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Visiting Academics

Contents

訪問學者

目錄

1

Editors’ Note 編者的話

2

What’s New 最新消息 Dr. Sandra Kaplan

4

Professional Sharing 專業交流

Clinical Associate Professor, The University of Southern California

An Interview with Dr. Mark Salata on Inquiry Learning

Sandra Kaplan博士, 美國南加州大學副教授

Mark Salata 博士訪問:探究式學習

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Feature Article 專題文章 Problem-Based Learning: The Way of the World by Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska

問題導向學習:放眼世界 擴闊視野

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Dr. Mark Salata

Frontline Experience Sharing: Gifted Education Implementation 前線經驗分享:資優教育的推行與實踐 . Sharing from SKH Li Fook Hing Secondary School

Former Director of the BSCS Keys to Science Institutes, Colorado Springs Mark Salata博士, 美國科羅拉多州 「生物科學課程研究學院」前任總監

聖公會李福慶中學分享 . Sharing from Farm Road Government Primary School 農圃道官立小學分享

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News Bites 要聞剪影 Prof. Kuo Ching-chih

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Upcoming Events of the Academy 學院動向

Head of the Department of Special Education, The National Taiwan Normal University 郭靜姿教授, 臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系 系主任


Editors’ Note 編

W

ays of enhancing sophisticated thinking strategies including problem-based/ inquirybased learning or others are addressed to work effectively with gifted learners as these approaches require learners to make complex responses by using various intellectual strategies and skills, and are commonly employed to deal with real life problems and issues. In this issue, we shall look into the topic of learning and teaching for gifted learners and share some ways to deepen and broaden their learning experiences as well as develop their unique potential and talents to the full. In the interview with Dr. Mark Salata, some effective practices and a teaching and learning framework of inquiry learning will be introduced. Through challenging learning activities and contexts in an inquiry learning setting, students are enabled to pursue learning by engaging their minds with higher-order and complex questions as well as are actively engaged with constructing concepts by themselves and with mental peers. In “Feature Article”, Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska shares her views on the use of problem-based learning (PBL) approach. She also points out that PBL models real world problem solving approaches that are critical for working on problems in the professions as well as everyday life. Also there will be two pieces of frontline experience sharing on the implementation of gifted education (GE) from two local schools. We hope that by continuously providing useful information on GE and this professional platform —INSPIRE— for educators and frontline practitioners to share knowledge and experiences in nurturing and supporting gifted learners, we can grow hand in hand together and make the community a better place for the gifted in Hong Kong. You are welcome to share and contribute articles to INSPIRE. Please do not hesitate to let us know if you are interested in sharing through our email address (tpd@hkage.org.hk). Thank you. Editorial Team Teacher Professional Development The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education

對資優生 而言,一些能加強高階

及精密思維的方法例如問題導向或探究 式學習策略尤其奏效,因為這些方法要 求學生運用不同的思考策略與技巧去處 理現實生活問題,並作出複雜的回應。

今期的《匯賢「資」訊》將探討有關 「資優生的學與教」這個課題,以及分 享一些能加深和擴闊資優生的學習經歷 及發展其卓越潛質及才能的方法。我們 訪問了探究式學習的教育專家Mark Salata 博士,他向我們介紹「探究式學習」的 有效施行策略以及學與教的架構。通過 具啟發性的探究式學習活動及教學情 境,讓學生以思考高階及複雜問題的方 式投入學習,並且讓他們獨自或與能力 相近的同輩一起積極學習知識和建構相 關的概念。今期的〈專題文章〉由Joyce VanTassel-Baska博士撰文,與大家分享 她對應用「問題導向學習」這種策略的 真知灼見。她並指出「問題導向學習」 模擬現實生活的解難方法,對於解決多 種專業範疇或日常生活的問題是不可或 缺的。此外,我們還邀請了本地兩所學 校同工分享他們實踐資優教育的經驗和 心得。 我們致力為各位教育同工提供資優教育 資訊,並且通過《匯賢「資」訊》這個 專業平台,讓教師及前線同工互相分享 培育與支援資優生的知識及經驗,藉此 讓各位與我們攜手合作,共同為香港的 資優社群締造更美好的發展環境,使他 們盡展潛能。 歡迎各位通過《匯賢「資」訊》作專業 交流和分享。假如你有意投稿,請電郵 至tpd@hkage.org.hk與我們聯絡。 香港資優教育學院 教師專業發展 編輯組


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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

What's

New 最 新 消 息 New Webpage of Online Resources We have launched a new webpage of “Resources” at the Teacher Zone of the HKAGE website. The webpage contains useful resources and learning and teaching materials, including the gifted education projects under the Commendation Award Scheme organised by the HKAGE. In addition, practical learning and teaching resources, such as lesson plans, templates, tools and guidelines on various aspects of gifted education are also provided for teachers’ reference. You are welcome to visit the webpage at: http://hkage.org.hk/en/tz_resources.html

Contribution of Articles and Learning and Teaching Resources To facilitate professional sharing on gifted education practices and resources, the HKAGE would like to invite you, teachers and other frontline professionals to share your experience and/or learning and teaching resources in engaging, challenging and supporting gifted learners. The HKAGE will hold a quarterly review on your submission. The articles or resource materials selected by the HKAGE will be published in the Academy’s teacher magazine-INSPIRE or uploaded to the “Resources” webpage under the Teacher Zone of the HKAGE website. You will receive a commendation letter if your contribution is selected. For more information about the submission method and details, please contact us by email to tpd@hkage.org.hk

Outreach Professional Development Services From time to time, the Teacher Professional Development Division of the HKAGE has received requests from schools to deliver teacher training programmes on gifted education as their training events. To extend the range of services of the HKAGE to schools/school sponsoring bodies/professional organisations, we will conduct on-site introductory talks and in-depth/customised workshops or consultancy services upon request, targeting more teachers, educators and frontline practitioners from various school sponsoring bodies or regional districts. Please write in your requests/enquiries to the HKAGE by email to tpd@hkage.org.hk or contact us on 3698 4025.


What's New 最新消息

新增網上「資源庫」 我 們 已 在 香 港 資 優 教 育 學 院 網 站 的「 教 師 園 地 」增 設「 資 源 庫 」一 欄, 提 供 有 關 實 踐 資 優 教 育 的 資 訊 及 學 與 教 資 源, 包 括 獲 本 學 院 嘉 許 的 資 優 教 育 計 畫。 此 外, 資 源 庫 亦 提 供 其 他 實 用 的 學 與 教 資 源, 包 括 教 案、 範 本、 教 學 工 具 及 指 引 等 供 教 師 參 考。 詳 情 請 瀏 覽 http://hkage.org.hk/en/tz_resources.html

歡迎投稿!分享文章及學與教資源 為了促進有關資優教育實踐經驗及資源的專業交流,香港資優教育學院 誠意邀請各位教師及其他前線教育同工交流您們支援及啓發資優生發展 的經驗及/或分享相關的學與教資源。本學院將於每季定期檢視提交的 文章及資源,成功獲選作品將刊載於本學院的教師雜誌《匯賢「資」訊》 或上載於學院網站內「教師園地」的「資源庫」一欄;而其作者亦將獲發 嘉許信以資鼓勵。如欲了解詳情,請電郵至tpd@hkage.org.hk與我們聯絡。

外展專業發展服務 香港資優教育學院轄下的教師專業發展部不時收到學校的邀請到校提供 有關資優教育的教師專業培訓。為了提供更多種類的服務予學校/辦學 團體/專業團體,我們將應邀為不同辦學團體或地區網絡的教師及前線 教育同工提供入門講座、較深入專題的工作坊或其他教育諮詢服務。如 欲查詢詳情,請電郵至 tpd@hkage.org.hk 或致電 3698 4025 與我們聯絡。

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

An Interview with

Dr. Mark Salata: Q1.

Inquiry

Dr. Salata, how should we define “Inquiry Learning”?

Q2.

And what are its implications for learning and teaching?

Dr. Salata

Dr. Salata Having a common definition of what ‘inquiry learning’ is and what it looks like is the key to beginning a transformation of education, so this is an excellent question. A brief answer would be that inquiry learning is based on questioning and the conversations and collaboration that stem from that questioning. However, this is an insufficient definition to have an impact on transforming education. The quality of questioning and the quality of the conversations/ collaborations must be considered in light of how we know students learn best. Inquiry learning is best framed with three key components: 1) engaging students to consider their prior knowledge in relation to new ideas or experiences; 2) providing the opportunity for students to cognitively wrestle with these ideas through questioning; and 3) having students create new, personal conceptual frameworks that allow for greater understanding of and application in the world. The implication of the aforementioned components is that educational environments at school, home or elsewhere should allow for the student to think critically. This means that they must be given time to reflect on what they know, what they do not know, and how new knowledge is meaningful.

Why is “Inquiry Learning” important in nurturing gifted learners?

Gifted learners, as defined by most, either have a specific aptitude in one or more subject/domain areas and are curious to ask complex questions or are creative in a variety of ways. Inquiry learning lends itself well to all learners, but gifted learners generally have needs that require it. With a didactic approach or similar methods, rote memorisation has been the most efficient way to academically achieve. However, rote memorisation ignores the diversity of gifts a learner has and can even diminish the development of them. Inquiry learning takes advantage of those latent gifts and allows the student to develop them by focusing on the process of learning. In an inquiry learning setting, the learner is engaged in the topic due to it being personally relevant and/or interesting. Demonstrations that cause a student to wonder why an event happened counter to their intuition can prime the mind with many questions and result in a fertile discussion or exploration.


Professional Sharing 專業交流

Learning Q3.

Could you elaborate more on the theoretical model(s) or essential features of “Inquiry Learning”?

assignment with a critical question to promote thinking. In either case, you get to know which strategies may be best to teach the subject.

Dr. Salata

You may even find out that the students do not need to review the topic much, thus saving precious classroom time.

One such model is the BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study) – 5E model, developed by a wonderful team of science educators in the United States. It is based on how people learn and consists of five phases, if you will: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate and Evaluate. These phases were created to be used in a flexible format and not fixed as a step by step process or necessarily completed in a one hour period.

The Explore and Elaborate provide two opportunities for students to become familiar with the topic studied, in slightly different contexts. During the Explore, they may show naive understandings, whereas in the second elaboration they are tasked to demonstrate a better understanding - since they have been given assignments and completed the explain phase as well.

The Engage is the teacher’s evaluation of a student’s prior knowledge and the hook to get students interested. How many times does a teacher move on covering a topic without really knowing what his students know about it? We would never expect a car mechanic to fix a car without doing a diagnostic test, would we? Of course not. It may be a demonstration that elicits student questions or a reading

The Explain is a time for the students to share what they know and what questions they have after the Explore. The teacher can provide feedback and allow students to share with each other as well. It is also a time for the teacher to introduce proper terminology. Sometimes teachers like to put the terminology at the beginning of the lesson for fear that a student could not learn the topic without them. Let’s just say that I can learn a lot about a bird’s life history and habitat without knowing its scientific name. A term will be more memorable if it has an experience connected to it. Lastly, the Evaluate phase is a time for the student to reflect on changes to his or her personal understanding of the topic. They can record this in a journal or complete a report. Of course, a teacher can evaluate the students as well, but the evaluate phase should not be simply interpreted as ‘exam time’.

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Q4.

What are the effective practices of inquiry learning?

Dr. Salata In my conception, any practice that puts the student into a position of actively engaging with concepts and cognitively wrestling with ideas by themselves and with others (depending on the activity at the moment) can be effective. There are some requirements for the practice to be effective though. It must engage the students with meaningful information. In the arts, for example, a play or story can be meaningful when it is compared with the students own experience. Identifying with a character can pull a student into the assignment. Alternatively, look at the many plays of Shakespeare that are put into a modern context in film and on stage. Allow the students to examine the complexity of humanity within a character from a Shakespearean play and the Star Wars series of movies. For science, an engaging context is a demonstration that results in a counterintuitive result. For example, two objects that are seemingly the same but act differently (one floats and one sinks in water). As soon as the event occurs differently than expected, the questions begin to be asked. As far as practices that can be done across subjects, there are many. Firstly, teachers can begin to ask fewer questions in class. Most teachers ask too many fact-based questions and positively reinforce quick and correct responses. They should be asking high quality questions that allow for them to probe the minds of students and prompt students to ask questions instead. For example, a student who memorises the word stomate1 and its definition without the context of gas exchange as an overall important process for all living things is just learning the parts. Asking the student to predict which plants might have more stomates due to the plant’s environment and then asking questions such as – ‘What resources could you use to answer that question?’ – leads to a more fruitful conversation.

Secondly, when a student asks a teacher a question, the first response should be a question – “Interesting, why do you think that?” A word of caution though, teachers must prepare students for this, especially if the student has been used to a teacher being a fountain of knowledge. Teachers must tell the students that it is normal when he or she responds to a student’s question with a question. Thirdly, model contemplative and critical thinking in your classroom. After asking a question, wait for a few seconds and then call on a student. Then when one answers, wait for a few seconds and then respond. Based on your behaviour, they will understand that it is normal to think before speaking. Some students can improve their thinking (and questions) by writing their thoughts down first and then speaking. Any strategy that can increase the amount of time a student is critically thinking about an idea will result in better learning. Lastly, the classroom environment must be safe for sharing ideas. Teachers should never belittle a student’s idea and teachers should make sure that students respect each other’s ideas as well. Placing a few general rules about respecting each others’ ideas and being mindful that we will learn together goes a long way to create an inquiry learning environment.

Q5.

Could you provide some suggestions about the assessment?

Dr. Salata Assessment comes in two forms – formative and summative. Typically, we think of summative, quizzes or tests, when we use the word assessment. Those quizzes or tests are provided after a set of lessons and are supposed to provide some sense of the student’s knowledge at that time. I recommend that teachers consider that formative assessment is at least equal to, if not more important than, summative assessment. Formative assessment could be in any form that can result in feedback for the student about his/her understanding.


Professional Sharing 專業交流

It is also feedback for the teacher about his/her teaching practices. For example, if after one lesson, I provide a multiple-choice question that also asks students to explain why they made their choice, then I can 1) provide individual feedback based on the choice; and 2) decide how best to alter the next few lessons in order to improve learning. This kind of formative assessment could be done within five minutes on an index card. Students could answer them individually on one side of the index card and then turn to a partner to discuss their choice. After that discussion, they get to change their answer (or add more reasons justifying their original answer) by writing on the back of the index card. You could do this at the end of class and collect them to get an idea of what to do next. Another staple of any class should be a journal. The journal is a place to record important information from class and any ideas that come to mind. You should designate a space on a page, perhaps the left and right border, for ideas/questions, whereas the center of the page is for class notes and drawings. It is the hard copy equivalent of your safe inquiry learning environment. Students should expect you to collect it (or view it) occasionally in order to provide feedback, but it should not be graded/marked (except for the fact that it is being used). Lastly, provide multiple opportunities for learning the same topic or process. If your students need to learn how to give a classroom talk based on a particular rubric, then provide them multiple opportunities to improve. Success in learning should be about the end result, not the immediate ascendancy of high marks. Notes: 1

Stomate You may refer to the explanation of Stomate in Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved Dec 9, 2010, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/567123/stomate

2

For more information of the BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study), you may refer to the following website, http://www.bscs.org

Dr. Mark Salata (Ph.D. Science Education, University of Virginia) is an educational consultant specialising in inquiry-based learning. Dr. Salata has provided professional development for teachers in the field of inquiry learning specifically in Hong Kong, Singapore, and the United States. Over the past several years, he has worked with teachers from hundreds of primary and secondary schools to transform their classrooms to thriving centres of inquiry learning and creativity. He was an associate professor of Biology at Gordon College in Georgia, director of the BSCS2 Keys to Science Institutes in Colorado Springs, and is trained as a cellular and molecular biologist, in addition to having earning his Ph.D. in Science Education from the University of Virginia while studying the effectiveness of concept-mapping as an advanced organiser.

Mark Salata 博士,美國維珍尼亞大學科學教育 博士,是探究式學習的教育專家。 他在全球多 個國家及地方例如中國香港、新加坡及美國為 教師提供探究式學習的專業發展培訓。過去數 年,他與數以百計的中小學教師攜手合作,為 課堂注入豐富的探究式學習及創意元素。 Dr. Salata 博士曾擔任喬治亞州戈登學院生物學 副教授以及科羅拉多州生物科學課程研究學院 總監。他是細胞及分子生物學家,並於修讀博 士學位時,主要研究包括運用概念圖作為組織 思維工具的效用。

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

學習

Mark Salata 博士訪問

問1:

Salata 博士,請問探究式學習的 定義是什麼呢?它對學與教又有 什麼意義呢?

學生思考一些與自己直覺知識相反的現象,促使他們 深思更多問題,並啟發他們深入討論或研究。

問3:

請你詳細解釋探究式學習的理論 模式或主要特色。

這個問題問得很好,只有對探究式學習的定義及模式 有了共識,開展教育的革新才顯得有意義。簡單來 說,探究式學習建基於提問和由此衍生出來的討論與 其中一個模式是「BSCS — 5E」模式,由美國一群科 研究。然而,這個定義並不足以為教育帶來改變。我 學科教師創立。「BSCS — 5E」模式根據學生的學習方 們必須重視提問及討論 / 研究的質素,並且根據我們 式分為五個靈活調動的階段,即參與(Engage)、探索 對學生的認識,為他們設計最合適的學習方法。探究 (Explore)、 闡 釋(Elaborate)、 說 明(Explain)及 評 估 式學習需包含以下三個主要元素,才可以發揮最大的 (Evaluate)。這五個階段並非循序漸進,亦無需於短 時間內完成。 功效: 1) 讓學生把舊知識與新構思或經驗融會貫通,一併 「參與」( Engage) 是教師評估學生對課題的已有知識及 引發學生學習興趣的階段。教師在沒有弄清學生對課 思考; 題的認識之前就繼續授課,這情況有多普遍呢?試問 2) 讓學生通過發問去深究這些構思;以及 3) 讓學生創造嶄新的個人概念架構,使他們更了解及 技工尚未檢查汽車前,就會貿然維修汽車嗎?當然不 會。你可以通過演示誘發學生提問,或讓學生做閱讀 適應這個世界。 作業並回答批判性的問題,從而啟發他們的思考。這 無論在任何教育環境 — 學校、家庭或其他地方,若 兩個方法均可讓教師弄清那一種教學策略較為奏效。 要以上三種元素發揮其果效,我們均需要讓學生運用 教師亦可以從中了解學生對課題有多少認識,從而作 批判思維,反思其已知與未知的事情以及新知識的重 出調適,並因而可節省寶貴的教學時間。 要性。

問2: 為什麼探究式學習對培育資優生 是重要的?

「探索」( Explore)與「闡釋」( Elaborate)兩個階段提供 了兩個不同的機會讓學生熟悉研習的課題。學生在 「探索」階段對課題得到初步認識,繼而在「闡釋」階 段中通過做習作 / 實作活動加深對課題的了解。

一般來說,資優生的定義是,他們於一個或更多的學 「說明」 (Explain)階段讓學生分享他們所知的東西和討 科 / 範疇有過人的潛能或能力,並且喜愛提出複雜的 論從探索階段中所得出的問題。教師可以在這個階段 問題或於不同方面均具有創意。探究式學習適合所有 給學生意見,並且讓他們互相分享意見,亦可以教學 學生,對資優生尤為重要。在傳統的教學法下,學生 生一些合適的專門用語。有時,教師一開始就會教授 只要死記硬背就可取得好成績,其他才能卻被忽略, 專門用語,以為沒有這些用語,學生就難以學習某個 才華發展亦因此受到阻礙。相反,探究式學習能發揮 課題。其實學生無需知道某些東西的學名也能學習, 學生的潛能,讓他們專注於學習過程,從而發展自己 例如,即使他們不曉得某種雀鳥的名稱,亦能熟諳有 的才能。在探究式的學習環境下,學生可以研究跟自 關牠們生活及棲息地的知識。重點是學生有了相關的 己有關或感興趣的題目。此外,教師可以通過演示讓 經歷,就會更容易記得這些專門用語。


Professional Sharing 專業交流

「評估」(Evaluate)階段讓學生反思自己對某個課題的 認識及當中的轉變。學生可以將其反思記錄下來或寫 一個報告。教師亦可以在此時評估學生,但不應只純 粹視此為考核學生的階段。

問4: 有沒有一些探究式學習的實例? 我認為,任何能夠讓學生主動地獨自或與他人一同深 思的活動都應該是有效的,但要符合某些條件。首 先,學習活動要讓學生得到有意義的資訊。例如在文 藝方面,學生將自己的經歷與戲劇或故事人物互相比 較是有效的做法,因為這樣可以使學生感同身受,全 情投入活動中。此外,可以讓學生觀看已改編為現代 電影及話劇版本的莎士比亞劇作,然後探討劇中人物 複雜的人性。在科學方面,可以給學生觀察一些看似 相同但作用迥異的事物(例如兩件看似相同的物件, 一件放在水裏立即下沉,另一件則浮起來),藉此引 發他們提出問題,研究這些與直覺知識相反的現象。 應用於不同學科的探究式學習實例很多。例一,教師 不要在課堂上問太多問題。大多數教師都會問太多基 於事實的問題,目的是讓學生立即獲得正確的答案。 然而,教師應該問一些高質素(高階思維 ) 的問題,藉 此理解學生的想法,並啟發學生提問。例如,學生要 記住 stomate(氣孔)這個詞及其意義,但假如他們沒 有理解氣體交換(呼吸)對所有生物的重要性,他們 其實還沒有完全懂得這個詞的意思。教師可以讓學生 猜想哪些植物基於環境因素會有較多氣孔,並問學生 「你可以運用什麼資源幫你回答這個問題?」。這種提 問方式可以引發更有效的討論。 例二,當學生提出問題時,教師應即時以另一問題回 應,說:「你這個問題很有趣,你為什麼會這樣想?」 但要注意一點,那就是教師必須讓學生適應這種以問 題回應問題的做法,尤其對於那些習慣了由教師提供 豐富知識的學生。 例三,在課堂上示範如何運用批判思維去探究問題。 當你提出問題後,等候數秒才叫其中一位學生回答。 那位學生回答後,又停數秒才回應。學生看到你的表 現就會明白,想清楚才回答是很正常的。有些學生會 先把意見寫下來然後才說話,這樣有助 他們思考及提 問。任何能夠增加學生進行深層及批判思考時間的策 略都能幫助學生學習。

最後,教師必須營造令人安心的環境讓學生在課堂上 盡情分享意見,不應輕視學生的任何想法,並需要確 保學生互相尊重對方的意見。假如教師可以與學生定 下一些尊重別人意見的共識,教導學生重視一起學習 的重要性,將有助探究式學習環境持續發展。

你可否建議一些相關的評估

問5: 方法?

評估方法可以分為進展性評估 (formative assessment) 和 總結性評估 (summative assessment) 兩類。一般來說, 評估的意思是指完成一系列的課程後,進行總結性的 評估,從而了解學生當時達到的知識水平。我建議教 師亦可考慮採用進展性評估。這種方式跟總結性評估 是同樣重要。 進展性評估可以通過任何形式進行,目的是為學生的 學習及教師的教學提供意見。例如,上了一課後,我 給學生做一條多項選擇題,並要求他們解釋答案。然 後我可以: .就學生的答案提供意見;及 .研究怎樣修改之後的課堂,務求幫助學生改善學習。 這種進展性評估可以非常易於施行,例如可以將評估 回應寫在索引卡上,並可於五分鐘之內完成。學生可 以將問題的答案寫在卡上,然後跟同組的同學討論。 討論過後,他們可以修改答案(或找出更多論據支持 自己最初的答案),然後寫在卡的背後。這種評估方 法可以在課堂完結後進行,教師可以在收集索引卡並 檢視內容後再定出下一個策略。 此外,教師亦可以教導學生應用學習日誌,將課堂的 重要資訊及任何構思記錄下來,例如將紙的左右兩邊 用作記錄構思或問題,而紙的中央就用作課堂記錄及 繪圖。這是探究式學習的記錄,教師應不時閱讀這些 記錄並提出意見,但不應加以評分,而應視此為反思 學與教的機會。 最後,教師應該給學生不同機會學習某個課題或過程。 例如,學生要學習怎樣按指定題目在班裏發表演說, 教師就可以給他們不同機會,幫助他們改進。學習的成 果應該是取得最終的進步,而非即時獲得高分數。

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Problem-Based Learning:

The Way Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska

T

he importance of student exposure to the inquirybased technique known as problem-based learning (PBL) cannot be overemphasised because, more than any other technique teachers can use in the class room, it models real world problem solving approaches that are critical for working on problems in the professions as well as everyday life. First developed as a strategy to help medical students understand the lives of patients better, the strategy has evolved into one used in many educational settings, including curriculum with gifted learners (see Gallagher & Stepien, and VanTasselBaska & Little, in press). The impact of the process on learning has been strong, suggesting that students learn valueadded skills as a result of exposure to the strategy, in addition to those skills required in a given content area. PBL has been used most extensively in science and the social sciences but has also had meaningful applications made in mathematics and in language arts study.

What is PBL? PBL is a technique for organising curriculum and using instructional approaches that are facilitative and metacognitive in nature. It puts the learner in charge of her own learning, working through a problem in a small investigatory team to reach a resolution in a time-constrained environment. As with all real world problems, PBL offers students an ambiguous problem that is multi-faceted and difficult to define. It provides additional data that complicate the pathway to resolution even further in the same way that real life problems change and complicate our ability to deal with them. It insists on a deadline that does not allow for the complete aggregation of all relevant data. It lets students be professionals in the problem, thus vesting them with authority and responsibility. Finally, it requires a real world product that serves to resolve the problem in the short run. As with all real world problems, solution often is not an option, only resolution, given various unknowns.


Feature Article 專題文章

of the World

An Example In order to work through a problembased learning episode, students must be able to analyse, synthesise, evaluate, and create — all higher level thinking tasks according to Anderson, Krathwohl et al. (2000). The following problem and its levels of complex thinking are illustrative of a problem-based learning episode. Problem: There is a lack of mass transit into and out of a central city. You are an urban planner, given one month to come up with a viable plan. However, your resources have been used on another project, that of city beautification. A new airport is about to be built 20 miles out from the city, but negotiations are stalled. What do you do?

Higher level skills that are needed to address the problem include: 1. analysing what the real problem is — mass transit, airport construction, beautification? 2. synthesising the aspects of the problem — is there a creative synthesis of each facet of the problems noted? 3. evaluating the alternative strategies to be employed — can I shift funds, can I employ a transportation expert, can I deal with the airport deal? 4. creating the plan of action that will need to be sold to city council The plan of action in this case becomes the product of the student work in

small groups to address this real world problem. The next step is for them to plan and execute a presentation to the city council. Problem-based learning then illustrates a model for group problem-solving that interprets products as being both written and oral in nature, with group results fostered by individual contributions. The role of the teacher in PBL is as a metacognitive coach, helping the investigatory teams work through their questions and concerns regarding the problem. The teacher should routinely provide websites and other references to save students time in problem exploration and provide suggestions for paths to consider. However, the teacher role is not to provide direct instruction on the problem or how it should be resolved.

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

As students begin to answer questions about their problem, they find new questions arise that need to be recorded and followed up on via their “Need To Know” board. Through the process of question-asking, students come to understand how real world learning occurs, instigated by questions necessary to solve important problems within the society. This self-discovery heightens their metacognition about how the world works and how they can contribute to it.

The use of PBL to promote higher level thought The use of problem-based learning clearly promotes the use of multiple higher level thinking processes as a routine part of the learning process. Creative problem-solving as a model is the closest analogue in education to the process, a model that also requires the simultaneous use of convergent and divergent thinking. Students employ multiple forms of higher level thinking within both critical and creative venues. Fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality are encouraged in all phases of PBL as are analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Thus one important value of the process is linked to elevating thinking in students who employ it as a part of their learning what they need to know anyway within traditional subject matter areas.

Using PBL as a tool for independent research The use of PBL for independent research is also a highly challenging way for students to learn the research process at a deeper level. Rather than merely reading and citing sources for a study, they must encounter the real world of research in conducting aspects of it themselves through surveys, interviews and focus groups. They must read for different perspectives on the problem and think through how to reconcile these perspectives in a problem solving mode. Teachers have choices in respect to the subject matter that students may study in an independent learning model. Topics are endless but also more flat in respect to what students may learn about them; they are especially susceptible to internet source learning where secondary sources become the basis for understanding. Problem-based research, on the other hand, involves students in actively seeking information from multiple sources and collecting their own. For the promotion of greater motivation in learning, using real world problems may be a superior organisational tool. However, teachers will need to provide examples for students of how to convert topics of interest to problems. A few examples follow:


Feature Article 專題文章

Topic: Animal habitats Problem: How do animal habitats contribute to or impede extinction? Topic: The Iraq War Problem: What were aspects of the Iraq situation that may have justified US involvement? How has the situation changed to support a decision to withdraw? Topic: Literature of the 1980’s Problem: How did selected writers of the 1980’s capture the spirit of the decade and its major events? By converting topics to problems, students are encouraged to examine resources that consider all aspects of the problem, even as they consider the involved stakeholders related to the problem and their unique perspectives. Students also have a greater stake in the research as they are encouraged to form opinions on the problem in the context of further exploration of it and to design a way to collect data themselves to understand it better, activating their role as independent researchers in charge of a study.

Conclusion Problem-based learning represents the way of the world in its openness to change, its greater complexity, and the need for collaboration with others in order to reach resolution. It provides the gifted learner what he or she most desires—autonomy, challenge, and meaningful learning. It is little wonder that gifted students report it to be the most motivating way to learn that they have ever experienced in classrooms.

References Anderson, L. W., D. R. Krathwohl, et al. (2000). Taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, Longman. Gallagher, S. A., & Stepien, W. (1996). Content acquisition in problembased learning: Depth versus breadth in American studies. Journal for the Education of the Gifted , 19, 257-275. VanTassel-Baska, J. & Little, C. eds. (in press) Content-based Curriculum for the Gifted . Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Dr. Joyce Van Tassel-Baska is Professor Emerita at The College of William and Mary in Virginia, where she had served as the Executive Director of the Centre for Gifted Education. Dr. Van Tassel-Baska’s research interests are on the talent development process and effective curricular interventions with the gifted. She has received numerous awards including the International Mensa Research Award, 2001 and 1995, and was selected as a visiting scholar to Cambridge University in England in 1993.

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

問題導向學習: Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博士

「問

題導向學習」是一種 探 究 式 技 巧, 運 用 適 宜, 對 學 生 有 莫 大的裨益。它模擬現實生活的解難 方法,對於解決多種專業或日常生 活的問題是不可或缺的。這種技巧 最初應用於幫助醫科學生了解病 人的生活,後來逐漸被教育界廣 泛採用,包括應用於照顧資優生 的 課 程 上 (Gallagher & Stepien, and VanTassel-Baska & Little)。這種技巧 對學習的幫助十分大,除了讓學生 學到某個範疇應有的技能以外,亦 能讓他們掌握其他增值技能。問題 導向學習一直廣泛應用於科學及社 會科學上,但對於數學及語文藝術 學科亦有其實效。

什麼是問題導向學習 ? 問題導向學習可以應用於籌畫課 程,以及適合運用引導式和後設認 知的教學法。它讓學生管理自己的 學習,在某個時限之內通過小組研 究找出解決問題的方法。它亦能讓 學生處理複雜及難以定義的現實生 活問題,並提供額外的數據資料使 解難的過程變得更複雜。這跟現實 生活的情況一樣,各種問題不斷改 變,往往難以應付。學生亦常常未 能在問題導向學習所設定的限期內

搜集及整理所有適用的資料。此 外,在解難過程中,由於學生需要 如專業人士般專責處理問題,所以 他們被賦予權力及承擔責任,在短 時間內找出解決現實生活問題的方 法。跟現實的情況一樣,基於種種 未知的因素,很多時候解決問題的 方法都不會只得一種,故此學生需 多作探索。 舉例 Anderson, Krathwohl 和 其 他 學 者 (2000) 認為學生要進行問題導向學 習,必定要有分析、綜合、評鑑及 創造等處理高階思維項目的能力。 以下的問題及複雜思維是問題導向 學習的例子: 問題 : 有一個城市缺乏大型運輸系 統。假如你是城市規畫師,現在有 一個月時間制訂可行的方案,但你 的資源已經用於另一個美化城市的 計畫。此外,該城市 20 英里之外 將興建一個新機場,但協商的工作 停滯不前,你該怎樣做? 你需要運用高階思維技巧去解決問 題: 1. 分析實質問題所在 – 大型運輸 系統、興建機場還是美化城市 是主要問題?


Feature Article 專題文章

2. 綜 合 問 題 的 各 方 面 因 素 – 有

否具創意的綜合方法去解決問 題? 3. 評估其他可以運用的策略 – 可

否將資金轉移、聘請交通運輸 專家、處理興建機場的協商事 宜? 4. 訂定行動計畫交給市議會

學生需要分組完成這個行動計畫, 然後將計畫交給市議會。問題導向 學習讓各個組員可以參與其中和盡 力作出貢獻,各組並需要以文字及 口頭方式匯報解難的方法。 教師在問題導向學習方面的角色是 學習的促進者,協助各研究小組解 決問題及反思所用有關的策略。教 師需要不時向學生提供一些相關的 網頁及參考資料,以節省他們探索 問題的時間。他們亦應該向學生提 供建議,但不應直接教學生怎樣解 決問題。 當學生開始尋找問題的答案時,往 往會發現新的問題,並且需要將它 記錄和跟進。學生從通過發問的過 程中漸漸懂得從現實生活中學習, 而社會的重要議題亦對他們有所啟 發。這種自我發現的過程加強了他 們的後設認知,認識世界如何運 作,從而懂得怎樣貢獻社會。

問題導向學習培養 高階思維 問題導向學習幫助我們於日常學習 過程中應用多種高階思維技巧,

它與教育界採用的創意解難模式相 類似。創意解難講求聚斂與擴散思 維並用,學生需運用多種類型的批 判及創意思維高階技巧。問題導向 學習的各個階段均鼓勵意念的流暢 性、變通性、精密性及獨創性,亦 着重培養學生的分析、綜合與評鑑 能力。因此,問題導向學習亦可幫 助評估學生的思維能力,因為學生 往往需要運用這些思維技巧去學習 各個傳統學科的知識。

運用問題導向學習作為獨 立研究的工具 學生進行獨立研究時運用問題導向 學習方式,對他們來說是很大的挑 戰,可以讓他們更深入地學習研究 方法。他們研究現實情況的方法不 單是閱讀和引用資料,而是通過調 查、面談和焦點小組進行。他們必 須從不同角度去考慮問題,並且思 考如何協調各方面的考慮去解決 問題。 教師可以就某個學習範疇擬定不同 的研究主題以供學生選擇。題目可 以數之不盡,視乎學生需要學習的 範圍而定。學生很多時候會依賴網 上的二手資料進行被動式的研習。 相反,問題導向的研究方式則要求 學生主動從不同的來源尋找資料。 為了推動學生學習,教師可以利用 現實生活的議題,但他們要先向學 生示範如何將感興趣的主題轉化為 研究問題,以下是幾個例子: 題目:動物棲息地 : 動物的棲息地 如何促使或防止它們絕種?

題目:伊拉克戰爭:美國有甚麼充 分理由介入伊拉克的事務?又以甚 麼理由撤出伊拉克? 題 目:1980 年 代 的 文 學:1980 年 代的著名作家如何風靡一時? 透過將主題轉化為問題,可以幫助 學生更透徹地探究問題的各方面資 料,並且考慮與問題有關的持分者 的觀點及獨特見解。此外,學生參 與研究的程度更大,他們深入探究 問題、設計收集資料的方法並且收 集意見,獨立自主地管理自己的研 究工作。

總結 問題導向學習方式讓學生體會到世 界的運作方式 – 瞬息萬變、複雜並 且需要人們互相合作解決問題。這 種學習方式為資優生提供最理想的 學習元素 – 自主、挑戰和有意義的 學習;因此資優生一般認為問題導 向學習是課堂上最能引發學習動機 的方法。 Joyce Van Tassel-Baska 博 士 是 美國維珍尼亞州威廉瑪麗學院 教授及該學院的資優教育中 心 前 任 行 政 總 監。Van TasselBaska 博士的研究範圍主要為人 才培育與發展和照顧資優生的 課程策略。她獲獎無數,包括 1995 及 2001 年 國 際 門 薩 研 究 大 獎(International Mensa Research Award) , 並 於 1993 年 獲 英 國 劍 橋大學邀請出任訪問學者。

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Frontline Experience Sharing: Gifted Education Implementation

Sharing on Nurturing

Mathematically Gifted Students at School Moreover, I have valued sharing my experience in implementing Mathematics pull-out programmes and managing the GE development at school on various occasions such as sharing sessions on • “ Your Gifts Our Future” organised by The Hong Kong Academy for the Gifted Education (HKAGE) and • “ G i f t e d P r i m a r y M a t h e m a t i c s Programme (Hong Kong East)” coorganised by the HKAGE, HKASME and my school, SKH Li Fook Hing Secondary School (LFH).

O

ver the years, I have meticulously made contributions to nurturing the next generation by exploring their talents in various areas. Being the Head of Gifted Education Committee at school, I have shared with my colleagues and other working groups the belief that every child has his or her own uniqueness. The prominent things that we have

to do are to unlock their potential, stimulate their thinking and realise their talents. By carrying out the Mathematics pull-out programmes and some school-based gifted education (GE) implementations, making strong bonds with off-site support and good connections with parents, both teachers and parents now know that students can fly up high in the unbounded learning sky.

In these sessions, I shared my experience in identifying and nurturing mathematically gifted students. All these have inspired me to find possible ways to launch gifted programmes at school which meet the needs of gifted students. In addition, the skills both in designing the GE programmes and teaching the gifted have been strengthened.


Frontline Experience Sharing 前線經驗分享

Towards New Horizons To provide advanced and extensive learning experiences to the LFH students, the school has recently set up a GE programme entitled “Mathematics Pull-out”, an outreach entity and also an arm of “Mathematics Club @ LFH” under the Mathematics Department. With the establishment of this GE programme, the interest and competence in Mathematics of the LFH students, especially for those who are precociously mathematical, have been further enhanced and nurtured. In general, the LFH students have an affinity to Mathematics, and most of them are willing to attempt challenging questions. To instill in students a sense of appreciation of Mathematics in its relation to our everyday life, a total of 12 interactive and inspiring Mathematics talks were organised by Mathematics Club during the assemblies throughout the years 200810, and included topics such as “Game Theory”, “Make Mathematics Cool in

Life”, “Sampling Methods and Statistical Surveys”, “Be a Smart Statistics User”, “Mathematics & Image Processing”, “Golden Ratios”, “Mathematics Paradox” and “Mathematics and Magic”. They have facilitated students’ learning and broadened their horizons. The “Mathematics Pull-out” programme aims to provide students with opportunities to learn areas on advanced Mathematics that may not be covered in the school curriculum, and to encourage those who have a strong interest in Mathematics to further develop their potential. Students are stimulated through the interactions with other high-caliber classmates/ mental peers in the collaboration of using problem-based learning (PBL) strategies. Through syndicated discussion and interactive modes of learning, students may experience the learning environment through an exploratory approach from which their higher order thinking skills are enhanced and special problem-solving techniques are consolidated.

Infusing GE Through Mathematics Activities Being one of the most popular clubs at LFH, the Mathematics Club takes conventional pedagogies to another level and dovetails them with students’ interests, boosting their interest and enthusiasm for learning and fostering their sense of belonging to the school. Serving as tutors, senior form students are trained to help junior ones (as in the Big-Brother & Sister Scheme) and they also give help in the training and coordination work of the Mathematics extra-curricular activities. “Mathematics Mind Challenger” is composed of several Mathematics game stalls promoting activity-based learning. It enables students to learn Mathematics actively. It brings home the effectiveness of learning through hands-on activities and solving daily life problems, so that students are aware that Mathematics is all around us. For example, we have a stall which alerts students to some Mathematics Principles (such as Algebraic Operation, Probability, Theories on Divisibility and Remainder) behind the card tricks through magic performances.

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Mathematics Relay, Rummikub, Sudoku, Make 24 and “BLOKUS” Competitions are the internal Mathematics contests organised for junior form students in the Mathematics Week. During the specified period of time, on top of various Mathematics enrichments, all of them are exposed to some inter-class Mathematics tournaments in which participants need to work in teams to solve some assigned Mathematics tasks involving Logical-Mathematical Reasoning Questions, Paper-folding, Mathematics Board Games, and so on. I believe we are moving on the right track and things are unfolding in a satisfactory manner. We pledge to do our very best for the students and we are looking forward to more prosperous years to come. Lastly, I am more than happy to share some useful resources used in our “Gifted Primary Mathematics Programme (Hong Kong East)” and school-based Mathematics pull-out programmes below.

YEUNG Ting-pong, Ronnie Head of Mathematics Department and GE Committee SKH Li Fook Hing Secondary School

Name / Type

Website

1. Blokus

http://www.blokus.com/

2. Blokus-World Tour

http://www.blokusworldtour.com/

3. Game Plan (in Chinese)

http://www.gameplan.com.hk/big5/ home.asp

4. 香港桌上遊戲學會 (in Chinese)

http://www.hkboardgame.com/index. php?showoldetails=no

5. Free Board game

http://www.freeboardgames.info/

6. Boardgames.com

http://www.boardgames.com/ familygames.html

7. Mathematics game for kids

http://www.coolmath4kids.com/

8. Mathematics game for kids

http://www.learninggamesforkids.com/ math_games.html

9. Primary Mathematics game

http://www.primarygames.com/math. htm

10. Free Mathematics games for kids

http://www.kidsnumbers.com/


Frontline Experience Sharing 前線經驗分享

培育數學資優生:

聖公會李福慶中學 分享 (摘要)

者楊定邦老師從事數 學教育多年,一直致 力為學生提供適切的 培育,讓他們盡展潛 能。楊老師認為通過實踐資優教育 的理念以及與同業交流,讓他更了 解數學資優生的特質及需要,亦使 他進一步認識怎樣設計課程,以切 合這群學生的需要。

對於培育數學潛能高或資優的學 生,楊老師現在任教的聖公會李福 慶中學積極推動及籌辦不同的學習 活動或課程,務求給予校內數學學 習能力較強的同學更多切磋砥礪 及互相激發思維的機會。例如該 校的數學學會最近開展了一項名

為 Mathematics Pull-out 的數學抽離 「 數 學 挑 戰 站 」(Mathematics Mind 式課程,內容以提升學生的高階數 Challenger) 攤位遊戲,透過一些手 學思維和解決問題的能力為主,透 腦並用的活動或日常生活的數學解 過共同討論及解決富挑戰性的數學 難問題,以輕鬆的手法啓導同學發 問題,以加強同學互動交流,深化 展高階思維,而這些活動亦有助提 學習層次,並且滿足這一群擅於縝 升學生的抽象思維。 密思維和推理的數學資優生的學習 需要。 最後,筆者介紹了一些該校曾參考 及應用的數學教學資源,與各位 此外,為了讓學生認識怎樣將數學 同工分享。 應用於日常生活及提高他們學習數 學的興趣,該校在過去兩年的早會 上,讓數學學會的學生主持了十二 聖公會李福慶中學 場富趣味性的數學講座,例如「數 數學科主任及資優教育組組長 學與魔術」及「數學遊戲理論」等, 楊定邦 讓同學從新的角度認識數學及它 的有趣之處。該學會亦定期舉辦

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Frontline Experience Sharing: Gifted Education Implementation

Sharing from

Farm Road Government Primary School

F

a r m R o a d Government Primary School offers a variety of learning activities to cater for the diverse needs of the students. The t e a c h e r s e m p l oy gifted education (GE) elements and the relevant strategies to enhance the quality of learning of all the students including gifted learners. The school also promotes GE through a range of whole-class and pull-out programmes.

One of the whole-class programmes that the school is running is creative writing. Creativity is one of the three core elements of gifted education, recommended by the Education Bureau. The teachers introduce creative writing in both Chinese and English subjects. By infusing creative writing skills into daily language learning, creativity, innovative and divergent thinking can be enhanced.

The school provides a differentiated and enriched curriculum to gifted students within a heterogeneous class setting. Project learning is addressed to meet their yearning for deepening their understanding on a specific topic or issue. The students are encouraged to conduct their independent studies and apply their selfdirected learning strategy with the teacher acting as their facilitator.

In practice, project learning or independent study can be one of the means to provide a channel for gifted learners to pursue their potential through differentiating the curriculum in terms of content, process, product as well as the learning environment. For content, where many gifted learners are passionate about some topics, they could apply their knowledge and


Frontline Experience Sharing 前線經驗分享

learning to learn/research skills to investigate their topic of interest in detail in order to meet their intellectual needs. They could be empowered to learn independently. During the process of project learning, the students can practise their higher-order thinking such as critical and creative thinking, and make use of inquiry or problem solving approaches. As for product, the students have the opportunity to choose the assignment or mode of presenting their findings. The learning environment encourages exploration, risktaking and at the same time being open and accepting. The teacher, as facilitator, supports the students to generate thoughtprovoking questions and there is always time for reflection. The teacher will provide assistance to

the students to overcome their difficulties and help them to look at things with multiple perspectives. Outside the classroom, lifewide learning is organised every Friday afternoon to develop students’ multiple intelligences. There are up to 33 groups and the students are selected based on their interest and potential. They provide community service such as going to the home of the elderly to show their care for the society. To become an engaged citizen is one of the important criteria for gifted learners. The school concluded by emphasising the importance of practising gifted education at wholeclass level. Both the gifted and the other students can benefit from these provisions. The quality

of learning is enhanced and the school provides ample opportunities for the students to develop their potential.

Farm Road Government Primary School

References Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Why school should teach for wisdom: The Balance Theory of Wisdom in educational setting. Educational Psychologist , 36(4), 227-245. Patrick, H., & Middieton, M. J. (2002). Turning the kaleidoscope: What we see when self-regulated learning is viewed with a qualitative lens. Educational Psychologist , 37(1), 27-39.

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

前線經驗分享: 資優教育的推行與實踐

資優教育普及化

農圃道官立小學分享 (摘要) 主學習能力。最後在展 示研習成果時,學生可以 因應個人或小組的意願去 決定展示的方式。希望學 生能透過課堂討論、專題 習作或創作,將所學到的 知識,加以轉化為可供自 己或別人在日常和以後的 生活中使用的技能和智慧 (Sternberg,2001)。

圃道官立小 學是一所 學習型的學 校,積極推 動 資 優 教 育 普 及 化, 讓 每個學生也有機會參與 多 元 化 的 學 習 活 動, 發 揮 他 們 的 多 元 潛 能, 並 培養學生的創意及良好 的 品 德。 學 校 在 過 往 數 年致力於全班教學中滲 入資優教育元素以優化 教 學 質 素, 並 且 開 展 多 元化的課後 ( 抽離式 ) 增潤 活 動, 藉 此 加 深 和 擴 闊 學生的學習經歷及發展 他們的才能。 全班教學方面,本校於 中、英文科均推行創意寫

作,銳意培養學生的創意 及提升學生的擴散思考能 力。教師亦會適切地調 適全班教學,以照顧高能 力學生或資優生的學習需 要;學校並且鼓勵學生以 專題研習或獨立研究去深 化學習。在進行專題研習 時,學生可以就着探討的 主題,自行發掘研討的題 目,應用高階思維的提問 技巧和「探究式學習」或 「問題導向學習」等策略 去加深對研究題目的了 解。在整個研習過程中, 學生需要自行監控學習進 度及定期反思,教師則擔 任顧問/促進者的角色, 指導學生從多角度思考問 題及監控他們所學的內 容,促進他們的思考及自

課後增潤活動方面,本校 於星期五下午舉辦不同 類型的全方位及其他增潤 學習活動。為照顧學校內 七百多名學生的不同需 要,教師按學生各方面的 潛質進行甄選,或按他們 的潛質及興趣分組,例如 制服團隊。學生除接受有 關基本知識和訓練外,亦 為學校或社區提供服務, 讓學生有機會服務他人, 培養服務社群的精神。本 校也成立各式校隊,如英 語話劇、小記者、精益求 精之數學培訓、歌詠、弦 樂、足球、壘球、籃球、 中國舞等,都是由教師甄 選具潛質的同學入組,繼 而加強訓練,發展學生的 多元智能。

總括而言,經過多年的嘗 試和實踐,本校認為應該 啟發學生的資優表現,而 資優教育亦應該作多元化 發展,並於日常課堂中 施行,務求將資優教育普 及化。

農圃道官立小學

參考資料: Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Why school should teach for wisdom: The Balance Theory of Wisdom in educational setting. Educational Psychologist , 36(4), 227-245. Patrick, H., & Middieton, M. J. (2002). Turning the kaleidoscope: What we see when self-regulated learning is viewed with a qualitative lens. Educational Psychologist , 37(1), 27-39.


News Bites 要聞剪影

News Bites

Teacher Professional Development (July - November 2010) Thematic Courses — Past Events Thematic Workshops and Lesson Demonstrations: "Differentiating the Curriculum & Instruction for Gifted Learners" by Dr. Sandra Kaplan (Primary School Session: 24-25 November, 2010) & (Secondary School Session: 26-27 November, 2010) Aims: • To understand the principles of designing a differentiated unit of study • To know the features that define differentiation and academic rigour  • To design differentiated learning plans using recommended content and instructional strategies • To design assessments to measure learning. 

Quotes from participants: • I’m impressed with the enthusiasm, clarity, knowledge and expertise of the speaker. • A very informative and clear workshop. Dr. Kaplan is most willing to share ideas on differentiation.

Thematic Workshops: "Supporting Your Scientifically Gifted Students: Creating the Context for Inquiry-based Learning (IBL)" by Dr. Mark Salata (Primary School Session: 27 October, 2010) & (Secondary School Session: 28 October, 2010) Aims: • To know the fundamentals of inquiry-based learning and teaching • To know the core inquiry virtues that form the proper inquiry context • To understand how to plan, implement and evaluate IBL • To create a classroom environment conducive for IBL

Quotes from participants: • Excellent ideas to implement in the classroom. Engaging presentation. • A great insight of what inquiry learning is; a practical way of how inquiry learning can be carried out in the class

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

Thematic Seminars: “Beyond IQ: How Can We Help Gifted Students Think and Behave Positively?” by Prof. Kuo Ching-chih (Primary School Session: 4 October, 2010) & (Secondary School Session: 5 October, 2010) Aims: • To understand the relevant theories in affective education (AE) for gifted learners and models of implementation • To know the various teaching strategies to facilitate gifted learners in their affective education and development • To know the features of AE implementation in a whole-school approach to meet the social and emotional needs of gifted learners

Quotes from participants: • I learnt a lot from Prof. Kuo. She gave a very resourceful presentation with case studies and experience sharing. • I’ve learnt the strategies from the case studies on how to deal with the affective aspects of gifted students and their difficulties

Thematic Workshops: "Inquiry Learning" (Primary School Session: 8 July, 2010) & (Secondary School Session: 9 July, 2010) Aims: • To know the importance of inquiry in enhancing student learning and developing students’ self-directed learning • To know the key characteristics of effective inquiry learning • To know the process of inquiry learning • To be aware of the application of inquiry into each key learning area or the general school curriculum • To understand how to implement and evaluate inquiry learning

Quotes from participants: • I found the case studies very interesting. The use of hands-on activities was valuable. • Learning more about the pedagogy, seeing how it is applied in class.

Structured Courses--Past Events • Introductory Course: "Introduction to Gifted Education" (Secondary School Session) (18 October, 2010)

• Intermediate Course for Primary School Teachers: “Nurturing Gifted Learners on Leadership, Creativity and Critical Thinking” (August--December 2010)

• Foundation Course: "Nurturing Gifted Learners" Event 1 & 2 (June--November 2010)


News Bites 要聞剪影

教師專業發展課程

要聞剪影

(2010年7月至2010年11月) 專題課程 – 已舉辦活動簡介 專題工作坊及示範課: 「調適資優生的課程與教學 」Sandra Kaplan 博士主講 ( 小學場次 : 2010 年 11 月 24-25 日 ) 及 ( 中學場次 : 2010 年 11 月 26-27 日 ) 目的: • • • •

認識設計適異性學習單元的原則 認識調適課程的特點及嚴謹的學術要求 利用建議的內容及教學策略設計適異性學習計畫 設計學習評估的工具

學員回饋: • 講者充滿熱誠、講解清晰、學識淵博,使我印象深刻。 • 工作坊內容豐富、清晰易懂。Kaplan博士樂於講解調適課程的概念。

專題工作坊: 「支援科學資優生:營造探究式學習環境」Mark Salata 博士主講 ( 小學場次 : 2010 年 10 月 27 日 ) 及 ( 中學場次 : 2010 年 10 月 28 日 )

目的: • • • •

認識探究式學習及教學的基本知識 認識探究式學習的優點,以進行適切的探索研究 ���解如何計劃、實行及評估探究式學習 營造有助探究式學習的課堂環境

學員回饋: • 這些都是非常好的概念,可以應用在課堂上。講者的演示很吸引。 • 講者讓我深入了解探究式學習以及在課堂上施行探究式學習的有效 方法。

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INSPIRE 匯賢「資」訊

專題講座: 「超越 IQ:如何引導資優生正向思考與行動 ? 」郭靜姿教授主講 ( 小學場次 : 2010 年 10 月 4 日 ) 及 ( 中學場次 : 2010 年 10 月 5 日 )

目的: • 了解資優生情意教育的理論及施行模式 • 認識各種教學策略以促進資優生的情意教育及發展 • 認識以全校參與模式實施情意教育的特點,以滿足資優生的社交及 情意發展需要

學員回饋: • 從郭教授的講學中,我學到很多東西,她的演講內容很豐富,包含 了個案研究及經驗分享。 • 我從個案研究學會處理資優生情意困擾的策略。

專題工作坊: 「培育資優生探究式學習 」 ( 小學場次 : 2010 年 7 月 8 日 ) 及 ( 中學場次 : 2010 年 7 月 9 日 ) 目的: • • • • •

認識探究式學習對學生的重要性 – 能加強學習及發展自主學習 認識探究式學習的主要特色 認識探究的過程 認識怎樣把探究式學習應用到各個主要學習範疇或學校課程 了解怎樣施行及評估探究式學習

學員回饋: • 我覺得個案研究十分有趣。親身體驗的活動很有效。 • 我加深了對這種教學法的認識,學會怎樣在課堂上應用。

結構課程 – 已舉辦活動簡介 • 入門課程: 「資優教育簡介」 (中學場次) (2010年10月18日) • 小學教師進階課程: 「培育資優生的領導才能、創意與批判思維」(2010年8月至12月) • 基礎課程: 「培育資優生」(場次一及場次二) (2010年6月至11月)


Student Programmes and Services (January – June 2011) 學生服務(2011年1月至6月)

T S E N D U S T

P

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T E A C H E R S

Upcoming Events of the Academy 學院動向

Humanities 人文學科

Mathematics 數學

Chinese Script Writing Course, February – March, 2011 中文劇本寫作課程,2011 年 2 月至 3 月

Mathematics Ignition, January – March, 2011 數學燃動課程,2011 年 1 月至 3 月

Creativity and Mass Media Course, January, 2011 媒體創意課程,2011 年 1 月

Mathematics in 18 lessons, March – November, 2011 數學十八章經,2011 年 3 月至 11 月

Research Writing and Methodology for the Social Sciences Workshop, February – March, 2011 社會科學研究方法工作坊,2011 年 2 月至 3 月

International Mathematical Olympiad Training, January – March, 2011 國際數學奧林匹克訓練,2011 年 1 月至 3 月

English Creative Writing Credit-bearing Course, April – May, 2011 英語創意寫作大學學分課程,2011 年 4 月至 5 月

Introduction to Olympiad Mathematics, March – August, 2011 數林匹克初探,2011 年 3 月至 8 月

Film Art and Culture Credit-bearing Course, April – May, 2011 電影藝術與文化大學學分課程,2011 年 4 月至 5 月

Mathematics Impossible, March – June, 2011 週末數學特攻隊,2011 年 3 月至 6 月

Leadership 領導才能

Sciences 科學

Leaders for the New Generation, December, 2010 – March, 2011 新一代社會領袖,2010 年 12 月至 2011 年 3 月

Enhancement Programme for Gifted Students in Physics, January – June, 2011 物理奧林匹克培訓課程,2011 年 1 月至 6 月

Hong Kong Government Study and Leadership Training, June – September, 2011 「政」識第一:香港管治與領袖培訓,2011 年 6 月至 9 月 Debating Skills Workshop, April, 2011 辯論技巧工作坊,2011 年 4 月

Training for the International Junior Science Olympiad, April – June, 2011 國際初中科學奧林匹克培訓課程,2011 年 4 月至 6 月 Multi-disciplinary Credit-bearing Course in Science, March – June, 2011 跨學科科學大學學分課程,2011 年 3 月至 6 月

Public Speaking Workshop, February, 2011 演說技巧工作坊,2011 年 2 月 Personal Growth and Social Development Series 個人成長及社交發展系列

Multi-disciplinary 跨學科課程

Mentorship Programme 2010/11, December 2010 – March, 2011 「良師益友」培研計畫,2010 年 12 月至 2011 年 3 月

University-based Multi-disciplinary Study Project January – March, 2011 名師教研計畫,2011 年 1 月至 3 月

Take for Personal Growth, February, 2011 「個人成長」講座,2011 年 2 月

Harmonies In Nature: A Dialogue Between Mathematics and Physics, February – May, 2011 自然數理 - 數學與物理的優美結合,2011 年 2 月至 5 月

Thematic Talk 主題式講座 Academic Talks in each domain are held regularly 定期舉辦各範疇學術講座 Open to all secondary school students. (All student applicants must be nominated by their schools.) 歡迎全港中學生參加以下活動 ( 學生必須經學校提名報名 ) International Junior Science Olympiad - Hong Kong Screening, 12 March, 2011 國際初中科學奧林匹克-香港選拔,2011 年 3 月 12 日 International Mathematical Olympiad Preliminary Selection Contest - Hong Kong, May, 2011 國際數學奧林匹克-香港選拔賽,2011 年 5 月 Hong Kong Physics Olympiad, 19 March, 2011 香港物理奧林匹克,2011 年 3 月 19 日

* The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the “Student Zone”of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. * 上述各項活動資料以本學院網頁內公佈為準,請登入學院網站內的「學生園地」查閱詳情。網址:www.hkage.org.hk

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Parent Support (January – June 2011)

家長支援服務(2011年1月至6月) Programme Title

Target Group

Date

課程 / 活動名稱

培訓對象

舉辦日期

Parent Seminars 家長講座 Introductory Level 基本課程 / 講座 ABCs of Giftedness

A 1.5-hour school-based seminar to be conducted upon request.

資優基本法

For Application, schools are to write in to us at ps@hkage.org.hk

Nurturing the Gifted

以校本形式提供一個 1.5 小時的講座,學校請透過電郵 ps@hkage.org.hk 遞交申請

如何培育資優兒 Nurturing Creativity in Young Children 解開創造力之謎

Priority will be given to application by three or more schools coorganising this seminar from the same school sponsoring body/district. 以同一辦學團體 / 地區的三間或以上學校名義提出申請,將獲優

Affective Needs of Gifted Children

先考慮

情意百寶袋 Intermediate Level 進階課程 / 講座 Enhancing Social Competence in Gifted Children

All parents

19 March, 2011

培育資優兒的社交能力

所有家長

2011 年 3 月 19 日

Mindfulness: Stress Management in Gifted Children

Parents of gifted children

15 and 29 January, 2011

正念:壓力管理系列

資優兒童的家長

2011 年 1 月 15 及 29 日

Parent Workshops 家長工作坊

Communicating with My Gifted Child

19 and 26 February, 2011

親親孩子:溝通系列

2011 年 2 月 19 及 26 日

2E Series: Developing Executive Skills in Gifted Children

5 March, 2011

雙重特殊資優兒系列:

2011 年 3 月 5 日

發展資優兒的執行功能 2E Series: Emotions Management and Behavioral Modification

16 and 30 April, 2011

for Gifted Children

2011 年 4 月 16 及 30 日

雙重特殊資優兒系列: 情緒管理與行為矯正 2E Series: Developing Study Skills and Higher Order Thinking

21 and 28 May, 2011

Skills in Gifted Children

2011 年 5 月 21 及 28 日

雙重特殊資優兒系列: 學習技巧與高階思維 Understanding your Gifted Child (re-run)

18 and 25 June, 2011

解構資優兒系列(重辦)

2011 年 6 月 18 及 25 日

Consultation Centre Information 諮詢中心 Hotline 熱線電話:3698 3947

Email 電郵:consultation@hkage.org.hk


Upcoming Events of the Academy 學院動向

Teacher Professional Development Programmes (December 2010 - June 2011)

教師專業發展課程 (2010年12月至2011年6月) Programme Title 課程名稱

Target Group 培訓對象

Date 日期

Thematic Courses/Workshops/Seminars 專題課程 / 工作坊 / 講座

T S School Social Workers, Student Guidance December, 2010 E17 N D U Personnel, Education Psychologists and Teachers 2010年12月17日 S T 學校社工、學生輔導人員/教師及教育心理學家 T E A C H E R S

“Providing Support to Twice Exceptional Students” by Prof. Susan Baum 「支援雙重特殊資優生」Susan Baum 教授主講 “Reaching the Highest Level: Reversing Underachievement and Increasing Achievement in Gifted Students by Prof. Joseph Renzulli and Prof. Sally Reis 「協助潛能未展資優生 提升卓越表現」 Joseph Renzulli 教授及 Sally Reis 教授主講

Primary and Secondary School Teachers P 中小學教師 A

“Late, Lost and Unprepared: How to Help Students with Executive Functioning”by Dr. Joyce Cooper-Kahn 「如何運用執行功能支援學生」 Joyce Cooper-Kahn 博士主講

Teachers, Education Psychologists, Student Social Workers or School Guidance Teachers 支援資優生的教師、教育心理學家、學校社工 或學生輔導教師

3 March, 2011 2011年3月3日

“Understanding Gifted Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities and Strategies to Help Them” by Ms. Cynthia Heslin 「了解資優生的情緒及行為障礙與支援策略」 Cynthia Heslin 女士主講

Teachers, Education Psychologists, Student Social Workers or School Guidance Teachers 支援資優生的教師、教育心理學家、學校社工 或學生輔導教師

4 March, 2011 2011年3月4日

“Introduction to Gifted Education”(Primary School Session) 「資優教育簡介」( 小學場次 )

Primary School Teachers who are new to gifted education 初次接觸資優教育的小學教師

Mid February, 2011 2011年2月中

“Introduction to Gifted Education”(Kindergarten Session) 「資優教育簡介」( 幼稚園場次 )

Kindergarten Teachers who are new to gifted education 初次接觸資優教育的幼稚園教師

Mid April, 2011 2011年4月中

Intermediate Course:“Affective Education for Gifted Learners” 進階課程: 「資優生的情意教育」

Primary and Secondary School Curriculum Leaders or Teachers, School Social Workers, Student Guidance Teachers and Education Psychologists 中小學課程領導、教師、學校 社工、 學生輔導教師及教育心理學家

December, 2010 – March, 2011 2010年12月至 2011年3月

Intermediate Course:“Curriculum and Instruction for Gifted Learners” 進階課程: 「照顧資優生的課程與教學」

Primary and Secondary School Teachers 中小學教師

May – June, 2011 2011年5月至6月

Principal, Vice-Principal, Curriculum Leaders, Teachers, School Social Workers, and Educational Psychologists working with gifted or high-ability learners 學校領導、課程統籌主任、教師、負責支援高 能力學生或資優生的學校社工及教育心理學家

7 January, 2011 2011 年 1 月 7 日

R

8 January, 2011 2011年1月8日 E

N

T

S

Structured Courses 結構課程

Annual Special Event 周年特別項目 Annual Hotung Lecture “Gifted Education in the Twenty-First Century” by Prof. Joseph Renzulli & Prof. Sally Reis 何東資優教育演講「21 世紀資優教育 」 Joseph Renzulli 教授及 Sally Reis 教授主講

* *

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the “Teacher Zone” of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述課程資料以本學院網頁內公佈為準,請登入學院網站內的「教師園地」查閱詳情。網址:www.hkage.org.hk

29


Subscribe to INSPIRE 訂閱《匯賢「資」訊》 If your school/organisation is interested in subscribing to INSPIRE , please fill in the form below and fax it to 3586 3429. 假如 貴校/機構有興趣訂閱《匯賢「資」訊》,請填妥下列資料, 並傳真至3586 3429。 Subscription service for INSPIRE , order quantity 訂閱數量: □ 50 copies or less 50本或以下 □ 101- 200 copies 101 - 200本

□ 51-100 copies 51 -100本 □ 201 or more 201本或以上

Contact information 聯絡資料

“Making mental connections is our most crucial learning tool, the essence of human intelligence: to forge links; to go beyond the given; to see patterns, relationship, context.” 「聯繫思想是促進學習的關鍵工具, 此乃人類智慧的精髓;它可以 建立關係,突破規範,更讓我們了解 各種形態、關係及背景。」

Name 姓名:

- Marilyn Ferguson

Position 職位:

Consultation Centre Information 諮詢中心

Telephone 電話: Name of School/Organisation 學校/機構名稱:

Hotline 熱線電話:3698 3947 Email 電郵 : consultation@hkage.org.hk

Contact Us 聯絡我們 If you have comments and suggestions to improve INSPIRE, please contact us. You are welcome to contribute articles to this magazine! 假如你對今期內容有任何意見及建議,歡迎聯絡我們。歡迎各位踴躍投稿! Email 電郵:tpd@hkage.org.hk Title 刊物名稱:INSPIRE: The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators 匯賢「資」訊 Author 作者:The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd 香港資優教育學院有限公司 Editors 編輯:Dr. Stephen Tommis, Clara Tam, Jenny Wai, Nelson Lai 湯敏思博士、談勵紅、韋嘉儀、黎永業 Translator 翻譯:Solomon Hui 許金城 Publisher 出版:The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd 香港資優教育學院有限公司

Copyright © 2010 by The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd Printed in Hong Kong.  All rights reserved. 香港資優教育學院有限公司 2010 年 © 版權所有 香港印刷。未經許可,不得轉載。 The electronic version of INSPIRE is available on our website. 學院網站備有《匯賢「資」訊》網上版,可供參考及下載。 The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education 香港資優教育學院 East Block, Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre, 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong 香港九龍塘沙福道19號教育服務中心東座 Website 網址:www.hkage.org.hk Tel 電話:(852) 3698 4103         Fax 電話:(852) 3586 3445        Email 電郵:academy@hkage.org.hk

ISSN 2219-4576


The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators - Inspire Issue No. 4 匯賢資訊 - 第四期