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Published by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Vol. 8 No. 2 Fall 2017

The Identification of a Spanish Shipwreck

A PLACE IN HISTORY: THE JOHNSON FAMILY THE QUEST FOR JUPITER'S LIGHTHOUSE KEEPERS FALL 2017 | 1


Recently, the HSPBC Archives received the gift of a collection containing a large assortment of photographs, news clippings, magazines, and other ephemera related to Harry F. and Mary Morahan Aden of West Palm Beach. The Aden family—originally from Havana, Illinois— came to West Palm Beach in 1913 when Harry Aden was thirteen years old. This collection includes depictions of the everyday life of Harry and his family and various events in the Palm Beaches a century ago. Above, Harry captured the 1922 Seminole Sun Dance Parade on his Graflex camera from the balcony of the Lake Park Hotel. The site later became the Florida Theatre and currently houses Palm Beach Dramaworks. 2 | TUSTENEGEE


Contents

Vol. 8 No. 2 Fall 20177

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A Place in History: The Johnson Family By Debi Murray Celebrating the 10th anniversary of the eponymous Palm Beach County History Museum, we look back at 2016's Archival Evening's honorees, Richard and Pat Johnson

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The Identification of a Spanish Shipwreck

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Departments

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Become a Member HSPBC Membership Volunteer New to the Collection Photographic Collections

By Nick Golubov Courier vessels, called aviso ships, delivered important corresponcence between the New World and Spain. One such ship never returned home, and its treasure would have been lost forever if not for extensive research and some luck.

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The Quest for Jupiter's Lighthouse Keepers By Josh Liller Research during the last few years has identified 77 civilian keepers who served at Jupiter Lighthouse between 1860 and 1939. In this article we look at a few key keepers and their family stories.

On the Cover

On July 13, 1987, lifeguard Peter Leo spotted the shapes of an encrusted anchor and cannon on the ocrean floor. Peter Leo is seen in this image with a diver, recovering a cannon from the San Miguel shipwreck.

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From the Editor Dear Reader, Fall has arrived, and with it the beginning of our busiest season. We look forward to the upcoming lectures and other engaging events. I hope you will spend some time thinking of the Historical Society when you plan your end-of-year giving. In this edition of the Tustenegee, we look to new discoveries and the power of archival research with an article on the fascinating discovery of the San Miguel shipwreck off the Jupiter Inlet. As we prepare for our signature event, Archival Evening, we look back at previous honorees Richard and Pat Johnson. We always welcome articles that recall, retell, and explore historic events, people, places, and themes related to Florida and Palm Beach County. The Tustenegee provides a platform for researchers, academics, professionals, and history enthusiasts to add to the body of knowledge and to share those stories with our readers. Sincerely,

Rose Gualtieri Editor

Editor-in-Chief Debi Murray Editor Rose E. Gualtieri Copy Editor Lise M. Steinhauer Graphics and Layout O'Donnell Agency Printed by Kustom Print Design

The Tustenegee is a journal about Palm Beach County history and is published online twice a year by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. The Historical Society of Palm Beach County is a non-profit organization whose mission is to collect, preserve, and share the rich history and cultural heritage of Palm Beach County.

Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Highway West Palm Beach, FL 33401 Phone: (561) 832-4164 Fax: (561) 832-7965 www.hspbc.org www.pbchistoryonline.org Mailing Address: Historical Society of Palm Beach County PO Box 4364 West Palm Beach, FL 33402-4364 The contents of the Tustenegee are copyrighted by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. All rights are reserved. Reprint of material is encouraged; however, written permission from the Historical Society is required. The Historical Society disclaims any responsibility for errors in factual material or statements of opinion expressed by contributors. The contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the editors, board, or staff of the Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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The Historical Society of Palm Beach County gives special thanks to our Corporate Members & Partners Corporate Members

2017-2018 Corporate Sponsors Atlas Event Rentals Blue Ocean Capital Budget Blinds of West Palm Beach Bush Brothers Provision Co. Capehart Photography Cheney Brothers, Inc. Cool Beans Play Café Corporate Property Services Dailey Janssen Architects Edward Jones | James Smeenge Equipment Rental Service, Inc. Erneston & Sons Produce, Inc. Fernando Wong Outdoor Living Design Flagler Realty & Development, Inc. Florida Crystals Garden of Life Gunster Haifa Limestone

Hedrick Brothers Construction Holyfield & Thomas, LLC Lesser, Lesser, Landy & Smith, PLLC McCranels Orthodontics Murray, Guari Trial Attorneys, PL Nicoletti Wealth Management Group at Stifel O’Donnell Agency Okeechobee Steak House PNC Bank Palm Beach Garage Palm Beach Illustrated Palm Beach Kennel Club Pat Moran Family Foundation Pioneer Linens Pratt & Whitney REG Architects Rhythm & Hues

Sandy James Fine Food Productions Searcy Denney Scarola Barnhart & Shipley, PA Skier Law Firm Tesla Motors Tito’s Homemade Vodka U.S. Sugar Very Important Paws Window Gang of Palm Beach Woolems, Inc.

Community Partners City of West Palm Beach Discover the Palm Beaches Florida Farm Bureau University of Florida Everglades Resource and Education Center Florida Sugar Cane League

The Professional Firefighters and Paramedics of Palm Beach County Benevolent Fund West Palm Beach Antique Row Art & Design District West Palm Beach Downtown Development Authority

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A Place in History: The Johnson Family By Debi Murray

Pat and Richard Johnson. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

Archival Evening is the Historical Society of Palm Beach County’s premier fundraising event, designed to honor a local person or people important to our collective history. Guests receive a program of the night’s events that includes a short biography of the honorees. The editorial staff would also like to share this information with Tustenegee readers. Working backwards, the article below is from Archival Evening 2016, when we honored Richard and Pat Johnson on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the eponymous Palm Beach County History Museum. We hope you enjoy.

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ixty-one years of marriage, five children, the same number of in-laws, fourteen grandchildren, and six great-grandchildren (and counting) are all due to a series of accidents. Even though Richard Salisbury “Dick” Johnson and Patsy Ann “Pat” Seaton were both delivered, nearly a year apart, by Dr. W. W. George at a maternity home on Kenilworth Boulevard, West Palm Beach, their families did not know one another. A pretty remarkable feat considering the small town that was West Palm Beach in the 1930s.

Pahokee house built in 1940. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. 6 | TUSTENEGEE

Dick’s parents, Richard Green Johnson Jr. and Catharine Elizabeth Quinn, lived on Potter Road, but spent most of their time in Pahokee on Bacom


Point Road, where they had a farm. They supplied vegetables to county markets, and Dick and his siblings began their formal education in a one-room schoolhouse. Dick graduated from Pahokee High School in 1948 before being accepted to Duke University. As he waited at the train station to depart for college life in North Carolina, Dick met a fellow Duke freshman from West Palm Beach, William “Bill” Hollenbeck. Dick and Bill decided then to be roommates—an accidental pairing, but Dick had learned that his scheduled roommate was unable to attend that year. Accompanying Bill to the station was his high school sweetheart, Pat Seaton.

be a nurse. Mary Washington was a very strict school, and the students were closely monitored during the week, but on weekends, she could sign herself out and go wherever she desired. Many weekends found her in Durham visiting Bill and his roommate, Dick Johnson. After two years, Pat would transfer to the University of Florida.

After freshman year, all three friends returned to West Palm Beach for the summer. Bill went on an extended family vacation and asked Dick to keep Pat entertained. There were many group outings with friends, but one trip to the beach on Singer Island led to another fateful accident—literally. After a day in the sun, Dick was driving the group home Pat had attended West down US 1 as, one by one, Palm Beach elementary and his passengers drifted off middle schools, graduating to sleep. Unfortunately, from Palm Beach High Dick also fell asleep, and School the same year as crashed the car. Most of the Dick. She was heading Yearbook photos of Richard S. Johnson (Pahokee HS) & Patsy Ann Seaton occupants were fine, but Pat to the University of Mary (PBHS). Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. hurt her arm and had to stay Washington that fall. in the hospital a few days, Her yearbook declared she was going to be an with more recovery time at home. Dick was her interior designer, but Pat later said she wanted to constant attendee and before they knew it, they

Left: Dick Johnson's dad standing in one of their vegetable crops ca. mid-1930s. Center: Clyde Hall Jr and Patsy Ann Seaton. Right: "Dickie at one year with Daddy." Photos courtesy HSPBC Archives. FALL 2017 | 7


Pat and Dick at a Duke vs Maryland game. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. were declaring their feelings for one another. Ever the gentleman, Dick informed Bill of the events of that summer, and the three remained friends until Bill’s death at the age of 44.

country. But the Johnsons decided that since people worked all their lives to retire to Palm Beach County, they would just stay and raise their family here—it also seemed a pretty good place to make a living.

Married August 4, 1951, the newlyweds returned to Durham for Dick’s final year at Duke. At a visit to a West Palm Beach OB-GYN that summer, Pat had been informed that she could never have children. But just nine weeks after the nuptials, she started suffering from morning sickness, a welcome sign of just how clueless that doctor had been. Pat stayed in Durham until shortly before Dick graduated with his B.A. in business administration. He arrived in West Palm Beach just days before their first child, Patricia Ann, was born.

After his father died in 1957, Dick and his siblings rented out the 275-acre Johnson Farms in Pahokee, which had been in the family for three generations. The family continues to grow vegetables and sugar on the land. Meanwhile, Dick went into the insurance business, first with S. D. Morris, a former mayor of West Palm Beach; and then at Cornelius, Johnson & Clark, which grew into the county’s largest independent insurance agency. In the 1980s, Dick and his partners sold the business.

Dick received numerous job offers from around the

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Dick, William C. Clark, and others started Flagler National Bank in 1974, the first national bank to be


chartered in West Palm Beach in 38 years. In 1978 the bank’s principals built the six-story Flagler Center on the former site of a Cadillac dealership at 501 South Flagler Drive. They later added a fifteen-story tower to the south. Flagler National Bank was sold to Sun Trust Bank and Dick then established the Johnson Investment Group in West Palm Beach. The philanthropy of Dick and Pat Johnson has focused on leadership and support, often serving together, to benefit education and healthcare through such institutions as the Rehabilitation Center for Children and Adults, Brady Urological Institute at Johns Hopkins University, Duke University Medical Center (where they established the Richard and Pat Johnson University Professorship in Cardiovascular Genomics and where they both sat on the Board), and St. Mary’s Medical Center. Pat has chaired many events, especially for St. Mary’s, where Dick was chairman of the board for more than a decade. Palm Beach Atlantic College recognized Pat with their Women of Distinction Award (2001) and Dick with the American Free Enterprise Medal (1995). Pat with her four children. Left to right: Patricia, Cathy, Richard, and Helene ca 1959-60. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

Palm Beach Atlantic College Women of Distinction 2001. Pat is seated third from the right. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. FALL 2017 | 9


Grand opening of the restored 1916 courthouse and the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

The Johnson Family. (Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.)

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Construction during the restoration of the 1916 courthouse and the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. In the meantime, the Johnsons continued to add to their family. After Patricia, Dick and Pat had four more children: Catharine Lorraine, Helene Hall, Richard Salisbury Jr., and Scott Allen. All of them still live and work in Palm Beach County, and while the family has remained extremely close over the ensuing decades, Pat has been especially grateful for their comfort and support since Dick’s passing in 2012. Imagine if Dick Johnson or Bill Hollenbeck had taken different trains to begin their studies at Duke

... or if Dick’s original roommate had not changed his plans ... or if Bill’s family had remained in West Palm Beach that fateful summer ... or if Dick had not crashed his car with Pat Seaton on board. So many “ifs.” If any of those things had happened differently, we would be celebrating another honoree—and perhaps the Historical Society of Palm Beach County would be at a very different place along its path. Fortunately for this institution and all its visitors, Dick and Pat cemented their historic legacy with the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum.

AVAILABLE ONLINE

The

Archives

HSPBC’s Collection Catalog is available for browsing. It is a great place to begin research or to view and order photographs from our extensive archives. With over 13,000 records and 26,000 photographs available online, discovering your history couldn't be more easy. To access the catalog, please visit www. hspbc.org/archives

HISTORICAL SOCIETY of

PALM BEACH COUNTY

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The Identification of a Spanish Shipwreck By Nick Golubov

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ften, the discovery of relics from our collective past is the product of fortunate circumstances. Swimming in shallow water off of Jupiter Inlet Park on July 13, 1987, lifeguard Peter Leo made the discovery of a lifetime. Because they were freshly uncovered by a period of intense wave activity, Leo could clearly identify the shapes of an encrusted anchor and cannon on the ocean floor. While the sighting of such artifacts in Florida’s coastal waters is not a daily occurrence, the abundance of objects that have been exhumed should come as no surprise given the frequency with which European vessels plied Florida’s coastline. Eventually identified as the 1660 wreck of the San Miguel de Archangel, Leo’s discovery would require extensive research before its provenance could be confirmed. In order to sustain its colonies in the Americas and facilitate the return of resources to the Old World, Spain sent two fleets to the New World each year. The Nuevo Espana (New Spain) fleet (flota) left Cadiz in the spring, ultimately destined for the port of Vera Cruz in what would become Mexico, after stops in other important Caribbean ports. The South American fleet, known as the Terra Firme flota, serviced the Isthmus of Panama, Cartagena, and by extension, the Pacific colonies of Peru and Ecuador by way of La Via Royal (the Royal Road). While the voyage to the New World was a 12 | TUSTENEGEE

Peter Leo displaying treasured artifacts from the San Miguel wreck. Photo courtesy Peter Leo. logistical necessity, the fleets’ return to Spain is the component that is most often romanticized as the ships’ original cargos were replaced with innumerable treasures. Whether returning vessels traveled alone or as part of a fleet, they maintained one common denominator; all employed the Gulf Stream current through the Florida Straits as the primary egress to Spain. Understanding the movements of these vessels is important in establishing the routes utilized by treasure ships and the frequency with which they encountered the east coast of Florida. Further exploration of Spanish shipping routes


The final link in this chain, before the return voyage to Spain, was Havana. This was the primary point of departure from the New World, where ships gathered from across the Americas to be inventoried, consolidated, and prepared for the trip home. The Spanish even went so far as to return salvaged

shipwrecked cargo to Havana for re-assessment before reloading onto another ship bound for Cadiz. To say that Spain’s agents in the Americas kept detailed records would be a gross understatement, and this paper trail has aided modern researchers in their investigative endeavors. As one might imagine, with so many vessels coming and going, identifying a 350-year-old shipwreck such as the San Miguel is no easy challenge. In the absence

Star of Lima coins recovered from the San Miguel wreck. Photo courtesy Capehart Photography. of indisputable evidence from the actual wreck site, such as a bell exhibiting the ship’s name, the identity must be confirmed through an exhaustive search of available archived materials. The Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies), is the primary

Artifacts from the San Miguel shipwreck. Photo courtesy Peter Leo.

sheds light on the bureaucracy associated with the movement of resources across Spain’s empire in the New World. The series of events involved with consolidating materials from various outposts and their subsequent shipment to the Iberian Peninsula were met with scrutiny by officials from the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade). This government agency documented and tracked the quantity and movement of valuable cargo – such as ore, bullion, gems, and coinage – through every step of its transfer. Various stamps were applied to the cast bullion ingots to ensure they were properly taxed, evidence of which can be seen emblazoned across the treasures exhumed from shipwrecks the world over. Based in Seville, the Casa, as it is known, maintained officers at every major port across Spain’s colonial holdings. The purpose of all this oversight was to collect the Quinto Real (Royal Fifth), the Crown’s one-fifth portion of gross production of all resources accrued.

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Anchor being recovered from the San Miguel. Photo courtesy Peter Leo.

the vessel might have looked like is a complicated question. Laymen are often content to label any ancient Spanish wreck as a galleon, but this assumption would be inaccurate in the case of the San Miguel. Archival documents describe the vessel as an aviso (dispatch ship). Regularly traveling alone, an aviso would have been considerably smaller and swifter than the galleons that often come to mind when the subject of Spanish colonial shipwrecks arises. The San Miguel is thought to have been roughly 70 feet in length, a fast and maneuverable vessel armed with at least 10 cannons. Consistent with other dispatch ships of the period, the San Miguel was rigged with three masts – a fore mast, a main mast, and smaller mizzen at the stern. Her battery of guns would have occupied the main deck. Thirtythree crew members are known to have survived the

repository for documentation related to Spain’s empire in the Americas and the Philippines. Here are housed records such as those created by the Casa de Contratación. Located in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, the archive’s contents often provide the only record available to identify a ship’s name and purpose. In addition to archival research, archeological excavation of the wreck site revealed that the San Miguel was transporting a sampling of silver reales of various denominations. Briefly minted from 1659 to 1660 in Lima, Peru, these exceedingly rare coins have come to be known as “Star of Lima reales” due to a pronounced star symbol which graces each piece. The inclusion of these rare treasures among the exhumed artifacts provided researchers with an additional clue as to the ship’s identity. The complicated political backstory associated with the Lima mint’s brief operation during this period is well documented and served as the impetus for the San Miguel’s ill-fated journey. While archival and archeological research eventually concluded the identity of the ship, what exactly Drawing of the San Miguel excavation. Photo courtesy Peter Leo. 14 | TUSTENEGEE


Archives of the Indies. wreck, so the ship accommodated at least that many. To effectively employ the ship’s armaments in action while tending to the complicated task of sailing such a vessel, it seems safe to conclude that this type of ship could have been crewed by a great many more. At this writing, excavation of the San Miguel wreck is inactive. The legal hurdles, logistical issues, and expense attributed to the exploration of sensitive underwater archeological sites present their own set of unique challenges. Legislation intended to

protect historically significant wreck sites has dissuaded entrepreneurs from investing in further investigative endeavors. The absence of funding for state and federal archeological agencies, coupled with the private sector’s reluctance to engage, is concerning. These factors contribute to a growing concern that potential future discoveries may remain unidentified.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Nicholas Golubov, Research Director at the Historical Society of Palm Beach County since 2013, holds a B.A. in History from Florida Atlantic University and a B.S. in Industrial Design from the Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale. Golubov assists in the management of the library and archives, is responsible for research assistance and exhibit planning, and is the curator of the recent exhibition Shipwreck: Discovering Lost Treasure now on display at the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum. For research questons and inquiries please contact Nicholas Golubov, Ngolubov@hspbc.org, 561.832.4164 ext. 112.

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Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse ca. 1879. James Armour and his daughter Katherine stand by a supposed washing shed to the right. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. 16 | TUSTENEGEE


The Quest For Jupiter's Lighthouse Keepers From an article originally published in US Lighthouse Society’s Keeper’s Log, Fall 2016

By Josh Liller

(Edited for space by Lise Steinhauer)

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he historical marker at Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse names the seven head keepers who served between 1860, when the lighthouse was first lit, and 1939, when the Coast Guard took over the Lighthouse Service. As the lighthouse tour guides know, three keepers served at a time – a head keeper plus two assistants – and the lighthouse was not automated until 1987. Who were the other keepers? Answering that question is more difficult than one might think! The traditional starting points for researching lighthouse keepers are two National Archives resources: Registers of Lighthouse Keepers and the Official Register of Employees of the United States. Neither is a complete record, and they only cover appointments up to 1912. Lighthouse Service correspondence in the National Archives also reveals appointments, promotions, dismissals, and resignations. Careful reading of the records is required to determine if a keeper entered duty weeks or months before his official appointment date. One very valuable historical record is sadly not available for Jupiter. Each lighthouse kept a daily logbook that included changes in personnel. Most of these are now in the National Archives, but not for Jupiter's civilian era and World War II; their whereabouts are a mystery. Jupiter’s Coast Guard logbooks from mid-1946 through 1970 are available and contain a wealth of information, including a

Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse state historic marker. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. nearly complete record of Coast Guard lighthouse keepers during that period. Fortunately, Coast Guard muster rolls were used to compile a complete list of lighthouse keepers and lookouts who served at Jupiter during World War II. The National Personnel Records Center of the National Archives branch in St. Louis holds records about lighthouse keepers who served after 1900. In addition to basic info – appointments, transfers, resignations – these files often contain commendations, reprimands, disputes, and other FALL 2017 | 17


Hannibal Pierce is an excellent example of the detective work sometimes required. The Register of Lighthouse Keepers shows John Harrison was appointed as 2nd Assistant Keeper on February 20, 1873, "pending examination," with no further remarks. Delving into the correspondence related to keepers shows Harrison had originally been nominated on June 26, 1872, to be effective upon the resignation of the current assistant keeper on June 30, but for some reason the Lighthouse Board did not submit this application to the Secretary of Treasury for approval until February 1873. Harrison’s service is confirmed in the original manuscript of pioneer Charlie Pierce’s memoirs, though the relevant information does View of Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse and surrounding area, 1931. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. not appear in the published version, Pioneer Life in Southeast Florida, where Charlie described his father, Hannibal Pierce, replacing Harrison as assistant intriguing correspondence. This great resource keeper in October 1872. Due to the mix-up, Pierce seems largely untapped by researchers due to its was not formally appointed until July 1873, nine location. Ordering photocopies of files from the months after he started. National Archives can be prohibitively expensive. For in-person visits, personnel files must be pulled Research during the last few years has identified 77 in advance, and it seems more difficult to find a civilian keepers who served at Jupiter Lighthouse reasonably priced researcher in St. Louis than for the between 1860 and 1939, including the previously main archives in Washington, DC. Beyond the National Archives, genealogy skills and modern research resources are crucial to flesh out the lives of keepers. We are fortunate to live in an era when many vital records and newspapers are digitized and searchable. For a few of Jupiter’s lighthouse keepers, the only record of their service is on a census. The names of Jupiter’s first two temporary keepers in 1860, Charles and William Patterson, and a temporary keeper in 1885, Olin F. Laney, are known only from census records. Newspaper and magazine articles by lighthouse visitors provide bits of information, such as the names of keepers on particular dates and an outsider’s glimpse of light station life. A search of newspapers like the Florida Star, Tropical Sun, and Palm Beach Post turn up a few additional keepers and many more details about the lives of known keepers. On a few rare occasions, newspaper reporters interviewed Jupiter lighthouse keepers about their lives and duties. The case of assistant keepers John Harrison and 18 | TUSTENEGEE

Hanninal D. Pierce in his Union Army uniform. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.


Jupiter Lighthouse and the keepers' houses, 1884. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. known seven head keepers. Gaps in the chronology and keepers alluded to in official documents without being named indicate there are several other keepers yet to be discovered. This figure would be much higher if not for stability at the head keeper position. Jupiter had only four different principal keepers between 1866 and 1946: William Benson Davis (3 years), Joseph Wells (12 years), Charles Seabrook (26 years), and an amazing 38 years by James Armour.

Jupiter shows a marked difference in lighthouse keepers before and after Civil Service Reform. Only seven of the 38 assistants at Jupiter between 1866 and 1896 served at another lighthouse. Half of the assistants during this period served about a year or less, and only six served more than five years. (The six include Armour and Wells, who started as assistants and were promoted to Principal Keeper). Nearly all of these keepers were already FALL 2017 | 19


Florida residents before entering the Lighthouse Service; many were Palm Beach County (originally Dade County) pioneers. In contrast, only eight of 28 keepers appointed to Jupiter between 1900 and 1939 lived in Florida prior to joining the service. The majority (18) entered the Lighthouse Service from the Carolinas. Out of 28 assistants, 22 were assigned to at least one lighthouse besides Jupiter, and nine became head keepers at other stations after leaving Jupiter. In addition to dates and names, the following are stories about keepers at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse that are little known or recently discovered. Thomas Twiner, the first head keeper at Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, served for less than six months, and almost nothing is known about him; he has not been identified on any census records. A scathing report in the National Archives from the District Inspector dated November 16, 1860 – only four months after the light was first lit and the keepers arrived – reveals the reasons for Twiner’s dismissal: I feel by duty bound respectfully to bring to the notice of the Board the shameful dirty and negligent condition in which I found things at this light station. Upon entering the lantern room I found a puddle of dirty water entirely surrounding the lens. This was condensed atmosphere. On looking up at the lantern and lens covers I found them not only dirty and filthy, but stained as could only have been accomplished by their use as bed clothes upon the dirty floor of the lantern room. Upon removing the lens cover I found the lens dirty and dusty. Upon entering the lens the flooring was covered with dirt and dust and the lamp corroding with verdigris [oxidation]. In removing the lantern curtains the lantern glass was dusty and glazed and showing in one place a long streak of bird lime. The Keeper admitted that he had not touched anything since his oil gave out . . . I found the spare lamps, one of them in the lantern room dirty and filled with rubbish, and the other upon the floor of the [keeper’s] dwelling room, both corroding with verdigris. I am sorry to be obliged to state these facts and only do so from a sense of duty. The same 20 | TUSTENEGEE

Augustus O. Lang by George Potter, originally printed in Camping and Cruising in Florida, 1884. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. feeling urges me to recommend the appointment of a proper keeper at this almost inaccessible lighthouse. It is fairly well known that Confederate sympathizers chased head keeper Joseph Papy away from the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse on August 15, 1861, so they could disable the light by removing its lamps, oil, and other supplies. Latrell Mickler, a distant relation of Joseph Papy, published a genealogical history of the Papy family (Gaspar Papi and Ana Pons Their Lives and Descendants, Infinity Publishing, 2008) that contains a very revealing letter from the National Archives about this event. The Superintendent of Lights in Key West wrote a letter on the former keeper's behalf which states Papy "was abused and shamefully treated because he refused to join" the Confederates. "He, with his wife and three little children, made their escape from rebel lines in a small open boat, with little or no provisions, exposed to the inclemency of Continued on page 22


View from the top of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, 1876. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. FALL 2017 | 21


of Cain’s granddaughters married Albert Hunter, a Coast Guardsman assigned to a buoy tender in Fort Pierce. After Fort Pierce, Hunter walked in the footsteps of his grandfather-in-law at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, except Hunter was a head keeper. John Rogers Umfreville was an English immigrant who served for the entire Civil War in the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry. He survived the war despite being wounded, captured by the Confederates, and imprisoned at Richmond. After the war, Umfreville came to remote Jupiter and became an assistant keeper, but died after less than three months due to an accidental gunshot.

James Armour, 1877. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. the weather, and were upwards of 3 weeks before they arrived at Key West." Dempsey Cain was born in Georgia and moved to north Florida, where he served as a volunteer in the Third Seminole War before enlisting in the Confederate Army. Midway through the war he deserted and made his way to Key West, where he worked as assistant keeper at nearby Sand Key Lighthouse. After the war, he was one of three keepers appointed to the relit Jupiter Light and sharing a single six-room house in the wilderness. Cain was an ex-Confederate landlubber from Georgia; the other two keepers, William B. Davis and James Armour, were older, Yankees, and former sailors. They must have gotten along well enough because Cain stayed more than two years. After a stint as sheriff of Brevard County, he married and settled on property at the mouth of the Sebastian River to farm and grow citrus. He is considered the founder of the town of Roseland, Florida. One

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Lighthouse keeping has often been a family affair; wives assisted husbands (often succeeding them upon death), and sons and daughters lent a hand and sometimes followed in their father's footsteps. From 1872 to 1900, Jupiter had a different kind of family business. Seven relatives of principal keeper James Armour's wife, Almeda Carlile, were assistants: two brothers, one brother-in-law, and four nephews. The Carlile Family were early settlers of LaGrange, Florida, near Titusville. Among the seven assistants were Joshua and Alfred Smith. Alfred was an early Barefoot Mailman, carrying mail along the beach between Jupiter and Lake Worth in the early 1880s. Nineteenth-century photographs of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse are due to Melville Evans Spencer, a Palm Beach County pioneer from Pennsylvania who took up the assistant keeper's position after his predecessor, S. P. Collins, died under unknown circumstances. Spencer acquired a camera and began selling "Spencer & Armour Stereoviews" to tourists. Among the visitors he photographed were James Henshall (author of a notable 1884 memoir, Camping and Cruising in Florida) and Thomas Carnegie, brother of famous tycoon Andrew Carnegie. After six years at Jupiter, Spencer became the only 19th-century Jupiter keeper to earn a promotion to another lighthouse. He was transferred to the remote Sombrero Key Lighthouse in the Florida Keys, where he continued to take


Left: Melville E. Spencer in his lighthouse keeper uniform. Left to right:Thomas O'Brien (probably), James Armour, and Joseph Wells.. Photos courtesy HSPBC Archives & Florida Memory.ty.) photos. While there, Spencer kept a log of the different species and numbers of birds that struck the lighthouse, which provided the Audubon Society with an effective way to study migration patterns.

keeper on four separate occasions over four years, a fact known primarily because the local newspaper frequently listed local government officials, including the keepers.

James Ashton Pine Jr. served at Jupiter, St. Augustine, and Ponce Inlet, one of Jupiter’s few 19th-century keepers to work at multiple lights. Pine probably had an easier path to his appointment than most: the Collector of Customs in Fernandina Beach made keeper appointments for the Florida East Coast at the time, and his father, James, Sr., held the post. Pine Jr.'s life came to a gruesome end in 1921, when he was brutally hacked to death on a rural road in Dade County. The horrific crime made front-page news in both Miami papers. The prime suspect fled to Mexico; whether he was ever brought to trial for Pine's murder is currently unknown.

When a vacancy came up for the 1st Assistant Keeper position in 1894, the District Inspector argued that Wells merited that appointment despite never having officially been 2nd Assistant. The inspector made a good case to the Lighthouse Board: 1) Wells "distinguished himself in saving the buildings of the station from fire" as temporary assistant the previous year. 2) With Captain Armour nearly 70 years old, it was important to "provide for the succession of a first-class man to the keepership of this important and distant station." And 3) Wells was a "better man than any second assistant keeper in this District." Since the 6th Lighthouse District stretched from Jupiter to Wilmington, North Carolina, this was high praise indeed.

Joseph Wells grew up in the Midwest in the 1870s where, at a young age, he lost his mother and two older brothers. He moved to Florida in his twenties and in the early 1890s made his way to Jupiter, where he tried farming. Wells served as temporary assistant

The inspector underestimated Armour's longevity (he would not retire for another 12 years), but his faith in Wells was well placed. Wells married Armour’s oldest daughter, Kate, and succeeded his father-inlaw as Principal Keeper from 1906 to 1919, during FALL 2017 | 23


Portrait of James Armour and family. Photo courtesy Florida Memory. which time he was often commended for keeping an excellent station. He resigned due to persistent health problems. The best-known photo of Jupiter's lighthouse keepers shows three men in keeper uniforms standing in front of the door at the base of the lighthouse tower. Two of the men were long ago identified as James Armour and Joseph Wells, but the third man remained a mystery. At one point he was misidentified as Reinhard Heisser, who was a keeper at Jupiter, but not until after Armour's death and is now known from other photos. Another time, a granddaughter of Horatio Alexander Carlisle identified the man as her grandfather. Carlisle definitely served as an assistant keeper in the 1880s and requested an appointment to fill a vacancy in 1896, but no evidence has been found to confirm his service then. An alternative identity has emerged for this third keeper: Thomas J. O'Brien. He is known to have served at the weather bureau station next to the lighthouse, and a 1905 photo of him bears a very strong resemblance to the mystery keeper. In the 1960s, Bertha Armour Bush (Captain Armour’s youngest daughter) wrote to historian Bessie Wilson 24 | TUSTENEGEE

DuBois stating that she could not recall the man’s name with certainty, but thought it might have been O’Brien. No official document or newspaper article has yet been found to conclusively prove who served as 2nd Assistant Keeper between May and December 1896 – Carlisle, O'Brien, or someone else. Carl Svendsen was the first of nine assistant keepers at Jupiter who went on to be head keepers by the 1930s. Carl's father and brother were both lighthouse keepers, mostly in South Carolina. While stationed in Jupiter, Carl married Jupiter resident Annie Baker and went on to become the longest serving head keeper of the St. Simons Island Lighthouse in Georgia. Regulations allowed lighthouse keepers to hold a second job as long as it did not interfere with their keeper duties. Harry Harley Jones took the job of 2nd Assistant Keeper while also Jupiter's Congregational minister. He stayed on for nearly three years and even married a local couple at the top of the lighthouse.


While most lighthouse history quite understandably focuses on the civilian era, the Coast Guard era should not be forgotten. Jupiter was not automated until 1987. The Coast Guard records, along with a handful of newspaper articles, reveal that at least 100 military light keepers from all across the country served at Jupiter. Some served only briefly, but many had long careers with the Coast Guard. Sadly, many of those who served here have already passed away. Author Elinor DeWire, who has written extensively about lighthouses, rightfully says, “There's a human story at every lighthouse.” Each lighthouse is also a window into the lives of the keepers, a connection between a vast number and variety of people with many fascinating experiences. The preceding stories are just a small sample of those that Jupiter’s lighthouse keepers could tell.

Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, 2003. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Josh Liller is the Historian and Collections Manager for the Loxahatchee River Historical Society (LRHS). In addition to operating Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse and Museum, LRHS is dedicated to preserving and presenting the history of the Jupiter, Tequesta, and Loxahatchee River regions. Josh is currently working on his first book, a compilation of short biographies of all known civilian and military keepers that served at Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse. Surviving Coast Guard keepers and descendants of any Jupiter keeper that can provide stories, documents, and/or photos can contact Josh at jliller@jupiterlighthouse.org or (561) 747-8380 x108.

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NOW ON EXHIBIT 26 | TUSTENEGEE


Become a Part of History Join Today! Benefactors – $2,500 & above

The success of any organization relies on leaders with a strong commitment to its mission, who serve as ambassadors and inspire others. In addition to the benefits of general members, Benefactors receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), a book from our Museum Store, a copy of a historic photo from our Archives, an exclusive Benefactors Reception in Palm Beach, and your name on HSPBC letterhead.

Pioneer Circle – $1,000

Our Pioneer Circle members recognize the challenges of our forefathers, who inspire our shared civic pride. In recognition of this support, you will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), a book from our Museum Store, and a copy of a historic photo from our Archives.

Flagler Circle – $500

Celebrate the vision of Henry Flagler in developing this special community by the sea through your support. You will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), and a book from our Museum Store.

Mizner Circle – $250

Like Addison Mizner, you can help change the face of Palm Beach County. You will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), and a copy of a historic photo from our Archives.

Barefoot Mailman – $125

Make your community stronger by helping to provide free admission for all to the Johnson History Museum. You will receive invitations to special events, such as the private opening receptions for new exhibits.

Family/Dual – $75 | Individual – $50

As vital as all our levels is this foundation of support from singles and families, needed to continue operations at the HSPBC and the Johnson History Museum.

All Members are entitled to free research from the Archives and Library, by appointment.

Historical Society of Palm Beach County TITLE

FIRST NAME

LAST NAME

ADDITIONAL NAME ADDRESS

APT. #

CITY STATE

DAYTIME PHONE

ZIP

EVENING PHONE

EMAIL ALTERNATE ADDRESS DATES FOR OUT-OF-TOWN MAILINGS ADDRESS

APT. #

CITY STATE

ZIP

SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP $ ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTION $ AMOUNT ENCLOSED $ Enclosed is my check in the amount of PAYABLE TO:

HSPBC

Or please charge my credit card: CARD NUMBER EXP. DATE

SEC. CODE

NAME AS IT APPEARS ON CARD

SIGNATURE

COMPLETE, CUT OUT, AND RETURN TO: HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PALM BEACH COUNTY ATTN: LISE STEINHAUER PO BOX 4364

WEST PALM BEACH, FL 33402-4364

*You can also join online at hspbc.org FALL 2017 | 27


HSPBC Membership as of December 19, 2017 Benefactor ($2,500) Mr. Thomas Anderson & Mr. Marc P. Schappell Mrs. Brenda McCampbell Bailey Ms. Margaret Cheryl Burkhardt Mr. Joseph Chase Mr. & Mrs. Michael M. Connors Mr. & Mrs. Christopher B. Cowie Mrs. Martha B. DeBrule Mr. Mark B. Elhilow Mr. George T. Elmore Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey H. Fisher Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Ganger Mr. & Mrs. Malcolm Hall Mr. & Mrs. Chris Hill Mrs. Richard S. Johnson Sr. Mr. Russell P. Kelley III Mr. & Mrs. Thomas M. Kirchhoff Ms. Patricia Lambrecht Mr. & Mrs. Howard M. Lester Ms. Betsy Matthews Mrs. Sydelle Meyer Ms. Pauline Pitt Mr. J. Grier Pressly III Mrs. Frances G. Scaife Mr. & Mrs. Mark Stevens Mrs. Annette Stubbs RADM Philip A. Whitacre USN (Ret.) Mr. William Sterling Williams Mr. Robert C. Wright

Pioneer Circle ($1,000) Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Alderton Ms. Jane Beasley Mr. & Mrs. Gary Burkhead Mr. & Mrs. Robert Forbes Mr. & Mrs. Mariano Garcia Mr. & Mrs. Charles H. Jones Mr. & Mrs. Jeremy Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Berton E. Korman Mrs. Elaine Merriman Drs. David B. & Leighan Rinker Mr. & Mrs. E. Burke Ross Mr. & Mrs. Timothy S. Sotos Mr. & Mrs. David J. Thomas Mr. & Mrs. William H. Told Jr.

Flagler Circle ($500) Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Barry Mrs. Margaret Dean Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T. Harper Mr. & Mrs. Dale R. Hedrick Mrs. Hildegarde Mahoney Mr. & Mrs. George I. Mavlios Mr. & Mrs. Richard Morgenstern

28 | TUSTENEGEE

Mr. & Mrs. Mark A. Murphy Mrs. Alice Zimmer Pannill Ms. Elaine Ragon Mr. Tanner Rose

Mizner Circle ($250) Mr. & Mrs. Kevin Asbacher Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Barry Mr. & Mrs. Paul C. Bremer Mr. & Mrs. David Click Mrs. Herme de Wyman Miro Mr. & Mrs. David Dickenson Mr. & Mrs. Vincent A. Elhilow Mr. Thomas Grudovich Mr. Howard L. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Bernd Lembcke Mr. Robb R. Maass & The Hon. Elizabeth Maass Mr. Ross W. W. Meltzer & Mr. Victor Figueredo The Honorable & Mrs. Emery J. Newell Ms. Giselle Parry Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey P. Phipps Mr. & Mrs. Edward Pollack Dr. & Mrs. G. David Raymond Mr. & Mrs. Peter Schoeffer Mr. & Mrs. James Thompson Mrs. Sandra Thompson & Mr. Craig D. Thompson Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Toll

Barefoot Mailman ($125) Dr. & Mrs. William R. Adkins Mr. Jonathon W. Andrews Mr. John P. Archer Mr. & Mrs. Guy Ashley The Honorable & Mrs. Nelson E. Bailey Mrs. Laurel Baker Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E. Barr Mr. & Mrs. William Bathurst Jr. Mrs. Josephine Bayard Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth S. Beall Mrs. Veronica Burkhardt Birdsong Ms. Claire Blanchard Mr. Kenneth Breslauer Mr. Ian F. Brown Mr. & Mrs. Alerio A. Cardinale Mrs. Jane Ann Caruso The Honorable & Mr. Frank S. Coniglio Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Deckert Mr. Britt Deviney & Ms. Dorothy Jacks Mr. & Mrs. Sean Donahue Mr. J. B. Edwards Mrs. Carol Elder Mr. William Feldkamp & Mr. Terry Bowie Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Danny Finch Mr. Larry V. Grosser Mr. & Mrs. Peter Leo Ms. Annette S. Levinson Mrs. Josephine Linder duPont Bayard Ms. Brenda Jean Lusher Mr. Steven A. Manalan Mr. James McCann Mr. & Mrs. McNiff Ms. Jimmie Vee McCoy & Ms. Cynthia Bournique Mr. & Mrs. Martin E. Murphy Ms. Shelley Newell Mr. Kenneth R. Novikoff Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Peltzie Mr. & Mrs. Ron Ponder Ms. Paige Poole & Ms. Connie Christman Mr. & Mrs. Frederick C. Prior Mr. David V. Reese Mr. & Mrs. Harland A. Riker Mr. Ronald D. Risner Ms. Caralyn P. Robinson Mr. Rick Rose Mrs. Stanley M. Rumbough Rev. Burl Salmon & Mr. Robert Henkel Mr. & Mrs. Nickolas Sargent Mr. Edward H. Sheahan Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Simpson Messrs. John J. Tatooles & Victor Moore Mr. & Mrs. William R. Tiefel Mr. & Mrs. Frank Todd Mr. Theofilos A. Vatis Mr. & Mrs. John Vinson Mr. Ken Walters Ms. Janet Riggs Waterman Mr. & Mrs. Dennis Wedgworth Mr. & Mrs. Scott Wood

Family/Dual ($75)

Mr. Jeffrey Ault Mr. William P. Barry Mrs. Deborah Bennett Mr. & Mrs. John K. Blumenstein Mr. & Mrs. Ray Bourque Mrs. Lorraine Brainard Mr. & Mrs. Kim Brodsky Mr. & Mrs. Ted Brownstein Mr. & Mrs. Ken Buchanan Mr. & Mrs. James C. Catrickes Mr. & Mrs. William Cini Mr. & Mrs. Joel T. Daves Ms. Katharine R. C. DeLong Mr. John DuBois Mr. & Mrs. Richard Duncan Mr. & Mrs. Bill Dunn


Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Feinberg Mr. & Mrs. Aaron Fishkin Dr. & Mrs. Robert A. Flucke Ms. Glays Fundora Mr. & Mrs. James T. Gill Mr. & Mrs. Harold Gilmore Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence Gorfine Mr. & Mrs. Scott Goorland Mr. George M. Greider & Ms. Gayle Kranz Ms. Joy Guernsey-Diesel Dr. & Mrs. Randolph H. Guthrie Mr. Doug Hartwell Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Hearn Mr. & Mrs. David Herst Dr. Terry Hickey & Ms. Sherry Frankel Mrs. Beryl Holland & Mr. Mark Holland Mr. Steve Hollander Brig. Gen. & Mrs. Albin F. Irzyk Mr. David Jacoby & Ms. Marcelle Bayda Ms. Stephanie Kammerer Mr. & Mrs. Michael A. Kaufman Judge & Mrs. Ramez Khawly Mr. & Mrs. Christopher G. Knoll Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Kruse Mr. & Mrs. Barry A. Lavinson Ms. Ruthie Lawrence Mr. Charles Levy Mr. & Mrs. James E. Lyons Mr. Philip P. Macnak Mr. & Mrs. Vincent Maiuri Dr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Mogerman Mr. & Mrs. Royal Mollineaux Mrs. Polly Mounts Ms. Regina M. Mullen Mr. & Mrs. Timothy Murray Mr. & Mrs. Kyle Papke Mr. & Mrs. Ward C. Parker Mr. William Peterson Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J. Poisson Mr. & Mrs. Matthew Raptis Mr. & Mrs. Robin M. Rockwell Mr. & Mrs. John Rybovich Mr. & Mrs. James Schroeder Mr. Mark A. Schwartz & Mrs. Maudie S. Baker-Schwartz Mr. & Mrs. Lee K. Spencer Ms. Anne Speiser Mr. & Mrs. Roland Stenta Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Tessoff Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Thurlow Mr. James Toomey Mr. & Mrs. Garth Wakeford Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Watkins Ms. Tracy White & Mr. Charles F. Carbone Mr. Allen Zeller

Individual ($50)

Ms. Carmen Garcia Ms. Jennifer Garrigues Mr. Andrew Gentile Mrs. Anna Giue Ms. Rosalyn Gladwin Ms. Gina Grant Mrs. Anna Hines Ms. Brenda Horvath Ms. Lisa Jensen Mr. Timothy Johnson-Reynolds Dr. Susan Jones Mrs. Lewis Kapner Ms. Josephine E. Kennedy Mr. John J. Kenney Mr. Reeves King Mr. Isaac Klein Ms. Florence Koontz

Ms. Margaret Acton Mr. Jay Adler Mr. Peter Aispuro Mr. Neil Allen Ms. Carol Anderson Mr. Paul M. Arsenault Mr. Guy P. Bachmann Mr. Mark B. Beatty Mr. Frank E. Booker III Mr. William Brady Ms. Catherine Ford Brister Ms. Patricia Brother Mrs. Lois E. Burns Mr. Jacob Carrier Ms. Brittany Cartwright Ms. Sally Channon Mr. Donn R. Colee Jr. Dr. Linnie Sue Comerford Mr. William Condie Mr. Donald H. Conkling III Mr. Clay Conley Dr. John Cooney Mr. Peter Cruise Mrs. Linda G. Cullen Dr. Robin Cutler Ms. Margaret Duncan Mrs. Kathleen Emrich Mrs. Jan Feinglass Mrs. Roberta Feldgoise Ms. Lynn Friedman Ms. Sharon Friedheim Mr. Jonathan Frost Ms. Ann Frumkin

Ms. Gabriella Kortz Mrs. Nellie Kreis Ms. Catie Kuter Mr. Scott Laurence Ms. Heather Lockett Ms. Emily Loveland Ms. Katherine Lowry Mr. Philip F. Lund Mr. Paul L. Maddock Mr. Carlo Manganillo Mrs. Janice Marshall Mr. Daniel P. McGarity Ms. Joyce McLendon Mr. Gregory Meyer Ms. Kim Mockler Ms. Donna Morano Mr. Frank Moulds

Continued on page 30

Let’s Get Social! Visit us online and stay up-to-date with what’s happening at HSPBC.

www.facebook.com/hspbc

@hspbc

@historicalsocietypbc R I C H A R D A N D PAT

JOHNSON PA L M B E A C H C O U N T Y

HISTORY MUS EUM

FALL 2017 | 29


Mr. Richard Moyroud Mrs. Matina A. Nimphie Mr. Wendell Nuckols Ms. Sally A. O’Connor Mrs. Judy O’Malley Ms. Katherine Odoardo Mrs. Patricia Panetta Mrs. Di Pang Ms. Katherine Gibbs Parr Mrs. Diana Patrick Ms. Alice H. Payne Mr. Dennis J. Perry Mr. Ken Pfrengle Mrs. Lois G. Phillips Ms. Sandra Pike Mr. Gordon Pollock Mr. Richard Poulette Ms. Page Pressly Mr. David M. Pugh Ms. Nancy S. Pullum Ms. Mary Jane Range Ms. Roxine Roberts Mr. Stephen M. Rochford Ms. Helena Rowland Ms. Mary Anne Rozo Ms. Gina Sauber

Mrs. Elaine A. Saugstad Ms. Katherine Scarim Dr. John A. Schaefer Ms. Adela M. Shiner Ms. Linda Simonson Mr. H. Bryant Sims Mr. Albert H. Small Ms. Sally Alice Smith Ms. Virginia M. Spencer Mr. Reginald G. Stambaugh Ms. Nancy Stone Ms. Pamela Strassner Ms. Susan Swiatosz Mr. Allen Trefry Mrs. Deane O. Ugalde Mr. John Wienke Mrs. Mary Woodland Ms. Patricia H. Yost

Life Members

Mrs. Linda Cothes Mr. & Mrs. William R. Cummings Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Dellaquila Mr. & Mrs. Willis H. duPont Mr. & Mrs. Robert T. Eigelberger Mr. & Mrs. J. Pepe Fanjul Sr. Mr. & Mrs. John E. Flagg Mrs. Beatriz Ford Mr. Rodger S. Fowler Mr. & Mrs. Gordon D. Gaster Ms. Judy Hatfield Mr. & Mrs. Scott Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Johnson Jr. Mr. Donald C. Lainhart Mrs. Elise MacIntosh Mr. George Matsoukas Mrs. Mary Alice Pugh Mr. & Mrs. William Sned Jr. Mr. & Mrs. John Tamsberg Mr. & Mrs. John K. Volk

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Annan Mr. & Mrs. Keith C. Austin Mrs. Maria Bacinich Mr. & Mrs. David H. Bludworth Mr. Richard R. Brown Mr. & Mrs. Frank E. Callander

It’s Your History...Come Live It at the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum curiosity, discovery, engagement...a remarkable experience

Located within the 1916 Palm Beach County Court house — a symbol of the growth of our county The place to learn our rich and vibrant history, from the earliest natives through today’s influential leaders. Centrally located in downtown West Palm Beach near other cultural attractions

30 | TUSTENEGEE

300 N. Dixie Hwy, West Palm Beach, Florida Mon-Fri, 10am-5pm | Sat, 10am-4pm (closed major holidays) 561.832.4164 | www.hspbc.org The Museum is operated by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Historical Society of Palm Beach County 2017-2018 Officers

Ex-Officio Board Members

Chairman of the Board J. Grier Pressly III

School Board of Palm Beach County

First Vice Chairman Thomas M. Kirchhoff

Erica Whitfield

Danielle H. Moore

Town of Palm Beach Council Member

Mack Bernard

Palm Beach County Commissioner

Second Vice Chairman Mark Stevens Third Vice Chairman Ross W. W. Meltzer Secretary Richard S. Johnson Jr. Deputy Secretary Carey O’Donnell Treasurer David J. Thomas III Member at Large Jeffrey P. Phipps Sr. General Counsel Mariano Garcia Past Chairman Mark B. Elhilow Member Emeritus Robert W. Ganger

Board of Governors Jeffrey Alderton Margaret Cheryl Burkhardt Ann Margo Cannon Joseph Chase Kevin Clark Graham G. Davidson George Ford III Mary Freitas The Honorable Bradley Harper Joette Keen Russell P. Kelley III George Mavlios Sharon Merchant Penny Murphy Peter Nicoletti Lisa McDermott Perez Karen Swanson Kimberly Walkes

Board of Advisors Cressman D. Bronson Katharine Dickenson George T. Elmore Mr. & Mrs. William Fleming Jr. Dennis Grady William Graham Dale R. Hedrick Pat Seaton Johnson Gary S. Lesser The Honorable Karen Marcus William A. Meyer Harvey E. Oyer III Jorge Pesquera Sidney Stubbs Jr. RADM Philip A. Whitacre, USN (Ret.)

Benefactors Thomas Anderson and Marc Schappell Brenda McCampbell Bailey Margaret Cheryl Burkhardt Julie and Michael Connors Susan and Christopher Cowie Martha DeBrule Mark B. Elhilow George T. Elmore Frances and Jeffrey Fisher Anneli and Robert Ganger Lorrain and Malcolm W. Hall Melanie and Chris Hill Pat Seaton Johnson Russell P. Kelley III Carol and Thomas M. Kirchhoff Patricia Lambrecht Patricia and Howard Lester Betsy K. Matthews Sydelle Meyer Pauline Pitt J. Grier Pressly III Frances G. Scaife Sonja and Mark Stevens Annette Stubbs RADM Philip A. Whitacre, USN (Ret.) William Sterling Williams Robert Wright

Staff President and CEO Jeremy W. Johnson, CAE Chief Curator Debi Murray Education Coordinator Rose Gualtieri Curator of Collections Benjamen Salata Research Director Nicholas Golubov Director of Marketing & Special Events Jillian Markwith Director of Advancement & Communications Holly Finch Office Administrator Sharon Poss Membership Coordinator Lise Steinhauer Volunteer & Outreach Coordinator Rhonda Gordon

FALL 2017 | 31


Volunteer: Make a Powerful Difference to Others (and to Yourself!) by Rhonda Gordon Volunteering is an enjoyable way to explore your interests and passions and provide mental stimulation that can transfer into your personal and professional life. Volunteer work has many benefits for you and those you serve: • It enriches the lives of others. • It can help strengthen ties to the community. • It exposes you to people with common interests. • It can provide a warm environment to depart from your day-to-day routine. • It is a great way to meet new people.

Annual Salute to Volunteers Luncheon. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. In today’s world, our routines have become consumed by our daily schedules—the sheer thought of donating time can seem overwhelming. One of the best advantages of volunteering, however, is that YOU decide when and where to spend your helping time. Although volunteering is unpaid in financial terms, nothing about it is valueless. Many volunteering opportunities provide extensive training that help you build upon skills you already have, and teach how to utilize those skills to benefit the greater community.

Left to right: Archival assistant, Community Outreach, Museum greeters, and Museum Store assistant. Photos courtesy HSPBC Archives.

32 | TUSTENEGEE


Annual field trips: Volunteers visit (left and center) the Ann Norton Sculpture Garden and (right) the agricultural district of Palm Beach County. Photos courtesy HSPBC Archives. Regardless of one’s age or circumstance, there are opportunities to volunteer at the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum, operated by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. You can assist at special events, greet museum visitors, or help customers in the Museum Store. If you want to go ‘all in,’ you can study to become a museum docent or help with research and the archival collection. In whatever capacity we agree on, you can make a powerful difference! People who volunteer say the experience creates a euphoric feeling inside, noticeably improving their health and wellbeing by giving of themselves to benefit others. Our volunteers at the Historical Society of Palm Beach County are truly the best. Their diverse backgrounds in education, profession, experiences, skills, and residency make for quite an extraordinary team. Without their involvement, the HSPBC staff could not effectively further its mission. We would welcome your consideration of joining us. The difference that you will make in someone else’s life will make an even bigger difference in YOURS! Docents lead tours for all ages. Photos courtesy HSPBC Archives & Capehart Photography. To learn more, please contact Rhonda Gordon, Volunteer and Outreach Coordinator, at 561-832-4164, ext. 110 or rgordon@hspbc.org.

FALL 2017 | 33


New to the Collection What began with a phone call from the St. Christopher Inn Thrift Shop in Garrison, New York, concluded with a donation of a Watrous sterling silver water pitcher to the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. The value of this historical artifact is not just in silver but in the new information it offers about Morrison Field during World War II and the young men stationed there. The inscription, “Presented to Lieutenant & Mrs. Arthur Stewart Patterson August 27, 1941, by the officers of Morrison Field, Florida,” and a photo in the Morrison Field newsletter tell us this memento was indeed a wedding gift to Lieutenant Patterson and Marian Rose Short of Rochester, New York. Little is known about Patterson’s military service, but he did survive the war and he and Marian had two sons. The couple both died in January 1978; their son Arthur Jr. died in 1993 and Stephen in 2002, leaving no direct descendants to help us complete their story. We may never know why Lt. Patterson was so revered by the other Morrison Field officers or the about the pitcher’s journey. The Watrous Mfg. Co. was founded in 1896 in Wallingford, Connecticut. Their works have been displayed at the Smithsonian Institution, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Dallas Museum of Art, and the Wolfsonian in Miami Beach.

News clipping from the Morrison Field Newsletter. Left to right: Walter Patterson, Ruth Short, Marian Rose Short, and Lieut. Arthur Patterson. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives. 34 | TUSTENEGEE

Garrison newspapers helped inform and entertain servicemen before and during WWII. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.


Photographic Collection Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

Designed by Volk and Maass, the seating area with musical instruments at 252 El Bravo Way, Palm Beach, was photographed by Frank E. Geisler. FALL 2017 | 35


People are surprised to learn that tropical Palm Beach County once hosted a hockey team, but indeed we did. The minor-league West Palm Beach BLAZE played at the West Palm Beach Auditorium 1992-1996. The franchise belonged to the Southern Sunshine Hockey League, which included the Daytona Beach SUN DEVILS, Lakeland ICE WARRIORS, and Jacksonville BULLETS.

Bill Nyrop—BLAZE owner, general manager, and coach—died in 1995 of cancer at age 43. Shortly before his death, he sold the team to a syndicate headed by Carter. W. Allen, a Charlotte, NC, businessman. Renamed the BARRACUDAS, the team became part of the newly formed Southern Hockey League that included the former Sunshine League teams (Jacksonville BULLETS, Lakeland PROWLERS, and Daytona Beach BREAKERS), plus the Huntsville CHANNEL CATS and the Winston-Salem MAMMOTHS. Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Highway, West Palm Beach, FL 33401 Phone: (561) 832-4164 | Fax: (561) 832-7965

36 | TUSTENEGEE

www.hspbc.org | www.pbchistoryonline.org

Tustenegee Vol. 8 No. 2  
Tustenegee Vol. 8 No. 2  

In this edition of the Tustenegee, we look to new discoveries and the power of archival research with an article on the fascinating discover...