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參與藝術家

Participating Artist

鄭波

Zheng Bo

合作伙伴

Programme Partner

出版 香港藝術發展局│設計 汪佳樺│出版日期 2020 年 12 月 Published by Hong Kong Arts Development Council │ Designed by K. Wong Wong │ Date December 2020 2


目錄 Table of Contents P4

P6

P8

關於鄭波 About Zheng Bo 關於《生命如此艱難,何必搞得這 麼簡單?》 About Life is hard. Why do we make it so easy? 蘭花與其他生物的親密關係 —— 鄭波與紀仕勳對談錄 Intimate Relations Between Orchids and Other Living Things —— A Conversation Between Zheng Bo and Stephan Gale

P16 關於蘭花 All About Orchids P24 紀仕勳:本地蘭花 —— 你的社區夥伴 Stephan Gale: Native Orchids —— Part of Your Community

P27 關於嘉道理農場暨植物園 About Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden

版權所有,本書任何部份未經版權持有人許可,不得翻印。 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the copyright owner. 香港藝術發展局保留更改已公布的節目及藝術家之權利。 Hong Kong Arts Development Council reserves the right to change the advertised programmes and artists.

填寫網上問卷 Online Survey

香港藝術發展局全力支持藝術表達自由,本計劃內容並不反映本局意見。 Hong Kong Arts Development Council fully supports freedom of artistic expression. The views and opinions expressed in this project do not represent the stand of the Council.

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關於鄭波

About Zheng Bo 生於北京,在香港大嶼山居住。於美國羅徹斯特大學取得 視覺文化研究博士學位,現於香港城市大學創意媒體學院 任教。

鄭波以藝術家、研究者、教師等多重身份從事創作,長期 專注社會性和生態性藝術實踐。他從邊緣人群和邊緣植物

的視角探查歷史、想像未來,創作充滿野草的花園、富生 命力的口號及以「生態酷兒」為題的影像。近年合作的機構

包括柏林格羅皮烏斯美術館、京都市立藝術大學美術館、 歐洲宣言展、台北雙年展、上海雙年展等。

Zheng Bo is now a resident of Lantau Island, Hong Kong. He received a PhD in Visual and Cultural Studies from the University of Rochester and has been teaching at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong since 2013. Zheng Bo gets inspiration from his multi-role as an art maker, a researcher and a teacher. His art is a long term social and ecological engagement. Committed to multispecies vibrancy, he revisits the past and envisages the future through the eyes of marginalised communities and plants. He creates weedy gardens, living slogans, and eco-queer films. He has worked with a number of museums and art spaces in Asia and Europe, most recently Gropius Bau in Berlin, Kunsthalle Lissabon in Lisbon, and Kyoto City University of Arts Art Gallery; while his works are included in the collection of Hammer Museum and Hong Kong Museum of Art. His projects are featured in Manifesta, the Taipei Biennial and the Shanghai Biennale.

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生命如此艱難, 何必搞得這麼簡單?

Life is hard.

Why do we make it so easy?

此 作 品 是 2018 年 泰 國 喀 比 雙 年 展 同 名 作

Zheng's original work was first presented

的延續,靈感來自泰北農民 Jon Jandai 名

learning the local Orchid Grower Community

品《生命如此艱難,何必搞得這麼簡單?》 為「Life is easy. Why do we make it so hard」的 TED Talk 演 講。 鄭 氏 當 時 得 悉 泰

國保育團體刻意繁殖蘭花,來填補森林被

偷去的花卉,因而受到啟發並開始以蘭花 製作成字母的裝置作品。是次創作將於嘉 道理農場暨植物園的葛先生花園展出。鄭

氏透過與該園蘭花專家共同研究,從本地

超 過 130 種蘭花中挑選合適的品種,培植

出「會生長的字母標語」裝置作品。另外,

園內藝舍亦會展出鄭氏近年的植物素描 手稿。

at Thailand Biennale Krabi 2018. Upon Enterprise had been cultivating orchids and putting them back into nature to replace those that had been stolen, Zheng was inspired to create botanical slogans by growing native orchid species of Thailand. This evolving exhibition will take place in the Walter Kerr Gardens of Kadoorie Farm

and

Botanic Garden, Hong Kong.

Here, the artist works with the resident ecologist, growing the installation from a selection of over 130 local orchid species. Zheng's botanical sketch collection will also be on display at the Art House inside

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Kadoorie Farm.


「把文字掛在空中,遊人要抬頭看,才可以把句子重組出來。我希望用 輕鬆的手法帶出生態議題。

人類獨自能否解決生態危機,我並不樂觀。但若我們能跟其他物種合 作,從更長的時間維度去看整個地球,那我一定樂觀。地球形成後的 45 億年間,生命已演化了很久。」

—— 鄭波

“With words in the air, visitors need to look up to make sense of the whole sentence. I hope to address the ecology issue with a light tone. I’m rather pessimistic on whether humans can solve ecological crises alone. From a longer temporal dimension point of view, if we could collaborate with other species, I would be more optimistic. Evolution has taken place for such a long time in this 4.5 billion years of history of the Earth.”

—— Zheng Bo

嘉道理農場暨植物園下山區 KFBG Lower Area

1 * 2 *

3 *

1

葛先生花園*

素食亭

飲用水供應

2

藝舍*

巴士站 ( 64K )

3

蘭花温室

洗手間 Toilet

Walter Kerr Gardens Art House Orchid Greenhouse

Sun Garden Café

*展覽範圍

Exhibition Area

Drinking Water Available Bus Stop ( 64K )

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蘭花與其他生物的親密關係 —— 鄭波與紀仕勳對談錄

Intimate Relations Between Orchids and Other Living Things —— A Conversation Between Zheng Bo and Stephan Gale 8


鄭波以蘭花種製出作品《Life is hard. Why do we make it so easy?》的英文字句,是一場 廣義及生態上——脫離人類中心的角度——對生活是容易或是艱難的沉思。

就是次展覽,鄭波與蘭花專家及嘉道理農場暨植物園高級保育主任紀仕勳(Stephan Gale) 深入了解蘭花與其他植物、動物及微生物之間的細微關係,並展開對談。話題圍繞蘭花在

生長的不同階段,分別與不同物種建立起的共生關係。一位是藝術家,一位是科學家,觀 點各異,卻也提醒了人類如我們,一直把很多事情當成是必然。

Zheng Bo grows orchids as a demonstration of his slogan "Life is hard. Why do we make it so easy?". The plants in his installations prompt us to contemplate whether life is – or should be – easy or hard, and not just from a human-centric perspective, but from a broader, ecological one. Zheng Bo spoke to Stephan Gale, Senior Ecologist at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden and an expert in orchid biology, about the nuanced relationships between orchids and other plants, animals and microorganisms. Orchids engage in symbiotic relationships with various other species at different stages of their life cycle, a topic on which Bo and Stephan exchanged interesting views. Given that we humans have long acted as though our point of view is the only one that matters, a conversation between an artist and an ecologist might shed new light on our understanding of the world around us.

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蘭花與樹木:附生植物的長成

Orchids and Trees: Growth of an Epiphyte 蘭花與其他植物最大的差異,是有超過七成的品種都不是在泥土生長,而是長在樹上;在 其他植物表面生長的生物,都是「附生植物」。「這些植物很多生於潮濕的熱帶地區,因為

這些環境的樹冠既溫暖又開揚。蘭花在其進化過程,可是花盡了氣力才抓到『攀上去』的方 法,並善用這個環境。」紀仕勳解釋。

熱帶樹林的樹冠,大多有着複雜而多樣性的生態系統。各種附生植物在如斯環境,又會各

自發掘心儀的地盤:「一些大而重的附生植物喜歡長於植物的主樹幹及支幹;中型的附生植

物則多長在次樹幹。小型的附生蘭花只會長在旁枝而非樹幹。這是一個生物選汰的過程。」 雖然附生關係是一種片利共生的關係,對寄主(樹木)沒有傷害,但我們還是不禁思考, 當中是否存在任何形式的剝削。鄭波則問及在此節討論中,是否合適引用人類的道德倫理 觀:「我們經常會思考的是,我與他人或我與建制之間的關係是否合乎倫理,當中是否一定 有被剝削的一方。」

紀仕勳則認為,大自然透過進化機制,以溫婉的方式回應這些共生關係。「我們作為人類傾 向過度解讀,或試圖找出可以證明事物的效率、關愛及養育之情,但事實可能根本不是這

麼一回事。當中不存在絲毫的意圖,相反,是觸及了另一個層面——人類如何對環境帶來

影響。當中牽涉的,是一整套評定人類的所作所為、人類的創造、以及當下的道德判斷。」

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Unlike most plants, over 70% of orchid species do not grow in soil but with their roots attached to the bark of trees, and are thus known as ‘epiphytes’, a term referring to a plant that grows on the surface of another plant. “Many of these species grow in the humid tropics where the forest canopy provides this warm, bright and often moist environment. Orchids have achieved an amazing evolutionary feat to get up there and utilise that niche,” explained Stephan. The canopy of a tropical forest is incredibly diverse and it sustains a complex community of plants and animals. When it comes to the most favourable site to grow, different epiphytes have their own preferences. “Particularly big, heavy epiphytes grow on the main stem or on the primary branches, whereas medium-sized plants grow on the secondary branches. The tinier epiphytic orchids only grow on twigs, they won't grow on the trunk. It's a process of ecological filtering.” As an ecological interaction, this sort of symbiosis is called commensalism, since the orchid gains an environment in which to grow without doing any harm to the host tree. Even so, we might be tempted to ask whether exploitation exists in this relationship. Bo questioned whether our sense of ethics still applies. “We are often concerned whether the relationship between myself and another person or between me and an institution is ethical, or whether it is an exploitative one.” Stephan, on the other hand, describes nature as a benign force that both shapes and responds to such symbioses through evolution. “Human beings tend to over-interpret and try to find examples of things being efficient or caring or nurturing in an anthropogenic sense, which may not be the case. There's no particular intention involved. Rather, our perspective is another layer here, and that has its own impact on our environment. With it comes a whole set of value judgments about what we've done, what we've created and what's happening now.” 11


蘭花與真菌:寄生物的發芽過程

Orchids and Fungi: Germination of a Parasite 一般人很少留意到蘭花種子的微小,也沒

Most people are not aware of how small the

的關係。蘭花種子必須依靠空氣傳播,以

size has a direct effect on their germination

有想過這種微小的體積跟它們的發芽機制 風帶動向上飄流,確保不會落在地面的泥

土 上。「 蘭 花 種 子 在 進 化 過 程 中, 把 最 重 的營養儲備都拿掉,以縮小體積及減去所

有非必要的重量。」紀仕勳解釋道。「儲備 中的碳水化合物及營養,本來是啟動種子

發芽及可以自行光合作用生產糖份前的成 長燃料,蘭花種子以成就空氣傳播的前提

下,完全放棄這部分的重量,也就等於說 它們要面對不能自行發芽的問題。」

蘭花借助了真菌的一臂之力,建立一種寄

生關係,去解決這個根本的問題。「蘭花成 功欺騙那些真菌,偷取它們的營養。它們 以一些化學方法,從真菌身上得到想要的

東西。」在大自然中,常見的例子是致病真 菌把疾病帶給生物從而將之操控,所以有 些人認為,真菌應該也入侵了蘭花種子的

細胞;另一種說法則認為,真菌的作用只 是改變種子附近的空氣成分,如二氧化碳

及氧氣濃度,從而引發種子發芽。 紀仕勳

視這些複雜的化學互動為「蘭花種子及真菌

seeds of an orchid are, and how their small mechanism. In order to occupy the habitat up in the forest canopy, orchid seeds have to be airborne so that they can be carried upwards on the wind, rather than simply fall down onto the soil. “In order to downsize to the extent that they can be blown upwards, orchid seeds have had to eliminate as much weight as they practically could. To achieve this, they've even done away with the nutritional reserves that would normally be present in a seed but which constitutes the heaviest part,” Stephan explained. “The bulk of that comprises carbohydrates and other nutritional reserves, which are required to power the germination and early growth of the plant until it can photosynthesise its own sugars. Orchid seeds have completely eliminated this weight to allow them to travel by wind, but this also means that they have a problem in terms of germination and

溝通的語言」,從而才可決定這種附生關係

early growth.”

有趣的是,所有蘭花都要靠真菌去推動發

establishing what is perhaps a parasitic

到底是對蘭花還是真菌有利。

芽。不同品種對真菌的依賴各有差異,有 些品種的成年階段完全不長葉,欠缺葉綠 素就不能進行光合作用,而是完全依賴菌 根真菌提供營養。鄭波從蘭花這種習性看 出的是物種之間的互相牽連,並將之反映 在 其 創 作 之 中:「 我 刻 意 不 為 單 獨 的 植 物

作 畫, 因 為 那 是 一 個 完 整 的 棲 息 地, 不

論大小。我畫獨立的個體,也刻畫當中的 關係。」

The orchid’s solution is to rely on a fungus, relationship with it. “The orchid appears to be tricking the fungus and effectively stealing nutrients from it. It is able to control the interaction chemically and get what it needs from the fungi.” In many other cases, these fungi are pathogenic and will infect plants, causing disease as they take control of the plant’s resources. There is evidence to demonstrate that the fungus invades


and colonises the tissue of the orchid seed. However, there is also evidence that suggests that the presence of the fungus changes the atmosphere around the orchid seed, in terms of, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen concentrations, and that this chemical shift may be sufficient to trigger germination. Stephan sees such complex interactions as a “chemical language that the orchid seed and the fungus use to communicate with one another, and thereby determine whether it’s going to be a parasitic relationship in favour of the orchid or in favour of the fungus”. Interestingly, all orchids require this initial push from fungi. However, whether that relationship persists through the seedling phase into the adult phase of the orchid life cycle varies. Some orchid species have become completely leafless and non-photosynthetic, such that they have lost all chlorophyll and remain completely dependent on their mycorrhizal fungus for nutrient supply. In the orchid’s dependence on fungi for germination, Bo identifies the inter-dependence of all organisms, which is reflected in his artistic practices. “I consciously know I shouldn't just draw a so-called single plant. It’s always a habitat, large or small. I'm often drawing entities, but I'm also drawing relationships.” 13


蘭花與昆蟲:欺騙而來的授粉機制

Orchids and Insects: Pollination by Deception 授粉,將花朵中的花粉從雄蕊送到雌蕊,是

Pollination is a vital part of the life cycle of any

交叉授粉確保更高的基因多樣性,從而生出

seeds by spreading pollen grains from the

任何開花植物的生命周期中最重要的部分。

更健康的下一代。但植物不能移動,所以得 依靠昆蟲去為它們把花粉帶到更遠的地方。 植物王國歷經進化,演化出層出不窮的授粉

方法,而蘭花又演化出自成一家的特質,去 吸引及利用昆蟲。

紀仕勳談到名為「二色石豆蘭」的香港品種,

不止外型古怪,亦散發出如同糞便的氣味。

「糞便是大自然的一部分,昆蟲如蒼蠅愛於 糞便找尋食物及產卵。這個物種進化出一種 跟糞便非常類似的化學氣味,吸引某個特定 品種的雌性蒼蠅,令牠們以為找到產卵的地

flowering plant. Flowers are there to produce male part (the anther) to the female part (the stigma). Cross pollination is preferred in order to produce healthier offspring with greater genetic diversity. But because plants cannot move around, they need to enlist the help of pollinators – usually insects – to transfer pollen on their behalf. Through evolution, the plant kingdom has found many different and often amazing ways of achieving this. The orchids, in particular, have developed some truly unique means of

方。但實情是,牠們的靠近只會沾上花粉,

attracting and making use of insects to carry

蘭花不會製造任何回報予傳粉者,所以有說

Stephan introduced a Hong Kong orchid

並把花粉帶到另一棵同品種的雄蕊。」

out pollination.

它們是用上以欺騙為首的授粉方式。大部分

species called Bulbophyllum bicolor, which

開花植物會提供蜂蜜等糧食,建立互利關係 去吸引為其傳粉的昆蟲對象。鄭波稱蘭花為

「狡猾的一方」,因為它們並不會為傳粉對象 提供任何好處。但同時,我們也未能肯定蘭 花與其他對象之間不存在共利關係 ,畢竟

我們需要研究它們完整的生命週期及其生長

環境。蘭花,一如每個地球上的物種,都有

not only looks weird but also smells awful – like faeces. “Faeces are part of nature and certain insects, like flies, visit faeces to feed or lay their eggs on. This orchid has evolutionarily developed a chemical scent which is a very good mimic for the smell of faeces. Female flies of particular fly species

其限制。紀仕勳認為:「它們必須以靈巧的

are attracted by this scent signal, believing

人類也必須為自己打算,在過程中,我們應

the pollen, and they carry it off to deposit

方式,去為自己的續存打算。」

they have found a place to lay their eggs.

該多思考人類與其他物種的關係。可能只有

on the stigma of another orchid of the same

在極其嚴峻的情景下,例如當下的疫情,才

會反思物種之間的共生網絡。「當我們回歸 所謂的『正常』,我們大多會漠視其他生物

的存在,以為人類可以設計及決定世界如何 運作。」鄭波說。

But instead, they are duped into picking up

species.” Because the pollinator receives nothing for its efforts, this orchid is said to achieve pollination through deception. Whereas many flowering plants appeal to pollinators


by offering a nutritious meal in the form of nectar, for example, B. bicolor does not reward its pollinator. Bo therefore referred to it as “the cunning one”: it deceives its pollinators, which appears to receive no apparent benefit from its visit to the orchid. But when passing this judgment on orchids, we need to look at the life cycle of the orchid in its entirety and in its environment before confirming whether mutualism is really absent. Orchids, like every organism on earth, have limitations. “They had to make the best of their situation in a very ingenious way,” Stephan remarks. We humans also need to make the best of our circumstance, and in the process we must take into consideration our relationships with other beings. Often we only realise the network of symbiotic relationships we rely upon in extreme situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. “As soon as we go back to the so-called normal, we might well just ignore the presence of other beings again and pretend that we can decide things, design systems and how they are operated without reflecting on our connections with our environment,” Bo fears.

「從前我只理解人的歷史,但植物在歷史上

的角色也很重要。我們以往只看到人,沒有看 到植物。」

「我們是生物性的,我們的現在及未來都是 生物性的,不要以為人類可以成為這個星球 的主人。」

“I used to only understand the history

“We are biological – our present is

important role in history too. We used to

We're far from being masters of the planet

of humans, but plants actually play an only see humans, but not plants.”

—— 鄭波 Zheng Bo

biological and our future will be, too. we live on.”

—— 紀仕勳 Stephan Gale

嘉道理農場暨植物園高級生態學主任 Senior Ecologist of Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden

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關於蘭花 All About Orchids 最早的蘭花 The First Orchids

早 於 7600 萬 年 前, 第 一 朵 蘭 花 已 開 始 進 化。同時代地球上另一著名生物是恐龍。

The first orchid started its evolution as early as 76 million years ago. The other famous organisms that existed on Earth at that time were the dinosaurs.

最大的蘭花 The Largest Orchid

世 界 上 最 大 的 蘭 花 是 印 尼 的 巨 蘭( 或

The world’s largest orchid is Grammato-

speciousum, 高 度 可

the tiger orchid or giant orchid. It is a species

稱 老 虎 蘭 ), 學 名 Grammatophyllum

高達三米。這種蘭花大

phyllum speciousum, commonly known as native to Southeast Asia and can grow as

多生長在印尼島嶼婆羅

large as 3 m in height. Tiger orchids are often

洲雨林的大樹上,亦可

found on trees in the rainforests of Borneo

以在地面種植。

but they can also be grown on ground.

最小的蘭花 The Smallest Orchid

世界公認最小的蘭花是 Campylo-centrum

The smallest orchid in the world is Campylo-

在巴西意外被植物學家

as 0.5 mm in diameter. It was discovered by

insulare,花朵直徑只有 0.5 毫米,2015 年 發現。這個品種最初被

botanists in Brazil in 2015. The species was

誤認為是菌類,及後透

過顯微鏡檢查和驗證, 終証實為蘭花。

centrum insulare, which has flowers as small

first mistaken as a type of fungi, but after microscopic examination was confirmed to 0.5mm

be a species of orchid.

最小的種子 The Smallest Seeds

蘭花是開花植物中最小種子的世界紀錄保

Orchids have the smallest seeds of all

肉眼幾乎無法察覺。

are so tiny that they look like a cloud of dust

持者。典型蘭花種子像一團灰塵,人類用

flowering plants in the world. Orchid seeds when blown by the wind, and a single seed can barely been seen with the naked eye.


香港的蘭花

Orchids in Hong Kong 到目前為止,香港已經紀錄了至少 135 種蘭花。相對於最大的國家俄羅

斯只有大約 123 種蘭花,可見香港的亞熱帶氣候和多樣的地理環境,造 就了非常高水平的生物多樣性。

More than 135 species of orchid have been found in Hong Kong. When compared to Russia, the largest country in the world, where only about 123 species are found, it can be observed that the subtropical climate and diverse geography of Hong Kong have given rise to a very high degree of biodiversity.

生物多樣性 Biodiversity

生物多樣性指所有不同種類的生命,生活在一個地球上,它們相互交 替、影響,令地球生態得到平衡。生物多樣性包括三個層面:遺傳多樣 性、物種多樣性及生態系多樣性。

Biodiversity means the variety of life on Earth. All organisms interact with each other to balance the ecology of the Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level.

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蕊柱

Column

花瓣

Petal

萼片

Sepal

唇瓣

Labellum

蘭花結構圖

Orchid Anatomy

18

花粉

Pollen


蘭花的繁殖

Reproduction of Orchids 1

授粉 Pollination

植物依賴不同動物來給花朵授粉,傳粉者通常是昆蟲,但亦有時是鳥類或哺乳類動

物。這種關係使植物能夠結籽。蘭花進化至可以最大程度去吸引潛在傳粉者,有時是 通過給予假的報酬,如虛假的花蜜香氣或模仿昆蟲異性伴侶的費洛蒙。

Plants rely on different animals for pollination. While the majority of pollinators are insects, some birds and mammals also play this role. Successful pollination enables plants to produce seeds. Orchids have evolved to such an extent that they maximise their chances of attracting potential pollinators by falsely advertising rewards. For example, some orchids release chemicals that imitate the pheromone of female insects to lure a male. Others deceive female insects with the empty promise of a safe place to lay eggs. 例子一 :製造氣味吸引昆蟲

Example 1: Imitating faecal scent to attract flies into laying eggs

二色石豆蘭

Bulbophyllum bicolor, the two-coloured bulbophylum

例子二:顏色與圖案模仿花朵

Example 2: Patterns and colors that mimic other rewarding flowers

拖鞋蘭

Paphiopedilum purpuratum, the Hong Kong Slipper Orchid

例子三:偽裝昆蟲異性

Example 3: Faking the sex pheromone of female bees

蜜蜂蘭 © Bernard DUPONT

Ophrys apifera, the bee orchid

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2

發芽 Germination 蘭花的種子不包含任何的食物儲備,因此無法自行發芽。為了成功萌芽,必須與真菌 類植物建立共生關係。有些蘭花能夠與很多不同種類的真菌共存,而其他蘭花只接受 一種非常特殊的真菌進入牠們的生活,限制了蘭花的繁殖與生長的機會,所以它們會 釋放許多非常細小的種子,隨風吹散,以增加遇到發芽所需的真菌的可能性。

There are no nutrient reserves in orchid seeds ,so thay are unable to germinate on their own. In order to germinate, orchid seeds form a symbiotic relation with fungi. Some orchid species can coexist with different species of fungi while others only interact with one very specific type of fungus, which limits their chances of germination and growth. Therefore, orchids release enormous numbers of very tiny seeds to ride on the wind, so as to increase their chances of encountering their fungal partner.

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3

生長習性 Growing Habits 附生植物 Epiphyte

蘭花生長在林木的樹幹和樹枝上,並不會傷害依附生 長 的 樹 木, 以 這 種 方 式 在 樹 上 生 長 的 植 物 叫 附 生 植

物。牠們從樹的表面吸收營養和水分,根部不會與土 壤接觸,因此附生植物有時被稱為「空氣植物」。

Orchids grow on the trunks and branches of trees without causing damage to the tree. This type of plant is called an epiphyte. They absorb nutrients and water from the surface of the tree.

岩生植物 Lithophyte

生長在岩石和巨石表面的蘭花被稱為岩生植物。石頭 表面通常環境十分嚴酷,因此岩生蘭花可以適應強烈 日照和乾旱,也可依靠最少營養生存。

Orchids that grow on rocks are called lithophytes. The surface of rocks is a harsh environment on which plants to grow, so lithophytic orchids are adapted to strong sunshine and drought.

陸生植物 Terrestrial

陸生蘭花在地面棲息,根部生長在土壤中。土壤頂層 含 有 豐 富 有 機 物 質 和 落 葉, 又 與 真 菌 有 複 雜 的 相 互 作用。

Terrestrial plants grow on the ground with their roots in the soil. The upper layer of soil consists of organic materials and fallen leaves which also favours complex interactions with fungi.

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蘭花面對的各種威脅

Different Threats Faced by Orchids 即使蘭花是世界上擁有最多品種的開花植物家族,因為特殊的生態要求,令牠們特別容易 絕種,與此同時,人為因素令它們受到很大威脅。野生蘭花的非法採集及販運,和人類對 大自然環境造成的變遷,都直接對蘭花的續存帶來極大影響。

Even though orchids make up one of the largest family of flowering plants, with their special relationships with other organisms, they are very vulnerable to environmental change. At the same time, human beings threaten their existence, too. The illegal collection and smuggling of wild orchids and the destruction of orchid habitats are the two main impacts. 1

非法採集及販運 Illegal Collection and Smuggling

蘭花除可用作中藥藥材,許多稀有的蘭花品種會被偷獵者收集作園藝貿易,這些持 續性非法貿易,以及過度的採集,已經對蘭花構成很大威脅。國際野生動植物瀕危 物種國際貿易公約的管制中,就有超過七成的物種是蘭花。

Orchids are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, while some rare species are hunted for trade in the black market of horticulture. The continued illegal trade and over-harvesting threaten the growth of orchids. Orchids make up to 70% of the species listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 2

大自然的人為改變 Habitat Desctruction

蘭花對於環境的改變十分敏感,人類不斷開發大自然的不同區域,破壞了很多蘭花 品種的棲息地。過度砍伐、水壩工程、人工林、礦業和城市化這些常見的原因,已

導致了中國南部和熱帶亞洲及鄰近地區蘭花的棲息地退化,有些蘭花品種已經不幸 絕種。

Orchids are highly sensitive to changes in their growing environment. The destruction of nature as a result of logging, agriculture, dam construction, the expansion of plantation forestry and urbanisation has wiped out the habitat of many orchids and other plants, and has caused the extinction of some species.

22


香港蘭花面對的挑戰

Challenges Faced by Hong Kong Orchids 由於環境的變化及非法採集,在香港已有多於 30 個蘭花品種正面臨絕種危機。 Due to changes in their environment and illegal collection, more than 30 species of local orchids are now feared extinct in Hong Kong.

23


本地蘭花 —— 你的社區夥伴 Native Orchids —— Part of Your Community 文:紀仕勳先生

Text: Stephan Gale

生態社區,意指同一空間及共享資源的各種共同生活的物種,這個共通的環境必須滿足 各個物種生命周期的不同階段——由出生或發芽、成長及繁殖、到衰老以至死亡。這意味 着,每一個生物都在互相影響,而整個社區健康與否,則由各種生物直接主宰。兩者之間

的張力,衍生出各種出人意表的直接或間接互動。蘭花是其中一個很貼切的例子去說明這 些物種間的互相依賴。

微細如塵的蘭花種子,缺乏其他植物在綠色組織長成前賴以發芽的營養儲備,它們放棄了

體積累贅、並由澱粉質、脂肪及蛋白質構成的胚乳,以輕盈的姿態才可被風吹至數十以至

數百公里外。 那麼到底要如何達成發芽及早期成長等對能量有極大需求的機制?蘭花與真 菌建立起一套精密的互動系統去突破這個障礙:特定的真菌品種會被徵召去為指定的蘭花 幼苗提供營養。透過這種共生關係,蘭花得以篩選不合適的發芽及成長地。

品種只會在合適的棲息地成長。大部分熱帶蘭花以附生植物的方式生長,即根部會生長在 樹木的樹幹或樹枝上。這些蘭花並非寄生於宿主樹木之上,而只是透過依附於樹皮上活用

樹冠的生態環境。外露的根部既可完成光合作用,亦可吸收水分。較大的品種以厚重的根 部佔據主樹幹及主樹枝,較小的品種則以絲線般幼細的根部纏上旁枝。每個品種皆有其 所在。

成功生長至成年的植物將會迎來開花期。蘭花形狀、顏色、大小林林總總,部分品種會長

出裝飾性的柔毛及組織,有些品種則散發獨特的氣味,這些特徵共同的目標只有一個:吸 引傳粉者。絕大部分的熱帶蘭花皆由昆蟲傳粉,熱帶蜜蜂、黃蜂、甲蟲、蝴蝶、飛蛾至蒼

蠅及蠓等,目標多得叫人眼花撩亂,牠們的力量在整個蘭花家庭的進化過程中佔了很大位

置。蘭花用上各種方法去吸引合適傳粉者,但不會為牠們送上任何回報。其他植物大多會 為昆蟲提供花蜜、汁液、花粉或脂質,是這些蘭花傳粉者得以繼續生存的重要原因。 附生蘭花決不可能獨立於森林樹冠生存。

人類已然主導了全球的生態系統,包括香港、南中國及印度-緬甸 地區的熱帶森林。這些日漸脆弱的生態系統的未來,完全取決於我

們的決定—— 開始關注,抑或繼續傷害這些森林。是次展覽用上的 蘭花全部是香港及南中國的本土品種,我們掌握了它們的命運。

24


Ecological communities are populations of different species that cohabit side by side, surviving within the same space and sharing the same resources. The needs of each individual to complete its own life cycle – from birth or germination, through growth and reproduction, to senescence and death – must be met by the common environment. This dictates that the existence of every organism shapes the lives of all others, and that the health of the community as a whole dictates the outcomes

of that

organism’s own endeavours. This tension defines an array of intricate and often surprising interactions, whether direct or several steps removed. Orchids are an excellent example of this inter-dependency. The tiny, dust-like seeds of an orchid lack the nutrient reserves that practically all other plants rely upon to power seedling growth prior to the development of their own green tissue.This is because orchids have traded off endosperm, the bulky store of starch, fats and protein found in most seeds, for a lightweight propagule that can be carried on the wind – potentially for tens or even hundreds of kilometers. How, then, are the energy-consuming processes of germination and early growth achieved? Orchids have evolved a delicate interaction with fungi to overcome this hurdle. Specific fungal species present in the habitat of each orchid are recruited to supply the young orchid with nutrients. This symbiotic relationship filters where the seeds are able to germinate and grow.

25


The growth that follows will only be productive if the habitat is suitable for that particular species. Most tropical orchids grow as epiphytes – that is, with their roots attached to the stems or branches of trees. These orchids are not parasitic on their host tree, they simply attach themselves to the surface of the bark to make use of the forest canopy niche. Their exposed roots are capable of both photosynthesis and water absorption as a result. Heftier species with thicker roots colonise the trunk or primary branches, whereas lighter species with thread-like roots take to the twigs. Every species has its place. Individuals that survive into adulthood will eventually bloom. Orchid flowers are a mesmerising array of shapes, colours and sizes, some adorned with hairs and calluses, others with their own peculiar scent. All of these features serve a singular purpose: to attract a pollinator. The majority of tropical orchids are thought to be pollinated by insects, and the bewildering diversity of tropical bees, wasps, beetles, butterflies, moths, flies and gnats are thought to have played a large part in the incredible speciation of the orchid family. Orchids make use of all kinds of ingenuous mechanisms to lure a suitable pollinator, and in many cases the pollinator gets nothing in return. The other plants in the environment that provide insects with nectar, sap, pollen or lipids are therefore critical for sustaining populations of orchid pollinators. Epiphytic orchids cannot survive in isolation from the forest canopy. Humans are now a dominant feature of ecosystems globally, including the tropical forests of Hong Kong, South China and the wider Indo-Burma region. Whether we begin to care for or continue to abuse tropical forests will dictate the future of this delicate community. The orchids used in this exhibit are a selection of species native to the forests of Hong Kong and South China. They are a reminder of our hand in their fragile future.

26


嘉道理農場暨植物園

Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden 27


嘉道理農場暨植物園於 1956 年成立,當年的目標是向貧苦農民提供農業輔助,幫助他們自

力更生。從 1960 年起,透過植林、樹林的自然生長和防治山火的工作,嘉道理已轉變成主 題植物園。從前一片貧瘠的灌木林,現在已變成茂盛的樹林,供遊人參觀及欣賞。

嘉道理農場暨植物園(嘉道理)佔地 148 公頃,坐落本港最高山脈 —— 大帽山的北坡,於大

埔市附近。

嘉道理處於由兩條山脊所形成的深谷之中,谷中一條清溪沿斜坡匯流於樹林內。山坡上有 各式主題植物園,還有菜園和梯田農圃,以及各種保育及教育設施。

嘉道理致力提升大眾對生態及永續生活的關注,於香港及華南地區進行物種保育和生態系 統復修的工作,將人與大自然重新聯繫,並提倡永續的生活方式。

28


The Farm was established in 1956 to provide agricultural aid to farmers in need of support to help them lead independent lives; and to provide leisure and educational experience for the public. The theme gardens were designed and planted from the 1960's onwards, and through planting, natural process and protection from fire, what was once barren scrubland is now mature forest. Visitors are welcome. Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden (KFBG) spreads over 148 hectares of land on the northern slopes of Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong's highest mountain, near the town of Tai Po. KFBG has a deep-set valley between two ridges, with a stream running steeply down through the forest. On the slopes there are forest, theme gardens, vegetable terraces, 8km of walking trails, 9km of roads, and conservation and educational facilities. KFBG's work and influence now spread far beyond the KFBG site. They raise awareness of ecological and sustainability issues, undertake species conservation and ecosystem restoration in Hong Kong and South China, reconnect people with nature, and promote sustainable lifestyles.

KadoorieFarmAndBotanicGarden kadoorie_farm_botanic_garden www.kfbg.org

29


特別鳴謝嘉道理農場暨植物園以下部門及人士的支持:

Special thanks to the support of Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, in particular to the following departments and parties:

30


教育部

Education Department

境和諧並存」的使命,旨於

to transition to a more sustainable lifestyle and provide

教育部履行推動「大眾與環

The education programmes raise awareness of the need

提高各界對永續生活的意

practical and enjoyable ways for people to grow their

識 和 認 知, 以 及 以 不 同 的

方式加深人們與自然的連 繫, 亦 舉 辦 社 區 項 目, 向

香港不同的群組和機構分 享自然教育的訊息。

relationship with nature. We believe that education should be informed by the same wholeness and harmony that we find in nature. Currently, the department also conducts outreach events and exhibitions to bring nature to various groups in the community.

植物保育部

Flora Conservation Department

元 化 的 公 共 展 示 區, 為 本

KFBG’s public display areas, conserving native plants and

保育部致力為大眾提供多

Flora Conservation Department focuses on maintaining

地 植 物 進 行 保 育, 並 恢 復

restoring degraded forests in Hong Kong and the wider Indo-

香港及印度緬甸地區的 森林。

Burma region.

樹木管理隊

Tree Management Teams

由 合 資 格 的 樹 藝 師、 攀 樹

teams’, are made up of qualified arborists, tree climbers and

樹木管理隊,簡稱「樹隊」,

Tree Management Teams, informally referred to as ‘tree

師和地勤人員組成。

ground crew.

紀仕勳先生 高級生態學主任

Stephan Gale Senior Ecologist

植 物 園 的 蘭 花 保 育 團 隊,

Conservation Section, providing direction in both orchid

紀博士帶領嘉道理農場暨

Gale leads Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden’s Orchid

為蘭花科學和園藝學方面

science and horticulture aimed at improving the conservation

提供指導致力保育及改善 香港和印度緬甸地區的瀕 危蘭花及減低其棲息地的

status of threatened orchids and their habitats in Hong Kong and the wider Indo-Burma region.

風險。

31


工作小組

PROJECT TEAM 行政總裁 CHIEF EXECUTIVE 周蕙心 Winsome Chow 企業發展及國際項目高級經理 BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT & INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES SENIOR MANAGER 梁詠詩 Lorenex Leung 項目經理 PROGRAMME MANAGER 何文琪 Maggie Ho 邱德雯 Sasha Yau

項目主任 PROGRAMME OFFICER 朱詠怡 Anita Chu 吳詠芯 Chesna Ng 曾諾怡 Margaret Tsang 企業發展主任 BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT OFFICER 梁雅烯 Hayley Leung 項目助理 PROJECT ASSISTANT 周如因 Yannes Chow 羅楚翹 Kiu Lo 曾曉渝 Dawn Tsang


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賽馬會藝壇新勢力2020《生命如此艱難,何必搞得這麼簡單?》展覽手冊 Exhibition Guidebook  

《生命如此艱難,何必搞得這麼簡單?》展覽手冊 參與藝術家:鄭波 電郵報名及查詢:jcnap@hkadc.org.hk JCNAP網址:www.newartspower.hk "Life is hard. Why do we make it so easy?” Exhibitio...

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