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Issue No. 5

第五期

Differentiating the Curriculum and Instruction for Gifted Learners 照顧資優生的 適異性課程與教學 FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ I ]

FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ II ]

Exemplary Differentiated Curriculum for the Gifted: Key Considerations by Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska 培育資優生的 適異性課程:考慮要點

Curriculum Compacting: An Easy Start to Differentiating Instruction and Curriculum for High Potential and Academically Talented Students by Dr. Sally Reis & Mr. Nicholas Gelbar 濃縮課程


Visiting Academics 訪問學者

Contents 目錄

12 / 2010 Dr. Susan Baum Director of Professional Development and Research, Bridges Academy, U.S.A 美國布里奇斯學院 專業發展及研究總監

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EDITORS’ NOTE 編者的話

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WHAT’S NEW 最新消息

4 1 / 2011 Dr. Joseph Renzulli Director of The National Research Centre on the Gifted and Talented, The University of Connecticut, U.S.A. 美國康涅狄格大學 「國家資優人士及天才研究中心」 主任

Dr. Sally Reis Professor & Department Head, Educational Psychology Department, Neag School of Education, The University of Connecticut, U.S.A. 美國康涅狄格大學內亞教育學院 教育心理學系教授兼系主任

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MESSAGE FROM ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR 總監的話 The Soul of Continuing Professional Development in Gifted Education 資優教育持續專業發展之靈魂 by Patrick Hak-chung Lam 林克忠

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [I] Exemplary Differentiated Curriculum for the Gifted: Key Considerations 培育資優生的適異性課程:考慮要點 by Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [II] Curriculum Compacting: An Easy Start to Differentiating Instruction and Curriculum for High Potential and Academically Talented Students 濃縮課程 by Dr. Sally Reis & Mr. Nicholas Gelbar

Dr. Joyce Cooper-Kahn Clinical child psychologist 臨床兒童心理學家

22 REFLECTIONS 感言 Frontline Experience Sharing on Gifted Education Implementation 前線經驗分享:資優教育的推行與實踐

5 / 2011

Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska Professor Emerita, The College of William and Mary, Virginia, U.S.A. 美國維珍尼亞州 威廉瑪麗學院教授

Dr. David Yun Dai Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Psychology and Methodology, University at Albany, State University of New York 美國紐約州立大學奧爾巴尼分校 教育心理學及研究法學系副教授

• Sharing from St Stephen’s College 聖士提反書院分享 • Sharing from Pui Kiu College 培僑書院分享

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NEWS BITES 要聞剪影

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UPCOMING EVENTS OF THE ACADEMY 學院動向


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Editors´ Note 編者的話

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cknowledging that gifted/high-ability learners comprehend complex ideas quickly, learn more rapidly and in greater depth than their age peers, and also exhibit interests that differ from those of their peers, they need time for in-depth exploration, manipulating ideas and drawing generalisations about seemingly unconnected concepts. A programme which builds on catering for the characteristics and needs of this target group is expected to be differentiated from the curriculum by making appropriate modifications of content and process, providing a diversified learning environment and giving this target group the flexibility to demonstrate their learning outcomes (product). This issue looks into the ways of differentiating curriculum and instruction to respond to gifted learners’ needs, interests and abilities. In “Feature Articles”, we have invited gifted education (GE) experts to share their views on this topic. Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska points out the key considerations of differentiation needed in the curriculum, instruction, use of resources and assessment models to meet the unique needs of the gifted population. In Dr. Sally Reis and Mr. Nicholas Gelbar’s article, they introduce a differentiation strategy entitled “Curriculum Compacting” to address the demand for more challenging learning experiences to help students realise their potential and achieve at high levels. In addition, frontline experiences about GE implementation from two local schools are shared.

By examining the topic of “Differentiating Curriculum and Instruction” more closely, we can learn more about modifying the regular curriculum/developing a programme that is sufficiently challenging and appropriate for gifted/ high-ability students. Editorial Team Teacher Professional Development Division The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education

鑑於資優或高能力學生普遍比同齡朋輩較易且快地 學習及掌握複雜和深層概念,他們的學習興趣亦會 有別於其他同學。在求知慾強的個性驅使下,他們 喜歡尋根究底地探求知識,亦善於確立個人對事物 獨到的見解和連繫不同的概念。若要針對這個群組 的 特 質 以 照 顧 他 們 的 需 要, 我 們 需 在 設 計 課 程 時 作出適當的回應,調適學與教的內容和過程,提供 多 樣 性 的 學 習 環 境, 以 及 給 予 他 們 展 示 學 習 成 果 的彈性。 今 期 的《 匯 賢「 資 」訊 》探 討 因 應 資 優 生 的 需 要 、 興趣和能力而調適課程與教學的方法。我們邀請了 資優教育專家於〈專題文章〉撰文,與大家分享他們 對 這 個 課 題 的 真 知 灼 見。Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博 士 提出了一些照顧資優群組需要而設計適異性課程及 有 關 指 引、 資 源 運 用 和 評 估 方 法 的 考 慮 要 點。 在 Sally Reis 博士與友人 Nicholas Gelbar 撰寫的文章中, 他 們 介 紹 如 何 以「 濃 縮 課 程 」回 應 學 生 追 求 更 具 挑 戰 性 學 習 經 歷 的 訴 求, 從 而 讓 他 們 盡 展 潛 能, 獲取更佳的表現。此外,本地兩所學校分享了他們 實踐資優教育的寶貴經驗。 我們希望透過探討「適異性課程與教學」這個課題, 加深大家了解如何調適正規課程或設計適切而富 挑戰性的課程,以滿足資優或高能力學生的需要。 香港資優教育學院 教師專業發展部 編輯組

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WHAT’S NEW 最新消息

What’s New 最新消息

Outreach Professional Development Services Aiming at enhancing teachers’ and school practitioners’ understanding of gifted education and helping them acquire the necessary knowledge and skills, the Teacher Development Division (TPD) of The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education (HKAGE) provides three types of outreach professional development services for schools and school sponsoring bodies upon request. These services include (1) introductory seminars / workshops; (2) intermediate packaged workshops; and (3) customised education consultancy services. The duration of the seminars, workshops and customised services offered varies according to level and topic. Introductory seminars / workshops address the major issues of giftedness, including the conceptions, characteristics, identification methods and appropriate provisions. By attending these workshops, teachers and frontline practitioners will be able to learn how to cater for the needs of gifted learners. To facilitate teachers with the essential and fundamental knowledge and skills of gifted education, introductory thematic workshops on differentiation and affective education will also be offered. Intermediate packaged workshops exploring topics as specific themes of affective education, creative thinking, higher order thinking, and differentiation are also available. Customised workshops and education consultancy services will also be provided upon request. For more information about the outreach professional development services, please visit our webpage at http://hkage.org.hk/en/tz_programmes.html or contact us by sending email to tpd@hkage.org.hk.

外展專業發展服務 香港資優教育學院轄下的教師專業發展部為有需要的學校及辦學團體 提供外展專業發展服務,協助教師及專業同工加深對資優教育的認識, 並掌握當中的知識 和技能。本 學院提 供以下三類 外展專 業發 展 服務, 包括 (1) 入門 講 座 / 工作坊、(2) 進 階 特 設 工作坊及 (3) 特定 教育 諮 詢 服務。至於所提供的講座、工作坊及諮詢服務的時間則因應不同程度 及主題而定。 入門講座 / 工作坊 探討資優教育的主要議 題, 包括 資優概 念、 特質、 識 別 方 法 及相關的培 育 安排, 從而 讓 教師及前線 教育同工認 識 怎樣 照 顧 資優 生的需 要。 我們亦 提 供 適 異性課程 及情意 教育的入門專題 工作坊,協助教師掌握重要及基礎的資優教育知識與技能。 我們同時 提 供 較 深 入 的 進 階 特 設 工作坊, 探 討 情意 教育 專題、 創 意 思 維、 高 階思 維, 以 及 適 異性 課程 等 課 題。 我們 亦會應 邀 提 供 特 定 工作坊及教育諮詢服務。 如欲了解詳情,請瀏覽學院網頁 http://hkage.org.hk/b5/tz_programmes.html 或電郵至 tpd@hkage.org.hk 與我們聯絡。


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Professional Development Framework in Gifted Education The Teacher Development Division (TPD) of the HKAGE is developing a new professional development (PD) framework in gifted education jointly with the Gifted Education Section of the Education Bureau (EDB), through which several structured professional development pathways will be provided for all school practitioners in Hong Kong. Programmes/services under this new PD framework will be announced in the coming 2011–2012 academic year. For details, please refer to the EDB and the Academy websites. EDB website: http://resources.edb.gov.hk/gifted/pd HKAGE website: http://hkage.org.hk/en/tz_programmes.html

資優教育教師專業發展

架構

香港資優教育學院教師專業發展部及教育局資優教育組協力發展了 一 個 資優教育教師專業發展新架構,以照顧在校資優教育同工的專 業發展需要及促進學校在資優教育方面的持續發展。在這新架構下, 我 們 將提供不同的專業進修途徑予全港學校的專業同工。當中計畫 開 辦 課 程 / 服 務 將 於 2011-2012 學 年 公 佈。 詳 情 可 參 閱 教 育 局 及 本學院網頁。 教育局網頁︰ http://resources.edb.gov.hk/gifted/pd 香港資優教育學院網頁︰ http://hkage.org.hk/b5/tz_programmes.html

Contribution of Articles and Learning and Teaching Resources To facilitate professional sharing on gifted education practices and resources, the HKAGE would like to invite you, teachers and other frontline professionals to share your experience and/or learning and teaching resources in engaging, challenging and supporting gifted learners. The HKAGE will have a quarterly review on your submission. The articles or resource materials selected by the HKAGE will be published in the Academy’s teacher magazine-INSPIRE or uploaded to the “Resources” webpage under the Teacher Zone of the HKAGE website. You will receive a commendation letter if your contribution is selected. For more information about the submission method and details, please contact us by email to tpd@hkage.org.hk.

歡迎投稿!分享文章及學與教資源 為了促進有關資優教育實踐經驗及資源的專業交流,香港資優教育 學院誠意邀請各位教師及其他前線教育同工交流您們支援及啓發資 優 生 發 展 的 經 驗 及/或 分 享 相 關 的 學 與 教 資 源 。 本 學 院 將 於 每 季 定 期 檢視提交的文章及資源,成功獲選作品將刊載於本學院的教師 雜 誌《 匯 賢「資」訊 》或 上 載 於 學 院 網 站 內「 教 師 園 地 」的「 資 源 庫 」 一欄;而其作者亦將獲發嘉許信以資鼓勵。如欲了解詳情,請電郵至 tpd@hkage.org.hk 與我們聯絡。

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MESSAGE FROM ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR 總監的話

資優教育 持續專業發展之靈魂 OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN GIFTED EDUCATION Patrick Hak-chung Lam (Associate Director, Teacher Professional Development & Parent Support)

Teachers, like many other organisations around the world, are facing a lot of challenges ahead. It is believed that teachers, as reflective practitioners, bear some characteristics of many successful organisations – having HUNGER: • intellectual hunger to learn • practical hunger to improve • emotional hunger to achieve • fearless hunger to invent It is undeniable that life-long learning is crucial to people from different walks of life. As role models, we teachers are heavily engaged in continuing professional development (CPD). Notwithstanding the notion of qualification inflation, teachers in Hong Kong in particular, actively participate in different modes of CPD in order to acquire the latest education trends and pedagogical innovations in order to meet our students’ needs. It is because we are not educating our students for the present days but for facing their challenges in the 21st century. The world is ever-changing. The societal changes, accompanied with evolving technologies and ideologies, impose magnificent changes in our current education system and classroom practices. The success of the changes lies on the hungers listed above. What we can start is to “UNLEARN” if we are going to rediscover the educational souls of our students, especially that of the gifted!

The secret to learning new things is to be willing to unlearn even if your behaviours previously brought success. Marcia Conner (2006)2

We need to unlearn... the idea that every student has to learn the same content when what they need to learn is how to self-direct their own learning.

the idea that learning itself is an event. In this age, it is a continual process. In view of this, assessment should be re-defined.

the practice that teaches all students at the same pace. Is it any wonder why so many of our students who love to play online games can move forward from one stage to another at their own pace?

the premise that we know more than our students. In many cases, teachers and students can learn new things together.

the notion that students learn in the same way and style. Do we believe in the success of a famous local composer Kwun-ting Lo, suffering from dyslexia, who selected to submit a song he composed for his writing assignment in school? Do we appreciate dyslexic Tom Cruise’s two musical performances before graduating from high school in 1980? What is the implication on assessment? the strategy that collaborative work inside the classroom is enough and understand that cooperating with students from around the globe can teach relevant and powerful negotiation and team-building skills. Learning environment, in this way, should be re-identified.

In order to cater for individual differences particularly for gifted learners, the craft of teaching is the manifestation of the unlearnt elements. The whole process requires a thorough reflection of existing pedagogies that aligns with the contemporary set of knowledge, skills and values. Rubik’s Cube or the Magic Cube has been popular around the world. It was invented by a Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture, Erno Rubik, in 1974. He originally invented it for his own intellectual challenge without dreaming of making huge sales (350 million cubes sold since 1980). Mr. Rubik then improvised it in terms of material, colour

the idea that we are the sole content experts in the classroom, because we can now connect our students to people who know far more than we do about the material we’re teaching. our fear of putting ourselves and our students “out there” for we’ve proven we can do it in safe, relevant and effective ways. the notion that our students don’t need to see and understand how we ourselves learn. the idea that we can teach our students to be literate in this world by continually blocking and filtering access to the sites and experiences as they need our help to navigate.

Certainly, there are many others…

and shape. This became what we can buy easily in the toyshops nowadays. His new innovation, Rubik’s 360, sparked at the Nuremberg Toy Fair on 5 Feburary 2009. We can witness and enjoy it with Erno’s endless journey of innovation. In education, we do not need to invent something totally new and unique. Rather, we may extract value from the creative understanding of what is already known. New pedagogical practice, is a continuum, from where it starts, being improved and adapted through time and space. Think and re-think of our classroom and eveyone is an innovator for catering the needs of our next generation.


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I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Steve Jobs, the current CEO and founder of Apple Computer and Pixar Animation Studios, ended his commencement address at Stanford University on June 12, 2005,

“Stay hungry; stay foolish”.

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蘋果電腦公司及彼思動畫製作室的創辦人 兼現任行政總裁史提夫‧賈伯斯(Steve Jobs) 2005年 6 月12日於美國史丹福大學演說 結束時,用以下句子來勉勵該屆畢業生:

「求知若飢、虛心若愚。」 1

我們需要捨棄…

「學習新事物 的竅門是捨棄 一些以前令您 成功的做法。」 瑪茜亞.康娜 (2006)2

跟 世 界 上 其 他 組 織 一 樣, 我 們 現 正 面對不少未來的挑戰。但是我們深信 作 為 反 思 型 實 踐 者 的 教 師, 皆 擁 有 很多成功機構的共同特質 — 渴求: •篤志勵學的渴求 •務實求進的渴求 •美滿成果的渴求 •勇於創新的渴求 終 身 學 習 是 現 代 教 育 的 目 標, 對 任 何 人 仕 也 是 重 要 的。 作 為 學 生 之 模 範, 我 們 老 師 積 極 參 與 持 續 專 業 發展。同工們樂於其中,並不是因為 他 們 的 學 歷 不 斷 貶 值, 而 是 他 們 能 洞察最新的教育趨勢及相關教學 策 略 , 從 而 為 我 們 21 世 紀 的 學 生 預 備 適 切 的 課 程 及 教 學 設 計。 我 們 不 但 讓 學 生 為 今 天 而 努 力, 還 為 未 來 作好準備。世界急速轉變。社會 的 改 變, 加 上 科 技 及 意 識 形 態 之 演 進, 對 傳統的教育制度帶來莫大 的 衝 擊。 轉 變 會 否 帶 來 成 就 取 決 於 以 上 所 列 舉 的 渴 求, 我 們 可 從 深 入 探求當今之資優教育真諦作開始 — 捨棄已學 (unlearn) 的思維。

「每位學生皆學相同內容」的意念, 因為他們學會自學更為要緊。 「所有學生學習步伐一致」的做法; 試想想為何我們的學生熱愛那些能 在個人達標時進階的網上遊戲呢? 「所有學生採取同一學習模式」的 做 法。 我 們 信 不 信 有 讀 寫 障 礙 的 本 地 作 曲 家 盧 冠 庭 求 學 時, 曾 以 歌 曲 創 作 完 成 寫 作 作 業? 我 們 又 會否欣賞同樣有讀障的電影明星 克魯斯 (Tom Cruise) 在 1980 年中學 畢 業 前 的 兩 齣 歌 舞 劇? 究 竟 這 對 評估有何啟示? 「 課 堂 內 之 協 作 已 足 夠 」的 意 念, 因為我們若落實學生層面的國際 協作,他們便能發展更多 21 世紀 所需的技能,例如溝通及協作能力。 故此,我們需重新界定學習環境。

為照顧課堂內包括資優學生的個別 差 異, 適 切 的 教 學 法 可 視 為 一 門 藝 術 , 以 及 彰 顯 以 上「 捨 棄 已 學 」 的 方 法。 整 個 過 程 需 要 對 現 時 教 學 法 進 行 透 徹 的 反 思, 亦 需 顧 及 現 今 社會對知識、技能及價值觀的需要。 魔術方塊又稱扭計骰,是匈牙利雕塑 家兼建築學教授厄爾諾 ‧ 魯比克 (Erno Rubik) 於 1974 年 發 明 的, 在 世 界 各 國 流 行 多 年。 這 本 是 他 挑 戰 自 己 的 益 智 機 械 工 具, 他 從 未 想 過 銷量會如此驚人 ( 自發明以來在全球 已經售出 3 億 5 千多萬個 )。經過魯 比克先生改善其物料、顏色及形狀,

NOTES 註 [1] Source 資料來源 http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html [2] Source 資料來源 http://www.fastcompany.com/resources/learning/conner/022706.html

「學習是一件東西 / 事件」的意念, 因 為 對 於 當 今 學 生 的 學 習 來 說, 過 程 是 同 樣 重 要 的。 故 此, 我 們 也需重新釐定評估策略。 「老 師 比 孩 子 知 得 多 」的 意 念 , 因 為 在 很 多 情 況 下, 學 生 可 以 和 老 師一起探求新知。 「老 師 是 知 識 專 家 」的 意 念, 因 為 我 們 可 以 把 孩 子 與 專 才 聯 繫 上, 而專才比我們所知的豐富得多。 一些過去人們相信是安全及有效 的教學方法。 「同學不需了解教師怎樣學習」的 意念。 「引 導 式 上 網 」的 意 念, 祇 是 不 斷 攔截不良網頁並不能促進同學的 文化修養。

當然,還有很多…

才創新成為現今在玩具店可買到的 扭計骰。2009 年 2 月 5 日,其創新 的「魔術方塊 360」在紐倫堡玩具展 再度綻放光芒。我們一直見證着魯比 克先生連綿不斷的發明及創新歷程。 在教育層面,我們未必需要重新創作 獨一無二的教學法,但我們可從已有 知識尋求創見。教學創新是一個持續 的 過 程, 隨 時 空 不 斷 改 進 及 調 適。 試想想及反覆思考我們的課程,每位 教師皆是裝備我們下一代的創造者。

林克忠(教師專業發展及家長支援部總監)


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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ I ]

Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska

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efining differentiation for the gifted requires recognition of the interrelated importance of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. A differentiated curriculum for the gifted is one that is tailored to the needs of groups of gifted learners and/or individual students, that provides experiences sufficiently different from the norm to justify specialised intervention, and that is delivered by a trained educator of the gifted using appropriate instructional and assessment processes to optimise learning.


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Typically, a curriculum is organised according to grade levels, Curriculum design is one major component of a differentiated with each subsequent grade-level expectation being more curriculum for the gifted, as it delineates key features that demanding than the preceding. In this way, we can caliconstitute any worthwhile curriculum. What is important brate level of difficulty to ensure that students are working in for these students to know and be able to do at what their zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). When stages of development? A non-negotiable foundation in we differentiate curricula for the gifted, we must move to a a curriculum for gifted learners is a sound d e s i g n t h a t higher level of expectation in respect to content, process, and links general curriculum principles to subject matter concept demands. Thus, one way of accommodating higher features and gifted learner characteristics. A well-conexpectations effectively is to make more advanced curricula struc ted curriculum for the gifted has to identify available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the appropriate goals and outcomes and related activities standards are traversed in the process. In language arts, that support their achievement. How do planned learning for example, this should mean reading more activities focus on meaningful experiences challenging books that are above the that provide depth and complexity functional reading level of gifted at a pace that honors the gifted learners. Differentiating curricula learner’s rate of advancement then requires attention to through material? The level of functional learning curriculum for the gifted matched to advanced exmust also be exemplary sufficiently advanced for the strongest • pectations. Adaptation for the subject matter learners in the group? of advanced learning under study, meanexpectations needs ing that it should • complex enough for the best learners, to occur, as well. It be standards-based requiring multiple levels of thinking, use of may be insufficient and grounded in resources, and/or variables to manipulate? merely to m ove the habits of mind • sufficiently in-depth to allow students to students through of the discipline, study important issues and problems related the next stage of the thus, relevant to the to a topic under study? curriculum without a thinking and doing of • sufficiently encouraging of creativity, concomitant appreciareal-world professionals stimulating open-ended responses and tion for depth and comwho practice writing, pose providing high-level choices? plexity of the underlying and solve mathematical experiences to be provided. problems, or engage in Thus, the curriculum level for scientific inquiry for a living. gifted learners must be adapted Moreover, it should be designed to to their needs for advancement, depth, honor high ability students’ needs for complexity, and creative opportunity. advanced challenge, in-depth thinking and doing, and abstract conceptualisation. Some general questions Project work also needs to be carefully differentiated for the to ask in judging appropriate differentiation for the gifted, as well, in order to meet the criterion of creativity. As gifted would be as follows: more emphasis is placed on collaborative project work at all • Is the curriculum sufficiently advanced for the strongest levels of schooling, it is critical that educators of the gifted learners in the group? use a set of standards to judge whether or not such work • Is the curriculum complex enough for the best learners, is sufficiently challenging for this group of learners and requiring multiple levels of thinking, use of resources, whether or not the contextual settings in which the work and/or variables to manipulate? is carried out will promote sufficient growth for them. Differentiation of project work may be judged based on the • Is the curriculum sufficiently in-depth to allow students medium in which the project is done and the variables and to study important issues and problems related to a topic skills addressed by the demands of the work. Provision of under study? alternatives for student products also enhances the creativity • Is the curriculum sufficiently encouraging of creativity, dimension of the curriculum. For example, students might stimulating open-ended responses and providing highwrite a poetry book using their choice of poetry forms. level choices?

Is the curriculum

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Differentiated curriculum resources As differentiation of the curriculum is so central to the enterprise of gifted education, it would follow that the choice of differentiated curriculum resources would be critical in curriculum planning and delivery of instruction to ensure that the appropriate level of challenge is provided in each content area. We have a strong evidential base that suggests that materials constitute the curriculum in most classrooms (Apple, 1991) and that most basal materials are inappropriately geared to challenging gifted students (Johnson, Boyce, & VanTassel-Baska, 1995). Taken together, these findings suggest the need for careful selection of materials that meet basic specifications for exemplary curricula in the subject area in question, as well as appropriate curricula for the gifted based on differentiation features. While the selection of available materials meeting these specifications for the gifted may be small, such materials do exist and should be used to guide the differentiation process for curricula. There are also criteria available to guide the development of differentiated materials (Purcell, Burns, Tomlinson, Imbeau, & Martin, 2002); these criteria have been used by the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) to award exemplary curriculum units that have been developed by various individuals and groups and implemented in classrooms.

with an advanced curriculum. For example, questioning can be a powerful tool for evincing high-level discussions in gifted clusters, if the stimulus reading or viewing is also challenging. Use of open-ended activities can also prove effective if they are of requisite difficulty. Problem-based learning (PBL), because of the sheer demands of working on ill-structured problems, poses a particularly appropriate instructional approach for gifted programme use. Thus, strategy differentiation involves a set of techniques that need to be matched to advanced curricula in order to be effective for advancing the learning of gifted students. Instructional approaches that foster differentiated responses among diverse learners include those that are inquiry-based and open-ended and that employ flexible grouping practices (VanTassel-Baska & Brown, 2007).

“Instructional approaches that foster differentiated responses among diverse learners include those that are inquiry-based and open-ended and that employ flexible grouping practices.” (VanTassel-Baska & Brown, 2007)

Differentiated curricular materials for gifted students should go beyond a single text as resource, provide advanced readings, present interesting and challenging ideas, treat knowledge as tentative and open-ended, and provide a conceptual depth that allows students to make interdisciplinary connections. High quality technology resources that meet the same criteria should be used as an important part of integrated learning.

Instructional differentiation Another aspect of differentiation that needs clarification is in the choice of instructional strategies. In many respects, there are no strategies that are differentiated only for the gifted. Rather, strategy use is inextricably tied to the nature and level of the curriculum being addressed. Thus, the reason that the diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction is so powerful with the gifted is that it allows for a process by which curricular level can be efficaciously discerned and addressed in an adaptive fashion. Yet, we know that some strategies are highly effective with the gifted in combination

Assessment differentiation Just as differentiation involves careful selection of core materials and curriculum that underlies them and the deliberate choice of high-powered instructional approaches, it also requires the choice of differentiated assessment protocols that reflect the high level of learning attained. High stakes assessments are the standardised symbols of how well gifted students are doing in comparison to others of their age. Secondary schools, in order to be considered high quality, must be producing students scoring at the top levels. Yet deep preparation for success on these tests rests in individual classrooms. Even strong learners like the gifted cannot do as well as they could without adequate preparation in relevant content-based curriculum archetypes. The use of assessments as planning tools for direct instruction in each relevant subject area is a key to overall improvement in student performance. Administrators responsible for the review of teacher lesson plans need to know how such assessment models can be converted into work in classrooms and need to spend planning time on strategies for incorporating such elements. In addition to standardised measures being employed to assess student learning, it is also crucial that more


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performance-based tools be used to assess individual growth and development (VanTassel-Baska, 2008). In tandem with more standardised measures, they provide a more complete picture of individual progress toward specific education goals. For gifted learners, in particular, the quality of performance on such measures may be a better indicator of skills and concepts deeply mastered than paper-and-pencil measures, because performance-based assessments require students to articulate an understanding of the learning process as well as to provide responses to multi-part and open-ended questions and tasks.

Conclusion This article has provided a discussion of key aspects of differentiation needed in the curriculum, use of resources, instruction, and assessment models in order to respond to the unique needs of the gifted population. At the same time, it acknowledges that well-done differentiation can only be accomplished by thoughtful teachers using their considerable intellectual skills in the service of students they know may make a positive difference in our world.

Quality teaching Just as the role of curriculum, instruction, and assessment are central to the differentiation process, so too is the teacher. In the absence of a well-trained teacher, differentiation of materials is insufficient to effect student growth. Access to high-quality, well-trained teachers in specific subject areas who can provide challenge and nurturance for our best learners is clearly a critical issue in appropriate education of the gifted. Without thoughtful teachers, the best curricula will lie dormant in classrooms, unable to be energised and vivified by expert instruction. Teachers with only strong management skills also will fail to excite the gifted if lack of knowledge is apparent. What are the critical requirements for identifying highquality teachers of the gifted? First of all, teachers of the gifted need to be lifelong learners themselves, open to new experiences and able to appreciate the value of new learning and how it applies to the classroom. Secondly, they need to be passionate about at least one area of knowledge that they know well, and be able to communicate that passion and its underlying expertise to students. This would imply deep knowledge in a subject area, coupled with the ability to use the skills associated with that knowledge domain at a high level. Thirdly, they need to be good thinkers, able to manipulate ideas at analysis, synthesis, and evaluation levels with their students within and across areas of knowledge. Fourth, teachers of the gifted must be capable of processing information in a simultaneity mode, meaning that they need to be able to address multiple objectives at the same time, recognise how students might manipulate different higher level skills in the same task demand, and easily align lower-level tasks within those that require higher-level skills and concepts. In addition, they must be creative engineers, able to structure lessons and learning opportunities shaped by available student data and an intuitive sense of student need in an area of learning.

References Apple, M. W. (1991). The culture and commerce of the textbook. In M. W. Apple & L. K. Christian-Smith (Eds.), The politics of the textbook (pp. 22–40). New York, NY: Routledge. Johnson, D. T., Boyce, L. N., & VanTassel-Baska, J. (1995). Science curriculum review: Evaluating materials for high-ability learners. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 36–43. Purcell, J. H., Burns, D. E., Tomlinson, C. A., Imbeau, M. B., & Martin, J. L. (2002). Bridgingthe gap: A tool and technique to analyse and evaluate gifted education curricular units. Gifted Child Quarterly, 46, 306-321. VanTassel-Baska, J., & Brown, E.F. (2007). Toward best practice: An analysis of the efficacy of curriculum models in gifted education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51, 35-40. VanTassel-Baska, J. & Johnsen, S. (2007). National teacher education standards: A vision for the 21st Century. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51, 182-205. VanTassel-Baska, J. (Ed.) (2008). Alternative assessment in gifted education (Vol. 2), Critical Issues in Equity and Excellence in Gifted Education. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ I ]

Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博士

培育資優生的 適異性課程 : 考慮要點 我們要界定培育資優生的適異性課程,就需要先認識課程、 教學及評估三者之間相互關係的重要性。適異性課程是為照顧 資優生群組及 / 或個別學生的需要而設,讓教師能針對學生的 需要提供有別於一般課程的學習經驗,並由接受過資優教育 訓練的教師利用合適的教學及評估過程優化學生的學習。 課 程 設 計 是 適 異性 課 程 的 重 要 一 環。 教 師 須 篩 選 課程 的學習重 點,並了解資優 生學習甚麼才是 最為 重 要。在甚麼發 展階段他們能做甚麼事情呢?設計 培育資優生的課程有着無庸置疑的基本原則,就是 要 將 學 科 知 識 的 特 色 與 資優 生 的 特 質 聯 繫。 結 構 完 善的適異性課程須認定合適的目標、預期的學習 成 果 及 相 關 活 動, 協 助 學 生 取 得 成 果。 有 計 畫 的 學 習 活 動 應 提 供 甚 麼 有 意 義 的 經 驗, 甚 麽 應 有 的 深 度 、 複 雜 性 及 進 度, 以 配 合 資 優 生 的 發 展 速 度 呢?此外,針對資優生而調適的課程亦必須對學生 正在研習的學科內容具有示範作用,意思是該課程 需要以多個準則為基礎,並符 合學科的研習特性 / 習 性, 切 合 現 實 世 界 中 專 業 人 士( 例 如 從 事 寫作、 提出及處理數學問題或研究科學的人士)的思維及 做法。還有,課程 應顧及 資優生的需要,即喜 歡挑 戰 難度、善於作深層思維 及 運用抽象概念。以下的 基本問題有助你評估課程是否適合資優生的需要:


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適異性課程資源 • 對學習能力最強的學生 而言,課程的程度是否足夠呢? • 對於表現最出色的學生而言, 課程是否具足夠的複雜性,讓學生 能夠運用不同層次思維、資源 及/或考慮各種可變因素? • 課程的深度是否足以讓學生 探究重要的議題? • 課程能否鼓勵創意、 啟發多元化的答案及提供 高階選擇?

課程 規 畫 一 般 是 按 級 別 程 度 編 排 的, 每 個 級 別 的 要 求 會 逐 步 提 升, 這 個 方 法 讓 我 們 可 以 調 較 難 度, 以 確 保 學 生 於 自 己 的「 近 側 發 展 區 域 」 (zone of proximal developmen) 學習 (Vygotsky, 1978)。 我們設計適異性課程時,必須對內容、過程 及概念 的 要求 有所 提 昇。 其中一種 達 到更 高 要求 的 方 法, 就 是讓 此 類 學 生從 小 接 觸 較 高 階 課 程, 確 保可以 顧 及 過 程 中 的 所 有 層 面。 以 學 習 語 言 文 學 為 例, 就是讓他們閱讀更多比自己程度為高的書籍。 適 異性 文學 課 程 除了為 學 生 提 供 高 階 的 閱 讀 材 料 外, 我 們 亦 需 提 高 對 學 生 學 習成 果 的 要 求;只 把 學 生 帶 到 另一 個 課 程 階 段, 而 沒 有 相 應 提 升 基 本 學習經驗的深度及複雜性 是不足 夠的。因此,課程 的 程 度 必 須 迎 合 他 們 要求 高 階、 深 度、 複 雜 性 及 創意的需要而發 展。 資優生亦需要適異性的研習課業以滿足他們對創意 的 要 求。 學 校 應 着 重 在 各 年 級 引 入 協 作 方 式 的 課 業; 教師需利用一系列準則評估研習課業是否 足以啟發這類型的學生,以及能否讓學生在適切的 環境狀況下充分發展。我們可根據課業的研習方法 及作業要求的可變因素與技巧來評估適異性課業的 適切性。另外,給予學生展示研習成果的空間亦可 加強課程的 創 意 元 素, 例 如 可 讓 學 生 以 自 由 選 擇 的詩體寫詩集。

因 為 適 異性 課 程 對 發 展 資 優 教 育 十 分重 要, 所以 選 擇 適 異性 課程 的 教 材 對 課程 規 畫 及教學 是不 可 或 缺 的, 它 可以確 保 每 一 個 內 容 範 疇 都能 提 供 適 當 程度的挑戰。我們有充分的證據顯示大多數課 堂 均 採 用教學 材 料 ( Apple, 1991), 而 大 多 數 基 本 教材 均未能有 效 啟發 資優 生 (Johnson, Boyce, & VanTasselBaska, 1995)。 這 些研 究 顯示, 教 師 需 要 仔細選擇才 能夠達到該學科範疇中模範課程的基 本要求,以 及 滿 足 按 適 異 性 特 質 而 設 的 資 優 課 程 的要求。 雖 然 符合這些要求的教材很少,但這些材料是可以找到 的,教師應運用這些材料指導適異性教學過程。再 者,教師亦需 依據一些標準 / 準則去指導發展適異 性 教 材 (Purcell, Burns, Tomlinson, Imbeau, & Martin, 2002), 美 國「 全 國 資 優 兒 童 協 會 」 曾用這 些 原 則 評審由個別人士及團體發展並應用於課堂中有關的 課程單元。 培育資優生的適異性課程材料不應只是單一的教材 篇章,它應同時提供進階讀物、提出有趣及具挑戰 性的構思、給 予沒有絕對答案的知識、提供 有深度 的概念,讓學生進行跨學科學習。教師亦應該在這 類綜合學習中使用符合相同標準的優質科技資源。

適異性教學 適異性課程有另一點是需要釐清的,就是選擇教學 的策略。 在很多方面, 我們均沒有只 適用於資優 生 的適異性策略,我們的教學策略通常都無可避免地 只針對課程的性質及程度而設計。故此,應用診斷 性的教學取向對資優生的學習極為有效,原因是它 提 供了一個過程, 當中我們可以有效地識別及調整 課 程 以 配 合 學 生 的 程 度。 我 們 知 道 在 進 階 課 程 的 配 合下,有些策略對資優生極為有效。譬如資優生 可 利 用「 提 問」 這 個 強 而 有 力 的 方 式 引 發 高 層次 討 論, 前 提 是 他 們 所 看 或 閱 讀 的 材 料 必 須 具 啟發 性。 此 外, 我 們 亦 可 利 用「 開 放 式 活 動」, 而 這 些 活 動 亦 須 同 樣 具 備 一 定 的 難 度。「 問 題 為 本 學 習」 要 求 學 生 處 理 結 構 模 糊 的 問 題, 是 一 個 很 適 合 培育資優課程所應用的教學方法。適異性教學 策略包 含 一 系 列 的 技 巧, 這 些 技 巧 需 要 配 合 高 層 次 的 學 習 才 可 以 有 效 地 提 昇 資 優 生 的 學 習 成 效。 適 異 性 教學方 法 亦包 括 探 究 式、 開 放 式 以 及 靈 活 分組方法 (VanTassel-Baska & Brown, 2007) 。

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適異性評估

優質教學

除了悉心選擇核心的教學材料、課程內容以 及優質 教學方法之外,我們亦需要恰當的適異性評估工具 以反映學習程度。具成效標準的高質素評核方法可 以讓資優生跟其他同齡學生比較。學校(尤指中學) 為了給 人 優 秀 的 感 覺, 一 般 需 要 造 就 一 些 能 於 公開試中取得卓越成績的學生,而要達到這個目的 就 需 要 在課堂上裝備他們,即使是學習能力十分強 的資優生亦需要在合適的課程內容中有充分的準備 才 會 表 現 出色。 於 每 個 合適 的 學 科 裏 運 用評 估 工 具 規 畫 教 學 對 改 善 學 生 整 體 表 現 很 重 要。 負 責 評核 教 師 規 畫 課程的管 理 人 員需 要認識 這 些評 估 工 具 怎 樣 可 以 轉 化 為 課 堂 教 學 的 工 作, 並 需 要 花 時 間 計 畫 實現 這些元素的策略。

課程、教學及評估對調適學與教的過程是不可或缺 的,然而教師的角色亦同樣 重要。缺 乏訓練有素的 教 師, 單 憑 使 用 適 異性 的 教 材是 不足 以促 使 學 生 成 長 的, 當中更需 要 接 受 過 專 科 訓 練 及 熱 衷培 養 資優 生的教師去實踐。若教師有豐富的專科知識但 對培養資優生的工作未感興趣,即使是最好的課程 也 會 變 得 毫 無 生 氣;然 而, 教 師只有 出 色 的 管 理 能 力卻缺乏相關知識,亦無法啟迪資優生。

除 了 實 行 標 準 化 的 措 施 評 估 學 生 的 學 習 情 況 外, 我們 亦 需 要 運 用更多 表 現 為 本 的工 具 以 評 估個 別 學 生的成長 與發 展 (VanTassel-Baska, 2008)。 表 現 為 本 的工 具 結 合標 準 化 的 評 估 措施 讓 我們 更 清 楚 看 到 個 別 學 生 邁 向 特 定 教 育 目 標 所 取 得 的 進 展。 這種 方 法 較 紙 筆 評 估更能 有 效 反映 資優 生 所 掌 握 的技 巧 及概念,因為它要求學生闡明對自己對學習 過程 的認識,並解答多層面及開放式的問題和課業, 以提昇 其學習層次。

教導資優生的教師應具備甚麼條件呢?首先,他們 本身需要是個終身學習者,樂於接受新事物,重視 學習新事物的重要性及能在課堂上學以致用。 第 二 , 他 們 需要對至少一個自己熟悉的知識範疇 有 熱 誠 ,並 將 這 份 熱 誠 及 專 業 知 識 傳 授 給 學 生 。 他 們 應 對 自 己 教 授 的 學 科 充 分 認 識, 以 及 能 有 效 提 昇 學 科 涉 及 知 識 的 技 能。 第 三, 他 們 需 要 具 備 出 色 的 思 考 能 力, 可 以 跟 學 生 一 同 分 析、 整 合 及 評 估 各 個 範 疇 的 知 識。 第 四, 他 們 必 須 能 同 時 處理多項資料,在同一時間內達到多個目標,知道 學生怎樣可以在同一個作業中運用不同的高階 技 巧 , 以 及 能 調 校 課 業 的 深 淺 程 度, 使 程 度 較 淺 的 課 業 亦 可 以 運 用 高 階 技 巧 及 概 念。 最 後, 他 們 必 須 具 備 創 意, 能 夠 根 據 已 知 的 學 生 資 料 及 學 習 需要,設計課程及為學生提供多樣化的學習機會。

總結

Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska is Professor Emerita at The College of William and Mary in Virginia, where she had served as the Executive Director of the Centre for Gifted Education. Dr. VanTassel-Baska’s research interests are on the talent development process and effective curricular interventions with the gifted. She has received numerous awards including the International Mensa Research Award, 2001 and 1995, and was selected as a visiting scholar to Cambridge University in England in 1993. Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博 士 是 美 國 維 珍 尼 亞 州

威 廉 瑪麗學 院 教 授 及 該 學 院 的 資 優 教 育 中 心 前 任 行 政 總 監 。 VanTassel-Baska 博士的研究範圍 主要為人才培育與 發 展 和 照 顧 資 優 生 的 課 程 策 略 。 她 獲 獎 無 數 , 包 括 1995 及 2001 年 國 際 門薩研究大獎 (International Mensa Research Award), 並1993年獲英國劍橋大學邀請出任訪問學者。

本文探討適異性課程的主要內容、資源運用、教學 及評估模式,以滿足資優生的獨特需要,並且指出 透過教師悉心規畫課程及運用種種知識和技能教導 學 生, 才 可 以 建 構 完 善 的 適 異 性 教 學, 為 我 們 的 世界帶來積極的轉變。


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CURRICULUM COMPACTING

An Easy Start to Differentiating Instruction and Curriculum for High Potential and Academically Talented Students Dr. Sally Reis & Mr. Nicholas Gelbar In order to accommodate for the needs of students across many different levels of academic achievement, many teachers have adopted a variety of withinclassroom strategies collectively referred to as differentiated instruction. Differentiation is an attempt to address the variation of learners in the classroom through multiple approaches that modify instruction and curriculum to match the individual needs of students (Renzulli, 1977; Tomlinson, 2000). Students within a classroom will vary in their abilities, interests, and prior knowledge. Differentiation serves to mitigate this variation by matching the instruction and assessment to the child’s needs and interests. Tomlinson (1995) emphasised that when teachers differentiate curriculum, they stop acting as dispensers of knowledge and serve as organisers of learning opportunities. Differentiation of instruction and curriculum suggests that students can be provided with materials and work of varied levels of difficulty with scaffolding, diverse kinds of grouping, and different time schedules (Tomlinson, 2000). In other words, differentiation is the antithesis of a one size fits all curriculum.

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ II ]

R

enzulli (1977; 1988; Renzulli & Reis, 1997) defined differentiation as encompassing five dimensions: content, process, products, classroom organisation and management, and the teacher’s own commitment to change themselves into a learner as well as a teacher. The differentiation of content involves adding more depth to the curriculum by focusing on structures of knowledge, basic principles, functional concepts, and methods of inquiry in particular disciplines. The differentiation of process incorporates the use of various instructional strategies and materials to enhance and motivate various students learning styles. The differentiation of products enhances students’ communication skills by encouraging them to express themselves in a variety of ways. To differentiate classroom management, teachers can change the physical environment and grouping patterns they use in class and vary the allocation of time and resources for both groups and individuals. Classroom differentiation strategies can also be greatly enhanced by using the Internet in a variety of creative ways. The Internet can expand the learning environment far beyond the walls of the classroom and offers particularly promise for engaging and differentiating content for children. Last, teachers can differentiate themselves by modeling the roles of athletic or drama coaches, stage or production managers, promotional agents, and academic advisers. All these roles differ qualitatively from the role of teacheras-instructor. Teachers can also “inject” themselves into the material through a process called artistic modification (Renzulli, 1988). This process guides teachers in the sharing of direct, indirect, and vicarious experiences related to personal interests, travel experiences, collections, hobbies, and teachers' “extra-curricular” involvements that can enhance content. Related research demonstrates that many talented students receive little differentiation of curriculum and instruction and spend a great deal of time in school doing work that they have already mastered (Archambault, Westberg, Brown, Hallmark, Emmons, & Zhang, 1993; Reis, Westberg, Kulikovich, Caillard, Herbert, Purcell, Rogers, & Plucker, 1992; Westberg, Archambault, Dobyns, & Salvin, 1992). Too often, for example, some of our brightest students spend time relearning material they already know, which can lead to frustration, boredom and, ultimately, underachievement. Curriculum compacting has been effective in addressing underachievement when the compacted regular curriculum is replaced with self-selected work in a high interest area, making schoolwork much more enjoyable (Baum, Hebert & Renzulli, 1995; Reis, et al., 1995).


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Curriculum Compacting: Definitions and Steps for Implementation Defining Curriculum Compacting

The procedure involves:

Curriculum compacting is a differentiation strategy that incorporates content, process, products, classroom management, and teachers' personal commitment to accommodating individual and small-group differences. This approach can benefit teachers of all grades in most content areas, and addresses the demand for more challenging learning experiences designed to help all students achieve at high levels and realise their potential.

1 d e f i n i n g t h e g o a l s and outcomes of a particular unit or block of instruction;

Curriculum compacting streamlines the grade-level curriculum for high potential students to enable time for more challenging and interesting work. The emphasis is not on providing more work for students, but providing them with activities that allow them to grapple with ideas that are currently out of their grasp or to create products that they are not currently able to do with their current skill set. This differentiation strategy was specifically designed to make appropriate curricular adjustments for students in any curricular area and at any grade level.

2 d e t e r m i n i n g a n d documenting the students who have already mastered most or all of a specified set of learning outcomes; and 3 providing replacement strategies for material already mastered through the use of instructional options that enable a more challenging, interesting, and productive use of the student’s time.

Most teachers who use compacting learn to streamline or “compact” curriculum through a practical, step-by-step approach to the skills required to modify curriculum, and the techniques for pre-assessing students and preparing enrichment and/or acceleration options based on individual areas of interest. Practical issues such as record keeping and how to use the compacting form are also necessary to help guide teachers toward implementing this strategy. Once they have tried to compact for students, these guidelines can help to save valuable classroom time for both teachers and students.

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ II ]

2

Find an appropriate way to pre-assess the learning objectives.

Pre-assessment, as its name implies, is intended to measure students’ skills and talents before instruction begins. It should provide teachers with precise information on: ˙Which objectives students have already met? ˙Which objectives students have not yet attained? ˙Any problems that may prevent student progress with the objectives?

In our experiences with curriculum compacting professional development, we have learned that most teachers can implement compacting, but this process is easier for some teachers than for others. In practice, an eight-step process is recommended (Reis, Burns, & Renzulli, 1991).

Performance-based assessment is a popular alternative to objective-referenced tests. By asking students to do oral, written or manipulative work in front of them, teachers can observe and evaluate the process students use to arrive at an answer. This procedure is especially successful with younger children who are not yet ready for paper and pencil tests. Students may be evaluated individually or in small groups, through conferences, interviews or portfolios of completed work. As with objective-referenced tests, this requires preplanning. Teachers must take the time to locate or create the performance assessment tasks, making sure that they are aligned with the desired learning objectives.

1

3

Providing Support for Teachers to Implement Compacting

Select relevant learning objectives in a subject area or grade level.

To select curricular content and learning objectives, teachers may refer to the curriculum guides issued by the education authorities. After locating the objectives, teachers must focus on those that are appropriate for their students. For instances, teachers should ask: ˙To what extent do these objectives represent new learning? ˙Which objectives will best help students increase their use of this content area? ˙Which objectives deal with developing skills or concepts, as opposed to merely memorising facts? ˙Which objectives are important for high ability students to understand?

Identify students who should take the pre-assessment.

In step three, teachers identify students who should participate in the pretesting activity. To do this, teachers must first discern students’ specific strengths. Academic records, standardised tests, class performance and evaluations from former teachers are all effective means of pinpointing candidates for pre-assessment. Another informal assessment method is observation. Teachers should watch for students who complete tasks quickly and accurately, finish reading assignments ahead of their peers, or seem bored or lost in daydreams. Some students will even tell their teachers that the work assigned is too easy. These pretests results can be used to organise ad hoc, small groups of students with common instructional needs.


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Offer academic alternatives for students whose curriculum has been compacted.

4

Pre-assess students to determine mastery levels.

Alternatives often exist to provide acceleration and/or enrichment for students whose curriculum has been compacted. The possibilities for replacement activities include:

Pre-assessments, both formal and informal, help teachers determine student mastery of course material. But what constitutes mastery? Since definitions of mastery vary so, teachers within the same school should strive to reach a consensus. Some teachers may want to use performance-based assessment. The teachers would observe students closely, by taking notes, tracing thought-patterns, and posing open-ended questions to assess proficiency with the objectives. Equipped with a matrix of learning objectives, teachers can fill in the assessment results and form small, flexible groups based on skill needs.

˙Providing an accelerated curriculum based on advanced concepts

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˙Offering mini-courses on research topics or other high interest areas

Streamline practice or instructional time for students who show mastery of the objectives.

Students who have a thorough grasp of the learning objectives should be allowed to take part in enrichment or acceleration activities. This exposes them, during class time, to material that is not only new and stimulating, but also more closely aligned to their learning rates and abilities.

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Provide small group or individualised instruction for students who have not yet mastered all the objectives, but are capable of doing so more quickly than their classmates.

Teachers can provide differentiated opportunities to instruct high potential students who qualify for compacting, but have not yet mastered all the objectives. Content compacting differs from skills compacting. As the name implies, it compresses overall course material that students have already mastered, or are able to master in a fraction of the normal time. Skills compacting, on the other hand, eliminates specific skills that students have already acquired. Content compacting is also designed for general knowledge subjects — social studies, science, and literature whereas skills compacting is intended for mathematics, spelling, grammar and language mechanics.

˙Offering more challenging content (alternative texts, fiction or non-fiction works) ˙Adapting class work to individual curricular needs or learning styles ˙Initiating individual or small group projects using contracts or management plans ˙Using interest or learning centers ˙Providing opportunities for self-directed learning or decision-making

˙Establishing small seminar groups for advanced studies ˙Using mentors to guide in learning advanced content or pursuing independent studies ˙Providing units or assignments that are self-directed, such as creative writing, game creation, creative and critical thinking training Teachers will have to decide which replacement activities to use and their decisions will be based on factors such as time, space, resources, school policy and help from other colleagues in school (such as a library media-specialist).

8

Keep records of the compacting process and instructional options for compacted students.

Any differentiated program requires added record keeping. Teachers and administrators should collectively decide how the compacting process should be documented, and all written documentation should include these basics: (i) Student strength areas, as verified by test scores or performance (ii) The pretests used to determine mastery, and the learning objectives that were eliminated (iii) Recommended enrichment and acceleration activities

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [ II ]

How to Implement the Compacting Process An overview of the curriculum An overview of the curriculum compacting process is best provided by the use of the management form ‘The Compactor’, as presented in Fig. 1. It serves as both an organisational and record-keeping tool. Teachers usually complete one form per student, or one form for a group of students with similar curricular strengths. Completed compactors should be kept in students’ academic files and updated regularly. The form can also be used for small groups of students who are working at approximately the same level (e.g., a reading or math group). The Compactor is divided into three columns: • The first column includes information on learning objectives and student strengths in those areas.

• In the second column, teachers should list the ways in which they will pre-assess whether students already know the skills that will be taught in class. The pre-test or pre-assessment strategies they select, along with results of those assessments, should be listed in this column. • The third column is used to record information about acceleration or enrichment options. To determine these options, teachers must consider students’ individual interests and learning styles. They should not uniformly replace compacted regular curriculum work with harder, more advanced material that is solely determined by the teacher.

Fig 1. The Compactor. (Reprinted with permission.)

Assessing Students’ Interests Considering students’ interests are crucial in choosing curriculum alternatives. When asked what students enjoy most about compacting, they consistently cite the freedom to select their own topics of study; conversely, their biggest objection is the limited opportunity to pursue their favorite subjects. The Interest-A-Lyzer1 (Renzulli, 1977) is a 13-item questionnaire devised to help students examine and focus their interests.

Teachers play a dual role in fostering student interests. Once they have identified general categories of interest, they must refine and focus them, then provide students with creative and productive outlets for expressing them. Teachers must be sensitive to students’ talents and inclinations within their fields of interest, and at the same time, encourage them to explore a range of options within those fields.

NOTE [ 1] For more information of the Interest-A-Lyzer, you may refer to an article entitled “The Total Talent Portfolio: A Plan for Identifying and Developing Gifts and Talents.” Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/sem/semart09.html


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References Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers. Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Baum, S. M., Renzulli, J. S., & Hebert, T. P. (1995). Reversing underachievement: Creative productivity as a systematic intervention. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 224-235.

Summary

“As soon as I saw how enthusiastic and receptive my students were about the compacting process, I began to become more committed to implementing this method in all my classes.”

The many changes that are taking place in schools require all educators to examine a broad range of techniques for providing equitably for all students. Curriculum compacting is one such process. It is not tied to a specific content area or grade level, nor is it aligned with a particular approach to school or curricular reform. Rather, the process is adaptable to any school organisational plan or curricular framework, and it is flexible enough to be used within the context of rapidly changing approaches to general education. Like any innovation, curriculum compacting requires time, energy, and acceptance from teachers. Yet, educators we have studied who compact effectively indicate that it takes no longer than normal teaching practices. More importantly, they reported that the benefits to all students certainly make the effort worthwhile. One teacher’s comment about the compacting process reflects the attitude of most teachers who have participated in research about compacting,

Reis, S.M., Burns, D.E., & Renzulli, J.S. (1991). Curriculum compacting: The complete guide to modifying the regular curriculum for high ability students. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Reis, S. M., Hebert, T. P., Diaz, E. I., Maxfield, L. R., & Ratley, M. E. (1995). Case studies of talented students who achieve and underachieve in an urban high school. Monographs of the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (Research Monograph 95120). Reis, S.M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T.P., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J., Smist, J., & Plucker, J.A. (1992). Technical report of the curriculum compacting study. Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Renzulli, J.S. (1977). The interest-a-lyzer. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Renzulli, J. S. (1977). The enrichment triad model: A guide for developing defensible programs for the gifted and talented. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Renzulli, J. S. (1988). The multiple-menu model for developing differentiated curriculum for the gifted and talented. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 298-309. Renzulli, J. S., & Reis, S. M. (1991). The reform movement and the quiet crisis in gifted education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 35, 26-35. Renzulli, J. S., & Reis, S. M. (1997). The schoolwide enrichment model: A comprehensive plan for educational excellence. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Renzulli, J.S., & Smith, L.H. (1978). The compactor. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Renzulli, J.S., & Smith, L.H. (1978). The learning styles inventory. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Tomlinson, C. A. (1995). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Differentiation of instruction in the elementary grades. (Report No. ED 443572). Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1992). Technical report: An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classrooms. Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.

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濃縮課程 ( 摘要 ) 芮斯教授及傑布先生

針對資優及高能力學生較同輩更早通曉及 掌握課程內容的特質,教師在規畫課程時應 按學生對課程的掌握程度及學習興趣作出調 適,安排富挑戰性的學習經歷,避免學生重 覆學習已通曉的內容,並將騰出的時間讓 學 生 更 有 效 地 學 習, 從 而 提 升 學 習 效 能。 「濃縮課程」是其中一項回應這些學生需要

的 適 異 性 課 程 與 教 學 模 式, 於 1978 年 由 Dr. Renzulli 和 Linda Smith 共 同 開 發。 濃 縮 課程能夠配合學生的不同學習需要、能力 及興趣作出調適與指導,為他們提供加速 或加深 / 加廣的增潤學習活動,因此對資優 及高能力學生甚具裨益。

課程濃縮的 八個步驟

1

確立學習目標 教師可在學科或年級中選取 適 合 的 學 習 目 標, 藉 以 反 映 學 習 層 次 的 遞 進、 應 用 該 學科的新知識、發展技能或概念, 以及了解學習目標對資優及高 能力學生的重要性。

2

找出適當的預試方法 教 師 需 花 時 間 預 先 規 畫, 從而確定所編製的預試 方法是否配合學習目標。教師能 通過不同形式的習作 / 課業評核 學生的表現基本技能 /,觀察及 檢視資優及高能力學生的思考 過 程 , 了解學生已經或尚未掌握 哪些學習目標,以及是甚麼因素 導致學生未能達標。


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Dr. Sally Reis

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學 生 尚 未 掌 握 學 習 目 標, 但 有 能 力 學 得 比 同 學 快, 教學應精簡迅速 教師可就內容或技巧方面作濃縮: 內容濃縮是指把學生已掌握的 課程內容濃縮或以較短的時間教 授; 技 巧 方 面 是 指 刪 除 學 生 已 掌握的技巧,以避免重覆學習。

3

確認需要預試的學生 教師可透過檢視學生以往 的 成 績 表、 上 課 表 現、 曾 任教老 師 的 評 語 等 辨 識 學 生 的 專 長 領 域 。 此 外, 觀 察 學 生 的 行為,如 較 同 輩 更 早 完 成 閱 讀 、 完 成 習 作 或表現沉悶、甚至表示 習作過份顯淺等,均可視作辨識 應否讓學生參加預試的理據。

4

讓學生參加預試,以確定 其對選定目標的掌握程度 教師以不同的預試方法 辨 識 學生的掌握程度,並可運用 表列形式,記錄符合學習目標的 評估結果和相應的調適策略。

5

精簡教學內容或時間 對學習目標已充分掌握的 學生,教師可讓他們參與 增潤或加速學習活動,讓他們在 日 常 課 堂 中 除 了 學 習 新 知 識 外, 更可緊密配合其學習進度與能力, 向更高層次的學習邁進。

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藉由課程濃縮所提供的 時間來安排具挑戰性的 替代活動 教 師 可 因 應 時 間、 空 間、 資 源、 校政及同工協作等因素考慮選取 替代活動。替代活動包括提供富 挑戰性的課程內容(如學習高層 次 概 念 )、 調 適 課 業 以 配 合 個 別 學習目標的需要、給予學生時間 規畫以興趣或學習為本的個人或 小組研究 (Project)、發展學生自我 調控 / 自主學習的 (Self-regulated Learning) 能力等。

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記錄課程濃縮的過程 / 程序及教學指導的選擇 教師及學校管理人員應 通 力 合 作, 決 定 如 何 記 錄 濃 縮 課程的過程及進展,當中應包括 學生被辨識的專長、如何以預試 確定學生的掌握程度及調適學習 目 標, 以 及 建 議 學 生 應 參 與 的 增 潤 或加速學習活動等。

當教師能夠掌握濃縮課程的 概念與步驟,就可考慮運用 「濃縮課程活動設計表」 (The Compactor) 作記錄。

Dr. Reis is a Professor and the Department Head of the Educational Psychology Department in the Neag School o f Ed uc at io n a t the U ni v e r s i ty o f Connecticut where she also serves as Principal Investigator of the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Her research interests are related to talent development in all children as well as special populations of gifted students. She has won several professional awards including the Distinguished Service Award for outstanding service by the National Association for Gifted Children and most recently, she was named the Distinguished Scholar by the National Association for Gifted Children, for her scholarly contributions to the field.

芮斯博士為美國康涅狄格大學內 亞教育學院教育心理學系教授兼 主任,以及是該大學的「國家資優 人 士 及 天 才 研 究 中 心 」首 席 研 究 員。 她 的 研 究 興 趣 涉 及 所 有 兒 童 及 優 生 的 才 能 發 展, 亦 包 括 有 學 習 困 難 的 學 生。 芮 斯 教 授 曾 獲 數 個 專 業 獎 項, 當 中 包 括 美 國 國 家 資優兒童協會傑出服務獎。此外, 她最近亦獲該協會提名傑出學者, 以表揚她對資優教育方面的學術 貢獻。 Mr. Nicholas Gelbar Mr. Gelbar is completing his PhD in School Psychology and Gifted Education at the University of Connecticut. His research interests are effective assessment systems, interventions for twice exceptional students, and implementing the principles of universal design in online courses. Previously, Nicholas taught history for several years at a secondary school in Connecticut.

傑布先生正在美國康涅狄格大學 攻讀心理學及資優教育博士學位。 他的研究興趣包括有效的評估 系 統 、 對雙重特殊資優生的介入 支援及在網上課程施行通用設計 的 法 則。 傑 布 先 生 早 前 曾 在 康 涅 狄格州任教中學歷史科數年。


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REFLECTIONS 感言

FRONTLINE EXPERIENCE SHARING ON GIFTED EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION Sharing from St Stephen’s College

Differentiation using

CURRICULUM COMPACTING Choi Lam Kit Ying

Deputy Principal, St Stephen’s College

Learners Differences – A Reality in Today’s Classroom Visualise yourself at a senior secondary classroom in the school where you teach. This is the beginning of a unit that students have been studying since Secondary 1. Will the whole class be attentive? How will you know that they have mastered the basics? What should they know and be able to do through your lessons? How will you adapt the curriculum and instruction in the light of students’ varying abilities, interests and needs? Will the gifted and not so gifted benefit the most from your lessons?

Along with the implementation of 12-year free education, catering for learner differences has become a challenge to most teachers nowadays. Research shows that people process new and difficult information differently. The terms analytic/global, left brain/right brain, and inductive/deductive have been used in the literature interchangeably. “Analytic” distinguishes from “Global” that “Analytic” learns more easily when information is presented step by step in a cumulative sequential pattern that builds toward a conceptual understanding while “Global” prefers to understand the concept first and follows by concentration on the details, or prefers to be introduced to the information with, preferably, a humorous story replete with examples and graphics. Neither set of procedure is better or worse than the other; they

are merely different. One fascinating fact, as mentioned by Dunn and Dunn (1993), is that most intellectually gifted students with an IQ of 145 or higher are “globals” while most gifted underachievers also are globals. A mismatch between analytic teaching styles and global learning preferences occurs far too often, resulting in low academic achievement and poor self discipline. Every learner is unique that we should develop their potential to the full. To this end, subject to the nature of the topic, we may use such approaches as curriculum compacting, accelerated contents or enrichment activities, competitions and so forth to create a challenging environment for all. Here is an example on how curriculum compacting is used to achieve differentiation in an advanced mathematics class.


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Curriculum Compacting An Example Before the lessons, for a particular unit, teacher identifies a set of learning objectives from low to high and the expected outcomes. Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson, & Krathwohl, 2001) of cognitive levels: Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analysing, Evaluating and Creating, provides an excellent way for teachers to formulate learning objectives for class and therefore raises awareness of how frequently the higher levels of thinking are addressed and how assessments are linked to learning and teaching. The lesson begins with a short quiz as a pre-assessment on the basic knowledge and skills that students should have acquired in previous years. They are then asked to grade their own work. This pretest helps assess what students know and what they still need to learn. The pace of instruction, practice time, and the content of teaching can then be modified to meet the best interest and needs of the students.

Next, the class is set to work in groups by comparing and contrasting two solutions to one problem in the 12-minute short quiz, and sharing one another their ideas. The discussion, though short, serves as an ice-breaker and an eye-opener. The class is then presented with a problem-based learning 1 question “Treasure Hunt” and an outline of the tasks (see Annex 1 on page 25). Students will work in groups to brainstorm, formulate and solve these problems, for instance, where the treasure is if the gallows is found, and what if the gallows is not there as described in the story. Inquiry learning 2 is recommended in the problem-solving process. One merit is that through questioning, conversations and collaboration that stem from questioning, students are engaged to relate their prior knowledge with new ideas or experiences, and encouraged to create new conceptual frameworks that allow for greater understanding of

In sum, the compacting procedure of this programme involves these six steps:

STEP 2 STEP 1 Identify the objectives in a subject area

Develop and conduct appropriate assessments to track student learning

Evaluate assessment data to determine student mastery level of the chosen objectives

The independent study component takes about 2 – 4 weeks. On completion, students need to present their products in groups. Each group will then obtain feedback and grades from the teacher and their peers. Teacher reflects on students’ work and offers challenging alternatives for quick learners by compacting the curriculum.

STEP 6 STEP 5 STEP 4

STEP 3

and application in the world. Based on observations and the pre-assessment, teachers can then further compress the content that is already known by students to allow time to be spent in independent study. To guarantee proficiency in basic curricular area, apart from solving the problem, students must design a learning kit from which the young man in the problem can acquire the necessary knowledge, concepts and processes for locating the treasure.

Eliminate instructional time for contents and skills that are known to students or have been mastered by them

Streamline instruction of those objectives that have not yet been mastered

Offer challenging alternatives for time provided by compacting

NOTES [1] For more information about the use of problem-based learning to enhance gifted learners’ thinking, you may refer to the Feature Article of INSPIRE Issue No.4, pp.10-13. Retrieved July 2, 2011 from http://hkage.org.hk/en/tz_publications.html [2] You may refer to the following website on the explanation of “Inquiry Learning”. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index.html

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Success from the Student’s Point of View Why use curriculum compacting? My quick answer is that through curriculum compacting, we can offer challenging alternatives for students especially the gifted for time provided by compacting, without which the students would not have the chance to stretch their potential to the full. I have been using the “Treasure Hunt” question as an enrichment activity to enhance student learning in my advanced mathematics class. This kind of problem-based learning task is so fascinating that it can be solved by various approaches, such as plane geometry, coordinate geometry, complex number, matrix etc. Students could be creative in communicating their findings. For example, they could create a wood model or use flash to create animation to teach the young man the theory and to locate the treasure.

The reflection from students and the products they submitted assured that they had a thorough grasp of the important concepts and processes, and most importantly, through team work, they knew better where they were, where to go and how best to get there along the learning continuum. After all, they shared a passion for learning.

References Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman. Dunn, R. & Dunn, K. (1993). Teaching secondary students through their individual learning styles: Practical approaches for grades 7 – 12. Massachusetts, US: Allyn and Bacon. Gamow, G. (1988). One, Two, Three, … Infinity. New York: Dover Publications Reis S. (2011). Compacting and differentiation. Retrieved July 2, 2011 from www.gifted.uconn.edu

STUDENTS’ REFLECTION Under this project, we not only revisited the theorems that we learned in Form 2 and Form 3, but also went into the depths of the theorems which were used in this project. We put in lots of effort in strengthening what we have learned in the past, searched for the proofs and the applications of the theorems and practically used them for the project. This project enhanced our ability to do research, work as a team and solve problems that we have never encountered before. It was a real eye-opener. Furthermore, to be honest, the project was a bit demanding, not because we had to solve the problem, but to explain the concepts and theorems used in order that others can keep track of our steps of solution. But we were up to the challenge. We managed to find out the way to come up with the conclusion using the easiest methods possible. Then, we had to think of a way to present our ideas; we started to talk about how we used the fundamental ideas and further elaborated and applied to our question. It was hard work, but it was experience and skills that could be of use for a lifetime. (Reflection from one student team)


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

ANNEX 1

St. Stephen’s College Independent Study Proje ct (Treasure Hunt)

Read the story below. Th e young man in the story had his education up to sec know co-ordinate geometry. ondary 3 level and did

not

“There was a young ma n who found a note an d a map among his gre The note and map reveal at-grandfather ’s paper. ed the location of a hidden treasure. According to the great-grandfather, he sho instructions from his uld see a pine tree and an oak tree on the north a gallows on this island. sho re of the island; and Then, he should walk fro m the gallows to the oak steps. At the oak he must cou nting the number of turn right by 90 degrees, take the same number of in the ground. Afterward ste ps and then put a spike s, he should return to the gallows and walk to the At the pine he must turn pine counting the steps. left by 90 degrees, take the same number of steps spike in the ground. The and then place another treasure should be half-w ay between the spikes. Th e yo un g ma n wa s exc ite d ab ou t thi s. He the n ch art ere d a shi p an d He found the oak and the sai led to thi s isl an d. pine, but not the gallow s. This young man fell into dig randomly over the are despair and began to a. Unfortunately, the isla nd was too big. He couldn had to sail back with em ’t find the treasure and pty hands. He might hav e had the treasure if only mathematics, and specifi he had known a bit about cally, the use of co-ordina te geometry.” (Adapted from Gamow, G. (1988). One, Two, Three, … Infinity. Dover Science Book.) Imagine you were a univer sity graduate with a mathe matics degree and would like to help this young man. Task 1 Do you agree with the fol

lowing comment at the end of the story? He might have had the tre asure if only he had known a bit about mathematics, of co-ordinate geometry. and specifically, the

use Can you apply co-ordinate geometry theory to find the treasure for the young ma n? Show your working. Task 2 You design a learning kit from which the you ng man can acquire the skills on co-ordinate geo necessary knowledge and metry on his own. Your learning kit should include ˙some reading materials (can be ‘Word’ document s and / or powerpoint or oth er forms); and ˙some assignments for practice.

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前線經驗分享 : 資優教育的推行與實踐

聖士提反書院分享 ( 摘要 ) 為 習差異,教師可嘗試運用濃 照顧高能力 / 資優學生的學

縮 課 程 (Curriculum Compacting) 調 適 學 習 內 容 和 進 度, 為 他 們 安 排 加速學習或加深 / 加廣的 增潤活動, 營造富挑 戰性的學習 環 境。 以 下 是 該 校 於 中 六 數 學 科 的「 解 析 幾 何 」(Coordinate Geometr y) 課節中運 用濃 縮 課程 這個調適策略的分享。 蔡副校長首先參考了「布魯納教學 目標 分 類」, 訂立 該單 元 的 學 習 目 標 及 擬 定 預 期 的 學 習 成 果。 她 強 調這過程可讓教師連繫學與 教及評估,並引入高階思維策略。 由於學生已於初中時學習有關 課題, 故此課節開始時,教師先以 小 測 做 預 試, 了解 學 生 對 課 題 基 本 概念及技巧的通曉 及掌握 程 度。 此 外, 教 師 會 根 據 學 生 自 評 的個人表現,綜合評 估學生

對 課題的熟 悉及掌握程 度, 從而 修訂教學進度、學習目標和內容, 並依據學生的興趣 及需要設計富 挑 戰 性 的替 代 活動。 接 着, 學生 會分組 及對照小測內兩個不同的 答 案,目 的 是 營 造 協 作 學 習 的 氣 氛,並 讓 學 生了解問題 可 有多 於一個解難方案。 教師為 這個校 本 課程設計了一個 以尋 寶 遊 戲 為 主 題 的 解 難 任 務, 讓學生透過小組形式進行探究活 動、討論、提問及提出解 難方案, 合力把任務 完 成。 教師運 用探究 式學習 (Inquiry Learning) 連 結學 生已掌握的知識與新學的概念或 經 驗, 加深學 生 對 課 題 的了解及 應用。根據課堂觀察及預試結果, 教師 可把課程再作濃 縮, 騰出時 間讓學生參 與 小組獨立研 究, 以 兩至四星 期的時間, 設計一個教 材套來闡釋尋寶遊戲中的主人翁

如何掌握所需的知識及運用不同 的 解 難 策 略 去 確 定 寶 藏 的 位 置, 並 在 課程 完 結 時 分享 學習成 果; 每一組均會 從教師及同學 / 朋輩 中取得回饋 及 建 議。 教師 可根據 學生的學習表現 及作品質素考慮 安排更富挑 戰性的學習內容及具 彈性的學習模式予能力較高的學 生, 使他們得以 延 展學習和發 揮 專長。 聖士提反書院 蔡林潔瑩副校長


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

FRONTLINE EXPERIENCE SHARING ON GIFTED EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION Sharing from Pui Kiu College

Wan Wai-yan Sally

Pui Kiu College

W

hat is your first impression when reading the above title? School classroom? World classroom? What are they? In alignment with the recommendation by the Hong Kong SAR Government (Education Commission, 1990), schools in Hong Kong can plan their schoolbased gifted development programme in responding to their current situation such as students’ characteristics, teachers’ professional knowledge, etc. (Education Department, 2000). Curriculum reform “Learning to Learn” also calls for “catering for individual differences” (Curriculum Development Council, 2002). There is a strong need for catering for the diversity of students’ learning needs at the wholeclass environment where teachers can observe and identify high ability / gifted students to give them support as each more than 90% of student learning happens in the normal classroom environment. In doing so, differentiation is the most direct means to achieve this goal. The process of differentiation is regarded as the deliberate adaptation and modification of the curriculum, instructional processes, and assessments to respond to the needs of gifted learners (VanTassel Baska, 1994, 2008). However, how can we do it in reality? At the same time, facing the demands of the 21st century, how can we facilitate our students to develop the 21 st century skills? What can we do? — Collaboration. This “collaboration” is not restricted to the learning in classroom

Enriching Learning Experiences Through

Collaboration From school classroom to world classroom

or at school; instead, it is connected with the outside world, including the community and other cities in the world. The following is my sharing of a Grade 5 differentiated teaching unit on the topic of Exploring Alternative Energy in a school based integrated curriculum in my school.

Collaboration Changes Learning Using an inquiry-based learning approach as the main instructional model for differentiation (VanTassel Baska, 2008), with global collaboration with another classroom in Mexico, the programme unit provides students with complex and challenging learning

opportunities to develop creative, in-depth conceptual understanding of the learning topic – alternative energy. Students explore different types of alternative energy and propose the best alternative energy for Hong Kong situation. In-depth studies about different types of alternative energy are carried out through a wide range of learning activities including field trips, cooperative learning activities, global discussion forum, video conferences. Instead of illustrating the teaching steps one by one below, the underlying principles of the unit design are shared according to “collaborate” as follows.

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Connected

Life-Long

Blended

Learning is unlimited and without boundaries. Connecting with students in Mexico enables the students to enrich their understanding on the same inquiry issues, including: What alternative energy is available in other parts of the world? Which alternative energy is the best to the other country? and What contextual factors affect the choice of the best alternative energy in the other country? Students working on the same online platform post their ideas and share their ideas and opinions with the Mexican students, where oral and written communication is more emphasised on real-world audience. A video conference is thus carried out so that students can share their final learning products with each other and present special cultures and festivals. This enhances students’ global awareness of environmental protection and sustainability issues as well as extends their understanding of cultures in the partner country.

Think about life-long skills. What are they? They are generic skills leading to learning capacity. The foci of the development of life-long skills in the unit design are collaboration skill, communication skills and critical thinking skills. For example, at the stage of making a model for the presentation of a specific type of alternative energy, students work in groups and discuss how to present that type of alternative energy while allocation of work and contents of presentation are shared amongst the group members. Critical thinking is encouraged during discussion while students have to think about what ways are the best for the presentation with good, sound reasons. Students need to be able to consider multiple points of view, sharpen or broaden their thinking in order to provide strong arguments for or against other perspectives.

Blended learning is applied in the design of the whole unit. The unit design allows for combination and alignment of different learning environments for motivating students, where students’ learning experience is enriched throughout an integrative learning approach. Such a complex approach enhances and accelerates learning to be undertaken in face-toface sessions with learning opportunities created outside the classroom through field trips and online environment for discussion. Knowledge is thus gained through a deep and meaningful learning journey.

Conclusion:

Open-minded

Active

Original

Open-minded is an attitude to facilitate the effectiveness of learning and teaching. Both teachers and students are eager to inquire knowledge. At the beginning of the unit, students can raise their own inquiry questions and select the most wanted inquiry questions for the class. Apart from that, looking from multiple perspectives is encouraged through different learning activities, for example, debates and case studies. With reference to Bloom‘s Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956; Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001), “creating” and “evaluation” are more emphasised and students have more opportunities to develop their own ideas and thinking more deeply with evidence to the information gathered from the internet and the field trips. Last but important, open dialogue between students and teachers through discussion and scaffolding questions is fundamentally allowed to unfold knowledge and uphold knowledge advancement.

Having a great variety of opportunities of engaging in a wide range of cooperative learning activities such as group discussion, envoy exchange and so on, students thus have a high sense of ownership of learning. Students’ learning is also visible by others through presentation and making learning products. This keeps students’ momentum to inquire and explore further in the learning topic under such an intellectually challenging environment where students can find it meaningful and purposeful to learn. Students have more opportunities to study the concept in multiple applications through project work and presentation.

Originality is important to learning and thinking. With encouragement to develop creativity, at the first stage of learning, students working in different groups focus on one type of alternative energy and they design their own models for their envoy exchange activity, in which different groups are to present their alternative energy to each other. Besides, students can choose different ways to present their learning products, that is, the best alternative energy in Hong Kong, where students are provided alternatives for tasks, products, and assessments with reasonable justification of their own choice while they have to make decision about their presentation with specifications given for creative work under clear directions.


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Reflective

Technological

Students have a chance to reflect on their learning for their ongoing and continuous improvement and development. With structured opportunities, students can spend considerable time on assessing their own learning outcomes and the others’ learning products. During the process, students can examine and interpret their learning products about their understanding of alternative energy so as to help them to gain new understanding to the study topic more deeply. In-depth understanding and self-actualisation is fostered through students’ personal reflection and peer assessment in which they can give further comments and suggestions to each other for improvement and development.

Students are exposed to use different types of ICT tools in support their learning. Not only information search and data collection during the learning process, students can use different kinds of ICT tools for making their learning products such as website (e.g. wikispaces), e-book (e.g. issuu), e-poster (e.g. glogster) and so on. This helps to encourage students to make their learning visible and creates an impetus to encourage them to learn beyond the classroom and share with each other.

Last, but not the least, “collaborate” can be at anytime, any where. Collaboration is across different levels: teachers, schools, communities and the global world. This concept of “collaborate” should be further explored and deeply rooted in daily classroom for the unlocking of potentials of individual students.

References Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Affective

Exploratory

Affective education is incorporated during the learning and teaching process. Social emotional elements such as mutual respect and cooperation are taught to students. For example, during the classroom debate on the topic of the feasibility of wind power, students are keen on the arguments on agreeing and disagreeing with each other. Being given guidance to understanding conflicting accounts of others’ opinions, students show their appreciation and support to each other while they give a good point to their opponents at the end of the debate activity. Infusing social emotional elements is naturally tuned in the process of learning and teaching.

Exploring new things is always a good start to keep students’ motivation to learn. Therefore, some field trips are organised. All classes go for a trip to Ma Wan Park to explore what is alternative energy and how it works in Hong Kong. Apart from that, interested students are selected for the visit to Lamma Island Wind Power Station Open Day as organised by the Hong Kong Electric Ltd. With their rich experiences in the field trip to Lamma Island, students bring back and share their ideas and views to their belonging groups in the class. Students working in groups further investigate the study topic and do a proposal, make an e-poster or create a model to recommend the best alternative energy for sustainable development in Hong Kong.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York, NY: David McKay Co Inc. Curriculum Development Council. (2002). Basic Education Curriculum Guide: Building on Strengths (Primary 1 - Secondary 3). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Printer. Education Commission. (1990). Education Commission Report No.4. Hong Kong: Government Printer. Education Department. (2000). Development of Gifted Education in Hong Kong. Retrieved on 8th February 2011 from: http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/ Content_3201/policy_paper.pdf Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2004). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from: http://www. p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=vie w&id=254&Itemid=120. VanTassel-Baska, J. (1994). Comprehensive Curriculum for Gifted Learners (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. VanTassel-Baska, J. (2008). What Works in Curriculum for the Gifted. Keynote address at the Asia Pacific Conference on the Gifted, Hong Kong, July 18, 2008. Retrieved from: http://hkage.org.hk/en/ events/080714%20APCG/01-%20Keynotes%20 &%20Invited%20Addresses/1.9%20Van%20TasselBaska_What%20Works%20in%20Curriculum%20 for%20the%20Gifted.pdf

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前線經驗分享 : 資優教育的推行與實踐

培僑書院分享 ( 摘要 ) 培僑書院的溫老師分享該校教師 如何運 用多元化的教學策 略來 照 顧學 生的個別差異及學習需要, 並提升學生身處廿一世紀應具備 的能力。 在小學五年級的「社會成長科」中, 溫老師主要以探究式學習作為 藍 本 , 並 滲入「 協 作」這個 重 要 元 素 ,發 展 了一 套 校 本 課 程 — 「 探 索 替 代 能 源 」(Exploring Alternative Energy)。 她 在 課 程 中 營 造了有意義、 具 挑 戰性的學習 機會, 並 以多樣 化的教學活動 讓 學 生發 揮創意, 從而加深 他們對 課題的了解。 此課程特色在 於讓學習擴展到 課 室 以 外 , 如 透 過 實 地 考 察、 網 上討 論 等, 令 學習不 再局限 於 傳 統 的面授;它亦更能 與世界 接 軌, 讓 香 港 與 墨 西 哥 兩 地 的 學 生 進 行 學 術 交 流, 透 過 探 討

溫老師列舉了該課程的八項特點:Connected ( 聯繫的 )、Open-minded ( 開 放 的 )、Life-Long ( 終 生 學 習 的 )、Active ( 主 動 參 與 的 )、Blended ( 混合的 )、Original ( 原 創 的 )、Reflective ( 反 思 的 )、Affective ( 感 性 的 )、 Technological ( 科技的) 和 Exploratory ( 探索的) 帶出 COLLABORATE「協作」 為規畫該課程核心的概念。 不同議 題, 例如不同類 型的能源 能 力( 如 協 作、 溝 通 和 批 判 性 及 最 適合兩地使 用的能 源等, 藉 思 考 能 力), 以 及培 養 學 生 互相 以 加深學生 對 課 題的了解。 教師 尊重 及協作精神,並 且懂得 善用 與學生均持開放態度:學生在教節 各 類 的 資 訊 科 技 如 創 作 網 頁、 開始時主動表達他們的學習需要 電子 書等, 這些均能 豐富學生的 和 興 趣, 而 教 師 則 以 學 生 為 本, 學習經驗,有助他們的全人發展。 鼓勵學生以多角度思考問題。學生 「 協 作」 能 把 師 生 及不 同 地 域 的 主 動參 與 活動提 升了他們對學習 學 生 連 繫 起 來, 把 學 習 延 伸 至 的自主性;而他們 在學習過程中 校 外、 社 區 和 世 界 層 面。 如 能 持續 反思和互相評 價, 以 及教師 深 入 探討這個概念及讓其植根於 就課業、作品及評估三方面為學 日常教學中,學生定能發揮所長, 生提供選擇方案,鼓 勵他們選擇 提升學習效能 適合自己的表達手法,發揮創意, 培僑書院 這些都能協助學生評 估其學習 成 果 及 對 課 題 概 念 有 所 掌 握。 溫慧欣老師 此 課 程着重培育學生的終生學習


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

News Bites 要聞剪影 Teacher Professional Development 教師專業發展課程 (12/2010 – 5/2011) Annual Special Event 周年特別活動 The Annual Hotung Lecture 2011 何東資優教育演講 2011 By Dr. Joseph Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis 7 January 2011

任汝理博士及芮斯博士主講 2011年1月7 日

The HKAGE has a significant role in rallying the support of education leaders and various stakeholders to provide a more conducive and appropriate environment to nurture gifted and/or high-ability learners. The Annual Hotung Lecture aims to raise the awareness of the importance of gifted education among the education leaders in Hong Kong.

Director, two renowned experts in gifted education, Dr. Joseph Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis shared their views on gifted education with our education leaders. Dr. Renzulli shared his insights into the unique aspects and benefits of gifted education in the 21st century. It was followed by Dr. Reis presenting compelling evidence about the ways in which gifted programmes make a difference to students’ lives.  The lecture was well attended by over 300 teachers, curriculum coordinators, school leaders, educational psychologists as well as other school practitioners providing support to gifted or highability learners.

The second Annual Hotung Lecture took place at the Kowloonbay International Trade & Exhibition Centre on 7 January 2011. Following the welcoming addresses by Mrs. Cherry Tse, JP, Permanent Secretary for Education and Dr. Stephen Tommis, our Executive

香港資優教育學院旨在集合教育界 領袖及各持分者的力量,為資優或 高能力學生提供一個更適切的環境 栽培他們成長。本學院舉辦的資優 教育周年演講正是讓本港教育界 領 袖 了解資優教育的重要性,從而 提高他們對資優教育的關注。 第二屆何東資優教育演講已於2011年 1月7日假九龍灣國際展貿中心 舉 行 。 繼教育局常任秘書長謝凌潔貞 太平紳士及本學院院長湯敏思博士 致歡迎辭後,兩位著名的資優教育 專家任汝理博士及芮斯博士分別向 本地教育界領袖分享他們對資優教 育的真知灼見。任汝理博士探討了 21世紀資優教育的特點及好處; 芮斯博士隨後則向與會者說明資優 教育課程如何改寫學生的一生。演講 吸引了逾300位教師、課程統籌 主任、學校領導、負責支援高能力 學生或資優生的教育心理學家及 其他教育工作者出席。

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NEWS BITES 要聞剪影

Thematic Seminars / Workshops – Past Events 專題講座 / 工作坊 — 已舉辦課程 WORKSHOP 專題工作坊

Providing Support to Twice Exceptional Students 支援雙重特殊資優生 By Dr. Susan Baum 17 December 2010

Susan Baum 博士主講 2010 年12月17日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

Understanding how to identify and cater for 2E (Twice Exceptional) students by using “Dual Differentiation” strategy.

我認識到運用適異性 策 略 辨識 及照 顧 雙重特殊資優生的重要性。

WORKSHOP 專題工作坊

Reaching the Highest Level: Reversing Underachievement and Increasing Achievement in Gifted Students 協助潛能未展資優生提升卓越表現 By Dr. Joseph Renzulli & Dr. Sally Reis 8 January 2011

Joseph Renzulli 博士及 Sally Reis 博士主講 2011 年 1 月8 日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙ The speakers reminded me of the importance of catering for learner differences and taught me some practical skills for improving students’ academic performance.

˙ 講 者提 醒了我 有 關 照 顧 學習差異 的重 要 性, 同 時 也 教 授了一 些 實用方 法 來 提 升 學生的學術表現。

˙The speakers’ experience-sharing enabled me to learn how to help underachieved students to reverse underachievement.

˙ 講 者的 精 闢見 解 讓 我了解 如 何協 助 學 生 提升表現,逆轉潛能未展的情況。

WORKSHOP 專題工作坊

Late, Lost and Unprepared: How to Help Students with Executive Functioning 如何運用執行功能支援學生 By Dr. Joyce Cooper-Kahn 3 March 2011

Joyce Cooper-Kahn 博士主講 2011 年 3 月3 日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙ The clarity of the speaker is greatly appreciated because she made complicated materials accessible and concrete to participants.

˙ 十 分 欣 賞 講 者 能 把 複 雜 的 教 材 清 晰 地、 具體地表達,讓與會者易於掌握。

˙Very practical, lots of useful instructional strategies for developing students’ executive functioning skills.

˙ 工作坊內容很實用,講者分享了很多有用 的教學策略以協助資優生發展執行功能。


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

WORKSHOP 專題工作坊

Understanding Gifted Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities and Strategies to Help Them 了解資優生的情緒及行為障礙 與支援策略 By Ms. Cindy Heslin 4 March 2011

Cindy Heslin女士主講 2011年3月4日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙ The insights of the speaker and the tools (assessment forms and sample intervention plans) introduced give me more ideas of how to deal with students with emotional difficulties.

˙ 講者的精闢見解及介紹的工具 ( 如評估表 和介入方案示例 ) 讓我更能掌握如何處理 有情緒困擾的學生。

˙Case studies gave me opportunities to apply what I had just learned in the workshop.

˙ 個案研討環節讓我有機會應用我 剛在 工作 坊上學到的知識。

SEMINAR 專題講座

Assessment for Learning of Gifted Learners 促進資優生學習的評估 By Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska 9 May 2011

Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博士主講 2011年 5 月9 日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙I have learned how to execute performance based assessment by building a link between learning objectives and activity design.

˙ 我學會了如何透過把學習目標和活動設計 連結以實踐實作評量。

˙I recognise the importance of setting reasonable goals and assessment methods to meet students’ needs.

˙ 我認識到訂立合理目標及評估方法以切合 學生需要的重要性。

WORKSHOP 專題工作坊

Curriculum/Programme Planning and Evaluation in Gifted Education 資優教育課程規劃及評鑑 By Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska 14 and 21 May 2011

Joyce VanTassel-Baska 博士主講 2011年 5月14及21日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙ The workshop was very relevant to my job and I found the ideas shared were useful.

˙ 是次工作坊和我的工作有密切聯繫,其中 的分享很有用。

˙Dr. VanTassel-Baska walked through the six features of differentiated curriculum planning with practical examples. This helped participants to capture the ideas systematically.

˙ VanTassel-Baska 博士以實例幫助學員有 系統地掌握設計適異性課程的六項特點。

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NEWS BITES 要聞剪影

MASS LECTURE 大型講座

Developing an Affective Curriculum for Talent Development 有助才華發展的情意教育課程 By Dr. David Yun Dai 27 May 2011

David Yun Dai 博士主講 2011年 5 月27 日

Feedback from participants:

學員回饋:

˙ The “Cope and Grow Model” developed by Dr. Dai and his colleagues is valuable as it helps us look at students’ individual needs.

˙ 講 者 介紹他 本人 及其 研究伙 伴 共同開發 的「 解 困 及 成 長 」(Cope and Grow) 模 式 很 有 價 值, 能 讓 我 們 看 到 學 生 的 個 別 需 要。

˙I got some inspiration about teaching gifted students: the teaching focus should be students, rather than the subjects taught

˙ 我得到一些啟發 : 教學 著眼 點應是學生, 而非所教科目。

Structured Courses – Past Events 結構課程 — 已舉辦課程 INTRODUCTORY COURSE 入門課程

Introduction to Gifted Education (Primary School Session)

資優教育簡介(小學場次)

19 February 2011

2011 年 2 月19 日

FOUNDATION COURSE 基礎課程

Nurturing Gifted Learners (Event 3)

培育資優生(場次三)

November 2010 – March 2011

2010 年 11 月至 2011 年 3 月

Outreach Services 外展專業發展服務 From time to time, we have received requests from schools to deliver onsite professional development programmes in gifted education (GE). In the recent months, introductory seminars in GE and in-depth workshops on specific topics like differentiation and social emotional learning have been conducted and customised services have also been provided.

我們不時收到學校的邀請提供有關資優教育的專業 發展服務。近數月來,我們應邀到校主持資優教育 入門講座、較深入的工作坊如「適異性課程」或「社交 情緒學習」課題,以及提供教育諮詢服務。


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

JULY – DECEMBER 2011 2011年 7月至 12月

Parent Support 家長支援服務 Free-of-charge Outreach Parent Seminars 免費到校家長講座 ABCs of Giftedness 資優基本法 Nurturing the Gifted 如何培育資優兒 Affective Needs of Gifted Children 情意百寶袋 Nurturing Creativity in Young Children 解開創造力之謎 Critical Thinking Skills 批判思維放大鏡

A 1.5-hour school-based seminar will be provided. Schools and organisations are welcome to call 3698 4025 for details and appointment. 以校本形式提供1.5小時的講座,歡迎學校及機構致電3698 4025 預約及查詢。 Priority will be given to applications by the same school sponsoring bodies; or a joint-school event; or an event with more than 200 participants. 以同一辦學團體,或最少三間學校,或多於二百位與會者名義 提出的申請,將獲優先考慮。

Parent Workshops 家長工作坊

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Communicating with My Gifted Child 1: Parent-child communication (Re-run) 親親孩子(1):親子溝通篇(重辦)

Parents of gifted children 資優兒童的家長

17 and 24 September 2011 2011年9月17及24日

Nurturing Creativity through Experiments 創意與科學

8 and 15 October 2011 2011年10月8及15日

Communicating with My Gifted Child 2: Marital communication 親親孩子(2):夫妻溝通篇

19 and 26 November 2011 2011年11月19及26日

Mindfulness - Stress Management for gifted children (Re-run) 正念 — 壓力管理篇(重辦)

10 and 17 December 2011 2011年12月10及17日

Special Events 特別項目 Project Twice-exceptional Resource Pack Dissemination 「尋找雙重特殊資優兒」計劃資源套發佈會 Parent Orientation 2012 新學員家長迎新日2012

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Social workers and School Guidance Personnel 社工及學生輔導人員

October 2011 2011年10月

Parents of our new student members in 2012 二零一二年新學員家長

Early 2012 2012年初

Charged Customised Programmes 收費特定工作坊 Customised consultancy and training in schools 特定諮詢服務及駐校培訓課程

We also offer customised workshops and consultation services to schools and organisations for a modest charge. They can be tailormade to meet the needs of parents. For details and appointment, please contact us at 3698 4025 / consultation@hkage.org.hk. 我們亦為學校及機構提供適度收費的特定工作坊及諮詢服務,其內容 可另作擬定及剪裁,以滿足家長的需要。歡迎致電3698 4025 或 電郵 consultation@hkage.org.hk 預約及查詢。

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the “Parent Zone” of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述各項活動資料以本學院網頁內公佈為準。請登入學院網站內的「家長園地」查閱詳情。網址: www.hkage.org.hk Consultation and Assessment Centre Information 諮詢及評估中心 Hotline 熱線電話: 3698 3947 Email 電郵: consultation@hkage.org.hk

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UPCOMING EVENTS OF THE ACADEMY 學院動向

JULY – DECEMBER 2011 2011年 7月至 12月

Student Programmes and Services 學生服務 Humanities 人文學科

Sciences 科學

Introductory Course in Chinese Classical Literature 中國古典文學初階課程

Enhancement Programme for Gifted Students in Physics (Phase I to III) 資優學生物理培訓課程(第一至三階段)

Introductory Course in English Classical Literature 英國古典文學初階課程 Intermediate Course in Chinese Script Writing 中文劇本寫作進階課程

The 9th International Junior Science Olympiad Student Training Programme 第九屆國際初中科學奧林匹克訓練課程

Intermediate Course in Philosophy 哲學進階課程

Credit-bearing course in Marine Sciences Training 海洋科學大學學分課程

Future Curator Training Course 未來館長培訓班

Environmental Science Programme 環境科學課程

Enigma of the Social Worlds 社會科學課程

Chemist in Laboratory 實驗室中的化學研究

Introductory Course in Critical and Creative Thinking 批判及創意思維初階課程

Astronomy Programme 天文課程

Introductory Course in Cultural Studies 文化研究初階課程

Software Development Programme 軟件開發課程

Intermediate Course in Sociology 社會學進階課程

Biomedical Engineering Workshop 生物醫學工程工作坊

Introductory Course in Social Studies 社會研究初階課程

Technology Design Programme 科技與設計課程

Intermediate Course in Psychology 心理學進階課程

Medical Science Entry Programme 醫學初探課程

Introductory Workshop on Research Methodology and Writing for the Social Science 社會科學研究方法及寫作初階工作坊

Summer Medical Programme 暑期醫學學習計劃

Online learning modules in Humanities 人文學科網上學習課程

Mathematics 數學

Leadership 領導才能

Mathematics in 18 Lessons (Phase II) 數學十八章經(第二階段)

Leaders for the New Generation 新一代社會領袖

Mathematics in 18 Lessons (Phase III) 數學十八章經(第三階段)

Ethical Leadership and Value Study 誠信管理及價值觀研究

Introduction to Olympiad Mathematics (Phase II) 數林匹克初探(第二階段)

Public Speaking Workshop 演說技巧工作坊

Introduction to Olympiad Mathematics (Phase III) 數林匹克初探(第三階段)

Communication Skills Workshop 溝通技巧工作坊

International Mathematical Olympiad Training (Phase I) 國際數學奧林匹克訓練(第一階段)

Project Planning - Project Management 項目規劃 — 項目管理

International Mathematical Olympiad Training (Phase II) 國際數學奧林匹克訓練(第二階段)

Team Dynamics 團隊動力

Mathematics Ignition 數學燃動課程

Effective Leadership and Social Service Projects 有效領導與社會服務

Online learning modules in Mathematics 數學網上學習課程


I N S P I R E I S S U E N O. 5 匯 賢「資」訊 第 五 期

Personal Growth and Social Development Series 個人成長及社交發展系列 Learning Skills Workshop 學習技巧工作坊

Multi-disciplinary 跨學科課程 University-based Multi-disciplinary Study Projects 全方位大學研習課程

Conflict Management Workshop 衝突管理工作坊

Thematic Talk 主題式講座

Self-understanding Workshop 自我認識工作坊

Academic talks in each domain are held regularly 定期舉辦各範疇學術講座

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the “Student Zone” of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述各項活動資料以本學院網頁內公佈為準。請登入學院網站內的「學生園地」查閱詳情。網址: www.hkage.org.hk

AUGUST – DECEMBER 2011 2011年 8 月至 12月

Teacher Professional Development Programmes 教師專業發展課程 Special Event

Target Group 培訓對象

Date 舉辦日期

“Giftedness in East-Asia: Explorations in the Actiotope Model of Giftedness” 國際討論會及工作坊 http://www.ied.edu.hk/giftedea/

Educators & School Practitioners 教育界及學校專業同工

Symposium: 1- 2 August Workshop: 3 August 討論會:8月1至2日 工作坊:8月3日

Thematic Courses / Workshops / Seminars / Learning Circle 專題課程/工作坊/講座/小組研習 Thematic Seminar: “Introduction to Gifted Education” (Secondary School Session) 專題講座:「資優教育簡介」(中學場次)

Secondary School Teachers 中學教師

September / October 2011 2011年9月或10月

Thematic Seminar: “Quality Standards for Gifted Education Programmes” 專題講座:「資優教育課程質素標準」

Primary & Secondary School Vice-Principals, Curriculum leaders and Subject Panel Heads 中、小學副校長、課程領導及學科主任

November 2011 2011年11月

Thematic Workshop: “Adapting Learning & Teaching in the Regular Classroom for the Gifted” 專題工作坊:「為資優生調適課堂學與教」

Primary & Secondary School Teachers 中、小學教師

December 2011 2011年12月

Learning Circle: “Adapting Learning and Teaching in Mathematics for the Gifted” 小組研習:「為資優生調適數學科學與教」

Primary & Secondary School Teachers 中、小學教師

December 2011 2011年12月

Thematic Workshop: “Identification: Principles and Practices” 專題工作坊:「識別資優:原則及實踐」

Primary & Secondary School Teachers 中、小學教師

December 2011/ January 2012 2011年12月/ 2012年1月

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the “Teacher Zone” of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述各項活動資料以本學院網頁內公佈為準。請登入學院網站內的「教師園地」查閱詳情。網址: www.hkage.org.hk

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“Differentiated curriculum can be a catalyst to excite the potential of students who are gifted and to develop the potential of all other students in a heterogeneous classroom”

「在異質分組的課室裡,適異性課程可作為 躍升和發展資優生和其他學生潛能的催化劑。」 Sandra Kaplan

TITLE 刊物名稱

INSPIRE: The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators 匯賢「資」訊 AUTHOR 作者

The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd 香港資優教育學院有限公司 EDITORS 編輯

Patrick Lam, Clara Tam, Man-kit Ng, Nelson Lai, Mo-yam Chan 林克忠、談勵紅、吳文潔、 黎永業、陳武鑫 TRANSLATOR 翻譯

Solomon Hui, James Lee 許金城、李浩海

Subscribe to INSPIRE Issue No.5 訂閱《匯賢「資」訊》第五期 If your school/organisation is interested in subscribing to this issue of INSPIRE, please fill in the form below and fax it to 3586 3429. 假如 貴校/機構有興趣訂閱今期《匯賢「資」訊》,請填妥下列資料, 並傳真至3586 3429。 Subscription service for INSPIRE, order quantity 訂閱數量 □ 50 copies or less 50 本或以下 □ 51-100 copies 51-100 本 □ 101-200 copies 101- 200 本 □ 201 or more 201本或以上 Contact information 聯絡資料 Name 姓名 : Position 職位 : Telephone 電話 : Name of School/Organisation 學校/ 機構名稱 :

PUBLISHER 出版 The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd 香港資優教育學院有限公司 The electronic version of INSPIRE is available on our website. 學院網站備有《匯賢「資」訊》網上版, 可供參考及下載。

Contact Us 聯絡我們 If you have comments and suggestions to improve INSPIRE, please contact us. You are welcome to contribute articles to this magazine! 假如你對今期內容有任何意見及建議,歡迎聯絡我們。 歡迎各位踴躍投稿! Email 電郵:tpd@hkage.org.hk

ISSN 2219-4576

The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education 香港資優教育學院 East Block, Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre, 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong 香港九龍塘沙福道19 號教育服務中心東座 Tel 電話 : (852) 3698 4103   Fax 傳真 : (852) 3586 3445 Email 電郵 : academy@hkage.org.hk Website 網址 : www.hkage.org.hk Copyright © 2011 by The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd. Printed in Hong Kong. All rights reserved. 香港資優教育學院有限公司 2011 年 © 版權所有 香港印刷。未經許可,不得轉載。

Profile for The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education

The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators - Inspire Issue No. 5 匯賢資訊 - 第五期  

Meeting the Social & Emotional needs of the Gifted 照顧資優生的社交及情意發展需要

The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators - Inspire Issue No. 5 匯賢資訊 - 第五期  

Meeting the Social & Emotional needs of the Gifted 照顧資優生的社交及情意發展需要

Profile for hkage