 target in


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Bell Tower

+9.40

+9.20 Tea Meditation +7.00

+7.00

+6.30 +5.00

Yoga room

Meditation rm +3.50

+3.00 +2.00 Chanting room

+0.00

Section

87


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Staff Rooms Water Treatment

Sub-Reception & Small Bar Indoor Spa Indoor Spa

Resort rooms Outdoor Spa

-The Resort powerd by green energy -The Resort rooms and small bar using air-con to control temperture

-The indoor & outdoor spa also using natural ventilation -The Resort corridor is semi-private, it allows natural ventiation

92


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

1.5 KM

Shek Pik Reservoir

Providing exclusive relaxing experience to visitors, the project studied the form and explore how it interacts with water, carefully design the view of each building, private room and area need to be a secure yet with open view and using a translucent pattern to define the faรงade carefully. The massing tries to keep low density and subdued to echo with the site.

93


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / SHEK PI K

1

2

4

3

Study Model : Form & Hotel Unit

94


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / SHEK PI K

In the overall journey, the first part is the reception, of which is for people who book the hotel and checking in. Hence, a pier is provided at the approach of the reception. In addition, there is a small bar providing light foods and drink for people, looking at the view of cascade and gravel. The second part is the main program of the 32 hotel rooms. A pier under the trussed cantilever architecture connects to the hotel by lift to provide a quick and private access. Facing the broad view of the reservoir, people can relax during their stay. The last part is the restaurant, of which is separate from the hotel on the other side of the water body. Guests will take a poetic boat trip to have fine dining. Privacy of the hotel rooms from the public zones is promised in the tranquil setting. The design and layout of the restaurant focus on the exclusiveness of dining experience with best reservoir view for each table along the edge with extended pier-like decks. The spa included in-door part and outdoor part, the in-door spa provide a more private area to enjoy the water spa, and the outdoor part spa service close to nature, that allows people to enjoy spa service and environment at the same time.

95


ISLAND an d PERI PH ERI ES / SHEK PI K

Sequential Travel Journey

Small Bar & Spa Reception

96

Indoor Spa


ISLAND an d PERI PHERI ES / SHEK PI K

Outdoor Spa

97


1 Stony beach

ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Peripheries of Tai O

re Planning - New Entrance of Tai O

1 Stony beach

2 Mangrove forest

Taught Boat by local Lifetime production survive skill local Boat / raft community making Restaurant

Peripheries of Tai O

Longer period Food experience On-water Production living Fishing experience Tide Open space & clam Short-term Affortable Level collection accomation living Cultural centre Fishing 1 Stony beach Nearby tool 2 Lifetime Drop off point Change Water for ferry survive skill of time in 1 Tai O Experience centre

New pier

O

Site Photo 3 Tide up view

2 Mangrove forest

Hiker path

Exhibition Centre

Hostel Restaurant

Open space

Open space

Cultural centre

3 1 Stony beach

2

Drop off point for ferry

Ecological trail

2 Mangrove forest

3 Tide up view

3 Tide up view

3 Tide down view

3 Tide down view

1

Experience centre

New pier

TouristHiker pathpath

Exhibition Centre

Hostel Restaurant

Open space

3

Ecological trail

Drop off point for ferry

2 Mangrove forest

1

New pier

Tourist path Hiker path

Exhibition Centre Restaurant

3 3 Tide down view

3 Tide up view

ist path

r path

1 : 1000

3 Tide down view

98


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Site Photo

Foyer Main Program Communal area Outdoor area Utilities

Guest room Communal area Lobby Elevated garden Reception Cafe Outdoor bar Kitchen Washroom Transformer room Restaurant Lounge Storage

Aquatic Square at Po Chue Tam, Tai O Aquatic Square is a short-term habitation to let visitors stay in Tai O near Po Chue Tam - an important site for the dragon boat festival and outbound fishing activities. The center can provide programme and activities to enhance the on-water living culture and understand characteristic of water and the true identity of Tai O. By staying in the hostel, joining fishing tools, raft, and boat making workshops, the tourist will find slower rhythm of life and acquire traditional handmade skills from the local fishermen and craftsmen. Different from the packed narrow maze-like streets in central Tai O, the new tourist spot is located in the peripheral of Tai O and is linked to Tung Chung by the historical hiking trail.

Customer Visitor Core

Tourism Route (right lower coner diagram) Attraction sport 1. Tai O Rural Committee Historical & Cultural Room 2. Kwan Hai Temple 3. Old man rock 4. Chinese white dolphin 5. Triple Lanterns

Hotel & Hostel 6. Tai O Heritage Hotel 7. Tai O by the Sea 8. Espace Elastique

Tourist Route A. On Foot (20-30 mins) B. Ferry Trip - stilt house (15mins) C. Ferry Trip - Dolphin (25mins) D. Hiking Route

99


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Fishing tools workshop, raft and boat making workshop are provided in Aquatic Square

100


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Site Extension

Greenery & drop down to Water

Open Space for arrival

Urban Connectivity

101


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Aquatic Square aims to provide a better quality of trip for tourist and enhance the on-water living culture. During the stay, people can truly understand the characteristic of water and Tai O. Experience the on-water living culture, that let people escape from the density urban, retreat themselves toward water and simple skilled life.

102


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Elevated garden Entrance

Cafe

+2.80

Open Space +2.80(Existing)

+2.50 Sea +0.00

Restaurant

+0.00 Lake

-1.20

Section A

Section A 1:200

Raft Workshop Raft workshop Pier Pier

Public Public Pathway Pathway +2.30

+1.80 +0.00 Lake Lake

Fishing tools Fishing tool workshop workshop

+2.80(Existing)

Section B 1:200

Section B

Boat Workshop Boat Workshop

Pier

Pier

+2.30

Public Public Pathway Pathway +2.80(Existing)

Section C 1:200

+0.00 Lake

Section C 103


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Tai O Market Square The Tai O Market Square including the fish market, retail shops, and Tai O Community Centre. The site located in an accessible area, which adjacent to the main street and old market along the waterfront. It intended to form a potential social platform for visitors and locals where culture and festive can be shared among them. On the other hand, Tai O always famed as the fishing and water village, however, it is becoming a sunset industry, so the project wants to revive the industry in a sustainable architectural and economical way.

104


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Local people activities Fish Industry

Refine Market Tai O culture

Market square

Tourist Healthy Lifestyle Aquaponic Process

Local People

105

Performance


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

The design starts with a building with multi-programs. Further study on the different spatial qualities required for various programmes generated a different approach. The design was then comprised of three separate buildings - Market, Tai O Centre, and Retail Area with some connection in between. After a series of site context and topographic studies, the ground level was freed up for the sea view and ventilation, while the raised Tai O centre links up the two buildings and connect with the water, the retail part has verandah which allows natural ventilation and kept the existing stone wall as the feature.

Market Tai O Centre Retail Area

Market Tai O Centre Retail Area

1

2

3 Buildings

3

Open up ground level for sea view and ventilation

106

Stairs to connect the hill for residential and use as sitting area for looking the urban square


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Fish Selling 8.5 x 9.5 m

Planning 2

Planning 1

Fix Store 3x4m

Street Hawkers 10 x 10 m To design a new market, 3 types of market stalls mix

The advantage of the planning can provide many shops for market

The grid is base on the building and street fabric, which makes sense to the market

e

tyl es Lif

Culture

Commercial

Gallery Lectur e Hall

Lifes Wortyle sho ksho ps ps Urba Squa n re

Market Restaurant

Connecting 3 buildings

Separate area in 3 part: Pier, Fishing Market & vegetable area

Base on the view and function to arrange the restaurant and aquaponic process

107

Design the roof for solar panel and water collection

Provide a staircase to connect the sea


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Tai O Market Square keeps the light and porous structure that helps the people experiencing and viewing the activities from outside. The structure is a steel structure, of which allows long span and let more light goes in. Interior finishing is using wood that can provide a warm and touchable atmosphere, which in harmony with the water. The orientation of the buildings followed the grid and is defined by the street and building fabric revealed and analyzed from the contextual and figure-ground study, that makes the building merge with the existing.

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Timber roof for solar panel 20 degree

Concrete structure wall 300mm thick 1: 12 ramp connect first floor Concrete slab and timber deck 1: 12 ramp connect Tai O Centre Concrete structure wall 300mm thick

Green roof Stone wall Exihibit wall Concrete column 500mm x 500mm Steel truss 1000mm Concrete slab & timber deck

Timber roof Steel truss 500mm x 500mm Steel structure 500mm x 500mm Concrete wall 200mm thick Stairs to residential Mid-level, concete slab, timber deck Stone wall Stairs & Sitting area

Staircase to green roof Mid Level Spiral Staircase Path connect three buildings Glass roof collect rain water Steel truss

Timber roof collect rain water

Lift Steel slab & Timber deck Staircase

Steel frame glass box

Steel structure 500mm x 500mm Glass Lift Steel structure 500mm x 500mm

Concrete slab Steel structure & truss

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Timber deck


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ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Timber roof 100mm thick

Steel truss

The Tai O Market aims at recalling the fishing industry and Tai O identity. For locals, they can work self-sufficiently like in the old time, and they can reconnect the bonding among the community by gathering in the new market and communal hub. As a major tourists attraction, people can experience the journey of fishing, buying seafood, and even enjoy instantly cooked seafood in the open viewed restaurants. By weaving into the existing fabric and providing new communal programmes, visitors can understand the contextual lifestyle in Tai O, knowing more how to live in harmony with the water, and enjoy the best of the natural environment.

Steel Joints 550mm x 550mm Steel post 500 x 500mm Steel frame 100mm thick Water Pipe

Timber flooring 100mm thick Steel Slab 100mm thick Steel beam 500mm x 500mm Ceiling

Timber slab 50mm thick Concrete slab 100mm thick

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ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Re-viewing Tai O After the research and site analysis, it was found out that most visitors gather at the north side of Tai O where there is a provision of commercial facilities. This project aims to explore the alternative identity of Tai O, of which is regarded to be the true spirit of a self-supporting lifestyle: “Who build, farm and fishing for their own needs�. Also, the second aim is to change the route of the visitors by building a journey to reveal the beauty of Tai O from a different perspective, including the provision of cultural, traditional salt making and religion galleries, etc. to understand the history of it and passing through the field to experience the indigenous life of local people.

Fig

ure gro un d

Urb an

Ro ad

Co

nn ecti on

&A

cce

ss

Na tur e

Lan

d, S e

a, A

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ban do ne d


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Reviewing Tai O is a building exploring the alternative identity of Tai O which is regarded to be the true spirit of a self-supporting lifestyle: “Who build, farm and fishing for their own needs�. Also, it want to gives visitor a Tai O in different perspective, such as walk pass the salt field and provision of galleries to understand the history.

02_ Mangrove / Abandoned Saltfield

03_ Abandoned Rice Field

04_ Existing Villages

05_ Hiking Trail & Nature

01_ Avoid to add more Tourist to the Hotspot, draw people attention to New Museum

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ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Parking Main Entrance Fishing Gallery

Entrance

Stilit House Gallery

Salt Gallery Changing rm

Religion Salt Field & Production Area Sun House

Farming Gallery Changing rm

Farming Gallery Storage

Storage

Fishing Gallery

Green House

Stilt house Gallery Indoor Space Outdoor Space Gallery Loading/ Unloading Product Drying

Theatre & Restaurant

Religion Gallery Theatre

Platform Main Aubas

Hostel Area Restaurant Hostel Check-in

Wind - Summer

e Hall

Experienc

allery

Farming G allery

G Stilt House Sustainability Air-con summer only, natural ventilation

erence? Level Diff Blocked

Re sta ur an t

Wind - Annual

1 building/ breakdown

Multi Religio-funtion Ha ll n&D Gallery rama

Fishing Gallery

ld Ramp to Fie

Salt Gallery

Entrance

n Productio Experience Hall Platform

Wind - Winter

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ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Entrance Lobby Lecture Hall Restaurant

Salt / Farming Gallery

Entrance

delete

Gallery Changing

g Viewoinrm Platf rying D n o ti Produocrm Platf

Religion Gallery

Theatre

Gallery Viewing Platform Changing Room Ramp to Field

Farming Plan

Backstage Gallery Outdoor Plaza

pD

Selected

n ow

Theatre Gallery

Elevation

m Ra

Gallery storage Glass salt to RouteEx nce Field perie Visit Reception

Gallery Reception Route to Field Experience Visit

p eu

re mo

g ilin

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fre

Farming

Gallery

n ow

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Ram

1. Material 2. Form 3. Circulation 4. Experience

Sense of

Jouney se?

Farm Hou

Blocked End/Arrival Reception

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ace Sp


ISLAND and PERI PHERI ES / TAI O

Sunlight West Ventilation

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Hostel / Village

Metal Roof Metal Roof

Pitched Roof

Timber Frame

Metal Joints Metal Truss

Roof

I - Beam C- Channel

Skin

Post And Beams

Access Floor

Ground Floor Layout

Skin Layer: column Timber Frame Polycarbonate sheet + Window Openings Entrance bay layout: 1. Reception 2. Toilet 3. loading/ unloading bay

Gallery

Flooring Structure

Pipe Duct: Air pipe Water Pipe

Flooring Sub-frame

Slab

Concrete Slab

Water level Cast-in Coloumn Foundation Concrete

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Design Studio Tutors ( 2014 -2017 ) Eddie Kwok Yiu CHAN Jason Yiu Lun TANG Manish MANDHAR Matthew IBARRA Roberto Requejo BELETTE Simon CHAN Sylvia Sze Wai FUNG

HKDI Architecture Projects Review #04

Island and Peripheries Editor Carol Leung Editorial Assistant Jollie Cheung Graphic Design

Carol Leung Jollie Cheung

Lamma Island

Marco LEUNG . Horace YEUNG . Louis SHING

Discovery Bay

Nelson MAN . Wing Chun CHENG

Mui Wo

Roy CHENG . Ka Ming LIU

Tung Chung Mani POON

Architectural Design Programme Department of Architecture, Interior and Product Design

Pui O

Hong Kong Design Institute (HKDI)

Shek Pik

hkdi@vtc.edu.hk www.hkdi.edu.hk

Oscar YUE Ryan CHAN . Shing SY . Ming Wong

Tai O

Fabio HEUNG . Kevlin WONG . Steven WONG

© 2017 Hong Kong Design Institute (HKDI) All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form without prior permission in writing of the publisher.


Island and Peripheries  

HKDI Projects Review #04 This is the fourth of the HKDI Architecture Projects Review publication #04 – ISLAND and PERIPHERIES, which offer...

Island and Peripheries  

HKDI Projects Review #04 This is the fourth of the HKDI Architecture Projects Review publication #04 – ISLAND and PERIPHERIES, which offer...

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