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HISTORIC SCOTLAND

11 properties shaped by WWI

AUTUMN 2018

HISTORIC SCOTLAND Featuring STIRLING CASTLE TRINITY HOUSE FORT GEORGE

THE MAGAZINE FOR HISTORIC SCOTLAND MEMBERS AUTUMN 2018

E YEAR MEMBER MAGAZINE OF TH

Inspiring days out TAKE A TRIP TO

Craigmillar Castle The Engine Shed Dumbarton Castle Castle Campbell

Doon Hill revisited Is it Anglian or Neolithic?

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT/MEMBER

TERRIFYING! Get ready for the Linlithgow exFEARience

ROCK STEADY How Scotland won back Edinburgh Castle


2 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


Welcome to

HISTORIC SCOTLAND As seasons change, so do the colours of Scotland’s breathtaking landscape – transforming scenery from bold greens to striking oranges. It’s a fantastic time of year to head out to various Historic Scotland properties that close over winter – so if you haven’t already, this is the moment to check your handbook and update your must-see list. There’s also a lot of potential in those autumnal hues for some stunning photographs. If you’re still planning to enter our annual competition, this could be your chance to take the winning shot. In this issue, we look at how Edinburgh Castle changed hands between the Scots and the English during the Wars of Independence; we dig in to the story of Doon Hill, which was misidentified as an Anglian site following excavation in the 1960s; and we explore 11 sites with links to the First World War. There are also loads of events for you, including Michaelmas at Stirling Castle, the Visible Girls exhibition at Summerhall in Edinburgh and a workshop at Duff House where you can learn how silver is cast using a less valuable but much tastier substance – chocolate.

TAKE TWO

CHRISTMAS GIFT MEMBERSHIP

CLAIRE BOWIE Membership and CRM Manager

OFFER SEE PAGE 45

COVER: MARIOCITO / GETTY IMAGES; MALCOLM COCHRANE

CONTRIBUTORS

Mary at Craigmillar Castle

INDIRA MANN Doon Hill (p26) Indira is a journalist, environmentalist and former archaeologist with a lifelong love of Scotland’s castles

JONATHAN MCINTOSH Writer’s block (p38) Jonathan is former assistant editor of Historic Scotland magazine

SARAH CROME AND PAUL V HUNTER Rock and roll (p18) Sarah and Paul are authors and storytellers, regularly visiting schools and appearing at events

Scary stuff at Linlithgow Palace

Nights out! Opportunities to visit our properties after hours are rare. Eat your carrots in preparation for the Linlithgow exFEARience and Spotlight on Mary – see page 48 for details

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 1


CONTENTS A U T U M N

HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT SCOTLAND Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH 0131 668 8600 historicenvironment.scot Membership enquiries 0131 668 8999 members@hes.scot Editorial enquiries members@hes.scot Membership and CRM Manager Claire Bowie Assistant Membership Manager Pauline Brews Editor Fiona McKinlay fiona.mckinlay@thinkpublishing.co.uk Editorial Assistant Nicola Love Design Matthew Ball, Andrew Bell, Alistair McGown Sub-editors Sam Bartlett, Sean Guthrie, Sian Campbell Advertising Sales Natalia Georgiou natalia.georgiou@thinkpublishing.co.uk 0203 771 7220 Publisher John Innes john.innes@thinkpublishing.co.uk Think Suite 2.3, Red Tree Business Suites, 33 Dalmarnock Road, Glasgow G40 4LA 0141 375 0504 Photography All images provided by Historic Environment Scotland unless otherwise stated. For access to images of Scotland and our properties, call 0131 668 8647/8785 or email images@hes.scot Historic Scotland is published quarterly and printed on paper made from pulp sourced from sustainable materials. The views expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of Historic Environment Scotland. All information is correct at the time of going to press. Š Historic Environment Scotland. All rights reserved. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without prior agreement of the Membership and CRM Manager of Historic Environment Scotland.

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Conflicting stories The Scottish places that shaped the First World War

Historic Environment Scotland (HES) is a Non Departmental Public Body established by the Historic Environment Scotland Act 2014. HES has assumed the property, rights, liabilities and obligations of Historic Scotland and RCAHMS. Visit historicenvironment.scot/about-us Scottish Charity No. SC045925.

26 On the trail of the truth about Doon Hill 2 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

16 Castle Campbell


Where to go this autumn

HACKNESS BATTERY AND MARTELLO TOWER P35

Arnol Blackhouse

ARNOL BLACKHOUSE P15

FORTROSE CATHEDRAL P36

DUFF HOUSE P56

FORT GEORGE P37

CASTLE CAMPBELL P16 INCHCOLM ABBEY P34 THE ENGINE SHED P44 DUMBARTON CASTLE P34 GLASGOW CATHEDRAL P36

BLACKNESS CASTLE P35

DOON HILL P26

NEW ABBEY CORN MILL P36

ANGELA CATLIN, PURESTOCK / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO, SHUTTERSTOCK

REGULARS

4 THE SCRIPT News and updates from around the country 45 MEMBERSHIP 48 EVENTS 56 TIME TRIP FEATURES

38 Next generation of traditional tradesmen and women

18 ROCK AND ROLL The complex history of Edinburgh Castle during the wars of independence 26 THE DIG DETECTIVE How the story of Doon Hill unravelled decades after its excavation

32 BATTLE STATIONS The places that shine a light on Scotland’s role in the First World War 38 WRITER’S BLOCK Jonathan McIntosh learns how HES is inspiring young people to learn traditional skills HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 3


PEOPLE, PLACES, RESEARCH AND MORE…

T H E

SCRIPT

Heritage Awareness Day returns Celebration shows how Scotland has been influenced by European history

H Mary Queen of Scots spent most of her childhood in France 4 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

istoric Environment Scotland (HES) is preparing for the return of Heritage Awareness Day on Thursday 20 September. Last year’s campaign reached more than 1.2 million people throughout Scotland and beyond as communities came together to delve into the past, explore their heritage and celebrate the history on their doorsteps. “We want to provide a

platform for people across the country to tell us what heritage means to them,” says Rory Cameron, HES brand and engagement manager. “This year, with Heritage Awareness Day taking place during the European Year of Cultural Heritage, we’re asking people to share and celebrate the cultural and historic connections between Scotland and Europe.” Getting involved could be

as simple as joining in the conversation on social media, or carrying out research to uncover historic connections with Europe in your family history or local area. “Scotland’s connections with Europe run throughout the centuries and have influenced our history and culture in lots of different ways,” Rory explains, “and we want Heritage Awareness Day to be an


ATHENS OF THE NORTH We’ll be uncovering European connections to Scotland’s places – use the hashtag #ScottishConnections to share your stories

HES staff celebrate a year of the Engine Shed

Shed load of visitors Scotland’s building conservation hub celebrates first year

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opportunity for people to share their own stories.” Keep an eye on historicenvironment.scot/ scottishconnections and @HistEnvScot as the countdown to the day continues. You can participate by sharing your stories, photographs and videos celebrating Scotland’s links with Europe using the hashtag #ScottishConnections.

Bring the past to life on 20 September

cotland’s dedicated building conservation centre, the Engine Shed, celebrated its first birthday over the summer. Serving as a central hub for the general public and professionals alike, the centre welcomed more than 15,000 visitors over the past year. The Engine Shed has seen success with its jam-packed programme of fun, familyfriendly activities. Summer workshops ranged from stonemasonry skills to LEGO building and even included designing a sports ground in celebration of the 2018 Special Olympic Anniversary Games. The hub’s autumn programme includes a digital festival which will bring experts from across the world to share their knowledge and experience of new and emerging technologies. As well as smashing its visitor target, the centre

engaged 2,700 school pupils and won several awards. The facility’s reach has even extended far beyond Scotland. The centre recently partnered with Forbidden City and the Palace Museum in Beijing to curate an exhibition at Stirling Castle featuring two replica Chinese terracotta warriors. Dr David Mitchell, director of conservation at Historic Environment Scotland, said: “The Engine Shed building itself showcases how traditional skills and materials continue to be relevant – Scottish materials are high quality, sustainable and ethically sourced. We can learn much from the past to inform the future … The work of the Engine Shed focuses on combining tradition with technology and encouraging a new generation to think differently about heritage.” Visit engineshed.scot to find out more about what’s on at the Engine Shed.

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 5


THE SCRIPT NEWS BRIEF Dunbar’s Close

MODERN WAY

Products include Dornoch Academy pupils’ Braw Chocolates

Pitch-perfect pupils Young people’s products go head to head in Dragons’ Den-style face-off

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igh-school pupils had their very own Dragons’ Den moment at Urquhart Castle. In a special event for the Year of Young People, children from five schools and social enterprises across the Highlands were given the chance to pitch their best ideas, with the winning product stocked at the castle gift shop. The competition was run in partnership between Historic Environment Scotland and Social Enterprise Academy with the aim of inspiring young entrepreneurs.

Entrants delivered 15-minute pitches in either English or Gaelic to a judging panel that included HES’s head of retail, Natasha Troitino. Unlike the ruthless Dragons, judges decided to pick all five finalists, whose products included scented candles, chocolates and a children’s book. The products will be stocked in the castle gift shop – within a ‘made in the local area’ section – from September.

KNIGHT HONOUR Urquhart Castle hosted the young competitors

Skilled Scot heads stateside Stonemason makes Transatlantic trip to work on White House A stonemason travelled to Washington DC to carve a replica of the Scottish double rose that sits above the north entrance of the White House. Working in the same spot as his predecessors more than 200 years ago, Charles Jones flew to the US to create the carving, which will be displayed at a museum in Capitol Hill.

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This comes ahead of The Scots Who Built the White House exhibition, which opens on 21 September at the Engine Shed, celebrating the men who were invited to work on the building due to Scotland’s reputation for high-quality stonemasonry.

Jones with the double rose

● The Sco.Mo project is looking for site suggestions. Funded by the Landscape Institute Scotland, the project celebrates modernist landscape in Scotland. Short-listed sites so far include Dunbar’s Close in Edinburgh, Stirling University, Little Sparta in Dunsyre and The Garden of Cosmic Speculation in Dumfries and Galloway. Email info@scomolandscape. com with details. scotland. landscapeinstitute.org

engineshed.scot/scotswho-built-the-whitehouse

● A Melrose Abbey custodian has been unveiled as the 72nd Jethart Callant. Nick Arnold, 21, made history as the first in his family to receive the locally prestigious title, and the first Historic Environment Scotland staffer to take on the role. “I was obviously very honoured to be asked,” says Nick. jethartcallantsfestival.com

HARD OF HEARING ● The new Listen to the Stones booklet looks at Scotland’s carved stones. It can be downloaded for free from the Scottish Archaeology Research Framework website. scarf.org.uk


HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 7


THE SCRIPT NEWS BRIEF

FORTH PLAQUES ●●The first of seven bronze plaques celebrating the Forth Bridge’s addition to the World Heritage List have been unveiled. A second plaque has since been revealed, with the rest to be installed at viewpoints on each side of the firth in the coming months.

MILL BOOK ●●Lindsey Gibb, who works as a steward at the 18th-century Stanley Mills, is part of the author team behind the new book Perthshire Folk Tales. Signed copies of Lindsey’s first published work are on sale at Stanley Mills.

BEE KIND ●●Half a dozen new plants have been added to the Stirling Bee Project. Visitor Operations Manager Eleanor Muir said: “Bees can travel around 20 miles to feed but we’ll try to save them the bother.”

HOLYROOD HERITAGE ●●Following a successful run, Gaelic guided tour A’ fidreadh na Pàirce (Exploring the Park) will conclude with a look at the trees of Holyrood Park in November. historicenvironment.scot/ events 8 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Animated puzzle app unlocks castle secrets Augmented reality sees Caerlaverock Castle fly the flag for the benefits of technology

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new app allows visitors to go on an augmentedreality quest around Caerlaverock Castle. Visitors must figure out a puzzle by exploring special trigger panels in the castle and grounds to reveal different characters and piece together the flag of Sir Eustace Maxwell. Set in 1312, just before Sir Eustace returned to the castle, the purpose of the quest is to gather the castle staff who were dispersed after the siege of 1300. Each member of the

household has a piece of Sir Eustace’s flag - but one of them is a traitor! The app, which was rigorously fact-checked by castle experts to ensure historical accuracy, even draws on its own staff members for inspiration, with one of the app’s animated characters voiced by Caerlaverock Castle site manager Valerie. The app may be rolled out to other sites in the future. Download it from Apple and Android app stores now.


Midhowe chambered cairn rendered in 3D

3D models unveil new depths Chambered cairns can be explored from every angle without leaving the house

Go on a quest with Sir Eustace Maxwell

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Badger causes chaos A “very angry” badger sparked chaos at Craignethan Castle after trying to make itself at home in the cellar tunnel. The tunnel was closed for several days while staff used honey and cat food in an attempt to coax the disgruntled animal out. After digging into the stonework, forcing staff to carry out minor repairs, the badger left of its own

accord a few days later. Besides attracting nocturnal mammals, Craignethan Castle has several species of birds of prey frequenting nearby woodland. Other Historic Scotland sites that are home to wildlife include Threave Castle, whose top floor is inhabited by peregrine falcons, and Dryburgh Abbey, whose ruins are used as roosts by bats.

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rkney’s prehistoric past can be explored remotely thanks to a series of interactive 3D models. HES has released digital renderings of a number of Orcadian sites, which you can examine from the comfort of home: two Iron Age souterrains (underground chambers), and 10 chambered cairns which were used for communal burial in the Neolithic period. Archaeologist Dr Hugo Anderson-Whymark created the models using photogrammetry, a process

where thousands of overlapping photos are taken of each site, and converted into 3D using specialist software. It took more than 4,200 images to document the 40m-long chambered cairn on the island of Holm of Papa Westray. The resulting model allows the structure to be examined from all angles, above or below. The models can be viewed on a computer, smartphone or virtual reality device. Visit sketchfab.com/ historicenvironmentscotland

Digital x-ray render of Unstan

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 9


10 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


THE SCRIPT

Be a picky picker It’s fun to forage – but do your research first, says Bob Tevendale Foraging is becoming an ever more popular pastime. Historic Scotland rangers are constantly asked to lead foraging walks, and at this time of year fungal forays are always well attended. However, poisoning from eating the wrong mushroom is unfortunately quite common – and many plants are poisonous too. In prehistory, foraging was a way of life. The first Neolithic settlers were adept hunter-gatherers. Archaeological evidence of them is elusive but one thing that always seems to turn up is charred hazelnut shells. Scientists believe early settlers may have planted hazelnuts to increase the food supply. The deliberate introduction of plants has continued. It’s thought the wild rose was introduced during the Bronze Age, and turnips probably arrived in the Iron Age, along with oats. The Romans wanted a ready supply of their favourite foods, and plants that appeared in Britain with the Roman invasion include walnut, fennel and Alexanders. Alexanders grows to about a metre tall and bears lime-green leaves and yellow-green flowers arranged in umbels. All parts are edible. It remained

SHUTTERSTOCK

FAST FACT Hemlock was a method of execution in ancient Athens. Victims included Socrates, the philosopher, in 399 BC.

NEWS BRIEF

Hemlock – not to be eaten

OUTLANDER EFFECT ●●Craigmillar and Blackness Castles will open seven days a week this winter. Both castles have seen a surge in visitor numbers thanks to starring roles in Outlander.

VIEW FROM OUTDOORS WITH

Bob Tevendale

a popular food plant through the Middle Ages and can often be found at medieval sites near the sea such as Dumbarton, Ravenscraig and Craigmillar Castle. Take care, though: for every edible plant there is usually a very similar one that is not edible. I recently visited Tantallon, another coastal castle. Within its moat and ditches grows hemlock, a notoriously poisonous plant which looks very like Alexanders. Hemlock is also not native. Some experts believe it was introduced in the late Bronze Age, probably as a medicinal plant. Such uses of hemlock date back to the 1st century AD, when the Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides used it externally to treat herpes and the skin condition St Anthony’s Fire. In modern times, hemlock has been used as an ingredient in an ointment for haemorrhoids. Sufferers will be grateful for the relief afforded; but don’t be tempted to try formulating your own remedies from this potentially fatal herbaceous plant.

WORKING IT ●●Industry + Aesthetics, an exhibition exploring the visual impact and power of Scotland as an industrial nation, is on display at Dundee’s Verdant Works Museum until the end of September, before moving to the Scottish Maritime Museum in Irvine. Entry is free.

SIGN OF THE TIMES ●●Stirling Castle and the Engine Shed are hosting their first British Sign Language (BSL) day on 22 September, led by deaf historian John Hay and interpreted into English by Linda Duncan. A BSL tour will also take place at Edinburgh Castle on 15 September. See stirlingcastle.scot/bsl or edinburghcastle.scot/ bsltour to book. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 11


THE SCRIPT COMPETITION

Eyes on the prize Test your historical knowledge by spotting which of our sites the detail below comes from… and win.

Three to see at Doors Open Days

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oors Open Days returns throughout September, giving access to cultural gems usually off-limits to the public. Every weekend hundreds of venues across the country will open their doors for free, offering guided tours and more. It’s the perfect chance to visit some of Scotland’s most historic sites.

doorsopendays.org.uk

UP FOR GRABS The winning entrant will receive a delicious hamper from M&S. HOW TO ENTER Visit historicenvironment. scot/guesstheplace or post the answer with your name and membership number to Guess the Place, Historic Scotland magazine, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH by Friday 2 November.

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1. TRINITY HOUSE Edinburgh Trinity House, which has stood proudly in Leith’s Kirkgate since at least 1555, is celebrating 600 years of seafaring. There will be hands-on activities, including a curator workshop where visitors can become a museum pro for the day. Visit on 29 and 30 September.

2. CENTRAL GURDWARA SINGH SABHA Glasgow Scotland’s first purposebuilt Sikh Gurdwara is the hub of the Scottish Sikh community. People congregate here not only to practise their faith, but also to attend art classes and social gatherings. Visit from 10-16 September – tours available on request.

3. CAIRN O’MOHR WINERY & CIDERHOUSE Perthshire Built on a Pictish settlement, East Inchmichael Farm began producing wine three decades ago with locally foraged fruits, leaves and flowers. Tour 140-year-old farm buildings and taste the winery’s products. Visit on 16 September.

A royal exclusive Royal Collection Trust invites Historic Scotland members to the Palace of Holyroodhouse on Saturday 29 September for a special tour of Holyrood Abbey (right) and the Palace gardens, led by expert guides. Tours will set off at 11am and 2pm, with tickets priced at £5 adults/£4 concessions. Booking is essential as spaces are limited. Visit historicenvironment.scot/member to log in and book your place

ELIZABETH LEYDEN / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO

ANSWER THIS QUESTION Which Historic Scotland property is this detail taken from? A: Dunfermline Abbey B: Melrose Abbey C: Jedburgh Abbey


HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 13


THE SCRIPT

Snap happy

How to enter Send us your images by email to hs.photo@thinkpublishing.co.uk by Friday 19 October 2018:

There’s still time to get your entries in for our annual photo competition

1. PROPERTIES Take our breath away with images of Historic Scotland properties. You could capture them in a luscious landscape or show us an eye-catching detail

2. YOUR HERITAGE Photograph the places and buildings that make you feel proud or have special meaning for your community

3. HAVING FUN Capture the atmosphere of an event or an entertaining day out with family or friends at a Historic Scotland property RULES 1. An entrant can submit a maximum of six photographs. 2. All images must be submitted as digital files 3. Digital images should be high resolution and submitted by email or on CD. Each image should not exceed 6MB in size. 4. Copyright for all images submitted for this competition remains with the respective entrants. Photos submitted 14 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

FRASER HETHERINGTON, SCOTT PRYDE, NARISTER OLIVEIRA, STUART INNES, NICK HAWTHORNE

Categories

1

Submit up to six photographs – two per category:

PROPERTIES

for the competition may be featured in future Historic Scotland calendars, other publications or materials, or used online. Where an image is used in the magazine or Historic Scotland calendar the photographer will be credited. However, in consideration of entering the competition, each entrant grants Historic Environment Scotland a perpetual,

YOUR HERITAGE

HAVING FUN

2

Tell us where each photograph was taken and include your name, age (if 26 or under) address, telephone number, membership number and email address.

3

Files should be no larger than 6MB and saved using the following naming format: [property]_[category]_[yourname]. [filetype] eg Stirling_HavingFun_ RobertSmith.jpg Entries by email are preferred, but you can also send your images on a CD to HS Photography Competition, Think, Suite 2.3 Red Tree Business Suites, 33 Dalmarnock Road, Glasgow G40 4LA. Please include your email address.

OVERALL WINNER

YOUNG PEOPLE

£200 Amazon gift card plus one year’s renewal membership

£100 Amazon gift card plus one year’s family membership

CATEGORY WINNERS

One year’s renewal membership

irrevocable and royalty-free licence to feature competition images in the publication, online or in promotional material connected to Historic Environment Scotland. 5. The competition is not open to employees of Historic Environment Scotland or Think. 6. The closing date for entries is Friday 19 October 2018. Winners will be notified by 8 April 2019.

7. The decision of the judges is final. 8. Entrants must be a Historic Scotland member or, for entrants aged 15 and under, their parent/guardian must be a Historic Scotland member. 9. The judging panel will be made up of the Historic Scotland membership and photographic teams, and the editor and publisher of Historic Scotland magazine. 10. The first prize includes a £200

Amazon gift card, and the young talent prize includes a £100 Amazon gift card. These prizes are subject to availability. If, for any reason, these become unavailable we reserve the right to supply an alternative prize of similar value. Please visit historicenvironment.scot/ member and view the terms and conditions page for a list of the full competition rules.


THE SCRIPT

Speaking in tongues The staples of Arnol Blackhouse on Lewis in English and Gaelic 1

ENGLISH

GAELIC

1

Family

Teaghlach (Chao-lach)

2

Home

Dachaidh (Dah-chee)

3

Churn

Biota (Beeta)

4

Coat hangers

Crochadairean chòtaichean (Crochadaran chawtee-chan)

5

Fire

Teine (Chenye)

6

Peat

Mòine (Mawnya)

7

Photograph

Dealbh (Jalav)

8

Plates

Truinnsearan – (Trooin-sharon)

9

Dresser

Dreasair (Dress-ir)

10

Kettle

Coire (Koreh)

2

4

8 7

3

9

10 5 6

NEWS BRIEF

NEW HEIGHTS ●●Sweetheart Abbey in Dumfries and Galloway has found a unique way to keep its 13th-century tower open during vital conservation work. Special ‘umbrella’ scaffolding surrounds the open-air belltower to give workers and visitors access while preventing damage to the neighbouring graveyard.

WEE EXPLORERS ●●Children can make the most of their visit to

Craigmillar Castle in Edinburgh with special explorers packs featuring binoculars, a magnifying glass, fancy dress props and even outdoor games.

KNIGHT AT THE CASTLE ●●Edinburgh Castle will be bathed in neon light as Scotland’s brightest young creative talents take over on 5 October. Aimed at ages 18 and over, attractions include live music, a neon salon, a photo booth and workshops for making your own neon crown. The castle will close early at 4pm. See page 53 for more information.

Home sweet stone Experts refresh carving

The stone before and after (below) its restoration

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n 8th-century Pictish stone has been returned to the Orkney island on which it was discovered seven years ago after being restored by experts. The stone was found embedded in the soil in 2011 during a building renovation on Sanday and taken to Edinburgh for examination. Experts in the capital conserved the stone in painstaking detail. The sandstone, carved with a sea creature symbol, was broken into 14 pieces with countless smaller fragments. Experts used 3D technology to analyse the stone and identify its carvings. They carefully reattached the pieces using special adhesives and filled gaps with acrylic mortar to help it stand upright. The stone finally made its way home where it is now displayed in sight of Appiehouse, the farmhouse where it was initially found. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 15


SPOTLIGHT

Castle Campbell

DID YOU KNOW? An ancient sycamore, the Maiden Tree, looms over the castle entrance. Local tradition claims it is named after a princess banished to ‘Castle Gloom’ for falling in love below her station HEADLESS GRIFFIN The only surviving water spout, carved in the shape of mythical beasts, which drained the parapet of the tower

This well-positioned fortress played a key role in a turbulent period of Scottish history Perched on a ridge high above Dollar Glen, Castle Campbell was for two centuries the grand Lowland residence of a powerful Highland clan. Once known as Castle Gloom, the original tower was built in around 1430 and passed through marriage to Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll, a loyal ally of the monarchy. After James IV approved the renaming of the castle a series of enhancements and additions were made by Earl Colin’s descendants, including the south range in around 1500 and the likely creation of the terraced garden below the castle.

A new hall hosted banquets, as well as a sermon by John Knox and a wedding attended by Mary Queen of Scots, while Archibald, 7th Earl, had the courtyard elevation rebuilt and added the unusual loggia. But the fortress was on borrowed time. In 1654 it was set on fire by royalists enraged by the Marquis of Argyll allowing Oliver Cromwell to use it as a base (the marquis was executed for treason seven years later). The marquis’s son, Archibald, 9th Earl, chose not to repair the gutted family seat but to live in Stirling instead, and the castle was allowed to fall into ruin.

The castle’s original tower dates from the mid-15th century

EXPLORE Open daily, 9.30am-5.30pm, until 30 September, last entry 5pm; Sat-Wed, 10am-4pm, 1 October-31 March

THE ENTRANCE While the thick stone perimeter wall was built in the 15th century, the projecting entrance at the north of the castle appears to be later. Two wide gunholes – which became fashionable in the 16th century – flank the gateway

Castle Campbell

Timeline C.1430

1465

1556

1563

The tower is built, possibly for John Stewart, Lord of Lorn. It is known as Castle Gloom, perhaps from ‘glom’, Gaelic for chasm

Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll, acquires the castle and lands of Gloom through his marriage to Isabel, daughter of John Stewart of Lorn

John Knox preaches a Protestant sermon in the castle hall, four years before the Reformation

Mary Queen of Scots attends the wedding of her kinsman James Stewart, Lord Doune, to the 5th Earl’s sister Margaret

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THE TOWER Characteristically 15th century, with a simple oblong plan, thick walls and few windows, the tower was home to the original hall, two private family chambers, a prison cell for high-status offenders and a pit prison for commoners

EAST RANGE Remodelled in around 1590, this sophisticated piece of design housed two galleries where the family could take their exercise in poor weather while admiring portraits hanging on the walls

THE HALL This grand room supplanted the tower hall as the social hub of Castle Campbell and the location for banquets where monarchs, nobles and churchmen might dine on swan served with a sauce made from blood and spiced guts

THE LOGGIA Ornate arcades of this kind, formed of two segmental arches, were rare in Scotland. There are examples at Huntly Castle and St Andrews Castle

THE GRANGER COLLECTION / ALAMY, PANTHER MEDIA GMBH / ALAMY, AIDAN STOCK / ALAMY, SHUTTERSTOCK

SOUTH RANGE A more fitting environment for a leading nobleman in the late 1400s than the original tower, the south range housed an impressive state apartment and five cellars for provisions such as meat, oats and ale

1641

1650

1654

1663

Archibald, 8th Earl of Argyll, is created a marquis by Charles I but soon joins the Covenanters’ cause against the king

Oliver Cromwell invades Scotland. The Marquis of Argyll crowns Charles II at Scone in 1651 before switching sides

Castle Campbell is set on fire by royalists, furious that Argyll allowed Cromwell’s forces to use it as a base

Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyll, abandons the castle for the Stirling house now known as Argyll’s Lodging HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 17


xxxx xxxx

ROCK AND ROLL 18 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Edinburgh Castle changed hands several times during the Wars of Independence – with inventive attackers scaling the north face of Castle Rock and others wedging the gate open with a cart WORDS: Sarah Crome and Paul V Hunter


H I S TO RY

The First War of Independence (1296-1328)

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ooking up at Edinburgh Castle from Princes Street Gardens it seems near-impossible that a band of 30 men could scale the north face of the rock armed with little more than rope ladders. Yet, more than 700 years ago during Scotland’s First War of Independence with England, that is just what Thomas Randolph, the Earl of Moray, achieved. Not only that,

but he managed to retake the castle from the hands of the English garrison on behalf of his uncle, King Robert the Bruce. It was 18 years earlier, in 1296, that Edinburgh had fallen into the hands of King Edward I of England during his first major invasion of Scotland. In the months that followed the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar all the

main castles surrendered, with the exception of Edinburgh, which held out for three days while it was besieged by Edward’s army. Soon after, many of Scotland’s important documents and national treasures were destroyed or taken to England, including the Black Rood of St Margaret and the Stone of Destiny. Today the stone has been returned HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 19


H I S TO RY

Inside what remains of King David II's tower

The Stone of Destiny at the castle

and can be seen at the castle alongside the Honours of Scotland. As one of the major strongholds in Scotland occupied by English garrisons, Edinburgh sometines hosted more than 300 soldiers. In the years after Edward 1's invasion the fightback was led by William Wallace, then Robert the Bruce, as territory and castles were gradually recovered by the Scots. With Edward's death in 1307 and the succession of his much weaker son, Edward II, the English grip loosened. Scotland's neighbour could scarcely afford to fund yearly invasions over the border to reinforce its army and, although East Lothian remained heavily occupied, by 1314 only a few stubborn strongholds, including Edinburgh, remained. At this time the Scots did not possess the expensive siege weapons held by the English forces so had to rely on stealth and imagination when it came to tackling these seemingly impregnable fortresses. The Earl of Moray heard that his friend and compatriot, Sir James Douglas, had taken Roxburgh Castle in the Scottish Borders. Not to be outdone, Moray soon hatched his own plan for Edinburgh. A 14th-century poem, The Bruce by John Barbour, offers an account of Moray's feat. It tells how, with the help of local man William Francis, who had himself scaled the rock, they began their daring ascent. “It was a dark night when they started, and they set themselves a right Bold attempt, and put themselves assuredly 20 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

The English grip loosened. By 1314 only a few strongholds, including Edinburgh, remained in great peril … For the crag was high and dreadful, and the climbing right perilous, and if any happened to slide or fall he must at once have been broken to pieces,” wrote Barbour. Even after they had scaled the rock itself, they still had to surmount the wall and avoid any guards posted at the top. Barbour recounts how they were nearly spotted: “But all night was wondrous dark, so that the enemy had no sight of

them. Nevertheless, there was one who threw down a stone, and said, 'Away, I see you well!' But he saw them not a bit, and the stone flew over their heads, and they sat still, each one remaining quiet.” The Lanercost Chronicle, a contemporary English version of events, claims there was a diversionary attack by the Scots at the east gate of the castle (where the present entrance is) to draw away sentries from the surrounding


St Margaret's Chapel survived King Robert's decree for all major strongholds to be destroyed

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The interior of St Margaret's Chapel

walls. By the time the Earl of Moray and his men had reached the top their real approach route was discovered, but the the Scots soon overcame the garrison. With the taking of Edinburgh, only Stirling Castle remained in English hands. King Robert decreed that all major strongholds be destroyed so they could never be used against them by an invading army, which is why few structural remains survive from before this date. Only the 12th-century St Margaret’s Chapel was to be spared. According to John Barbour’s poem, a challenge was laid down by Edward Bruce, King Robert’s brother, who bargained with Stirling Castle’s English governor, Sir Philip Mowbray, that if an English force did not relieve Stirling by midsummer's day 1314, Mowbray would surrender to the Scots. However, more recent thinking is that the battle arose due to Bruce's proclamation in 1313 that all those with Scottish lands had to give allegiance to him or face full forfeiture.

Until Bannockburn, Bruce’s campaign success had been largely through guerrilla tactics, but now he would prepare his soldiers on the ground, drilling them for pitched battle. The English army came in their thousands but the victory by King Robert and his far smaller forces at Bannockburn is well known. After Bannockburn the full forfeiture of opponents' lands took place. However it was many years before both countries sat around the peace table. The treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton with England was signed in Holyrood Abbey in 1328, the year before Bruce’s death.

The Second War of Independence (1332-1357)

W

ith Robert the Bruce’s death in 1329 the fate of Scotland looked uncertain. Years of hard living had taken its toll on Robert’s health, although the exact HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 21


H I S TO RY

The Treaty of EdinburghNorthampton was signed at Holyrood Abbey the year before the death of Robert the Bruce (right)

Fight for the Castle A new permanent exhibition sheds light on Wars of Independence

COMING SOON Exhibition opens this autumn

Fight for the Castle tells the story of Edinburgh Castle through the Wars of Independence, starting with the death of King Alexander III in 1286 and ending with Robert the Bruce’s son, King David II, rebuilding the castle. Housed in the Argyle Tower, the exhibition will include short animations that tell key episodes in the story. Visitors can also see medieval objects including the spike from an armoured gauntlet.

22 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

The exhibition takes place in the Argyle Tower

nature of the disease and cause of death are unknown. He left behind his fiveyear-old son, David, and the Earl of Moray as regent until David was old enough to rule. Edward III of England was determined to renew the attempted subjugation of Scotland. Although he had signed the peace treaty of EdinburghNorthampton, accepting the sovereignty of Scotland, he later renounced it, claiming he had only been 16 years old at the time and therefore a minor, so it counted for nothing. He had more of his grandfather’s ‘steel’ and supported the claim of Edward Balliol, son of the former King John Balliol, over that of Bruce’s young son David II. Although David had been crowned at Scone and anointed with holy oil (the first Scottish monarch to have been so) his enthronement was disregarded by Edward. His army invaded in 1333, routing the Scots at the Battle of Halidon Hill and forcing King David to flee to France. The English forces refortified Edinburgh Castle in 1335 and held it until 1341 when a Scottish assault led by William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale retook it yet again.

CLASSIC IMAGE / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO, SHUTTERSTOCK

David II resumed his role and set about rebuilding the castle


HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 23


H I S TO RY

The 3D scan sheds new light on the Fore Well

Source of nature

The ruins of Roxburgh Castle in the Borders

The party disguised themselves as merchants from Leith bringing supplies to the castle Douglas’s party disguised themselves as merchants from Leith bringing supplies to the castle. Driving a cart into the entrance to prevent the gates closing, a larger force hidden nearby rushed to join them. After many years of unrest, the 1357 Treaty of Berwick brought the Wars of Independence to a close. David II returned to Scotland after a significant ransom was paid and resumed his rule. He set about rebuilding Edinburgh Castle, which became a principal seat of government. King David II is responsible for building the once-mighty tower that bears his name. David's Tower was the heart of the castle in the late 1300s and originally stood over 30m (100ft) high. Influenced by fine stone towers in England and France, 24 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

David was intent on creating his own as a reflection of his power and kingship. Though it was incomplete when King David II died in 1371, the tower became the royal residence at Edinburgh Castle for almost 100 years. Part of the basement and principal floors survive – and can be accessed today by a stair at the back of the Half-Moon Battery. The Wars of Independence with England were long over by this time and King David II, who had no legitimate heir, was succeeded by his William Wallace nephew, Robert led the fight against King the Bruce’s Edward I's grandson, Robert troops Stewart. King Robert II was the first monarch of the House of Stewart – the longest reigning house in the history of our islands.

A 3D scan of Edinburgh Castle’s oldest well shines a light on how a crucial piece of the medieval fortress's infrastructure might have looked. The Fore Well would have been a vital water supply to residents during the castle’s many sieges, though it was often blocked or severely damaged during them. Falling masonry from David’s Tower obstructed the well completely during the Lang Siege of 1573. The earliest record of the well is 1314, when the castle was recaptured by the Scots following a siege. Robert the Bruce ordered the destruction of the stronghold and blocking of the well to ensure it couldn’t fall into English hands again. The well is technically a cistern cut into the rock to collect rainwater. The water supply was supplemented by additional wells in the 1360s and 1628. The 3D imagery from the HES scan will be used to tell the well's story and to form an accurate record for conservation purposes. See the well at blog. edinburghcastle.scot/ well-well-well

DAVID PEARSON / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO

Technology reveals details of key player in the wars


HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 25


THE DIG DETECTIVE

How the story of Doon Hill unravelled when archaeologists revisited findings decades later WORDS: INDIRA MANN

The timber-built ‘Hall A’ at Doon Hill stood for a few decades before being burnt down

T

he work of the archaeologist is often likened to that of a detective – gruelling hours sifting for clues, gathering evidence and crossreferencing records. The intriguing case of Doon Hill, near Dunbar in East Lothian, centres around the excavation in the 1960s of two large timber buildings by one of the first “celebrity” archaeologists, Dr Brian Hope-Taylor. The Cambridge lecturer found fame for his excavation of an Anglian-British palace at Yeavering, Northumberland. At Doon Hill, which featured in a popular TV series of the time, Hope-Taylor believed he had found a great timber hall of the Anglian period in Scotland, dating to the mid-7th century AD, built over an earlier British Celtic hall.

26 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

S? FAKE NEW no is e er Th iron evidence of at artefacts th uted were attrib and to the dig, ’s Hope-Taylor ngs di fin d ge alle lly fu r ve were ne Prof d. he is bl pu ork Ralston’s w ely has complet oon D d ge an ch Hill’s story.


TRUTH-SEEKERS Brian HopeTaylor, far left, and Ian Ralston, left, were both on site for the excavation of Doon Hill in the mid-1960s. Hope-Taylor’s assessment of the site would be challenged decades later

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 27


THE DIG DETECTIVE

But, after painstaking analysis, including radiocarbon dating funded by Historic Environment Scotland, Doon Hill turns out to be much older: by nearly 5,000 years. And that places the property – managed by HES and free to visit – firmly within the Neolithic era. Our detective is Abercromby Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the University of Edinburgh, Ian Ralston. An expert in European prehistory, as a schoolboy he was among the volunteers who excavated the Doon Hill site.

Pioneering programme “By the mid-sixties,” Prof Ralston recalls, “Hope-Taylor was one of the bestknown archaeologists in the country. At the height of his career he was making TV programmes and lecturing at Cambridge as well as excavating highprofile sites, including York Minster.” Prof Ralston recalls filming on site for the series, Who Were the British? “It was pioneering, the first serious presentation of British archaeology on television.” He also remembers the site director’s singular approach. “He had a huge, vertiginous scaffolding tower and spent a lot of time looking down on the site. His expertise was timber buildings, so he used the tower to identify details The Doon Hill structures – and assemble including this probably from the his record.” Bronze Age – are shown on the Hope-Taylor ground in coloured concrete never fully published his The Angles, a Germanic people, settled findings from Doon Hill, despite efforts Britain in around the 5th century. by the predecessor of HES to help Hope-Taylor’s “long, slow excavations” prepare the report. After his death in in the summers of 1964-1966 revealed 2001, with the site archive recovered two large timber halls, built successively from his home, doubts about his Doon on exactly the same spot, within a Hill work grew. palisaded enclosure. The later Hall B was Hall is not what it seems slightly smaller than the first, Hall A, and The site was first identified from aerial was dated by Hope-Taylor to around photographs taken in 1959. Cropmarks 650AD, tying it into historical accounts of showed the outline of a large hall the Angles’ move into southern Scotland. resembling buildings at Yeavering’s Prof Ralston says: “The earlier hall, Anglian palace complex, and which which burnt down after a few decades, Hope-Taylor “thought was a British was more substantial, with clearly predecessor to the style of buildings defined post holes and distinctive, found at Yeavering,” says Prof Ralston. bowed gable ends. Hope-Taylor assigned 28 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

PROFILE Ian Ralston is Abercromby Professor of prehistoric archaeology at the University of Edinburgh and an expert in European prehistory. He took part in the excavation of Doon Hill as a schoolboy volunteer

it a 6th-century date and suggested it belonged to a British Celtic aristocrat.” The buildings sat with “a few cremations, another little building and what appeared to be a cemetery of long graves just outside the enclosure. Doon Hill seemed to provide archaeological evidence for a key period in the cultural story of ‘Dark Age’ Scotland”. The site was purchased and prepared by the predecessor of HES for public display, its features marked in coloured concrete. Hope-Taylor’s theory was set in the ground as fact. But, in 1978, a site at Balbridie in Aberdeenshire, also deemed 6th century


The Doon Hill site with Dr Hope-Taylor’s scaffolding tower Vera Rutherford at work in the palisade trench at Doon Hill

ALONG THE WRONG LINES? Below, a reconstruction drawing of the ‘Anglian’ Doon Hill settlement as Brian Hope-Taylor envisaged it; and below right, site drawings made by Hope-Taylor on site in 1965.

JOHN LAWSON, BELHAVEN / GETTY IMAGES

A spat unfolded in the 1980s, which played out in the pages of Current Archaeology magazine and facing damage by ploughing, would begin to challenge – and ultimately unravel – Hope-Taylor’s view of Doon Hill. Ian Ralston, by then a young research fellow at the University of Aberdeen, was one of those sent to investigate what were expected to be Pictish remains.

Post-truth The team unearthed a timber hall 26m long and 13m wide, with similarities to the earlier building at Doon Hill, including the bowed gable ends and post holes, some holding rectangular posts. Surely such skill and scale were down to Dark

Age craftspeople rather than Scotland’s first farmers? But radiocarbon dating, plus pottery sherds and environmental samples, indicated a date of around 3800BC. The great timber hall at Balbridie had been built by the Neolithic people of Deeside using their “rudimentary” stone tools. Its likeness to the first hall at Doon Hill therefore presented a problem. Prof Ralston recalls: “A spat unfolded in the 1980s, which played out in the pages of Current Archaeology magazine, where Hope-Taylor refused to accept that Doon Hill’s earlier hall was anything other than an Early Medieval building.”

The first article by Andrew Selkirk in January 1980 gave possible explanations for the dating of Balbridie and Doon Hill, including the theory that a Dark Age hall had been built over a Neolithic one at Doon Hill, albeit 4,000 years later. Daringly, he also suggested Doon Hill might be “entirely Neolithic” and its similarity with Yeavering “coincidental”. Hope-Taylor refuted the claims in an article in March 1980, drawing parallels with Yeavering and citing artefacts apparently recovered at Doon Hill. He wrote: “The mixed deposits in Doon Hill’s foundation trenches and post holes include well-stratified remains of HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 29


30 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


THE DIG DETECTIVE

iron nails and an iron knife, small and extremely abraded sherds of terra sigillata, and coarse wares closely similar to post-Roman wares at Yeavering.” He included in the article his only published plan of Doon Hill, which showed an annex on the western end of Hall B. But there were major problems with Hope-Taylor’s rebuttal.

‘We dig for evidence’ After his death, no trace could be found of the iron artefacts mentioned. Prof Ralston’s many lines of enquiry included speaking to the Cambridge students who had worked on the dig. He says: “In essence, the site record that survives is the photographs and the drawings. There was no finds register; the finds were recorded on beautifully written manilla labels, but many of these disintegrated during storage. And the iron artefacts just aren’t there.” The Hall B annex, a distinctively Anglian feature, cannot be seen on any of the surviving photographs in the site record. It appears on plans but only those thought to have been drawn after the excavations ended. Without it, Hall B resembles Neolithic buildings now known in Britain or Ireland. Finally, the pottery sent for analysis is entirely Neolithic. There is no sign of any wares “left behind” by the Britons and Anglo-Saxons. Prof Ralston says: “I knew that Balbridie and Doon Hill couldn’t be that far apart – it was so improbable but I just couldn’t demonstrate it.” Today, we have a series of radiocarbon dates for the palisade and halls at Doon Hill and, like Balbridie, they present an Early Neolithic date of around 3800BC. Scotland’s archaeological record now includes other large, complex Neolithic timber buildings, including at Carnoustie on the east coast, Warren Field at Crathes in Aberdeenshire, and Lockerbie in Dumfries and Galloway. “In the 1960s, nobody would have suggested Doon Hill was Neolithic – big timber buildings One of Dr Brian Hope-Taylor’s drawings of the Doon Hill halls

Modern research methods, such as radiocarbon dating, are providing fresh insights

Nothing we have is from after 1000 BC at all were associated with the Dark Ages. Maybe Hope-Taylor was digging for what he hoped to find; or perhaps by 1980 in poor health he confused objects he recovered from Yeavering with finds made at Doon Hill. He thought Balbridie was wrongly interpreted and others supported his rejection of its early date.”

Move with the times Although Prof Ralston remains open to the possibility of new evidence altering the story once more, he says “nothing we have is from after 1000 BC at all.” Richard Strachan, senior archaeologist at HES says: “The previous interpretation of Doon Hill has puzzled many and the idea that two halls could be so closely superimposed in spatial terms yet separated by millennia of time just did not seem right. Prof Ralston’s critical re-analyses and radiocarbon dating has finally put closure on this debate. In doing so, it has heightened the cultural significance of this amazing monument; a rare survival from our early farmers in the hills of East Lothian.” HES and Prof Ralston are keen to hear from anyone who remembers the Doon Hill excavations or has information relating to it, such as photographs. If you have any information, email richard.strachan@hes.scot

Fund of knowledge The Doon Hill excavations were never fully published but recent analysis by Prof Ian Ralston and others will now enable this. The work, funded by HES and including radiocarbon dating, is part of a wider project to make information about excavations between the 1960s and the 1980s more accessible. These include Balbridie in Aberdeenshire and Doon Hill in East Lothian, which are among the oldest structures to be found in Scotland and are relatively rare. Laura Hindmarch, archaeology manager at HES, said: “It is still useful to research older excavations today. It allows us to find out more information than we could have in the past by using modern scientific techniques, such as Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. “Archaeology is about discovery through research that recognises there are multiple stories about the past. The information gained is precious and finite, so we are proud to fund this project and others like it. “We aim to make information from incomplete projects that we have funded publicly available now and for future generations to contribute to our sense of place, our communities, our economy, and who we are.” For anyone keen to dig through Doon Hill’s archives, visit canmore.org.uk

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 31


F I R S T W O R L D WA R

A century after the end of the First World War, Alec Mackenzie reveals the places that tell the story of Scots caught in the conflict


Stirling Castle

1

The rich renaissance splendour of Stirling Castle was complemented by thousands of khaki uniforms during the First World War, when it became a transit and recruitment centre. The depot of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders since 1881, it was here that men from across the country were given their papers and medical inspections before bedding down in the castle or surrounding camps. The Great Hall, a setting for feasts and dances in the 16th century, was

converted into a barracks during the 18th century housing soldiers on the top floor, with toilets, washing facilities and a shop on the lower floors. Describing the scene, soldier HB Todd wrote in 1914: “The castle was crowded with serving soldiers and recruits, and reservists amid the latter had to find accommodation for sleeping anywhere they could.” The castle’s close links to the army are maintained in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders Regimental Museum in the King’s Old Building.

SHUTTERSTOCK

Stirling Castle was used as a transit and recruitment centre during the First World War, and was where the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (above) were based

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 33


Dumbarton Castle

2

The volcanic plug of basalt that Dumbarton Castle stands upon has been a strategically significant site for more than 1,500 years, so it’s perhaps unsurprising that it has had an illustrious past as a military stronghold. In the early 20th century responsibility for the former garrison fortress was given to the Office of Works, a predecessor of

Historic Scotland, only for the army to reoccupy the castle once the First World War broke out. Dumbarton Castle was also refortified during the Second World War when it was equipped with an anti-aircraft battery. A surviving local link to the Great War can be seen close to the entrance in a memorial to Lieutenant Colonel James Clark and the men of the 9th Battalion of Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.

Clark was Deputy Lieutenant of the City of Edinburgh and despite being 56 at the onset of war he enlisted. He was killed in action at Hooge, near Ypres, on 10 May 1915. The Reverend Charles Warr, who served with Clark, recalled that: “Two shrapnel shells exploded overhead with an earsplitting bang … only two of us out a group of eight were left alive. The colonel died instantaneously.”

Inchcolm Abbey OPEN SUMMER ONLY visit by 31 Oct!

3

Anyone looking for peace on the island of Inchcolm from 1916-17 would have been in for a shock. The former abbey had become the HQ for a network of coastal defences to counteract German attacks on Rosyth naval base, the Forth Bridge and Edinburgh. Searchlights and artillery batteries dotted the island, manned by soldiers who lived in and around the buildings of

the old monastery. Inchcolm packed a punch, and was armed with two 12lb guns and two 6in breech loaders on the east side, with eight quickfiring guns on the west. The most significant remains from the period are the concrete ‘aprons’ for the 4.7in quick firers and the battery commander’s post, reused in the Second World War as the firecontrol post for the Forth coastal defence.


F I R S T W O R L D WA R

Blackness Castle

4

The great fortress on the Firth of Forth had been the central ammunition depot for Scotland since 1870 and was occupied by the navy in 1916 to supply munitions to Rosyth Naval Dockyard and the fortified islands in the Firth of Forth, including Inchcolm. Often called ‘the ship that never sailed’, from the

seaward side Blackness Castle looks like a mighty stone ship run aground. In the hands of the military the courtyard was covered, a cast-iron jetty built and barracks erected outside the castle. On a plan of defences from 1916, Blackness is marked as having a small system of trenches overlooking the main western approach,

accompanied by barbed wire entanglements to the south. The castle was decommissioned after the First World War and passed into state care. A major scheme of restoration followed, chiefly intended to unpick the significant alterations carried out to the castle by the War Office since the late 19th century.

Trinity House

5

SHUTTERSTOCK, MARY EVANS, NEIL SETCHFIELD / ALAMY, ORKNEYPICS / ALAMY

Inside this striking Georgian house can be found many insights into Leith’s maritime heritage. The building has been the Port of Leith headquarters of the Incorporation of Mariners and Shipmasters for almost 200 years, although the charitable body traces its origins back to 1380. Of particular note halfway up the main stairs is the War Memorial Window, designed by WJR Cook in 1933, which honours the local merchant sailors who lost their lives during the First World War. Medallions depict

various onboard duties and related scenes, along with the emblems and flags of the Merchant Navy, Trinity House and Leith. The window was rededicated in 1945 to commemorate the seamen who died in the Second World War. Colina Grant, the daughter of a Leith ship owner, gifted the window to Trinity House. She took an active interest in the welfare of mariners and was very involved in charity work. She was the only woman to be made an honorary member of Trinity House and her portrait still hangs in the convening room.

OPEN SUMMER ONLY

Hackness Battery and Martello Tower

6

Built between 1813 and 1814 at the height of the Napoleonic wars, Hackness Battery and Martello Tower in Orkney was intended to protect merchant ships but never fired its guns in anger. The tower had barracks on the first floor for 14 men and a cubicle for a noncommissioned officer. In the First World War navy personnel were billeted here while they operated the boom defences, designed to deter enemy vessels.

visit by 30 Sep!

Hackness Battery and Martello Tower form part of a group of military structures that helped safeguard Scapa Flow, the main base of the British Grand Fleet, ideally placed to quickly respond to German activity in the Baltic Sea. Scapa Flow also bore witness to the single greatest loss of warships in history on 21 June 1919, when the German High Seas Fleet scuttled 52 of its ships, interned here while armistice negotiations took place. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 35


F I R S T W O R L D WA R

Glasgow Cathedral

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A medieval masterpiece and an active church, Glasgow Cathedral has been a cornerstone of Christian life in the city for centuries. As a result, the contributions and sacrifices of its citizens during the First World War are commemorated across a number of memorials throughout the cathedral. “Go tell our City, living we guarded thee, dead we guard thee still,” reads the inscription on one example, a memorial to the 173 members of Glasgow’s police force who lost their

lives. It was unveiled on 11 November 1921 and Sergeant John McAulay, a police officer and Victoria Cross recipient, was present to lay a wreath. Another memorial plaque honours the Anderson brothers, four members of one family who were killed during the war. William, the eldest, was posthumously awarded the VC. There are also memorials to the Highland Light Infantry, the Royal Army Medical Corps and the Cameronians.

Fortrose Cathedral

8

At the entrance to the red sandstone remains of Fortrose Cathedral can be found two memorial plaques to local men who lost their lives during the First and Second World Wars. A large crowd witnessed the unveiling of the first plaque on 29 August 1922 by Lord Seaforth. Among the 33 names listed is Roderick Bissett, who was born in Fortrose and emigrated to Canada in 1907. He joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force in

1915 and was posted to France later that year. Bissett was involved in the Battle of Thiepval Ridge, a major offensive that formed part of the Battle of the Somme. Injured during the attack, he died of his wounds on 27 September 1916 aged 26 and is buried at Contay British Cemetery, France. Listed alongside Bissett on the memorial are two brothers, Alexander and James Sutherland from Rosemarkie, who were also killed at the Somme.

9

An 18th-century water-powered mill may seem at odds with the rapid industrialisation typically associated with the First World War but New Abbey Corn Mill in Dumfries and Galloway has a poignant connection to the conflict. In 1918, a policeman named John Clingan took over responsibility for the mill. Following the loss of his sons Thomas and William during the war he felt that the mill would be able to provide a good livelihood for his family. It was to prove a prudent

36 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

decision as Clingan rented and ran the mill with his surviving sons for 30 years. Thomas had been a gardener before he enlisted in 1914 and was killed in action on 29 December 1915 at Gallipoli, aged 20. His older brother William, a butcher in Maxwelltown, signed up in July 1916 and was in France by December. He lost his life at Arras on 9 April 1917, aged 24. Thomas and William, along with their brother John who survived the war, are named on the New Abbey Free Church memorial.

SHUTTERSTOCK, JOHN BRACEGIRDLE / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO

New Abbey Corn Mill


Fort George

10

As the regimental home of the Seaforth Highlanders and garrison of the 2nd Battalion of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, Fort George was a hive of activity at the outbreak of the First World War and served as a vital link between the Highlands and battlefields of mainland Europe. Substantial numbers of recruits were put through their paces within the ramparts, built in the wake of the Battle of Culloden as a headquarters for King George II’s army. Fort George proved adaptable to the demands of modern warfare and a short-lived seaplane station was established nearby to

Hidden History at Holyrood help defend the naval base at Invergordon. Contemporary visitors might not see biplanes buzzing the Moray Firth but they can discover more about Fort George’s wartime roles at the

Highlanders’ Museum (Queen’s Own Highlanders Collection). A plaque over the main gate notably commemorates the 8,432 men of the Seaforths who died in the First World War.

Edinburgh Castle and the Scottish National War Memorial

11

Serving as a garrison, a training centre, a recruitment depot, a prison and a hospital, Edinburgh Castle played a major role in Britain’s First World War effort. The hospital, for example, was a converted ordnance store, with 60 beds and an operating

theatre. More than 100 German casualties received treatment here in 1915 when the Royal Navy sank SMS Blücher at the Battle of Dogger Bank. Post-war, Edinburgh Castle became the site of the Scottish National War Memorial. Designed by Sir Robert Lorimer and formally opened in 1927, the

memorial features contributions from Scotland’s finest artists and craftsmen including the stained-glass windows by Aberdonian Douglas Strachan, which vividly depict scenes from the First World War and are a fitting tribute to the 500,000 Scots who left Britain’s shores to fight.

While the horrors of the Western Front were a world away from the beauty of Holyrood Park, research has revealed the war nevertheless made its mark here as well. An aerial laser scan last year identified three trenches straddling either side of the road north of Dunsapie Loch. Each is about 80m long and 2m wide, and fits the standard of WWI trenches set out in the War Office manuals. A possible fourth trench lies 40m to the west. Although the outlines are very faint on the ground the laser scan clearly shows the fire bays and traverses that give trench systems their distinctive zigzag pattern. It is not known whether the trenches were built for practice or as a line of defence for Edinburgh. HES’s cultural resources team is researching the military history of Holyrood Park to determine which regiments were based there and the purpose of the trenches.

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 37


BEHIND THE SCENES

Writer’s block How do you inspire teenagers to consider a career in traditional construction skills? Jonathan McIntosh finds out

I

have always been fascinated by how people end up in their careers. If you’d asked me back in high school what I wanted to do when I entered the big bad world of work you’d have been met with a concerned glance. I had no idea where to begin. Inquisitive by nature and told by teachers I was too chatty for my own good, I decided I wanted to tell other people’s stories – so a career in journalism seemed like the perfect way to make use of my nosiness. That’s why, as I head for Falkirk Old Parish Churchyard and the second day of Historic Environment Scotland’s traditional skills demonstration event, I’m keen to discover if the high school pupils there share the same concerns as my teenage self, while seeing how HES informs young people of the opportunities traditional trades such as stonemasonry can offer.

8.30am: Shared enthusiasm I’m greeted by Annie-Leigh Campbell, of HES’s technical outreach and education team, usually based at the Engine Shed. Originally from Dorset, Annie-Leigh studied archaeology and worked at the National Museum of Wales before doing a traineeship in educational outreach with the Royal Commission for Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. “I wanted to be able to share my enthusiasm for Scotland’s history,” explains Annie-Leigh. “I knew this role would be an opportunity to help communities engage with their built heritage.” 38 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


MENTOR ANNIE-LEIGH CAMPBELL works out the logistics of a successful skill-share event

ANGELA CATLIN

PROTÉGÉ JONATHAN McINTOSH is about to give in to his carvings

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 39


40 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


BEHIND THE SCENES

That all-important 45º angle

a big concern that we’re not going to have enough new talent entering the trade to help safeguard Scotland’s historic built environment and pass on crucial skills,” says Annie-Leigh. “Through these workshops, young people can learn what opportunities a career in traditional trades can offer.”

9.15am: Chip off the old block Annie-Leigh is based at the Engine Shed in Stirling, but often travels throughout Scotland for events like these. The outreach team run regular workshops at the Engine Shed – every weekend and during school holidays. These can feature everything from traditional skills to 3D scanning and more. DigiFest, a two-week festival showcasing cutting-edge digital technologies in the heritage sector, takes place there on 8-20 October and will offer a range of opportunities for visitors of all ages to try new tech. For Annie-Leigh, skills workshops are vital in introducing Scotland’s young people to traditional construction trades. Now in its fourth year and run in conjunction with the Falkirk Townscape Heritage Initiative and other trade bodies, S2 and S3 pupils can try stonemasonry, laying cobbles, slating and sign making. “HES is the biggest employer of stonemasons in Britain. However, there’s

She introduces me to the professionals leading today’s stonemasonry workshops – Carolanne (Caz) Neilson, who has worked for four years as an HES stonemason, and Ross Cowie, who is in the penultimate year of his HES stonemasonry apprenticeship. At that, the first wave of would-be chips off the old block, from Graeme and Grangemouth High Schools, line up, eager to get started.

9.30am: Lessons from history Caz gives us a brief history of stonemasonry and reveals that the techniques she and Ross use every day haven’t changed significantly over the past 1,000 years. Curiosity piqued, Annie-Leigh and I give out masks and safety goggles to everyone before Ross explains how to use the tools of the trade. “If you’re right handed, hold the mallet in your right hand and position your chisel in your left. If you’re left handed, do the opposite,” he says. With everyone set, I hand out stencils of the first letter of each pupil’s name,

HES is the biggest employer of stonemasons in Britain and we need to pass on crucial skills

Ross’s reward Now in his third year, Ross Cowie, 26, explains why his HES apprenticeship is the best move he’s ever made What inspired you to apply? I thought I’d go to university and do a degree but it just wasn’t for me. I read about the HES stonemason apprenticeships and applied, not thinking I’d get in. It’s the best career choice I’ve ever made and it has opened up so many opportunities. What has the apprenticeship involved? As well as on-site work I go to college for a few weeks at a time. It’s a good mix. You learn the theory behind methods and techniques, which you put into practice on site. Knowing that my work helps protect some of Scotland’s most striking built heritage is so rewarding.

ANGELA CATLIN

What do you enjoy about running the workshops? I love inspiring kids to consider stonemasonry as a career. Seeing young people take on your instruction and become engaged in their work is really rewarding.

This pupil has got it down to a T

Why are workshops vital? They’re crucial to connecting Scotland’s young people with traditional trades and Scotland’s built heritage. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 41


BEHIND THE SCENES

Caz carves on HES stonemason Carolanne (Caz) Neilson, 36, shares her job highlights and why traditional is the way to go

Ross gives chiselling guidance

Showing younger generations that traditional trades are brilliant careers is super important which they trace in pencil on to the limestone. Now comes the tricky bit, as Caz instructs them on technique. “Use your chisel to form a v shape on the limestone,” she explains. “Hold your chisel at a 45-degree angle and tap it gently with your mallet to guide it along the left side of your letter outline. Repeat the same process along the right.” And so the methodical tap-taptapping of metal on stone begins, faces wearing steely looks of determination. Small chips cascade through the air as those with a knack get into a flow, while others turn to Ross, Annie-Leigh and Caz for guidance. The best help I can give is some moral support by dusting off the loose fragments from the stone blocks so pupils have a clearer view of their handiwork. “It’s much trickier than it looks, isn’t it?” smiles Annie-Leigh.

“He’s a natural,” say Caz and Ross after inspecting his work.

10am: Top tips

I use my lunchbreak to chat to Caz and Ross – both based at Blackness Castle and Linlithgow Palace – to find out what they feel about the workshops. “I think a lot of today’s pupils enjoyed getting lost in the art of stonemasonry,” says Caz. “The chance for them to ask Ross and myself questions about our experience of the HES apprenticeship is a brilliant opportunity and I’m always happy to pass on what I’ve learned.” Over four years HES stonemasonry trainees learn the full range of traditional skills – such as cutting, hewing, building

42 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

With the day’s fourth workshop in full swing, I ask Annie-Leigh why she thinks they are so effective. “There’s a misconception that traditional trades are old-fashioned and don’t offer exciting career opportunities, which couldn’t be further from the truth. Working as a stonemason means you get to help protect some of Scotland’s most beloved monuments, cathedrals and castles while honing a truly artisan craft,” she says. “You only have to look around Falkirk town centre to see the important role that stonemasons play in reinvigorating and maintaining Scotland’s architectural legacies.”

What are your highlights? It’s a privilege to work on historic monuments in some of the most beautiful parts of the country, where you can really see the impact of your conservation work. What can people interested in HES apprenticeships do? Get as much hands-on experience as possible. Speak to the stonemasons at monuments to find out more about the role because more often than not they’ll give you a shot at it, which is how I started. Don’t be disheartened if you’re not successful on your first try because I applied a number of times.

12.30pm: Dynamic duo

ANGELA CATLIN

We’ve ushered in the second round of novices, now hard at work perfecting the basics of their new-found skillset. From using the corner of the chisel as a guide to how to prevent your goggles steaming up when you’re in the zone, the enthusiasm of Caz, Ross and AnnieLeigh is infectious as they offer their tips. The best bit, however, is seeing how invested the pupils are in their work. I’m amazed at the talent of one Grangemouth High’s pupill, who has already expertly etched his initials.

11.15am: Exciting opportunities

Why did you apply for the HES apprenticeship? After a degree in painting and printmaking at the Glasgow School of Art I volunteered for the National Trust for Scotland, where I had my first shot at stonemasonry. I liked working with my hands so applied and was accepted in 2010.


HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 43


BEHIND THE SCENES

Hit or miss?

and pointing – through a mix of collegebased learning and on-site practicals. “When pupils hear I’m still going through my apprenticeship, and what doors it has opened up for me, they’re amazed,” says Ross. “Seeing young people like me in a trade that they conceive as being for older people helps them realise it’s a dynamic career where they could develop a highly skilled craft.”

Budding stonemasons share their thoughts on the hands-on workshops

1.30pm: An absorbing craft As the pupils from Brae’s High arrive, I decide to try my chiselling skills in the next workshop. Having helped wouldbe stonemasons all morning, I’m confident I’ll take to it like a duck to water. Ensuring I follow Caz and Ross’s advice, I get increasingly lost in my craft and feel positive I’ve done well. But my (blind) optimism is short-lived when I see a pupil’s perfectly etched initials, putting the fruit of my labour to shame.

2pm: Cause and effect Ego bruised, I join Annie-Leigh talking to a visitor at the information point. “There are 500,000 traditional buildings in Scotland, which need specific care,” she explains. “We can give out HES publications and advice to help them find the most effective methods to care for the buildings important to them.” While Annie-Leigh goes to check that everything is running to schedule, I give out short guides on caring for your home and climate-change adaptation for traditional buildings before nabbing a Pupils stencil their initials

Jonathan tries his hand, with Annie-Leigh’s help

CONOR I liked getting hands-on with the tools. Hearing about Caz and Ross’s experience has inspired me.

There are 500,000 traditional buildings in Scotland, which need specific care guide on caring for Scottish traditional brickwork for my own home.

2.45pm: Happy faces As the eighth and final workshop draws to a close, so does my time as an outreach officer. “Seeing happy faces is the part of my job I enjoy the most,” says Annie-Leigh. “Our built heritage is such an integral part of Scotland’s identity so it’s super important we show our younger generations that traditional trades are brilliant careers.” I say my goodbyes and reflect on what I’ve learned: that encouraging young people into traditional trades is crucial to ensuring vital skills are passed on; and that by doing so, we can help to protect architectural treasures for generations to enjoy long into the future.

OWEN Once you get the hang of angling the chisel and the mallet it’s quite easy and you get really involved in it.

ROBBIE I wanted to be an electrician but after trying my hand at being a mason I’m thinking of changing profession.

If you’ve ever fancied learning about blacksmithing, casting or other metalcrafts then head along to Heavy Metal at the Engine Shed on 28 and 29 September. The drop-in sessions are free and suitable for ages six and above. DigiFest takes place on 8-20 October and traditional skills workshops take place at the Engine Shed every weekend. See engineshed.scot

44 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

BRANDAN It was harder than I expected but after following Ross and Caz’s instructions it was a lot easier. I was glad I got a go.

ANGELA CATLIN

FANCY A TRY?


SPECIAL DISCOUNT

CHRISTMAS GIFT BONUS M E M B E R S H I P

F

or a Christmas gift with a difference, buy your loved one a year’s Historic Scotland membership. If you pay for the membership online using a credit or debit card

your gift will include an extra two months’ membership free. What’s more, as a member you will receive a 20% discount on your order.

O F F E R

●●To get your discount – and two months’ extra free – check you are registered and logged in to the members’ website at historicenvironment.scot/ member

For more information call 0131 668 8999 or visit historicenvironment.scot/ member. Terms and conditions apply. The offer is valid from 1 October to 31 December 2018

14

MONTHS FOR THE PRICE OF 12

SHUTTERSTOCK

FIVE REASONS WHY HISTORIC SCOTLAND MEMBERSHIP IS THE PERFECT GIFT

1

Free entry to more than 70 of Scotland’s top paid-for heritage attractions

2

A personal copy of Historic Scotland magazine posted out four times a year direct to their door

3

Half-price entry into 500 heritage attractions in England, Wales and on the Isle of Man

4

A chance to take part in member activities – including tours, lectures and lunches

5

Discounts on Historic Scotland products and dining events

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 45


1

2

3

4 5

As seen on screen

Outlander 6

Must-have merchandise inspired by smash hits of the small and big screen

H

istoric Scotland properties regularly appear on screen, featuring as settings in projects ranging from blockbusters to TV series. One of the most recognised is Doune Castle outside Stirling, otherwise known as Castle

Leoch in Outlander. It has also been a site of pilgrimage for comedy fans since Monty Python and the Holy Grail was filmed there over 40 years ago. Here we highlight our official Outlander and Monty Python merchandise, available online and at Doune Caste.

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SPEND Members receive a 20% discount by using & SAVE the code MEMBER0918 at the checkout 46 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

A range of merchandise inspired by the television drama series based on the historical time travel series of novels by Diana Gabaldon, and partly filmed at some of our historical sites. All bags are made with vegan leather. 1 Outlander tartan backpack, £125 2 Outlander tartan medicine bag, £87 3 Limited edition Standing Stones paperweight, £200 4 Assorted Outlander books, £9.99-£35 5 Outlander MacKenzie tartan lambswool scarf, £37.50 6 Outlander Lallybroch cross-body bag, £58 7 Leather Outlander tartan purse, £30

SHOP Visit the online shop at historicenvironment.scot/shop


R E TA I L

Monty Python Official merchandise inspired by Monty Python and the Holy Grail. You can even create your own horse’s clip-clop with our coconut halves.

5 4

1 Coconut halves, £2.50 2 ’Tis but a Scratch mug, £10 3 Three knights mug, £10 4 Monty Python and the Holy Grail screenplay, £9.99 5 ’Tis but a Scratch T-shirt, £15 6 Monty Python knight riders t-shirt, £15 1

2

3

6

More movie magic ... With Outlaw King and Mary Queen of Scots on the film release schedules, we present the final cut of our favourite products

Robert the Bruce 1

4 3

A new and exclusive range inspired by the rich history and heraldry of Scotland, featuring the Scottish thistle and Lion Rampant. 1 Heraldic Scottish shield tankard, £28 2 Heraldic Scottish shield goblet, £18 3 Robert the Bruce rubber duck, £7 4 Robert the Bruce toy bear, £15

2

Mary Queen of Scots 1 3

2

A range inspired by one of Scotland’s best-known royals, the iconic Mary Queen of Scots. Highlights include the plush bear adorned in full royal regalia, traditional writing sets

and marvellous hardback notebooks fit for any queen. 1 Aurelia journal, £21 2 Feather quill, ink and pewter pen holder set, £39 3 Mary Queen of Scots toy bear, £15

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 47


EXCITING ACTIVITIES ACROSS SCOTLAND

EVENTS SEPTEMBER–DECEMBER

Members get more Daytime events are free to members, unless otherwise stated

Parking 48 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Toilets

Gift shop

Restaurant/café

Reasonable wheelchair access

Picnic area

Dogs not permitted


DIARY DATES

Autumn activities From learning about Mary Queen of Scots to spooky goings-on there is no shortage of things to do at our properties this season Pick up your events guide at any of our properties or visit historicenvironment.scot/events

Michaelmas STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 15 and Sun 16 Sep; 12-4pm 0131 668 8885 events@hes.scot Step back into the sumptuous world of Stirling Castle’s royal court as they enjoy Michaelmas, the traditional feast day that celebrates the collection of the harvest. Meet colourful characters, hear all about the political double dealings and see splendid food displays. A time for music, dance and feasting, join us for a celebration fit for royalty.

Linlithgow ExFEARience: Portal to the Past LINLITHGOW PALACE

Fri 26, Sat 27 and Sun 28 Oct; 6.30pm, 8pm and 9.30pm

Strange things are afoot at Linlithgow Palace in the run-up to Halloween

£12 (10% members’ discount) Over 14s only 0131 668 8885 historicenvironment. scot/events As you tour the magnificent palace you will soon discover that all is not what it seems. Will you be brave enough to face what the

archaeologists have unleashed?

Spotlight on Mary CRAIGMILLAR CASTLE

Thu 1-Sun 4 Nov Timed evening tours departing from Holyrood Park 0131 668 8885 events@hes.scot Experience Craigmillar Castle

in a new light as the story of the infamous Craigmillar Bond is brought to life through illumination and projection. Listen in on the dark plot of 1566 and encounter key characters as you tour the castle and hear of the fate that befell Mary Queen of Scots’ husband Lord Darnley.

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 49


DIARY DATES SEPTEMBER

Standing Stones of Stenness and Barnhouse Village Walk STONES OF STENNESS

Wed, Sep-Dec (except Boxing Day); 10-11am 01856 841732 orkneyrangers @hes.scot Join the Ranger Service for a guided tour of our oldest stone circle and explore the fascinating links with the Neolithic village of Barnhouse.

Ring of Brodgar Walk RING OF BRODGAR

Thu, Sep-Dec (except 27 Dec); 1-2pm 01856 841732 orkneyrangers @hes.scot Explore the area around the Ring of Brodgar on a guided walk with a ranger.

LS Lowry’s Canal and Factories

by one of the most popular British artists of the 20th century. Laurence Stephen Lowry’s Canal and Factories (1955) is the latest in the long-established annual Masterpiece loan from National Galleries of Scotland to the Georgian mansion in Banff.

Northern Realists DUFF HOUSE

Sat 25 Aug-Sun 30 Sep; Daily, 11am-5pm Adults £7.50, members free, over60s/unemployed £6, children £4.50, under-fives free 01261 818181 historicenvironment. scot/events Keith Byres and Martin Stevenson are artists from northeast Scotland who have undertaken a series of portraits reflecting the life, character, passion and diversity of people in the area.

Kinneil House Open Days

DUFF HOUSE

KINNEIL HOUSE

Thu 9 Aug-May 2019; Daily, 11am-5pm (1 Apr-31 Oct), Thu-Sun, 11am-4pm (1 Nov-31 Mar) Adults £7.50, members free, over60s/unemployed £6, children £4.50, under-fives free 01261 818181 historicenvironment. scot/events

Sat 15 Sep and Sun 28 Oct; 12-4pm 01506 778530 historicenvironment. scot/events

View a masterpiece Parking

50 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Toilets

Renaissance wall paintings in Scotland.

Archaeology Day HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 15 Sep; 11am-4pm Booking essential 0131 652 8150 rangers@hes.scot Discover what life was like in the Iron Age by meeting characters from the past and trying your hand at skills from the period.

End of an Era HUNTLY CASTLE

Sat 15 and Sun 16 Sep; 12-4pm 0131 668 8885 events@hes.scot Hear the story of the Gordon family and

their turbulent relationship with the Scottish Crown.

Biggar Gasworks Steam Days

Biggar and beyond before the advent of natural gas in the 1960s.

Heavy Metal at the Engine Shed

BIGGAR GASWORKS

ENGINE SHED

Mon 17 and Mon 24 Sep, Sun 21 Oct; 1-5pm Adults £5, members free, over-60s £4, children £3, under-fives free 01899 221070 historicenvironment. scot/events

Fri 28 and Sat 29 Sep; 12-4pm 01786 234800 engineshed@hes.scot

Enter the last remaining town gasworks in Scotland – the only surviving example of a once familiar sight. For more than 130 years this industrial plant made coal gas for

Join us for demonstrations of blacksmithing, casting and other metalcrafts and create your own masterpiece to take home.

Exhibition: The Scots Who Built the White House ENGINE SHED

Sep-Jan 2019; 10am-4pm 01786 234800

Ranger Events HOLYROOD PARK; LINLITHGOW PEEL; BLACKNESS CASTLE

Various dates and times Most events are free but booking is essential 0131 652 8150 historicenvironment.scot/ ranger-service Join our rangers for a variety

of acitivities. From our popular holiday clubs to guided walks and special events such as Mushroom Magic and A fidreadh na Pàirce: Craobhan (Enjoying the Park: Trees), there’s something for everyone to enjoy. Visit our website for full listings.

You’ll get the chance to see inside this impressive mansion, once home to the Dukes of Hamilton, which dates from the 15th century and is home to some of the best Gift shop

Restaurant/café

Reasonable wheelchair access

Picnic area

Dogs not permitted


engineshed@hes.scot Did you know that a number of Scottish stonemasons worked on the construction of the White House? Learn about their journey and the amazing work these men did home and abroad. OCTOBER

Weekend Antics ENGINE SHED

Sat, Oct-Feb except 13 and 20 Oct, and 22 and 29 Dec; 1-3.30pm 01786 234810 www.engineshed.scot Join the fun, familyfriendly activities on Saturday afternoons at the Engine Shed to learn more about Scotland’s traditional buildings, materials and skills.

Volcano Fun Day HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 6 Oct; 11am-4pm 0131 652 8150 historicenvironment. scot/events A day of fun-filled, hands-on activities with the aim of learning about the geology of Holyrood Park. Find out how volcanoes work from scientists, erupt your own volcano then walk up one of Edinburgh’s own volcanoes.

Scotland’s Early Silver

(until 31 Oct), Thu-Sun, 11am-4pm (1 Nov-31 Mar) Adults £7.50, members free, over60s/unemployed £6, children £4.50, under-fives free 01261 818181 historicenvironment. scot/events Discover the story of Scotland’s early silver and how this precious metal helped shape the first kingdoms of Scotland in an exhibition featuring objects dating from AD75 to AD1000. Supported by The Glenmorangie Research Project on Early Medieval Scotland, Scotland’s Early Silver is a National Museums Scotland touring exhibition.

Urquhart Castle and its Archaeology

Parking

Toilets

Brick Wonders GLASGOW CATHEDRAL

Until Sun 23 Sep; Mon-Sat 9.30am-5.30pm, Sun 1-5pm. Closed 25 and 26 Dec, 1 and 2 Jan 0141 552 6891 historicenvironment.scot/events

Lego artist Warren Elsmore

STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 29 Sep-Wed 23 Jan 2019; Daily, 9.30am-6pm (29 and 30 Sep), 9.30am-5pm (1 Oct-23 Jan), Closed 25 and 26 Dec 01786 450000 historicenvironment.scot/events

Brick History FORT GEORGE

Sat 22 Sep-Sun 6 Jan 2019; 10am-4pm. Closed 25 and 26 Dec, 1 and 2 Jan 01667 460232 historicenvironment.scot/events

Join us at our sites as we host Lego exhibitions created by Warren Elsmore and his team of artists. Brick Wonders showcases sights from around the world, beginning with the seven wonders of the ancient world. Brick History brings historic moments to life in Lego, featuring key figures from Mozart to Martin Luther King, scientific discoveries from the Big Bang to DNA and recent history including the moon landings and the mobile phone.

URQUHART CASTLE

Mon 15 Oct; 7-8pm (doors at 6.45pm; the visitor centre will be open until 8.30pm for people to ask questions and look at the exhibition) Booking recommended 0131 652 8156 historicenvironment. scot/events Join us for an evening of archaeology, and hear all about the interesting finds at Urquhart Castle and its unique history.

DUFF HOUSE

Fri 12 Oct-Sun 17 Mar 2019; Daily, 11am-5pm

Block Party

Child of the New Century Gift shop

DUFF HOUSE

Mon 15 Oct-Mon 31 Dec; Daily, 11am-5pm (until 31 Oct), Thu-Sun, 11am-4pm (until 31 Dec) Adults £7.50, members free, over60s/unemployed £6, children £4.50, under-fives free 01261 818181 historicenvironment. scot/events Created for the Year of Young People, Karen Curran’s work follows the lives of a group of children, from the start of the new millennium

Restaurant/café

until their 18th birthday. Focusing on one child in particular, Curran demonstrates the highs and lows in the transition from child to young adult and the impact it can have on one’s perspective on life.

about life as a knight at a castle. Make a knight’s jug to take away and explore the history of Urquhart Castle with our archaeology trail.

A Knight’s Jug

Thu 18 Oct; 6.45pm for 7.30pm start Adults £19.50, over60s/unemployed £16, children £12, 10% members’ discount, carers accompanying people with disability go free 01786 450000

Ossian – the Pipes and the Story STIRLING CASTLE

URQUHART CASTLE

Tue 16, Wed 17 and Thu 18 Oct; 11am-1pm, 2pm-4pm (drop in) 0131 652 8156 historicenvironment. scot/events Come and learn

Reasonable wheelchair access

Picnic area

Dogs not permitted

HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 51


DIARY DATES historicenvironment. scot/events

A unique combination of Scotland’s richest traditions of bagpipe music with some of its oldest stories. Ossian brings together Scottish-Irish sagas, songs and music in Stirling’s Great Hall, re-mixing entertainment that goes back to the first Stewart Kings. The Pipes and the Story assembles astellar line-up of Scotland’s musical talent, including Ross Ainslie, Allan MacDonald, Brighde Chaimbeul, Griogair Labhruidh, and Angus and Kenneth MacKenzie.

Join us for a Halloween and All Saints Day themed walk, uncovering the light and dark sides of Holyrood Park’s history of saints and sinners. Hear chilling tales of criminals, pestilence and murder, as well as the lives of the holy men and women of Holyrood throughout the centuries.

Chocolate Casting Workshop DUFF HOUSE

Tue 23, Wed 24 and Thu 25 Oct; 11.30am-12.30pm, 2.30-3.30pm Book online 0131 652 8156 historicenvironment. scot/events Learn how silver is cast using chocolate. Make your own beautiful design inspired by the Early Silver exhibition and take away your edible creation.

Saints and Sinners HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 27 Oct; 1-3pm Booking essential 0131 652 8150 rangers@hes.scot Parking

Toilets

NOVEMBER

Visible Girls: Revisited SUMMERHALL

Sat 10 Nov-Fri 21 Dec; 11am-6pm 0131 560 1580 historicenvironment. scot/events Visible Girls: Revisited features portraits of women from different cultural groups and subcultures that Anita Corbin captured in the early 1980s – from skinheads to new romantics – and traces their lives and experiences with newly commissioned portraits of the same women now.

Study Days DUFF HOUSE

Tue 27 and Wed 28 Nov; 9.30am-4pm Adults £15, members/over-60s/ unemployed £13.50 Booking essential 01786 234800 historicenvironment. scot/events engineshed.scot Gift shop

A neon theme takes over at Edinburgh Castle

Bright Stars Knight at the Castle EDINBURGH CASTLE

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stirlingcastle.scot/ events

Fri 5 Oct; 7-10pm Adults £15, members £12, over-60s £12 0131 225 9846 edinburghcastle.scot/knight For one night only, Edinburgh Castle will transform into the hottest [k]night club in town with a carnival of music, street magic and spoken word. Discover the castle’s secrets

Learn more about the unique and varied collections at Duff House at these oneday events on the theme of portraiture. Talks, tours and lunch are all provided. DECEMBER

Festive Frolics STIRLING CASTLE

Sun 2 Dec; 12.30-3.30pm Members free, adults

Restaurant/café

and stories after hours. The confirmed line-up includes West Princes and Be Charlotte, with more to be announced. Enjoy the neon salon, photo booth and making your own neon crown. This event is brought to you by Historic Environment Scotland’s Year of Young People 2018 Remixed programme.

A Canty Christmas

£15, over-60s/ unemployed £12, children £9 (includes admission to the castle) 01786 450000 stirlingcastle.scot/ events

STIRLING CASTLE

Thu 6 Dec; 7.30pm (doors 7pm) £12, £10 and £8, 10% member discount 01786 450000 stirlingcastle.scot/ events

Get into the Christmas spirit with the magic of panto. Join us for a Christmas ceilidh and learn about the ‘daft days’ in the Renaissance palace.

Reasonable wheelchair access

Scottish medieval ensemble Canty presents an evening of Advent and Christmas delights, performed by three

Picnic area

Dogs not permitted

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DIARY DATES

Christmas Shopping Fayre STIRLING CASTLE

Tue 4 Dec; 6-9pm Adults £6, under-16s free 01786 450000 stirlingcastle.scot/ events We’re delighted to be bringing our fantastically festive Christmas Shopping Fayre back to the castle, showcasing the very best of Scottish brands, crafts and fine foods and drink.

Carols at the Castle STIRLING CASTLE

Sun 9 Dec; 7-9pm (doors 6.15pm) £16, £11 and £11, 10% members discount 01786 450000 stirlingcastle.scot/ events It’s the most Parking

Toilets

wonderful time of the year so be sure to enjoy a glass of mulled wine as the Stirling contingent of the National Youth Choir of Scotland performs classic carols and Christmas songs.

A Christmas Carol STIRLING CASTLE

Fri 21 and Sat 22 Dec (BSL interpreted Sat 22 Dec); 7-9pm (doors 6.15pm) Adults £16, over-60s/ unemployed £14, children £12, families (two adults and two children) £49, 10% members discount 01786 450000 stirlingcastle.scot/ events Charles Dickens’s classic ghost story is brought alive in this most traditional of productions, complete with beautiful period costume, song, dance and a magnificent score. Join critically acclaimed theatre company Chapterhouse as Scrooge’s frozen heart begins to melt and he embraces the festive spirit.

A Very Mary Christmas

Treat yourself to Christmas lunch at Edinburgh Castle

Festive Feasting w

singers and medieval harp. Among the music featured will be glorious medieval carols, traditional seasonal songs and new carols by James MacMillan, Nicola LeFanu and Tamsin Jones, as well as the Scottish premiere of Joanna Forbes L’Estrange’s gospelstyle setting of a prayer by Jane Austen. Canty will encourage audience participation in favourite folk carols and get you in the mood for the festive season.

Christmas Lunches EDINBURGH CASTLE

Fri 7-Sun 23 Dec (not 10, 11 and 12 Dec); 12pm, 12.30pm and 1pm Adults £45 (members £40), children £25 (members £22.50) 0131 226 9421 edinburghcastle.scot/festive STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 15-Sun 23 Dec; 12.30pm arrival for service at 1pm Adults £42 (members £37),

Gift shop

As autumn arrives, it’s time to start thinking about booking your places at our Christmas lunches. Choose to dine in the opulent setting of the Queen Anne Room at Edinburgh Castle or the atmospheric Green Room at Stirling Castle, and enjoy festive feasts fit for royalty.

free (includes admission to the castle) 0131 225 9846 edinburghcastle.scot/ events

with her courtiers. Come and join in the celebrations.

It is the festive season at Court. While Reformation Scotland shuns Christmas festivities, Mary Queen of Scots is celebrating the 12 days of Christmas

Thu 27 Dec; 1-2.30pm Booking essential 0131 652 8150 rangers@hes.scot historicenvironment. scot/events

EDINBURGH CASTLE

Sun 23-Sun 30 Dec (not 25, 26 or 27 Dec); 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm Adults £18.50, over60s/unemployed £15, children £11.50, members/under-fives

children £20 (members £18) 01786 469491 stirlingcastle.scot/festive

gentle guided walk around Hunter’s Bog and St Margaret’s Loch to learn more about the turbulent past of Arthur’s Seat, created by fire and ice. Find out about the people who lived and worked in the park through 7,000 years of history and learn about the rare wildlife that makes the park so special.

Arthur’s Amble – Festive Special HOLYROOD PARK

Restaurant/café

Come along on a

Reasonable wheelchair access

Picnic area

Dogs not permitted

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ARCHIVE

David Bryce junior’s 19th-century east wing after Duff House was bombed

TIME TRIP

The clipped wings of Duff House WHAT IS IT? The sad and sorry east wing of Duff House, Banffshire as photographed on 31 July 1953 William Adam’s exquisite mid-18th century country house was built for William Duff, who became Lord Braco and later 1st Earl Fife after 56 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

serving as MP for Banffshire from 1727 to 1734. Although wings were planned for the grand building, they were never built. In the late 19th century, a new east wing (designed by David Bryce junior) was finally constructed – with a kitchen, offices, a billiard room and bedrooms. A WWII bomb

caused significant damage to the property and, when it was taken into care by the Ministry of Works in 1956, the decision was taken to rescue and restore Duff House – without the dilapidated wing. See more images like this at canmore.org.uk


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Profile for Historic Scotland Members

Historic Scotland, Autumn 2018  

The magazine for Historic Scotland members

Historic Scotland, Autumn 2018  

The magazine for Historic Scotland members