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Antarctic Exploration

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Father of the Australian Navy

Invasion of The Darling Downs

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Flying into the Mouth of Hell Laurie Woods People who did not have the privilege of service in an active squadron overseas cannot appreciate the bond that existed between aircrew, which flew together “into the mouth of hell”. The book tells of one Tasmanian boy who became an aircrew bomb aimer and completed a full tour of operations among the heroic crews of Bomber Command. Air Commodore K.R. Parsons, C.B.E., D.S.O., D.F.C., A.F.C.

Ordinary Men Extraordinary Service Chris Lowndes The men of the 9th Battalion, a Queensland-based unit of the AIF, were among the very first wave of volunteers to enlist for war service, and were the first Australians to land at Gallipoli. For these young men reality would soon see their world turn upside down. This book follows these brave men through their experiences.

Subs Down Under: Brisbane, 1942-1945 David Jones and Peter Nunan David Jones and Peter Nunan tell, for the first time, the complete story of the U.S. Submarine task force based in Brisbane during World War II. Highly secret at the time, the submarines’ activities remain little known even today, though their contribution to the war effort in the Pacific was significant. Drawing on the personal experiences of individual sailors, Subs Down Under records the events that occurred during this difficult time.

Tobruk’s Easter Battle 1941 John MacKenzie-Smith The initial Australian and British victory over Rommel’s Afrika Korps on Easter Monday 1941 at Tobruk was Germany’s first defeat in World War II. The vital actions of Queensland’s 2/15 Battalion on that day have been generally ignored. For the first time, this book details how this battalion delivered the final blow to the German infantry.

Diaries of a Stretcher-Bearer Donald Munro This is the story of a family that came to Australia before WWI and soon found itself deep in the war with four volunteer family members taking part. A day-to-day account of heroism of the stretcher bearers who went out into no-man’s-land and picked up wounded and dying men and struggled back to their own trenches while being shot at by German snipers. The author’s steadfast spirit in finding, wherever possible, the lighter side of the war, is something not touched on in many war diaries.

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History

Mawson’s Last Survivor

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Anna Bemrose

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Henry Plantagenet Somerset Complied by: Denise Bender

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Alf Howard sailed with legends of the heroic era of Antarctic exploration and became a legend in his own lifetime. He was the last surviving member of Sir Douglas Mawson’s 1929-1931 British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (Banzare) and was also the last survivor to have served aboard the coal-fired three-masted wooden ship Discovery, built for Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s 1901-1904 Antarctic odyssey.

Surveying Success: the Hume Family in Colonial Queensland Hilary J. Davies The Hume family achieved success in colonial Queensland from 1863 to 1901. This snapshot of Queensland’s history reveals how they coped with isolation and the deaths of five infants while working to establish themselves among the colonial elite.

Master Mariner David Jones & Peter Nunan Captain Harold Chesterman was one of the many quiet contributors to our society: a hero who lived amongst us without widespread recognition. Master Mariner follows this remarkable man’s professional assocation with the sea. From when he was one of the few Australian lads enrolled in a British maritime training college to when he captained a support ship that serviced lighthouses and beacons along the Queensland coast.

Trombone’s Troubles is Henry Plantagenet Somerset’s account of the incidents and episodes of the first three decades of his life, including his early childhood days in India with his family, his school days in England at Wellington College, and his years spent as a jackeroo in the early pastoral days of Queensland. Trombone. As leading bass in the school choir, he sang solo ‘The Village Blacksmith’ for Queen Victoria on one of her College visits.

John Flynn Ivan Rudolph This book is an oral history based on interviews John Flynn is one of Australias greatest folk heroes. His achievements are stuff of legend - no other Austrlian has had more monuments dedicated to him than John Flynn. He established a network of cottage hospitals, flying doctors, patrol padres, welfare centres and radio transmitters to create a Mantle of Safety that would allow the Outbcak to be habitable for men, women and children.

Available at your local book shop or online at www.boolarongpress.com.au . To receive 10% off join our book club.


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The St Helena Story Jarvis Finger Several kilometres from the mouth of the Brisbane River lays St Helena Island. For more than 60 years from 1867, St Helena was home to thousands of society’s outcasts, for here was located colonial Queensland’s foremost prison for men. During those years, and in the decades following its closure in 1933, the lovely little island gained a fearful reputation as ‘the hell hole of the Pacific’ and ‘Queensland’s own Devil’s Island’.

The Morning Side of the Hill Marion Houldsworth This is an account of life in wartime Townsville. Vivid recollections capture and convey the very atmosphere of the times of school, games, Sunday School picnics and the very houses we lived in. I felt myself drawn back to my own childhood. The seemingly effortless writing and detailed descriptions of places and events are evocative of a remarkable period in Australian history. Nancy Armati, Townsville.

Queensland Turf Club – a Place in History Helen Coughlan & Noel Pascoe Take a journey back in time as you look through the pages of this book. Award winning photographer Noel Pascoe has captured some amazing memories on film which are displayed throughout this magnificent book, beautifully accompanied by Helen Coughlan’s writing that shows her passion for racing and horses.

With Compass Chain and Courage Doris Gray-Woods A brilliant book rich in history about the beginnings of surveying in Australia and New Zealand. It documents the difficulties, dilemmas and changes in surveying throughout the 1800’s through the story of two remarkable brothers, James and Horatio Warner.

The Making of a Metropolis John R. Laverty

Brisbane began as a disreputable convict establishment. When Queensland was separated from NSW and Brisbane was incorporated as a municipality in 1859, its attributes ensured that it would become capital of the new colony. Despite the ravages of depressions in the mid1860s and early-1890s, a high birth rate and a vigorous immigration policy produced a rapidly increasing population. Brisbane had reached metropolitan status by 1925. This is the untold story of Brisbane.

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Limited Editions Surveying Success: the Hume Family in Colonial Queensland Hilary J. Davies This Is A Limited Edition Of 40 Copies Only Numbered and signed The Hume family achieved success in colonial Queensland from 1863 to 1901. This snapshot of Queensland’s history reveals how they coped with isolation and the deaths of five infants while working to establish themselves among the colonial elite.

Boosting Brisbane Rod Fisher THIS IS A SIGNED LIMITED EDITION WITH DUST JACKET OF 100 COPIES ONLY Boosting Brisbane provides a treasure trove of visual delights. So if you are into history, literature, fine arts, architecture, geography, media, technology, museology or culture of Brisbane in particular this timely collection fits the bill.

Remember Cannon Hill John Gilfoyle This Is A Limited Edition Of 100 Copies Only Numbered and signed

Tom Hurstbourne

or A Squatter’s Life

Edited by Gerard Benjamin & Gloria Grant

When he moved back to Brisbane, John met up with a host of the characters who worked at the saleyards stockmen, buyers, agents, clerks, butchers, contractors, a stock inspector, a journalist and a market reporter as well as a vendor who sold cattle there in 1933, and recorded all their stories for this book.

Tom Hurstbourne: or a Squatter’s Life Gerard Benjamin & Gloria Grant

Tom Hurstbourne is a highly readable and lively novel, with an intriguing and entertaining plot. Faced with losing his centuries-old family estate to debt, Tom Hurstbourne headed to colonial Australia to make his fortune. This manuscript was long-lost for 145 years. Brisbane Editors, Gloria Grant & Gerard Benjamin, transcribed the manuscript and wrote contextual notes to help pick up the pieces.

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Fern Vale or the Queensland Squatter Colin Munro, abridged edition by Rod Fisher This Is A Limited Edition Of 20 Copies Only Numbered and signed Fern Vale or The Queensland Squatter was the first novel ever written in Queensland. This contemporary edition has been abridged by Rod Fisher. Colin Munro was a young mercantile clerk who lived in various areas throughout Queensland until he died of cancer in 1918.

Phone Karen on 07 33737855 to order these LIMITED EDITIONS. Not available online or at local book shops.


Contents Features

3

The Invasion of the Darling Downs

7

The Bombing of Darwin

What Allan Cunningham thought to be his second ascension of Cunningham’s Gap on the 25th August 1827 may well have been his first.

When the air groups of four Japanese carriers backed up by land-based bombers attacked Darwin on Thursday, 19 February 1942, it was the first time an enemy struck mainland Australia.

10 a Stroke of Luck 12  toFromHeatstroke

Queens land State Archives How to research family history.

So, You Speak Swahili, 14 Mr. Creswell From his birth at Gibraltar in July 1852 to his death in a private hospital at Malvern in Melbourne, Victoria in April 1933, William Rooke Creswell lived a life that would have been the envy of many.

19 Antarctic Exploration

Centennial Celebrations for the 1911-1914 Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) bring into focus Australia’s early voyages to the frozen continent, revealing early Queensland links to intrepid polar pioneers that can be traced back to the first voyage of Lieutenant James Cook in the late 18th century.

The engineering blacksmith Francis Horace Stubley arrived on the Charters Towers Goldfield in May 1872. He tried his luck mining…

EVERY ISSUE

24

Profiling Queensland historians who have established themselves as experts in their field.

25 Things to see and do in 26 Queensland Book reviews

29 Historical

societies of Queensland

New-release historical books.

A comprehensive list of Queensland’s historical societies – search for one in your area.

Historical sites, buildings and museums of interest in Queensland.

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28 What’s on

Test your knowledge

A list of upcoming events.

Top image: Two gold miners dressed in working clothes outside a slab bark hut with mining tools nearby, Queensland, ca. 1870. State Library of Queensland


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From the editor Our first issue has been well received by those who wrote to me. I have had some adverse comments regarding a couple of errors. I’d like to thank these people as we need to improve with each issue. The first issue went out to 500 newsagencies throughout Queensland. When I went to have a look at it on the shelf I stood in wonder at how anyone would find it. History is not a main category, although I did know this before. Posters in newsagents’ windows usually are advertising the gossip magazines, so I have to rely on my subscribers to get the word out. So come on, let your friends and relatives know about us. That would be great. We have updated the Historical Society pages as there were many left off. Sorry about that. We have added an activity page to test your knowledge of our State’s history. Thank you to David Gibson for this contribution. 2012 is a big year with the 70th anniversary of the bombing of Darwin and the centenary of Mawson’s expedition. We have had a number of great submissions so keep them rolling in. I hope your year has started well.

The publication of any editorial does not constitute an endorsement of the views or opinions expressed. The publisher takes no responsibilty for any statements made by its advertisers or contributors or decisions made by readers as a result of these opinions. EDITORIAL History Queenland welcomes your input. Please send contributions, comments, stories, news and events, photographs, etc. to: editor@historyqld.com.au

Good luck to all in 2012. Editor: Dan Kelly Sub-editor: Benjamin Harkin Art and design: Bill Adrisurya and Florence Joly

Dan

SuBScribe to History Queensland One-year subscription (four issues): $19.80 Includes postage. Contact www.historyqld.com.au email: editor@historyqld.com.au Issue 2 — $4.95 Quarterly magazine

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History Queensland Published by Boolarong Press ABN 60 009 754 929 PO Box 308 Moorooka Qld 4105 Tel: (07) 3373 7855 Fax: (07) 3373 8611 Email: editor@historyqld.com.au Website: www.historyqld.com.au

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Invasion of The Darling Downs

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ADVERTISING For advertising rates and ordering facilities, contact Karen Graham on (07) 3373 7855. CONTRIBUTORS Contributors to this issue are: Anna Bemrose, Benjamin Harkin, David Gibson, David Jones, Denise Bender and Jacqui Black, Geoff Ginn, Michael Brumby. DISTRIBUTION Integrated Publication Solutions Level 4, Media house 655 Collins Street Docklands, Victoria 3008 Ph: 1800 606 477

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Cover image: Iceberg, Wikimedia Commons | Adelie Penguins in Hope Bay, Antarctica | Scientific personnel of BANZARE (1929-30) on deck of the Discovery. Mawson Collection, South Australian Museum [R 263] | Discovery, icebound. Photo: Frank Hurley.

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hat Allan Cunningham thought to be his second ascension of Cunningham’s Gap on the 25th August 1827 may well have been his first. Cunningham had observed a gap in the main range, through which he was able to see to the coast, on his explorations northward to the Darling Downs in June of 1827. He thought he saw Mt Warning, but later this was proved to be Mt Barney. Being unable to descend to the other side, he returned to his base at Segenhoe in the Hunter Valley. On 1st July, he returned to Brisbane Town with the intent of verifying this gap as a pass to the Darling Downs. He ascended the pass on

the 25th August and was able to see the fine grazing country he previously had seen from the other side. Although Cunningham was convinced that the pass he ascended, now called Cunningham’s Gap, was the same one he had seen in 1827, historians disagree, saying that the first gap was probably Spicer’s Gap. During the years 1838-1840, the flocks of sheep and herds of cattle had greatly increased in the Northern Rivers District of New South Wales and the squatters saw the need to move northwards in search of other pastures. Despite the fact that no convicts had been sent to Moreton Bay since 1839, it was still regarded as a Penal Settlement, where no person was allowed to enter Brisbane Town without permission and no squatters could form stations within the 50 mile limit of the Settlement. In May 1839, Governor Gipps

sent surveyors Robert Dixon, James Warner and Granville Stapylton from Sydney to prepare the district for free settlement. On the 31st May 1840, Stapylton and William Tuck, his convict assistant, were murdered by Aborigines at Mt Lindsay. On 3rd May 1840 Patrick Leslie, a friend of Allan Cunningham who gave him directions, along with Peter Murphy, his assigned ex-convict, marked the first tree of his track to the Darling Downs. This tree later was known as Leslie’s Marked Tree Line near Wyndham Station on the McIntyre River on the Northern NSW Frontier. On 20th June 1840 Patrick, his brother Walter and party, brought the first sheep and cattle to the Downs, making a temporary camp at the junction of the Condamine River and Sandy Creek. Later, with Patrick Murphy, they rode through Cunningham’s Gap and halfway to Limestone Station (Ipswich) intending to go on to Brisbane Town. As they had no credentials, they decided to return via the Gap to their station. They reported that the steep slope on the eastern side made it unsafe for their drays to go down the

Allan Cunningham 1791-1839, pen and ink drawing by Phillip Parker King, National Library of Australia | Cunningham’s Gap. Photo: Wigz.

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Queensland’s Ships in Distress

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hen the air groups of four Japanese carriers backed up by land-based bombers attacked Darwin on Thursday, 19 February 1942, it was the first time an enemy struck mainland Australia. Although Darwin suffered the blow, its shock waves quickly spread across the nation. Queensland, sharing the northern frontier, had some close connections with the raid and its victims. The interstate liner Manunda was well known in Queensland’s east coast ports, particularly in the winter months when she took passengers as far north as Cairns. In 1940 she was converted into a hospital ship, painted white overall with large red cross markings visible from all angles in accordance with the Geneva Convention. When Darwin was attacked she was anchored among other ships in the harbour. For a time she was untouched and she quickly had boats out to rescue casualties. But her red crosses did not protect her from all attackers as one aircraft dropped a bomb close beside her that punched 76 holes in her side,

then a direct hit exploded in the medical and nursing staff’s quarters. Altogether 12 people on board were killed, including Sister Margaret de Mestre, the first nurse to die in action in Australia, and 58 more were wounded. Other victims of the raid had passed through Queensland ports before finding themselves in Darwin on this fateful day. The American transports Meigs and Admiral Halstead had been part of a convoy that brought the first U.S. troops to Brisbane just before Christmas 1941. Arriving so soon after the Pacific War began and bringing 4600 troops to camp at Doomben and Ascot racecourses, this convoy was an enormous boost to the city’s morale. Two months later both ships were anchored in Darwin Harbour when the Japanese bombers arrived. At 12,568 tons Meigs was the largest vessel in Darwin during the raid and she attracted the greatest attention from the attackers.Dive bombers swooped on her repeatedly and she was hit

several times, set on fire and quickly sank. When the shooting stopped, all that could be seen of this fine vessel were her mastheads and funnel top standing above the water. But despite the ferocity of the attack only two crewmen perished out of 66 aboard. Admiral Halstead was loaded with drums of aviation fuel and would have exploded in a fireball if she was hit. Her crew abandoned her early in the raid, but fortunately all the bombs fell wide and she survived with only minor damage. Altogether five merchant ships were sunk in the harbour along with the destroyer USS Peary and a couple of local naval auxiliaries. Three more freighters were beached, two of them seriously damaged, and many other vessels were damaged. On shore Stokes Hill Jetty was

The MV Neptuna sunk during the first air raid on Darwin. Museum Victoria. | Betty Bombers. Wikimedia Commons.

History Queensland

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How to research family history 4. Try a name search. Of course, if looking for record types fails you could try doing a cold name search. You might have other people with the same name and a multitude of different records, or indeed nothing at all. Name searching is a gamble in this sort of family history, however, when you can’t find dates or specific types of record, name searching will be the next logical step. 5. Make a phone call to Queensland State Archives’ archivist to know where to look. Be sure to call an archivist working at the Queensland State Archives, so you have a plan on where certain documents are held, to save time figuring out which section of records houses the information. You will be at the Queensland State Archives for a while. 6. Come to Queensland State Archives and pack a lunch. You will be there all day. Why I state that you should check the online database first is simply for ease. The archives are not in Brisbane City. The Queensland State Archives is located at Runcorn, near Sunnybank Hills. Anyone who doesn’t live on that side of town, let alone State, should pack a lunch box, as you might be History Queensland

there a while. Five hours or more – a full day – would be recommendable to get the best out of the Queensland State Archives. There is a Reader’s Lounge where you can eat and rest, however, there is no café. Pack a lunch box. There is also hot water provided. 7. Bring a camera and/or USB, pencil and paper (or indeed laptop). Aside from a lunch-filled lunch box, two other items would be optional: a USB stick and a digital camera. With the USB stick, there are imaging machines at the Queensland State Archives for magnifying and scanning records that can then be saved on to a USB stick for personal perusal at home. The digital camera can be used for photos of the records themselves. Asking the archives to make a copy for you is pricey, so a camera or a USB device would be the wisest strategy. Pens and food are not allowed in the Public Search Room, so make sure you are fed and find an alternative way to take notes (or a laptop). 8. Public transport and driving details? One upside to the drive is that car parking is free. For public transport options please refer to the Queensland State Archives website (http://www. archives.qld.gov.au/findus.asp).

9. Talk to relatives – gain as much background as you can. Before you go to the Queensland State Archives and indeed after, relatives would be the primary source for your research. With the finds from the archives, you might be able to jog the memory of some reserved relatives, or shed new light on things your relatives may not know about, or indeed can’t remember. Overall, your family will probably want to know about your finds and it may lead to more to let them know. 10. Source your records. Look up preferred citation on the Queensland Archives site. It is located here: http://www.archives.qld.gov. au/downloads/BriefGuides/ BG31Citation.pdf 11. Come with an open mind to the Queensland State Archives – research may be difficult and take a long time. Family history is no easy exercise and you must be prepared for the unexpected, both in the finds and the researching itself. Benjamin Harkin

11


From a Stroke o Gill Street Procession 1905. Charters Towers and Dalrymple Archives

Mining settlement circa 1890. Wikimedia Commons.

shares at Ballarat and breeder of fashionable bloodstock. He had a taste for the high life and for gambling.

The engineering blacksmith Francis Horace Stubley arrived on the Charters Towers Goldfield in May 1872. He tried his luck mining on at least 13 claims before doing best on the St Patrick and the Bryan O’Lynn. Frank claimed to have made £1500-£2000 per week as a practical miner from these mines alone. He invested in others. Within eight years he had made around £2,000,000 from his interests all over Australia and New Zealand. As well, there were his pastoral pursuits. He acquired Evelyn Station outside Herberton, which he named after his wife. He also purchased Glencoe and St Anna’s. While having become very rich he was very generous and well beloved by his employees. Frank’s popularity, influence and large stake in the mining district pushed forward his candidacy as one of the joint members for the seat of Kennedy. He won it with

overwhelming support of the goldfield’s young labourers in 1878. But it was a flawed political venture, for in politics Stubley was untried and unpractical. He was described as a true specimen of his class: free-handed and reckless, especially with his money. He became a flaneur in Melbourne, a hirer of special intercolonial trains, a wouldbe cornerer in cereals and mining

Resultantly, Frank’s wealth quickly melted away. He appeared before a judge in Melbourne’s Insolvency Court in 1884 where he was called into account. This was a little difficult as Frank had no records. He had not kept books for his cattle stations and no books were kept by him or his servants showing what moneys he received on his mining ventures. Even the counterfoils of cheque books were not kept. He owed the banks over £30,000. The judge committed Stubley to gaol when he failed to disclose what had become of his key disposable assets. This was the large amount of jewellery

The Sydney Morning Herald, Monday 24 March 1884. Trove Australia.

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History Queensland


4 Grahame Budd; David Carstens, et al., ‘Obituaries: Dr Jon Stephenson’, ANARE Club Journal Aurora, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 20-23, and Stephen Hicks’ ‘Obituary Philip Jan Stephenson’, Polar Record, published online 22 September 2011.

Budd returned to Heard Island in January 1965 in a party of nine led by Warwick Deacock to climb Big Ben and to carry out a scientific program. On the 25th of the same month, five members – including Deacock and Budd – reached the summit.5 David Carstens, another Queenslander, first visited Antarctica in 1961, and then wintered at Mawson station in 1962 when extensive fieldwork was undertaken. An autumn vehicle traverse led by Frederick

Lucas established a depot halfway to the Amery Ice Shelf in support of a planned spring traverse to the Ice Shelf. Carstens led a three-man dog sledging party that left the station on 9 September and established the position of Church Mountain and Mount Kennedy by astrofix. Within days of returning to Mawson, David led another party in mid-October to establish a heavy vehicle route to the Amery Ice Shelf and to undertake survey and glaciological work. It was the first time the Ice Shelf had been visited over surface, except for a dogsledging visit to Jetty Peninsula in 1956. Mapping of the western margin of the Ice Shelf was carried out using a snow-track vehicle and the Amery Ice Shelf party of eight men returned to Mawson in mid-January 1963. 5 Tim Bowden, ‘Heard Island: The Climbing of Big Ben’. Aurora, Vol. 30, No. 3, March 2011, p. 12.

Since 1947, such ships as the Wyatt Earp, Kista Dan, Thala Dan, Nella Dan, Icebird, Polar Star and the Aurora Australis have taken in excess of 300 expeditioners from Queensland appointed as administrative, maintenance and scientific members of ANARE to Macquarie Island, Heard Island, Mawson, Davis, Wilkes and Casey. A number of them as well as the polar pioneers mentioned above have been recipients of the Polar Medal and other prestigious awards. Although at first glance it would seem unlikely that a company in Queensland’s south-east corner could participate in the exploration and scientific research of Antarctica, Forgacs

Cairncross Dockyard in Brisbane has, in April 2005 and more recently in September 2011, played an important role in the maintenance and upkeep of Australia’s polar flagship – the Aurora Australis.6 Anna Bemrose

6 The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), David Carstens, Forgacs Cairncross Dockyard, Brisbane and Syd Kirkby provided additional data and photographic contributions for this article.

Big Ben assault, 1963. From L to R: Jon Stephenson, Grahame Budd and Warwick Deacock (Photo: Alan Gilchrist, ©Australian Antarctic Division). | Aurora Australis in drydock, Brisbane 2011 (Photo: Forgacs Cairncross, Brisbane).

History Queensland

23

Crab-Eater Seals, Peterman Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

J (Jon) Stephenson (1930-2011). In 1956, Jon along with Ken Blaiklock and Hal Dog team Enderby Land traverse 1960 Lister wintered (Photo: Ric Ruker). over at South Ice — the advance base for the TAE located on the polar plateau approximately 500 miles from the South Pole. Throughout the winter they were confronted with -50ºC conditions and 24-hour darkness. Jon and Ken were assigned to work out a safe route for the tractor train. Driving their two dog teams ahead of the Sno-Cats they constructed snow cairns to identify the route. At one point, Jon narrowly avoided death when he fell through a snow bridge. Stephenson and Blaiklock became the first people since Amundsen to drive dogs teams to the South Pole. Five years later Jon returned to the Antarctic in an attempt to make the first ascent of the 2745-metre-high ice-covered active volcano Big Ben on Heard Island with Warwick Deacock and Grahame Budd, who had already been the medical officer and OIC on Heard during 1954-55. ‘The very arduous conditions encountered resulted in having to pull back from the attempt just 500 metres below the peak… Five days of blizzard engulfed their tent and left the party short of food. They had to abandon their tent and endure an arduous threeday descent to Long Beach, spending five days in makeshift shelter before returning to the Atlas Cove base.4


Profiling Margaret Doherty

Margaret Doherty would be better described as a student of history than a historian. She works behind the scenes, compiling documents and managing two societies as President of both the Queensland Historical Society and the Genealogical Society of Queensland. Margaret never pursued history during her schooling (the subject was never offered), so the first career pursuit was more mainstream. With two Bachelor degrees in health and accounting respectively, Margaret followed up with a Masters in Health Administration while working for Queensland Health. This degree contributed to Margaret’s interest in women’s sociology and history during colonial Australia. Margaret wanted to know why so many from Great Britain immigrated to Australia. As a result of her research on these migrant families, Margaret sees the 100 year period pre-Federation as a triumph of people working hard, overcoming obstacles, learning to use what abilities they had and making the

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most of the small amount of money they had in setting up these homes and businesses. They had a drive to achieve something in Australia for themselves and their descendants. There has been a boom in personal family history research as a result of baby boomers starting to retire and television programs on the subject. “People are not just interested in the facts, but also the social history of the ancestor,” Margaret commented. “You need to know the person behind the name and it can be an insight as to your talents and beliefs.” We can’t forget how brave those immigrants were travelling thousands of miles to a place unknown. For many anything was better than what they had in Great Britain. What planted the seed for Margaret’s family history obsession came from hearing or reading about stories near her father’s home town, Pittsworth, on the Darling Downs. One of the stories Margaret uncovered concerns her great-grandfather. He established a property at Pittsworth and his brother wrote a number of manuscripts, which have been given to the State Library. Their father needed to leave Scotland to find better opportunities. The manuscripts detail the voyage to Australia, the walk from Queensland to Victoria and the gold fever that existed in Victoria at that time. Margaret compared this with a trip from Sydney to Victoria by car. It took four days to drive half the distance. Margaret visited her elderly mother regularly, but when she passed away there was spare time that allowed her to conduct further research into

family history. It was something she could put down and pick up again in between jobs, and, perhaps her own mother’s death was a prompting that time and information is short when it comes to family and relatives. From there, Margaret Doherty got more involved with the Genealogical Society of Queensland, where she is now President. Last year she also became President of Queensland Historical Society. Working for both the larger, statewide society of History Queensland Inc and the Genealogical Society of Queensland means that Margaret can be active in both local and the state wide history. It allows Margaret Doherty’s role to be a promoter and advocator for smaller societies while representing the larger history and family history association. In essence, she can communicate with both groups at once and make representations to government. Margaret downplays herself as ‘purely amateur’ in history circles, however, her roles in curating Queensland’s history prove otherwise. A current project of Margaret’s is working with other volunteers to enter details of people who were in Queensland between Separation and Federation. The project aims to provide information on Queensland’s early colonists. Although larger, professional historical organisations will contribute a substantial sum of the records to the Archives, other historical societies keep special types of records that can be crucial.

History Queensland


Book reviews Surveying Success The Hume Family in Colonial Queensland by Hilary J. Davies $29.95, Boolarong Press. The Hume collection at the University of Queensland’s Fryer Library is a font of evidence for the social history of colonial Queensland. Walter and Katie Hume were avid letter writers, diary keepers and photograph takers, and the surviving family papers yield superb insights into the life and manners of the period from rural settlement in the 1860s to Federation. In this book, Hilary Davies tracks their progress from arrival and the early years of marriage on to professional achievement and social acceptance, before comfortable retirement in Britain. It is an impressive research achievement, and a very readable account of what might be regarded as the quintessential trajectory of a successful colonial family. Walter and Katie’s story is a cameo, seen here against the grand panorama of Queensland’s development up to 1901. Hume worked in the great engine room of colonial progress: as a surveyor he was a functionary of the Department of Lands, rising to be Crown Lands Commissioner for the Darling Downs between 1875 and 1882 and later Under-Secretary and Chief Commissioner of Crown Lands, based in Brisbane. As a resident of Drayton and Toowoomba until the mid-1880s he and his family were outside the metropolitan hurly-burly, but they certainly adhered closely to the required rituals of regional society. Davies places the family at an interesting junction: part of the great social divide of squatter vs. selector on the Downs, but embedded in the professional networks that accompanied the development of services in the fledgling post-frontier society. The approach taken here is to weave the personal, social and professional details of the Humes’ lives, and those of their extended family, into a larger historical tapestry. The small events of Walter’s employment or Katie’s social round are set against the big picture of political contests, economic change and social developments in town and country. There are also deft forays into contextual topics like family planning, infant illness and mortality, the politics of the survey office, holidays at Southport, colonial dress codes, juvenile education in Queensland and Britain, charitable work and philanthropy, Brisbane’s nascent cultural institutions and the Queensland Marine Defence Force. All of these are well handled and extremely informative for the general History Queensland

reader. Like many of their class and era, Katie and Walter remained stiffly conventional, prim and buttoned-down Victorians, but Davies has done a tremendous job of drawing out the larger historical patterns illustrated by their lives and careers. Much more than simply an account of one highly typical family, Surveying Success is a rich and thoroughly researched work of Queensland history. Reviewed by Dr. Geoff Ginn, School of History, Philosophy, Religion & Classics University of Queensland. For an additional review by Dr Bill Meteolf of Griffith University, visit www.historyqld.com.au.

David Gibson

DG David is one of the most recognised names in Brisbane History circles. With 35+ years in the business of history he offers professional services. • • •

Heritage Tour Planner & Guide History Lecturer for Conferences Heritage Consultant

Expressions of interest are invited for David’s 2012 history tours of Tasmania and Norfolk Island.

+61 7 3300 3172 A schedule of Professional Fees is available upon request

www.talkinghistorywithdavidgibson.com

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Book reviews

Things to see and do...

The St. Helena Story

JAMES COOK MUSEUM

by Jarvis Finger $39.95, Boolarong Press Several kilometres from the mouth of the Brisbane River lies St Helena Island. For more than 60 years from 1867, St Helena was home to thousands of society’s outcasts, for here was located colonial Queensland’s foremost prison for men. During those years, and in the decades following its closure in 1933, the lovely little island gained a fearful reputation as ‘the hellhole of the Pacific’ and ‘Queensland’s own Devil’s Island’, where men were reputedly ‘kept chained by day and night’, ‘flogged to death’ and ‘hurried under the sod while their oppressors turned on those still living’. It was a place to dread for the colony’s murderers, rapists, bushrangers, rebels, thieves and men of like violence and mayhem. They were subjected to the lash, the dreaded black hole, the gag and straight jacket, and energy-sapping shot drill. Life could be tough on St Helena. It was a secure prison – but dozens of men were desperate enough to attempt escape. Few succeeded. But St Helena also gained a reputation as a self-sufficient model prison, held in high regard by visiting interstate and overseas penologists, churchmen and journalists, for here men could be rehabilitated through learning such trades as tailoring, bootmaking, tinsmithing, saddlemaking and farming pursuits. Indeed, it was claimed that the prison was for the inmates ‘a perfect paradise… In fact they often want to get back there’. Where does the truth reside? Was the St Helena Island Penal Establishment ‘living hell’ for society’s miserable outcasts or was it ‘a remnant of old Eden’? Special Offer: $10 off The St. Helena Story – March only.

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The Museum is located in the former convent of St Mary, erected 1887-1889. The existence of this large masonry building is indicative of Cooktown’s importance during the Palmer gold mining boom. The collection includes an Endeavour cannon, one of six jettisoned by James Cook when his barque, Endeavour, ran aground on the Endeavour Reef south of Cooktown in 1770. Special features include the original Endeavour anchor, also recovered from the reef, items pertaining to Cooktown history and the beautiful convent chapel. Location: Corner Helen & Furneaux Sts, Cooktown Qld 4871.

QANTAS FOUNDER’S MUSEUM The Q.A.N.T.A.S. Founders Museum tells the story of how it all began: • Medical Practice: medical services in isolated places, the problems of road transport. • The principles of flight: aerodynamic forces: lift, thrust, weight and drag, aircraft control: roll, pitch and yaw. • The big trip: in 1919 Fysh and McMaster made a big trip in a Model T Ford to map and build airstrips for the Great Air Race. This crystallised the idea to found an airline. Wings to the World: how Q.A.N.T.A.S. developed into an international airline and became Qantas. Early pilots: a certain style: tales from an open cockpit. Flying Doctor: how Q.A.N.T.A.S. played a major role in the establishment of the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Location: Longreach Airport, Sir Hudson Fysh Drive, Longreach Qld 4730.

History Queensland


Things to see and do in Queensland Fancy an historical outing? There is a treasure trove of places in Queensland just waiting for you to discover them – below are just a few. We found these and many more on the Australia Shop Safe website: http://australia.shopsafe.com.au. The Cairns Museum The Cairns Museum presents a history of Cairns and District in static and pictorial displays. Beginning with our Aboriginal and Islander beginnings, the Chinese influence and early timber, mining and agricultural industries, the displays touch on every period of our development from foundation to the present day. Communications, Cairns in WWII and railway historical items are presented on the spacious verandas, while displays reflecting our domestic artifacts, shipping, the impact of European culture and local Aboriginal history are presented in the main showrooms. A representation of an early Chinese Joss House is an important feature. A range of Society publications and monthly bulletins are available for sale at the counter and a video outlining the attractions of Cairns and District is constantly displayed for the enjoyment of visitors. The Cairns Museum is fully airconditioned.

Tours leave regularly throughout the day. Enclosed footwear is required for your safety. Where: North St, North Ipswich Phone: (07) 3432 5100

HOU WANG CHINESE TEMPLE AND MUSEUM

The museum encourages visits from school groups and other interested parties. Contact the Society (by phone, fax or email) for additional information and to arrange bookings. Where: Park Regis City Quays – Cairns, 6 Lake Street Phone: (07) 4051 5582

The Workshops Rail Museum – Ipswich Steam Shop Tour Take a Heritage Railway Workshops Tour into the Steam Shop to hear a Queensland Rail worker talk about the process of building and maintaining heritage locomotives and carriages. See what heritage rolling stock is currently being restored. History Queensland

The Hou Wang Temple was the social and religious heart of Atherton’s Chinese community. Apart from the temple itself, there was also a community hall, kitchen and a pig oven. People gathered here to worship, celebrate festivals and discuss community issues. Nowadays, it is the only remaining structure of the original town. It is highly significant as a rare example of temples in overseas Chinese settlements. This unique building houses elaborate carvings and has an intriguing past. Location: 86 Herberton Rd, Atherton Qld 4883.

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What’s on Cane Toad Times: Poking fun in a police state’ exhibition – State Library Queensland The exhibition, Cane Toad Times: Poking fun in a police state, showcases original issues of Cane Toad Times publications as the centrepiece of an unfolding cultural history created by a collective of individuals who sought to expose a hidden Brisbane.

Freckles, Fags and False Teeth – some things are synonymous with childhood. After spending five years reading childhood memoirs, trawling through manufacturers’ archives and talking to Australians about the lollies of their youth, Dr Toni Risson has uncovered the history of Australian confectionery. The result is on display at the Bribie Island Seaside Museum in an exhibition entitled A Mixed Bag.

With stories called Death of a Prostitute, Queensland Politics – Trust Honest Greed, A Cute Psychotic State, Kicking the Sunbeam and Expo Aversion Therapy, the Cane Toad Times contributors embraced satire and popular culture in their irreverent storytelling whilst exploring the issues, events and problems predominantly misrepresented by mainstream media.

The exhibition features Macpherson Robertson, the Chocolate King who started out in the family bathroom with nine pence worth of second-hand equipment, and the round-Australia promotional tour in 1924 of a giant ‘candy roll truck’ on Life Saver wheels. Also on display are memorabilia and marketing material from prominent Australian companies like Allens, Hoadley and Sweetacres. “While older people may not realise that Violet Crumbles, Polly Waffles and Cherry Ripes are no longer Australiaowned,” Dr Risson said, “younger generations may not even recognise the products that are uniquely Australian.”

5 November 2011 – 25 March 2012 The British Royals: a Queensland story’ exhibition – Queensland State Archives 19 October 2011 onwards: With Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip’s recent 10-day visit to Australia, there’s no better time to visit Queensland State Archives’ latest exhibition, ‘The British Royals: a Queensland story’. ‘The British Royals: a Queensland story’ exhibition shines a spotlight on the British Royal family’s visits to Queensland. The exhibition can be seen at Queensland State Archives at 435 Compton Road Runcorn between 9.00am and 4.30pm weekdays and the second Saturday of each month. A Mixed Bag

When: 17 December 2011 – 26 February 2012 Where: Bribie Island Seaside Museum 1 South Esplanade Bongaree, Bribie Island Museum Awards Congratulations to all the winners of the 2011 Gallery and Museum Achievement Awards: Staff of 5 or more Cairns Regional Gallery, Malu Minar: Art of the Torres Strait international touring exhibition, Cairns. Staff of under 5 Caloundra Regional Gallery, TreeLine people art science nature, Caloundra. Volunteer run Mt Morgan Museum, Mt Morgan Murri: Indigenous stories of the Mt Morgan region, Mount Morgan. Individuals: paid Richard Baberowski, former Coordinator of Cultural Development, Moreton Bay Regional Council, Caboolture . Individuals: volunteer Elaine Madill, Wondai Regional Art Gallery, Wondai.

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History Queensland


Historical societies of Queensland Australian Railway Historical Society: Queensland Division

Kelvin Grove History Group

GPO Box 682, Brisbane Q 4001 (07) 5464 4552

c/ 46 Gibb Street, Kelvin Grove Q 4059

Royal Historical Society of Queensland

PO Box 355, Ashgrove Q 4060 (07) 3366 1952

PO Box 12057, Brisbane Q 4003 (07) 3221 4198

New Farm & Districts Historical Society Inc. PO Box 1141, New Farm Q 4005 (07) 3254 1449

Nundah & Districts Historical Society Inc. 1A Bage Street, Nundah Q 4012 (07) 3260 6703

Shire of Toombul History Group PO Box 85, Banyo Q 4014 (07) 3267 8266

Sandgate & District Historical Society & Museum Inc. 150 Rainbow Street, Sandgate Q 4017 (07) 3869 2283

Redcliffe and District Family History Group Inc.

Listed by postcode

Ashgrove Historical Society

The Gap Pioneer & History Group Inc. 31 Debbie Street, The Gap Q 4061 (07) 3300 1783

Toowong District Historical Society Inc. PO Box 187, Toowong Q 4066

Chinese Australian Historical Association Inc. PO Box 855, Toowong Q 4066

Toowong History Group PO Box 808, Toowong Q 4066 (07) 3870 9538

St Lucia History Group c/- 49 Raglan Street, St Lucia Q 4067 (07) 3403 2520

PO Box 3122, MDC Clontarf Q 4019

The Indooroopilly and District Historical Society

Redcliffe Historical Society

Walter Taylor Ward Office, Indooroopilly Shopping Centre, Indooroopilly Q 4068 (07) 3407 0005

PO Box 370, Redcliffe Q 4020 (07) 3284 0028

Windsor & Districts Historical Society Inc. PO Box 539, Windsor Q 4030 0401 802 980

Chermside & Districts Historical Society Inc. PO Box 416, Chermside Q 4032 (07) 3350 1394

North Brisbane Branch of Genealogical Society of Qld

Queensland Family History Society PO Box 171, Indooroopilly Q 4068 (07) 3285 2682

Brookfield Historical Society PO Box 1374, Brookfield Q 4069

Centenary Queensland Family History Association Inc. PO Box 432, Mount Ommaney Q 4074

PO Box 353, Chermside South Q 4032

Oxley-Chelmer History Group

Ennogera and Districts Historical Society Inc.

59 Dudley Street, Sherwood Q 4075 (07) 3379 1967

PO Box 200, Alderly Q 4051 (07) 3366 3191

The Gap Historical Society Inc. PO Box 2115, Keperra Q 4054 (07) 3300 2004

Brisbane History Group PO Box 12, Kelvin Grove Q 4059 (07) 3351 6371

History Queensland

Richlands Inala and Suburbs History Group Inc. PO Box 2088, Inala Heights Q 4077

Genealogical Society of Queensland PO Box 8423, Woolloongabba Q 4102 (07) 3891 5085

Boggo Road Gaol Historical Society PO Box 6462, Fairfield Gardens Q 4103 0432 554 470

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Historical societies of Queensland Coopers Plains Local History Group

Tamborine Mountain Heritage Centre

Crows Nest Historical Society Inc.

PO Box 8111, Sunnybank Q 4109

55-57 Wongawallan Rd, Eagle Heights Q 4271 (07) 5545 3929

PO Box 82, Crows Nest Q 4355 (07) 4698 1269

Genealogical Society Southern Suburbs Branch PO Box 844, Mt. Gravatt Q 4122

History Queensland Inc. PO Box 399, Mt Gravatt Q 4122 (07) 3824 0825

Mount Gravatt District Historical Association 73 Invermore Street, Mt Gravatt Q 4122

Historical Society of Beaudesert 54 Brisbane Street, Beaudesert Q 4285 (07) 5541 3740

Beaudesert Branch Genealogical Society of Qld Inc. 16 Laura Court, Beaudesert Q 4285 (07) 5544 1105

Ipswich Genealogical Society

Logan River and District Family History Society Inc.

PO Box 323, Ipswich Q 4305 (07) 3201 8770

PO Box 601, Waterford Q 4133 (07) 3807 0701

Ipswich Historical Society

Coorparoo and Districts Heritage Group PO Box 263, Coorparoo Q 4151

Friends of Balmoral Cemetery

Warwick Historical Society Museum 79-83 Dragon Street, Warwick Q 4370 (07) 4661 1527

Texas Family History Group Inc. PO Box 61, Texas Q 4385

PO Box 1160, Goondiwindi Q 4390 (07) 4671 3045

Fassifern District Historical Society Inc.

PO Box 21, Cleveland Q 4163 (07) 3829 8999

PO Box 370, Leyburn Q 4365

Mount Crosby Historical Society Inc.

PO Box 605, Cleveland Q 4163 (07) 3286 2955

Redland Libraries, Redland City Council

Leyburn & District Historical Society Inc.

Goondiwindi & District Family History Society

PO Box 7072, Mt Crosby Q 4306

PO Box 9019, Cleveland DC Q 4163

24 Charlotte Street, Millmerran Q 4357

PO Box 295, Ipswich Q 4305 (07) 3282 0358

Redland Genealogy Society

Friends of Peel Island Associations Inc.

Millmerran and District Historical Society

PO Box 56, Boonah Q 4310 (07) 5463 1970

Brisbane Valley Heritage Trails Inc. PO Box 51, Toogoolawah Q 4313 (07) 4171 0100

Toogoolawah & District History Group Inc.

Dalby Family History Society Inc. PO Box 962, Dalby Q 4405 (07) 4662 4108

North Pine Historical Society Inc. 128 Frenchs Road, Petrie Q 4502 (07) 3204 5068

Bribie Island Historical Society Inc. PO Box 936, Bribie Island Q 4507 (07) 5497 6378

PO Box 257, Bulimba Q 4171

GPO Box 51, Toogoolawah Q 4313

Wynnum Manly Historical Society Inc.

Rosewood Scrub Historical Society

Caboolture Family History Research Group Inc.

PO Box 318, Wynnum Q 4178 (07) 3393 4393

PO Box 4, Marburg Q 4346 (07) 5464 4808

PO Box 837, Caboolture Q 4510 (07) 5428 2018

Friends of Tingalpa Cemetery Hertiage Group Inc.

Toowoomba Historical Society Inc.

Woodford Historical Society Inc.

PO Box 1171, Toowoomba Q 4350 (07) 4638 7362

32 Kirby Street, Woodford Q 4514 (07) 5496 1389

Toowoomba Regional Council Local History Centre

Kilcoy District Historical Society

102 Moreton Avenue, Wynnum Q 4178 (07) 3396 9472

Coochiemudlo Island Historical Society 11 Kingfisher Street, Coochiemudlo Island Q 4184

PO Box 3021, Toowoomba Village Fair Q 4350 (07) 4635 5895

Gold Coast Family History Society Inc.

Rosalie Shire Historical Society Inc.

PO Box 2763, Southport Q 4215 (07) 5582 8855

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PO Box 21, Kilcoy Q 4515

Caboolture Historical Society Inc. 280 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture Q 4517 (07) 5495 4581

PO Box 164, Goombungee Q 4354 (07) 4696 5389

History Queensland


Historical societies of Queensland Dayboro District Historical Society Inc. 27 Williams Street, Dayboro Q 4521 (07) 3425 2032

Caloundra Family History Research Inc. PO Box 968, Caloundra Q 4551

Genealogy Sunshine Coast Petrie Park Road, Nambour Q 4560 (07) 5441 4266

Cooroy-Noosa Genealogical and Historical Research Group Inc. PO Box 792, Cooroy Q 4563 (07) 5442 5570

Toowoomba and Darling Downs Family History Society Inc.

Mount Bauple & District Historical Society Inc.

Longreach Archival and Historical Research Group

Bauple Drive, Bauple Q 4650 (07) 4193 9341

PO Box 306, Longreach Q 4730 (07) 4658 3049

Hervey Bay Family History Association

Lower Burdekin Historical Society Inc.

161 Old Maryborough Road, Pialba, Hervey Bay Q 4655 (07) 4197 4237

PO Box 716, Home Hill Q 4806 (07) 4782 1434

Isis District Historical Society PO Box 426, Childers Q 4660

Bundaberg Genealogical Society

Family History Association of North Queensland PO Box 3659, Hermit Park Q 4812 (07) 4728 2833

PO Box 103, Bundaberg Q 4670 (07) 4157 4164

Townsville Museum and Historical Society Inc.

Genealogical Society Gladstone District

PO Box 1562, Aitkenvale Q 4814 (07) 4775 7838

PO Box 767, Gympie Q 4570 (07) 4634 7377

PO Box 1778, Gladstone Q 4680 (07) 4978 2501

Gympie Family History Society Inc.

Boyne Valley Historical Society Valley Cottage

PO Box 783, Charters Towers Q 4820 (07) 4787 2124

c/- Ubobo General Store, Ubobo, Boyne Valley Q 4680 (07) 4974 1207

Mount Isa Family History Society

Rockhampton and District Historical Society

Cairns and District Family History Society Inc.

PO Box 169, Rockhampton Q 4700 (07) 4927 8431

PO Box 5069, Cairns Q 4870 (07) 4053 1530

CQ Family History Association Inc.

Cairns Historical Society

PO Box 10099, Frenchville Q 4701

PO Box 502, Manunda Q 4870 (07) 4051 5582

PO Box 767, Gympie Q 4570

Private Forestry Services Qld Inc. 224 Mary Street, Gympie Q 4570 (07) 5483 6535

Yarraman & District Historical Society Inc. 26-28 Millar Street, Yarraman Q 4614 (07) 4163 8111

Gayndah & District Historical Society Inc. Simon Street, Gayndah Q 4625 (07) 4161 1698

Baralaba & District Historical Group Inc.

Charters Towers & Dalrymple Family History Association

PO Box 1832, Mount Isa Q 4825

Australian Mining History Association

PO Box 67, Baralaba Q 4702 (07) 4998 1383

PO Box 6811, Cairns Q 4870 (07) 6488 2939

Byfield & District Historical Society Inc.

Douglas Shire Historical Society

PO Box 749, Yeppoon Q 4703 (07) 49351169

Maryborough District Family History Society

PO Box 948, Port Douglas Q 4877 (07) 4098 4900

Capricorn Coast Historical Society Inc.

Mareeba Historical Society

PO Box 408, Maryborough Q 4650 (07) 4123 1842

PO Box 1900, Yeppoon Q 4703 (07) 4939 2491

9 Toll Close, Mareeba Q 4880 (07) 4092 3599

Maryborough Wide Bay & Burnett Historical Society Inc.

Emerald & District Historical Association Inc.

Eacham Historical Society

School of Arts, Kent Street, Maryborough Q 4650 (07) 4121 6646

PO Box 2018, Emerald Q 4720 (07) 4982 1050

Eisvold and District Historical Society Inc. PO Box 28, Eidsvold Q 4627 (07) 4165 0895

PO Box 533, Malanda Q 4885 (07) 4096 6239

Cooktown History Centre PO Box 595, Cooktown Q 4895 (07) 4069 6640

History Queensland

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History Queensland Issue 2