My day as a marine archaeologist 34 EXCITING EVENTS
THE MAGAZINE FOR HISTORIC SCOTLAND MEMBERS AUTUMN 2016
E GAZIN MB E R M A
OF T H E
GREAT BORDERS ABBEYS
DAYS OUT INCLUDING
Go wildlife spotting at Ruthven Barracks, Dunadd Fort and more
Fort George Duff House Elgin Cathedral Linlithgow Palace Stirling Castle
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Autumn brings out some of the most brilliant colours in the Scottish landscape, making our stunning properties even more picturesque than usual. The days are still pretty long, so it’s a great time of year to fit a few of our sites into a day trip before winter draws in. In this issue, Eamonn O’Neill and his family do just that, taking in three Borders abbeys – Jedburgh, Dryburgh and Melrose. They follow a route travelled by the poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy in 1803, and soak up the history of each site along the way. The annual Historic Scotland photography competition is in full swing (details can be found on page 10, in case you missed it in your summer magazine). One of our favourite categories to judge each year is Nature, and in this issue we’ve got 10 top tip-offs for where you might find some interesting animal and plant life near our Highland properties. On page 20, Stephen Moss and Laurie Campbell take a look at some of the species you could be lucky enough to spot. Showing some of the breadth of the wider organisation’s work, journalist Kathleen Nutt embarks on a day as a marine archaeologist, working with divers off the coast of Argyll. See page 36 to find out how she got on. Don’t forget about our packed calendar of events from page 48 onwards, which includes some Christmas events already available for advance booking.
Contributors DAVID STORRAR Built to last (p42) As Historic Environment Scotland’s head of conservation for Edinburgh, David has responsibility for sites across the capital
SEE PAGE 47
CLAIRE BOWIE Membership and CRM Manager
MALCOLM COCHRANE, ANGELA CATLIN, JULIE HOWDEN
5 big things to see and do this issue 1
Try out traditional skills at the Engine Shed P7
Go lizard spotting at Dunadd Fort P24
Score a hat-trick of Borders abbeys P30
Uncover the unseen at Edinburgh Castle P42
Meet the 1651 defenders of Stirling Castle P49
LAURIE CAMPBELL Call of the wild (p20) An award-winning natural history photographer, he and Stephen Moss worked together on a recently published book, Highlands: Scotland’s Wild Heart
Get handy with a chisel
KATHLEEN NUTT My day as... (p36) A freelance journalist based in Glasgow, Kathleen writes primarily for The Herald, The National and The Times
Historic Environment Scotland Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH 0131 668 8600 historicenvironment.scot
LOOK INSIDE HISTORIC SCOTLAND AUTUMN 2016
Membership enquiries 0131 668 8999 firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial enquiries email@example.com Membership and CRM Manager Claire Bowie Assistant Membership Manager Morag Paterson Membership Co-ordinator Pauline Brews Editor Kathleen Morgan firstname.lastname@example.org Deputy Editor Fiona McKinlay email@example.com
36 | Discover the secrets of marine archaeology
ANGELA CATLIN, LAURIE CAMPBELL, SHUTTERSTOCK
Design Matthew Ball, Raymond Francis, Victoria Axelson Sub-editors Sam Bartlett, Sian Campbell, Kirsty Fortune Editorial Assistant Jonathan McIntosh Contributor Hannah Lazarus Advertising Sales Jamie Dawson firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3771 7221 Publisher John Innes email@example.com Think Suite 2.3, Red Tree Business Suites, 33 Dalmarnock Road, Glasgow G40 4LA 0141 375 0504 Photography All images provided by Historic Environment Scotland unless otherwise stated. For access to images of Scotland and our properties, call 0131 668 8647/8785 or email firstname.lastname@example.org Historic Scotland is published quarterly and printed on paper made from pulp sourced from sustainable materials. The views expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of Historic Environment Scotland. All information is correct at the time of going to press. ÂŠ Historic Environment Scotland. All rights reserved. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without prior agreement of the Membership and CRM Manager of Historic Environment Scotland. Historic Environment Scotland (HES) is a Non Departmental Public Body established by the Historic Environment Scotland Act 2014. HES has assumed the property, rights, liabilities and obligations of Historic Scotland and RCAHMS. Visit www.historic-scotland.gov. uk/historicenvironmentscotland Scottish Charity No. SC045925. Cover: Ruthven Barracks. Photo by Andrew Ray/Alamy
26 | Sweetheart Abbeyâ€™s Archibald the Grim: an underdog story 2 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
18 | Antonine Wall stronghold Rough Castle goes under the spotlight
Enjoy an action-packed autumn with our programme of activities happening right across the country
53 | Fright Nights in Linlithgow
30 | Bagging Borders abbeys Shetland
07 | Get hands on at the Engine Shed
PLACES TO VISIT
Blackhouse at Arnol P24
Castle of Old Wick P23
Fort George P21
Edinburgh Castle P42
20 | Seal of approval
4 THE SCRIPT News and updates from Historic Scotland sites around the country 47 MEMBERSHIP 48 EVENTS 56 GUESS THE YEAR FEATURES
Kinnaird Head Lighthouse P24
44 | Why Elgin’s carvings have got their smiles back
Bar Hill Fort P4 Jedburgh Abbey P34
20 CALL OF THE WILD Stephen Moss looks at the wealth of wildlife near the Highlands’ historical landmarks 26 AMBITIOUS, RUTHLESS AND ILLEGITIMATE How Archibald the Grim and James Hamilton of Finnart found great success against the odds 30 OUT AND ABOUT Following the route of Dorothy and William
Wordsworth’s 1803 journey to three Borders abbeys 36 MY DAY AS … Journalist Kathleen Nutt experiences the life of a marine archaeologist off the shore of Belnahua 42 BUILT TO LAST David Storrar and Bruce Chandler tell the stories behind Edinburgh Castle’s most intriguing architectural features
FIND US ON HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 3
PEOPLE, PLACES, RESEARCH AND MORE …
Step inside the Engine Shed for Doors Open Days Shop for autumnal treats in store and online Explore your local heritage as an urban detective Get your coloured pencils poised for The Big Draw
App offers innovative way to experience the Antonine Wall
new mobile app is bringing the past to life at the Roman fort at Bar Hill, giving visitors the opportunity to explore the site in more detail using cuttingedge technologies. The app offers access to 3D virtual reconstructions of buildings and the surrounding landscape based on accurate LiDAR scan data, interactive models of artefacts on display at the Hunterian Museum, video content and more. It is available from Apple and Android app stores and its augmented reality
4 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
A 3D virtual reconstruction of Bar Hill Fort
functionality also enables users to step back in time as they walk around the fort. The app can be used on or off site to better understand the physical remains of the Antonine Wall, and to reconnect the site with artefacts that are now separated by several miles. The Scottish Ten project took aerial LiDAR scans of
the entire line of the wall and then captured more detailed 3D laser scans of the fort area, which were processed to create terrain models that formed the basis of the reconstructions. Digital documentation manager Dr Lyn Wilson explains: “We took textures from images of building materials and consulted
experts to advise on the detail of the reconstructions. 3D representations of artefacts were created using either photogrammetry or structured light scanning.” The interactive app has been developed by Historic Environment Scotland (HES) and the Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualisation (CDDV), a partnership between the Glasgow School of Art’s Digital Design Studio and HES, and plans are afoot to extend it to other sites along the Antonine Wall. The decision to start with Bar Hill was down to the wealth of information available about it. Antonine Wall World Heritage Site coordinator Patricia Weeks explains: “It offered the
© THE CENTRE FOR DIGITAL DOCUMENTATION AND VISUALISATION !A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT SCOTLAND AND THE GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART"
GO DIGITAL AT BAR HILL
Get a taste of Roman life at Antonine Wall sites
The Antonine Wall stretched across the skinny waistline of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Many remaining portions of the wall and its forts are under the care of Historic Environment Scotland, and all are part of the Frontiers of the Roman Empire World Heritage Site. FROM WEST TO EAST
BEARSDEN BATH HOUSE
greatest amount of academic information: strong excavation records, clear outlines of buildings, and lots of interesting and complete finds that would engage the visitor.” Also in development by CDDV and HES is a game based around the Bar Hill site. It uses the same digital reconstruction models and allows the player to become a Roman character. Search for ‘Antonine Wall’ on the Apple or Android app store. Visit antoninewall.org and scottishten.org for more information
This was excavated in the 1970s and was the only major postwar excavation of an Antonine Wall fort. Artefacts include the carved head of a goddess and stones inscribed by men from the 20th legion.
Dullatur is the site of two Roman temporary camps just south of the Antonine Wall. Roman pottery dated to the lateHadrianic and early-Antonine period has been found at the earlier camp, which was in use during the Antonine conquest.
Seabegs Wood offers remarkable views of the Antonine Wall ditch and its ramparts. Visitors can also see the remains of the 7m-wide Roman road that connected the Antonine forts.
BAR HILL FORT
The fort at Bar Hill is the highest on the Antonine Wall. The excavation of Bar Hill has helped improve the understanding of life on the Wall, with the discovery of artefacts such as shoes and coins.
The Romans cut through solid rock to build the fortifications at Croy Hill, which included a fort, fortlet and temporary camp. Among artefacts found here are a theatrical terracotta facemask, a legionary tombstone and an altar to the Nymphs.
The ditch between Westerwood and Castlecary forts is one of the longest continuous portions of the Antonine Wall still visible today. An altar found near the Westerwood fort was dedicated to two goddesses by the wife of a sixth legion centurion.
The fort at Castlecary was first constructed around 80 AD and was rebuilt as part of the Antonine Wall. A building record inscribed by the first legion of Tungrians from Gaul was found in the fort during its excavation.
WATLING LODGE EAST AND WEST
Rough Castle fort is one of the smallest yet best preserved on the Wall. Distinctive defensive pits to the north of the wall help visitors gain an impression of what it would have been like in its working days.
At Watling Lodge visitors can see the best-preserved section of the Antonine Wall ditch, which has survived to almost its original dimensions.
Launching the HES corporate plan
THE HES STORY SO FAR
A TASTER OF THE FIRST 12 MONTHS
ANNIVERSARY OF HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT SCOTLAND
TRADING PLACES A Tale of Two Cities exhibition told visitors the story of the world heritage cities of Edinburgh and Nanjing, China, through drawings, objects, photography, film and digital content. The innovative multimedia exhibition is now on display at the Museum of Lisbon, exploring similarities between the Scottish and Portuguese capitals.
Scottish heritage body celebrates its first birthday on 1 October MUCH has been achieved in the first year of Historic Environment Scotland (HES), including the publishing of a corporate plan setting out how it will care for, promote and protect Scotland’s historic environment. HES aims to share Scotland’s story with new audiences, increase collaborative working across the country, as well as
growing community participation and engaging people with their own local history and heritage. The great package that comes with being a Historic Scotland member remains, but now there are even more ways to get involved. Visit historicenvironment.scot or join in the #HESstory on Twitter @histenvscot.
APPOINTMENT OF NEW CEO Historic Environment Scotland (HES) has named its next chief executive, who will take over this autumn. Alex Paterson joins HES from Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE), where he has been chief executive since 2010.
6 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Jane Ryder OBE, chair of HES, said: “His background in community investment and engagement combined with expertise in organisational development and change management mean he is ideally placed to lead HES at this exciting phase of our development.”
THE ST KILDA STORY A new book explored Britain’s remotest location. St Kilda: The Last and Outmost Isle was the result of an eight-year research project to shed new light on the iconic archipelago, 100 miles off the west coast of Scotland. The book brought together detailed survey work and rare images of its landscape and people to tell the story of St Kilda’s diverse history.
CARVING THEIR NICHE Ten HES stonemasons and apprentices battled it out as part of a new stone-carving
competition. Armed with their chisels and mells – traditional craft tools still used today – they each had three days to hand carve their block of Hazeldean stone and bring their designs to life. Their creations ranged from a ‘Minion’ character from the Despicable Me films to a Lewis Chessman.
IT’S GETTING HOT IN HERE A Bronze Age sauna was unearthed in Orkney. The rare and almost complete underground building, dating back 4,000 years, was discovered in Orkney, close to the archaeological site of the Links of Noltland. It is thought the complex could once have been used as a sweat house or sauna.
STONES COME BACK One hundred and twenty six medieval stones went on display in Elgin. Cleaned by specialist conservators and studied by researchers, the stone carvings depicting faces, plants and animals went on permanent display at Elgin Cathedral. Exhibited for the first time in 20 years, they help to tell the story of the 13th-century cathedral, as well as those who built and used it.
OPEN DOOR POLICY
Special events lined up as part of national initiative
HUNDREDS of fascinating buildings will be opening their doors on weekends throughout September as part of Doors Open Days and our activities as part of the Year of Innovation, Architecture and Design. The Historic Environment Scotland (HES) programme includes events at the Engine Shed, John Sinclair House and Trinity House. The Engine Shed in Stirling is HES’s work-in-progress building conservation hub. Following a successful event last year, the public are invited to take a sneak peek at the site once more, with a limited number of hard-hat tours available. On the terrace in front of the Engine Shed, stalls will give visitors a chance to try traditional craft skills, including stonemasonry, slating and stained-glass working. Science and digital teams will also be present to show their work. This behind-the-scenes experience offers a taster
The Engine Shed is putting on a range of activities
AS SEEN ON SCREEN
of a range of the work the organisation does. Dorothy Hoskins, technical outreach and education manager, said: “We’re also working with Stirling Council archives and Creative Stirling, who will also be there on the day. This year will be along the same lines as last year, but bigger and better.” John Sinclair House in Bernard Terrace, Edinburgh, will open its doors to celebrate not only Doors Open Days, but also the Festival of Architecture. There will be a series of talks throughout from expert staff, exhibitions and a chance to explore the resources in the Public Search Room. The
full programme for the day is still being developed and details will be on the HES website and social media streams nearer the time. Neil Gregory, architecture and industry operational manager, said: “We’ve been curating the National Record of the Historic Environment for over a century now, so there are lots of treasures to explore on Doors Open Day.” The Trinity House Family Weekend will include object-handling sessions, quizzes and craft activities. See page 51 for dates and details. For more information on Doors Open Days, visit doorsopendays.org.uk
A great number of films and television shows have been filmed at or inspired by Historic Scotland sites. If you want to find out more, check out our movie map online at historicenvironment.scot/ movie-map
TIMES ARE CHANGING Please note that some Historic Scotland sites close or operate reduced hours over the winter months (from October onwards). Check your handbook for seasonal opening hours or visit historicenvironment.scot/ closures for any unplanned closures.
ARE YOU GIFT AID ELIGIBLE?
AS HISTORIC Environment Scotland is a registered charity, this means we are now eligible to claim Gift Aid for Historic Scotland membership subscriptions. If you are a UK taxpayer, we can claim back at least an extra £7.50 of your Historic Scotland membership fee – at no cost to you. We will be writing to members who we think may be
eligible and ask that they take a minute to complete the form and return it to us. This valuable extra income will help us to protect, conserve and preserve our historic environment for generations to come. Gift Aid is a government scheme that allows charities including HES to claim back basic-rate tax on donations, such as your membership fee.
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A contribution from an urban detective
WANTED: YOUR HISTORY
Budding urban detectives invited to investigate Scotland’s past
SCOTLAND’S Urban Past (SUP) is seeking heritage lovers across the country to help shine a light on local history. Residents of towns and cities all over Scotland have been submitting photos, facts and stories online as part of SUP’s urban detectives initiative, a five-year community engagement project aiming to put communities in charge of recording their local heritage. From telephone booths and signal boxes to gatehouses and allotment gardens, urban detectives are uncovering the secrets of their chosen sites using archives, maps, books and photography. The information and images gathered through SUP will become part of Canmore, Historic Environment Scotland’s (HES) online record of architecture, archaeology and industry. Contributing to the project is as easy as finding a good story or picture and uploading it to the SUP website. However, if you want to take it to the next level, you can join one of the free workshops taking place throughout Scotland over the coming months.
You can contribute to Scotland’s ‘digital time machine’
Dubbed Scotland’s very own ‘digital time machine’, the online HES archive holds data on more than 320,000 fascinating sites across Scotland. By adding to this database, urban detectives are playing a crucial role in developing a fantastic Scottish heritage tool. One recent contributor has provided an in-depth history of her family’s motor engineers business. Situated at 400 Gallowgate in Glasgow, the detective’s grandfather, James B Rolinson, owned the
Over the last few months, we have been phasing in barcoded membership cards. In the coming months, members who have a barcode on their card will start to notice that the card is being scanned for entry and when purchasing goods in the shops. We hope that this will improve the experience at our busier properties by reducing the waiting times to enter the property. The system will also enable us to improve the member experience by learning more about how you use your membership.
business, which was established by her forebears following the Second World War. The business moved to Mount Vernon in 1977 before it closed its doors in around 1980. Although HES knew of the building, the additional information has given a glimpse into the hidden social history often missing from Canmore.
Thermal Imaging in the Historic Environment is the latest short guide released by Historic Environment Scotland. Thermal imaging is a form of non-destructive investigation technique which can be used on traditional buildings to identify problems such as damp and heat loss. Find it online at historicenvironment.scot/ short-guide-10thermography
Find out more about becoming an urban detective, and about workshops near you at scotlandsurbanpast.org.uk 9
FIND INSPIRATION AT MORE THAN 300 CAPTIVATING SITES
PROPERTIES Show us your finest shots of Historic Scotland properties, whether it’s a perfectly captured classic composition or a fresh take.
Find your focus and enter this year's Historic Scotland competition IF you haven’t sent us your entries yet, you still have time to get involved in this year’s photography competition for Historic Scotland members. We invite entries in four adult categories: properties, nature, having fun and architecture (to mark the Year of Innovation, Architecture and Design) and our youth category for photographers under 16. Adult entrants are invited to submit no more than one picture per category – four in total – while entrants to the junior category may submit up to four. Images must be taken in or around Historic Scotland properties. HOW TO ENTER
HAVING FUN Capture the atmosphere of one of our events, your family having their #bestdayever or something else that reflects the theme of fun.
Submit entries by email to hs.photos@ thinkpublishing.co.uk or send digital images on CD to HS Photography Competition, Think Scotland, Suite 2.3, Red Tree Business Suites, 33 Dalmarnock Road, Glasgow G40 4LA. The closing date is 14 October 2016. Please include your name, address, telephone number, membership number and email address. For each image, indicate the category and the Historic Scotland property it was taken at or near. Files should be no larger than 6MB and saved with a relevant name such as Brodgar_Junior_YourName.jpg. Winners will be announced in the spring 2017 issue of Historic Scotland.
NATURE The natural environment around our properties can hold much beauty – plants, animals, rivers and more.
10 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
ARCHITECTURE Use your camera to bring out the finest architectural features of our properties, from gargoyles to finials and lots more besides.
YOUTH Inviting members aged 15 and under to show us their skills across any of the other categories.
FRANCIS MCCAFFERTY, ALAN COWPER, MICHAEL BRAUN, VALERIE PATERSON, RENATE BRAUN, ISLA CULLEN, GEORGIOS KOLLIDAS / ALAMY, DAVID ROBERTSON / ALAMY, SHUTTERSTOCK
RULES 1. An entrant can submit a maximum of four photographs. 2. Entries must be taken in or near Historic Scotland properties. 3. All images must be submitted as digital files. 4. Digital images should be high resolution and submitted by email or on CD. Each image should not exceed 6MB in size. 5. All entries are sent at the photographer’s risk and Historic Environment Scotland cannot accept liability for damage or loss. Entries will not be returned to entrants. All photos must be legally obtained, with permission if appropriate. 6. Entrants must be the sole author and owner of copyright for all images entered. 7. Copyright in all images submitted for this competition remains with the respective entrants. Photos submitted for the competition may be featured in future Historic Scotland calendars, or used online. Where an image is used in the magazine or Historic Scotland calendar, the photographer will be credited. However, in consideration of entering the competition, each entrant grants Historic Environment Scotland a licence to feature competition images in the publication, online or in promotional material connected to Historic Environment Scotland. 8. The competition is not open to employees of Historic Environment Scotland or Think. 9. Winners will be notified by 10 April 2017. 10. Historic Environment Scotland reserves the right to cancel this competition or alter any of the rules, if necessary. 11. If the winner is unable to be contacted after reasonable attempts, Historic Environment Scotland reserves the right to either offer the prize to a runner-up or to re-offer the prize in any future competition. 12. These rules are governed by the laws of Scotland. 13. The decision of the judges is final. 14. The first prize includes an iPad mini. The prize is subject to availability. If, for any reason, it becomes unavailable, we reserve the right to supply a suitable alternative prize of similar value. 15. Entrants must be a Historic Scotland member or, in the Youth category, their parent/guardian must be a Historic Scotland member. 16. The judging panel will be made up of the Historic Scotland membership and photographic teams, and the editor and publisher of Historic Scotland magazine.
Discover the gardens of castles owned by powerful families
James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, laid out the terraced garden in the 1570s. The walled garden was built by the 8th Earl in the 1630s.
The original orchard was planted with 36 fruit trees, including peaches. The garden was supplied with seeds such as Persian jasmine from the Edinburgh Physic Garden.
Two L-shaped terraces give the garden its structure. In the 1600s, they were extended by adding a walled garden of about one acre. Decorated pediments above the entrances display symbols and monograms of the Douglas family.
EDZELL CASTLE THE LINDSAYS
The Tower House, the earliest part of the castle, was probably built in the early 16th century. The walled garden was laid out in 1604 by Sir David Lindsay, Lord Edzell, and his second wife Dame Isobel Forbes.
HOW DOES YOUR GARDEN GROW?
Flowers are set in recesses of the east, south and west garden walls. White and blue lobelias mimic the colours of the Lindsay coat of arms.
The garden lies to the south of Edzell Castle, with a summerhouse in its south-east corner. The walls of the garden are decorated with sculptured panels and topped by rounded niches that may have once held busts.
The formal design seen today is rooted in the garden’s reconstruction in the 1930s. Triangular beds in its corners represent the flowers of Scotland, England and France.
WIN AN IPAD MINI Each category winner will receive a year’s Historic Scotland renewal membership. The overall winner will also receive an iPad mini. Some of the images by the competition winners and runners-up could feature on our website. The winners will be announced in spring 2017.
Although the original layout is unknown, records from 1668 suggest part of the garden was used as a bowling green. A third entrance was built in 1740.
The beehive-shaped dovecot, built in the late 16th century, is a distinctive feature of the gardens at Aberdour. On the northern edge of the terraced garden, it holds 600 stone nesting boxes.
The stone walls of the flower garden are a great example of European Renaissance art. Carved panels portray the seven cardinal virtues, liberal arts and planetary deities. Please note that Edzell Castle is closed 1 Oct – 31 Mar
REPORT TO REVEAL IONA’S PAST
Researchers have collated findings from Professor Charles Thomas’s excavations
A TEAM from the University of Glasgow funded by Historic Environment Scotland (HES) have finished work on a project to publish findings from excavations carried out between 1956 and 1963. Items from the excavations, led by Professor Charles Thomas, have been on display in the infirmary museum at Iona Abbey since 2012, providing the catalyst for this research. The project required Dr Adrian Maldonado and Dr Ewan Campbell from the university to work closely
Topographic survey in March 2016 to accurately relocate Thomas’s trenches and, right, fragment of bronze lionshaped mount, possibly 8th century, discovered by Charles Thomas in 1959
with colleagues from HES, National Museums Scotland and the National Trust for Scotland. Dr Maldonado said: “There are some incredible discoveries that we can’t wait to finally publish, including fine early medieval bronze mounts, which may have
come from book shrines or reliquaries produced on the island, and several new features that shed light on the location of the earliest monastery. “It was interesting to learn about the archaeologists themselves. Reading their
notebooks and correspondence, you get an intimate look at why things were done, and the chance meetings that led to extraordinary outcomes. Several members of the team who were postgraduates at the time went on to develop early medieval archaeology as we know it, including Vincent Megaw, Bernard Wailes, Peter and Elizabeth Fowler, and Thomas himself. “We were looking forward to presenting the final report to Professor Thomas, but the very day we were going to post it, we heard the sad news he had passed away.” The Data Structure Report has been submitted to HES, with the full report expected to be published in 2017.
A REFRESHING CHANGE
New look and improved dining facilities at sites
12 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
DRAW INSPIRATION FROM HISTORY As part of the Big Draw Festival in October, the Draw History competition is back. To take part, get your pens, pencils or other drawing utensils out and recreate on paper how a Historic Scotland property might have appeared in its heyday.
Last year’s winning drawing by Colin Maxwell portrayed William Wallace’s army before the Battle of Stirling Bridge, with the town’s castle visible in the background. Entries will be judged in two categories: under-14s and
adults. The winning artists will receive a goodie bag. The competition runs throughout October, so there’s plenty time to find your inspiration. Enter on Twitter using #DrawHistory or email email@example.com
REFURBISHMENT has concluded across eight Historic Scotland cafes and tearooms, run by Benugo, at sites including Edinburgh Castle, Duff House and Caerlaverock Castle. As part of the refurbishment menus have been developed to use the best of Scottish produce The Redcoat at Edinburgh Castle has new decor to reflect the stunning views.
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TH E TH F R E D. O LS S E F R E D. O L
To your discount discountcode codeHISCOT10 HISCOT10 To book book using using your the booking hotline 0800 0355 108 call call the HISCOT booking hotline 0800 0355 108 or visit www.fredolsencruises.com to validate your membership, or visit www.fredolsencruises.com *All bookings are subject to Fred. Olsen’s (FOCL) standard terms & conditions, available on our website & on request. All prices quoted under the HISCOT readers discount offer are exclusive to qualifying *All bookings are subject to Fred. Olsen’s (FOCL) standard terms & conditions, available on our website & on request. All prices quoted under the HISCOT members discount offer readers & their travelling companions only, readers must quote their discount code at time of booking. Readers discounts cannot be applied retrospectively. Bookings must be made via the booking are exclusive to qualifying members & their travelling companions only, members must quote their discount code at time of booking. Membership discounts cannot be applied hotline number 0800 0355 108. Offers cannot be extended to any unrelated third party, are subject to availability & may be withdrawn or amended at any time without prior notice. From time to time retrospectively. Bookings must be made via the booking hotline number 0800 0355 108. Proof of membership will be required at the time of booking. Offers cannot be extended to FOCL may run special offers which cannot be combined with this discount, including selected group travel deals. All guests booked under this scheme are requested to refrain from any unrelated third party, are subject to availability & may be withdrawn or amended at any time without prior notice. From time to time FOCL may run special offers which cannot be disclosing the fare paid whilst on board. Offer is for first-time cruisers with Fred. Olsen only. Fred. Olsen Oceans members are entitled to a 5% HISCOT discount subject to the same terms combined with this discount, including selected group travel deals. All guests booked under this scheme are requested to refrain from disclosing the fare paid whilst on & conditions, to be applied after the standard Oceans discount, where applicable. In this instance, Oceans Terms & Conditions apply. Closing date for this offer is 31.12.2016. E&OE. board. Offer is for first-time cruisers with Fred. Olsen only. Fred. Olsen Oceans members are entitled to a 5% HISCOT discount subject to the same terms & conditions, to be applied after the standard Oceans discount, where applicable. In this instance, Oceans Terms & Conditions apply. Closing date for this offer is 31.12.2016. E&OE.
Urgent appeal to save the Grauer’s gorilla issued by Fauna & Flora International. Photo: Simon J. Childs/Intergalactic Gorilla Productions
One of the world’s rarest apes faces extinction
Population plummets by 77% from 17,000 to around 3,800
Without action now the Grauer’s gorilla could be gone forever – please cut the coupon or go to www.savegorillas.org.uk to help protect the remaining 3,800 gorillas.
Endangered. We must act as quickly as possible to save the remaining gorillas and FFI needs your urgent help to do it. FFI wants to protect existing gorilla families in a vulnerable – currently unprotected – area between the Maiko and Kahuzi-Biega National Parks. These families are vital to saving the remaining Grauer’s gorillas from extinction. This gorilla protection has only become possible in recent years. Since the elections in the DRC in 2006, and the increased stability that came with them, conservation teams are starting to consolidate a series of community reserves to ensure the gorillas are fully protected. For the species to remain genetically viable, it is crucial that the gorilla families can interbreed and are not separated by deforestation and agriculture expansion in an unprotected area. FFI knows community managed land is a sustainable way to achieve this. These community reserves are absolutely vital to the future of the remaining Grauer’s gorillas – because they will prevent the gorilla population becoming fragmented. To do all this FFI needs to raise £130,489.56 with the help of readers of Historic Scotland to protect 10,847.67 km2 of forest, where the gorillas are at risk. The £130,489.56 must be raised as soon as possible so that the team at FFI have time to plan ahead. Meanwhile unprotected gorillas are dying from the threats they face every day. The Grauer’s gorilla is on the very edge of survival. Together we can save it. Please send your gift by 14 November at the latest.
Photo: Alison Mollon
Gorillas like Chimanuka need your help Chimanuka is a silverback that lives in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. There are 17 gorillas in Chimanuka’s family including 5 females and 11 infants. Your support could help protect their natural habitat and ensure their future survival.
Dear readers of Historic Scotland Fauna & Flora International (FFI) have launched an emergency appeal to raise £130,489.56 that will enable them to push ahead with the protection of new Community Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This is crucial to the battle to save the Endangered Grauer’s gorilla from extinction. You can contribute by cutting the coupon below, visiting www.savegorillas.org.uk or calling 01223 749019. Please respond by 14 November.
How you can help save the Grauer’s gorilla £130,489.56 is sought from readers of Historic Scotland by 14 November to urgently protect a series of community nature reserves that will safeguard the gorillas in unprotected areas - where they are at risk of losing their habitat and being killed by hunters. These are a few of the items needed: £40.10 could pay for rations for a gorilla survey team £129.36 could pay for fuel to run the team’s off-road vehicle for a month £258.72 could pay for a GPS unit and batteries, to help the teams locate gorilla families in the dense rainforest £679.15 could pay for a satellite phone, to help the teams report and respond to emergencies £19,180 could fund the entire DRC conservation team for 6 months. Any donations, large or small, will be received with thanks and could go a long way to helping us to save the Grauer’s gorilla.
Cut the coupon below and return it with your gift to FFI, to help save the remaining 3,800 Endangered Grauer’s gorillas. Alternatively, go to www.savegorillas.org.uk or call 01223 749019. Thank you. “The Maiko and Kahuzi-Biega National Parks in the DRC are home to some of the most endangered species in Africa, including the Grauer’s gorilla. However, as human populations in the region expand so too does the risk from habitat loss. A participatory form of conservation is giving these communities a means to exist and is helping the Grauer’s gorilla and other wildlife. Time is short and I urge supporters of FFI to quickly back this vital work that is crucial to the survival of the Grauer’s gorilla.”
Photo: Gill Shaw/FFI
Consumed by conflict and caught in the grip of a severe conservation crisis, the Grauer’s gorilla – the world’s largest gorilla – is fighting for survival. Fauna & Flora International (FFI) has put out an urgent call to the global community to save the remaining 3,800 or so Grauer’s gorillas. Funds are sought immediately to help protect new community nature reserves that are essential to the survival of the remaining gorillas between the Maiko and Kahuzi-Biega National Parks in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It is a crucial step towards protecting these elusive and Endangered apes from complete extinction. The Grauer’s gorilla faces multiple threats to its survival – all of them due to human activity. A major expansion of agriculture and pastures in the DRC in recent years has put enormous strain on the gorilla’s shrinking habitat. Industry, too, has taken its toll, with natural habitats squeezed by extensive mining for gold and coltan – a mineral used in making mobile phones. Hunting and the continuing consumption of illegal ‘bush meat’ have also caused many apes to be killed. What’s more, continuous conflict has made it incredibly challenging to enforce wildlife protection. As a result, numbers of Grauer’s gorillas have plummeted. Just 15 years ago there were around 17,000 Grauer’s gorillas in the wild. Today, scientists believe that at most 3,800 may still remain alive. Conservationists are now calling for the species to be reclassified as Critically
Sir David Attenborough, Fauna & Flora International vice-president
I want to help save the remaining 3,800 Grauer’s gorillas with a donation of £________
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Please return to: Freepost FAUNA & FLORA INTERNATIONAL, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK or go to www.savegorillas.org.uk to donate online now. Please note: If Fauna & Flora International succeeds in raising more than £130,489.56 from this appeal, funds will be used wherever they are most needed. Registered Charity No.1011102. Registered Company No. 2677068.
ONLY A CLICK AWAY
Get some of our finest products delivered direct to your door by visiting the online shop. A new autumnal range has recently been launched featuring hats, cardigans, hot chocolate and more. Newly available items also include a range of soft furnishings for your home.
EDINBURGH SKYLINE CUSHION
£60 Featuring the skyline of Edinburgh, this cushion, with its beautiful watercolour design, will make a stylish and inspired statement in your home. Online exclusive.
ORGANIC HOT CHOCOLATE
£9 (in three flavours, made in Edinburgh) Premium dark, milk and organic white chocolate has been gently processed into three varieties of delicious flakes (with aromatic rose and premium vanilla seeds added to the white chocolate mix).
£28 A perfect size for keeping you warm over the winter months, either in the home or on your travels. Beehive design.
Members can benefi t from a 20% dis count by e ntering the code M EMBER10 15 at the checko ut. historicen vironment. scot/shop
OFFICIAL SOUVENIR GUIDEBOOKS
£2.50-£5 Carefully curated by historians, our official souvenir guidebooks are all available online. Each one takes the reader on a tour of a different property.
PATCHWORK RAM DOORSTOP
£30 This handsome patchwork doorstop, made from tweeds, will make a cute and stylish addition to your home.
large £70, small £42 (various colours) The designs takes inspiration from the textile industry in the Scottish Borders. Made in Scotland from 100% recycled wool. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 15
Stirling: Scotland’s only nomination
VOTE FOR STIRLING
THE consumer-voted British Travel Awards has announced the shortlist for its UK Heritage Attraction Award and Stirling Castle is the only Scottish nominee. Other nominees for the award include the Beamish Living Museum, Longleat Safari Park and the Tower of London in England; and the Giant’s Causeway (last year’s winner) and Titanic Belfast in Northern Ireland. To win would be a crowning achievement to a busy year, including the In Vogue fashion show and cultural events from the Scottish Chamber Orchestra and Dunblane High School’s Shakespeare festival. Voting is open at britishtravelawards.com until 30 September.
views of Enjoy great d castle the loch an
Pokémon Go uses augmented reality to merge the game with the real world
GOTTA CATCH ‘EM ALL
Historic sites become hotspot for Pokémon trainers, finds Fiona McKinlay AN AUGMENTED reality mobile game based on the popular Pokémon series has taken the world by storm, and attracted some otherworldly visitors to Historic Scotland properties. The app, which has been downloaded more than 100 million times since its release in mid-July, invites users to become Pokémon trainers, collect items from Pokéstops, catch Pokémon and battle at Pokégyms by following the map on their phones. Sightings of rare Pokémon have been reported at many of our sites, with rumours abounding of Charmanders at
Popular character Pikachu is a tricky one to catch
Linlithgow Palace and the loch, bringing a flurry of activity. With much of the game’s structure based around real-life landmarks, it’s no surprise that Historic Scotland properties have proven fruitful for budding Pokémon trainers. Of course, there’s plenty more to see and enjoy at our properties whether or not your phone battery has run out. Players are reminded to be aware of their surroundings at all times.
TWO!FOR!ONE LUXURY CRUISE DEAL Loch Ness by Jacobite offer for Historic Scotland members
Luxury five-star cruise and tour company Loch Ness by Jacobite is offering Historic Scotland members an exclusive two-for-one offer on one of its regular trips. Loch Ness by Jacobite’s Freedom Cruise departs from the Clansman Harbour, nine
16 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Craigmillar Castle and Dragonites at Stirling Castle. On a whistlestop trip to Glasgow Cathedral and Linlithgow Palace, we added a Clefairy, Poliwag, Dratini, and Cubone to our Pokédex, and amassed more Drowzees and Pidgeys than we could count. Users had placed lure modules on a cluster of Pokéstops between
miles south of Inverness on the A82, and heads to Urquhart Castle, which passengers can explore before the return journey down the loch. The trip features sonar to look out for Nessie and a celebrity-led audio guide full of history and legends (with a live commentary in the winter).
This offer allows Historic Scotland members to get twofor-one tickets for the 11am and 2pm sailings of the Freedom Cruise every day from 30 October 2016 until 2 April 2017. Tickets cost £14. Book at jacobite.co.uk and enter the code HS12.
DANIEL OVERTURF, MARGARET SORAYA
UK Heritage Attraction Award nomination for city stronghold
SAVE UP TO £1,000pp ON ALL 2017 VIKING RIVER CRUISES OFFER ENDS 31 OCTOBER 2016
EXTRA DISCOUNT CALL 01670 829922
WATERWAYS OF THE TSARS
8 days, 6 guided tours | Departing March – December 2017
13 days, 10 guided tours | Departing May – October 2017
Sail through Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Explore Budapest’s imperial delights, take in Bratislava’s baroque wonders and admire Passau’s ancient fortress. Discover Vienna, drink in the spectacular Wachau Valley, a wine lover’s dream, and enjoy an included visit to cˇeský Krumlov.
Discover Russia’s unique history and culture as you tour iconic landmarks from Moscow’s Kremlin and Red Square to Catherine Palace and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. You’ll also experience the other side of Russia: quaint Golden Ring towns like Yaroslavl and Uglich that only a river cruise can show you.
14 May from £1,795pp – FULLY ESCORTED TOUR* July from £1,595pp October from £1,795pp
May from £2,595pp July from £3,495pp October from £2,595pp
LYON & PROVENCE
PASSAGE TO EASTERN EUROPE
8 days, 7 guided tours | Departing March – November 2017
11 days, 7 guided tours | Departing March – November 2017
Sail the scenic Saône and Rhône Rivers through beautiful French countryside. Explore Beaujolais and the fields of Provence. Explore Gallo-Roman ruins in Vienne, stroll the cobblestone streets of Arles that inspired Vincent van Gogh, visit Avignon, the “City of Popes” and try world-famous cuisine in Lyon.
Explore Eastern Europe where so many fairy tales began. Experience two nights in bustling Budapest, sail past dramatic natural wonders like the soaring white cliffs of the Iron Gate region; visit the Serbian capital of Belgrade; discover the historical treasures of Bulgaria; and admire the charms of Bucharest, Romania’s capital.
April from £1,395pp July from £1,795pp October from £1,695pp
April from £1,795pp July from £2,295pp October from £1,795pp
To book call Northumbria Travel on 01670 829922 Visit www.northumbriatravel.com or email firstname.lastname@example.org 82 Front Street East, Bedlington, Northumberland, NE22 5AB Prices and offers are correct at the time of going to print but are subject to change and availability. From prices are per person and based on two sharing the lowest grade stateroom available on selected 2017 departure dates. Prices include booking discount and are valid until 31 October 2016 unless sold out prior. Offers can be withdrawn at any time. *The 5% extra discount does not apply to the Danube Waltz 14 May 2017 escorted departure date. Some itineraries are available in the reverse direction. We reserve the right to amend itineraries for operational reasons. Single supplements apply. For more information please visit vikingcruises.co.uk/terms-conditions or call us.
ROUGH CASTLE The remnants of this fort provide fascinating glimpses into life on the north-western frontier of the Roman Empire
After conquering southern Scotland, the Roman army attempted to dominate the fringes of their expansive empire. In around AD 142, following the instruction of Antoninus Pius, Roman legionaries began building the Antonine Wall. It consisted of a turf rampart, 3-4m high on a stone base,
possibly topped with a timber palisade. In front of it was a wide, deep ditch. Stretching along 37 miles of the Roman empire’s 3,100-mile frontier, the wall ran from where modern-day Bo’ness on the Firth of Forth now stands to Old Kilpatrick on the River Clyde. Rough Castle is the second
1. BATH HOUSE Situated within the fortified annexe, this structure was excavated between 1902-03
Rough Castle The site is an eight-minute car journey from Bonnybridge, and very close to the Falkirk Wheel. Open all year round
7. MILITARY WAY Forts along the Antonine Wall were linked by this road, which ran behind the rampart
6. ANNEXE An expansive annexe, even larger than Rough Castle itself, was attached to its east side
TODAY Rough Castle’s outline remains etched on the landscape
TIMELINE AD 43 Roman emperor Claudius orders four legions to conquer Britain
18 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Romans battle the Caledonians at Mons Graupius, the location of which remains a matter of debate
Hadrian’s Wall is built to strengthen the border between Romanoccupied Britain and the north
Following orders by the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, construction begins on the Antonine Wall
After 20 years of rigid control, the Romans abandon the Antonine Wall for unknown reasons
smallest and best-preserved of 16 forts established along the Antonine Wall. The strongholds provided accommodation for Roman troops who helped police the border. The soldiers also established secure crossing points between forts linked by the Military Way, a road running behind the rampart.
Among the most distinguishing features of Rough Castle is the group of defensive pits to the north of the fort. Fitted with sharpened stakes, pointed upright and hidden among brushwood, the pits were a defensive measure used to break up bands of attackers before they reached the fort.
Roman rule and culture were enforced on those who lived close to the wall. The Maeatae, a conglomerate of tribes, accepted the regime and moved to settlements that served each fort. However, the more contentious Caledonians from the north were often accused of breaking treaties by invading Britannia.
2. HEADQUARTERS The fort’s imposing nerve centre where orders were issued, religious ceremonies performed, punishments meted out and reports filed. A strongroom protected the soldiers’ wages while a shrine contained the regimental standards
The Antonine Wall became the empire’s most elaborate linear frontier. Strict control was maintained over it until it was abandoned in about AD 163. Today, it remains an important symbol of Roman authority and offers captivating insights into the everyday lives of those who defended this once mighty empire.
DID YOU KNOW? An altar to the goddess Victory was found outside the fort. It is believed to have been erected to thank the goddess for the garrison’s triumph in a particular battle. 3. COMMANDER’S RESIDENCE An altar inscription and the architectural style of this building suggest that this was the home of Flavius Betto, a centurion with the 20th legion
5. BARRACKS Residences for the Roman soldiers who helped police the Antonine Wall
4. DEFENSIVE PITS Pits fitted with sharpened stakes, pointed upright and hidden among brushwood used to break up bands of attackers
EARLY 1890s 1902*03
Romans finally abandon Britain after Increased incursions from the Saxons, Scots, Picts and Angles
Rough Castle hosts a bagpipe competition during the Falkirk Tryst, a huge fair and cattle market
Glasgow Archaeological Society cut several sections across the wall rampart
Rough Castle comes into state care
The wall becomes part of UNESCO’s Frontiers of the Roman Empire World Heritage Site
Excavations at Rough Castle, reveal a granary, a bathhouse and the headquarters building
WILD CALL OF THE
There is a wealth of animal and plant life to discover near historic Highlands settings, says naturalist and television producer Stephen Moss PHOTOGRAPHS: LAURIE CAMPBELL
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Fort George Tell people they can see pods of dolphins off the coast of Scotland and they might think you are making it up. Even so, the Moray Firth, east of Inverness, is one of the two UK strongholds for these marine mammals – the other is west Wales. Visit Fort George to coincide with an incoming or outgoing tide and you could be lucky enough to see pods of bottlenose dolphins feeding on salmon.
These are big beasts. Growing up to four metres long, they are the largest of their species in the world. On some days they leap right out of the water, glinting like silver in the sunshine before plunging back into the waves – an awesome sight. You can also take trips into the Moray Firth to encounter dolphins in their own habitat – with a chance of seeing other cetaceans such as harbour porpoises, common dolphins and even minke whales.
Fort George was built as a daunting military stronghold after the Jacobite Rising of 1745-6. It was designed to strike awe into the hearts of Highlanders, part of a concerted effort to stamp out insurgency throughout the region. It is still garrisoned by the British army.
Bonawe, Glen Nant National Nature Reserve
Visit Bonawe throughout the year for a classic Scottish woodland experience. This place may look natural but it has been shaped by human hand; during the 18th and 19th centuries the trees were sustainably harvested by a process known as coppicing. The wood was made into charcoal, to be used as fuel for the iron furnaces. For the past 100 years the wood has been left to its own
devices and a dense canopy, ideal for the red squirrel – one of Scotland’s best-loved mammals – has formed. The Highlands are now the UK stronghold for this engaging little rodent. The best times to look for squirrels are at dawn and dusk, from spring through to autumn. They spend most of their time in the forest canopy or shinning up and down tree A striking trunks, but you mightstronghold: also it one of a kind see them scampering across the ground.
The coppiced trees in Glen Nant are a legacy of iron smelting, which required a steady supply of charcoal. Bonawe Historic Iron Furnace opened in 1752-3 and was active for 120 years. As well as pig iron, it created products including cannonballs for Admiral Nelson. Please note that the site will be closed 1 Oct – 31 Mar. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 21
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Eileach an Naoimh This early monastic site, also known as Holy Isle, is the southernmost island of an archipelago in the Inner Hebrides. Uninhabited by humans, it is a good place to spot a range of marine mammals. Some, such as the harbour porpoise, are usually out at sea, but common seals may be seen bobbing just offshore or hauled out on the beach. Common seals – also known
as harbour seals – are the smaller of the two British species of seal and are less numerous here than their larger cousin, the Atlantic grey seal. They come to shore frequently, but especially in midsummer, when they breed in large colonies. For the adventurous, this is a great place to go sea kayaking, which often enables visitors to get really close to these inquisitive animals.
The frog orchid is a master of disguise
The remote island of Eileach an Naoimh was once home to a monastery, probably established by St Brendan around AD 540. Later abandoned, it became a focus for pilgrimage in medieval times. It is Scotland’s most complete early Christian monastery.
The Atlantic grey seal is more numerous than its cousin, the common, or harbour, seal
Auchindoun Castle The grounds of this 15th-century castle, near Dufftown, are a hotspot for some rare and subtly beautiful wild flowers. Built on a limestone outcrop, the alkaline soil is home to plants such as field gentian, a perennial with attractive bluish-purple flowers. On a visit in July or August, if you look carefully among the more common wild thyme, harebell and eyebright, you may come across the scarce and rather peculiar-looking frog orchid. This master of disguise can be hard to find, blending in with the surrounding grasses. Like many other members of the orchid family, frog orchids need unimproved grassland – land that has not been sprayed with chemicals – and are in decline over much of Britain.
Auchindoun Castle dates from the 1400s, perhaps built for Thomas Cochrane, a favourite of James III. In the 1560s, it was owned by Adam Gordon, perpetrator of the massacre at Corgarff in 1571. 22 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Insh Marshes near Ruthven Barracks Just down the road wet grassy meadows where from Ruthven they nest. Curlews – our Barracks, near largest wading bird – also Kingussie, is the breed here in good numbers. RSPB reserve at Insh The marshes really come Marshes. This low-lying into their own, though, in boggy area is one of Britain’s autumn and winter, when most important wetlands. In thousands of wildfowl flock spring, lapwings whirl noisily here from their breeding through the air, defending grounds to the north and east, their eggs and chicks against seeking out the relatively predatory crows, while mild climate and plenty redshanks perform their of food. courtship display over the Along with ducks and
geese come the stars of the show: up to 100 whooper swans. Our largest bird, along with its cousin the mute swan, these elegant, snow-white creatures fly here non-stop from Iceland, bringing their youngsters with them. As their name suggests, they have a loud, whooping call, which echoes around this magical place on misty autumn and winter mornings.
Castle of Old Wick The ruined Castle of Old Wick, on the Caithness coast a few miles south of John O’Groats, rightly attracts visitors fascinated by its historical heritage. Just south of the castle, though, is one of the most accessible of Scotland’s seabird colonies, offering great views of nesting birds between April and July. Seabirds usually nest on offshore islands, where they can be sure of being safe from land-based mammal predators such as foxes and rats, so this mainland colony is an exception to the rule. On the steep cliffs you can see guillemots and razorbills,
LAURIE CAMPBELL, SHUTTERSTOCK
Ruthven Barracks was an outpost of the British army, built in 1719-21, when many locals supported the Jacobite cause. It stands on the elevated site of a medieval castle, commanding superb views up and down the glen. Even so, it was captured by the Jacobites in 1746.
Teetering on one of Scotland’s most dramatic clifftops, the Castle of Old Wick occupies a rocky promontory above the North Sea. It dates from the mid-1100s, when Caithness was dominated by the Norse aristocracy, and might have been built by Earl Harald Maddadsson.
The kittiwake is an elegant little gull
two members of the auk family, jostling for position on the narrow ledges where they lay their eggs. Look out, too, for the kittiwake – an elegant gull in
decline over much of Britain, but thriving here. Nesting on the clifftops are fulmars – the name comes from Old Norse meaning ‘foul gull’. These birds, which look
superficially like gulls, are able to project their nasty-smelling stomach oil on to any intruders, so be wary of walking too close to their nests. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 23
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MIGRATING BIRDS Kinnaird Head Lighthouse and Museum Dating back to 1787, Kinnaird Head Lighthouse, in the grounds of the castle in Fraserburgh, was the first to be built on the Scottish mainland. Lighthouses attract migrating birds, many of which make their epic journeys by night, and can be seen on windy days in spring or autumn when they are forced closer inshore than usual. Look out for the majestic gannet, whose snow-white plumage and black-tipped wings make it easy to spot. Trickier to identify is the great skua – also known as the bonxie – and its smaller relative, the Arctic skua, both of which chase after smaller seabirds to make them regurgitate their food.
DUNADD FORT, KILMARTIN GLEN
The stones of this ancient fort are home to a population of common lizards. Active from spring to autumn, you are only likely to see them on sunny days, when they will emerge in the morning to bask on the stones or grassy areas around the ruins, in order to warm up and gain enough energy to feed. Common lizards were once sometimes called ‘viviparous’ lizards, indicating that, unlike most reptiles, they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs. The common lizard is found across much of lowland Scotland, but is absent from higher ground and most of our offshore islands.
The Arnol blackhouse offers a glimpse of life as it was lived by Hebridean families for centuries. There was no chimney and smoke from the hearth seasoned the thatched roof’s straw, which was later used as fertiliser.
RED!NECKED PHALAROPE THE PROPERTY
Kinnaird Head is a lighthouse formed from a late medieval tower house. Built by the Fraser family in the 1500s, it was converted to a lighthouse in 1787. 24 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
A chief royal seat of the early medieval kingdom of Dál Riata, the fort of Dunadd rises steeply out of the surrounding glen. It is famous for its footprint carved into the stone, traditionally believed to have been used in kingmaking ceremonies.
Blackhouse at Arnol This thatched house on the Hebridean island of Lewis is one of the last remaining examples of the traditional blackhouse. Nearby, on Loch na Muilne, from May to July, you might
be lucky enough to spot the red-necked phalaropes. These tiny waders are one of Britain’s rarest breeding birds, nesting only on Shetland and the Western Isles. They have two other claims to fame: unlike most other waders, phalaropes swim around on the water, spinning like clockwork toys to stir up the tiny aquatic
invertebrates on which they feed. They also have a rather unusual approach to breeding: the brighter, more colourful females take the lead in courtship and, after laying their eggs, they leave the male to do all the hard work of incubation and bringing up the chicks. These minuscule birds winter in the south Atlantic.
LAURIE CAMPBELL, SHUTTERSTOCK
The Arctic skua chases smaller birds
Take a walk through the pass between Strathdon and Tomintoul, above Corgarff Castle, and you are likely to come across mountain hares – our only native member of the hare and rabbit family. This smaller and scarcer relative of the more familiar brown hare is a true Scottish Highland icon, with 90% of the UK’s mountain hares found north of the border. The mountain hare is one of just three British creatures that turn white in winter – along with the stoat and the ptarmigan (a kind of grouse). Hares spend the whole year on the high tops, their white coat offering
camouflage against aerial predators such as the golden eagle. Hares moult into a greyish-brown shade in the spring, enabling them to blend in among the heather and boulders of the mountain slopes. Sadly, the mountain hare population in Scotland has declined over recent years, due mainly to persecution.
Highlands: Scotland’s Wild Heart, by Stephen Moss with photographs by Laurie Campbell, is published by Bloomsbury, £25. Available with 20% member discount from Urquhart Castle, Edinburgh Castle and online at historicenvironment.scot/shop (enter code MEMBER1015)
Built in around 1550 as a tower house, Corgarff was the scene of a tragedy in 1571 when more than 20 people died after it was set ablaze during a family feud. It was converted between 174850 and became a government fort to police the region against Jacobite sympathisers. Please note that Corgarff Castle will be closed 1 Oct – 31 Mar. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 25
OUT AND ABOUT
AMBITIOUS. RUTHLESS. AND ILLEGITIMATE.
Being born out of wedlock proved no obstacle for a pair of influential Scots in pursuit of power, writes historian Nicki Scott
26 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Two nobles with dreams of glory. And the castles to prove it
he idea persists that throughout history ‘illegitimate’ children were ostracised from society; that they were somehow tainted by the ‘immoral’ action that produced them. The assumption is they were hidden away, never to achieve the successes of their ‘legitimate’ peers. Yet there were illegitimate men and women who forged glittering careers. And many of Scotland’s monuments have stories closely linked with their successes.
RISE OF THE LANDLESS KNIGHT
Archibald ‘the Grim’ Douglas Archibald Douglas, known as ‘the Grim’, was born in the 1320s, the illegitimate child of James Douglas, ‘the Good’ – a famous lieutenant of Robert I (the Bruce). Although he reputedly inherited his father’s dark looks – from which the family took the sobriquet Black Douglases – his birth gave him no automatic rights to inherit anything else.
Aware that loyalty to those in power was the key to advancement, Archibald began his career in the service of William Douglas of Liddesdale, who forged a career fighting the English in the 1330s and 1340s. After Liddesdale was killed in 1353 by the Earl of Douglas – another William – Archibald switched allegiance to Earl William, serving with him against the English at Poitiers in France in 1356. And it was through military success that he would carve out his position.
Bothwell Castle was refortified by Archibald Douglas, whose father was a close ally of Robert the Bruce (inset)
James Hamilton of Finnart In the 1500s, another illegitimate son would rise to lofty heights. James Hamilton of Finnart was a true Renaissance man, with some claim to be Scotland’s first architect. The bastard son of the 1st Earl of Arran, he oversaw the building of James V’s magnificent palace at Stirling Castle, reordered Linlithgow Palace and carried out work at Blackness and Rothesay Castles. For himself, he built the singular Craignethan Castle. Born in around 1495, Finnart entered royal service soon after his father’s elevation to the earldom in 1503. He was a skilled political operator, supporting his father in his dispute with the Douglas Earl of Angus. He was with his father at Linlithgow in 1526 when he took the field against his nephew, the Earl of Lennox, who was killed by Finnart during the conflict. The resulting feud between Lennox and Hamilton would last the rest of the century. In 1529, the trust his father showed in him was made clear. In drawing up his will at Kinneil
Archibald fought for the French at the Battle of Poitiers, 1356, shown in an illustration from Froissart’s Chronicles
28 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
James Hamilton of Finnart used his architectural skills to reorder Linlithgow Palace SHUTTERSTOCK, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND, MARK D DENNIS, MARY EVANS/M.C.ESTEBAN/IBERFOTO
His proven skill as a warrior subdued it for the king, made him attractive to the whereupon the king conferred king, David II, who sought to it on him”, according to one build a corps of loyal account of the 1400s. Archibald lieutenants. The young now became Lord of Galloway, Archibald, recognising the and marked this by building greater rewards royal service Threave Castle, a symbol of his would bring, switched control of the area. The seal of Archibald allegiance once again. Equally symbolic was his Douglas, who knew loyalty was the key to success His first reward was assumption of the role of marriage to Joanna Murray, patron to Sweetheart Abbey, a which brought him “tresour untald, Balliol foundation, where he financed towris and towns”. The “towris” may building works in the wake of damage have included Balvenie Castle. They during the wars with England. certainly included Bothwell Castle, one The culmination of Archibald’s efforts of Scotland’s finest surviving medieval was his elevation to earl following the strongholds. It had been abandoned in death of James, 2nd Earl of Douglas, at 1337, but Archibald refortified it. the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. James It was in Galloway, though, that had no legitimate heirs, allowing Archibald truly made his name. The Archibald to step into the vacuum. region had long caused problems for Archibald’s military skills helped him monarchs, retaining a feeling of win the power struggle to emerge as independence from the crown long after the 3rd Earl of Douglas and while it theoretically came under central acceptance of his new position was authority. David II, as a Bruce, had not universal, by the time of his death, particular difficulty in exercising that at Threave in 1400, his inheritance authority: many local families remained was secure. Archibald the Grim had loyal to the Balliols, risen from being a landless Bruce’s rivals to the throne, knight to be one of the whose power base had most powerful landed been there. men in the kingdom. “When Galloway Archibald funded building works rebelled, [Archibald] at Sweetheart Abbey
A Stirling Castle statue believed to represent Finnart
House, Arran appointed Finnart as his executor. The illegitimate Finnart also became tutor to his legitimate halfbrother, the new Earl of Arran, then 10 years old. Finnart exploited the opportunity to increase his own wealth and power. In the 1530s, as acting earl, he was clearly a man of influence. He sat as one of the Lords of Council, advising on such
Finnart’s land grabs of the 1530s brought him into conflict with many in the Hamilton kindred
issues as defence of the realm and law and order in the Borders. He acted as a lord of the articles in several sessions of Parliament and was an auditor for both exchequer and treasury accounts. But it was his very success that was his downfall. In 1540, having become politically active himself, the Earl of Arran persuaded the king to arrest Finnart on charges of treason. Arran had increasingly been at odds with his brother, believing Finnart had mismanaged the earldom and had sought to usurp Arran’s rightful position as head of the family. Finnart’s ruthless land grabs of the 1530s had brought him into conflict with many in the wider Hamilton kindred and nobody was now willing to speak on his behalf. He was found guilty on what were probably manufactured charges and was executed at Edinburgh’s Mercat Cross. It is quite likely the chance to obtain Finnart’s wealth, which included lands worth around £5,000, played a part in James V’s willingness to execute his loyal servant. But, as with Archibald ‘the Grim’, the political heights Finnart was able to reach show illegitimacy was no barrier to those willing to work hard in the pursuit of power.
THE VIEW FROM ABOVE The church influenced the fate of illegitimate royal children Considered the highest moral authority in the kingdom, the church might be expected to have taken a negative view of illegitimacy. The Old Testament Book of Deuteronomy states those born illegitimate “shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord”; yet it indicates children should not be condemned for their fathers’ sins. The attitudes resulting from this were complex. Degrees of legitimacy were recognised, depending on when – or whether – the child’s parents married. This might help explain the differing fates of illegitimate royal children. While most were well looked after, few were as highly acknowledged as Margaret Stewart, daughter of King James IV and his mistress Margaret Drummond. Records refer to Margaret’s royal status, and gifts of clothing to her included ermine, reserved for use by royalty. The favour shown could support rumours of a betrothal between the king and his mistress – which perhaps made their daughter slightly “less illegitimate”. Margaret married the heir to the earldom of Huntly. Her son, the 4th Earl of Huntly, extensively remodelled Huntly Castle. Mary Queen of Scots would eventually try his corpse for treason, after he died rebelling against her in 1562. Margaret Stewart was the illegitimate daughter of James IV (inset). Her son remodelled the grand Huntly Castle
OUT AND ABOUT
IN HOLY FOOTSTEPS
With the writings of Dorothy Wordsworth tucked under his arm, Eamonn Oâ€™Neill takes a journey of discovery at three great Borders abbeys
Dryburgh Abbey is a great example of Scottish Gothic architecture
30 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
e have hardly started our family tour of three famous abbeys in the Scottish Borders when we realise the car’s air conditioning system is broken. Even rolled-down windows are not enough to cool myself, my American wife, Sarah, and our eight-year-old twins, Lorcan and Cormac. We plough on, largely because Dorothy Wordsworth, the formidable traveller and author in whose footsteps we are following, would have accepted nothing less. Ms Wordsworth was the devoted sister of poet William Wordsworth. In 1803, they set out on an
arduous 663-mile journey through Scotland during August and September. Accompanying them was their friend, writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It was not all plain sailing. At one stage, the Wordsworths fell out with Coleridge, who went off on a solo trip, and their schedule often fell apart. They gamely persisted, though, and like all adventures, the more their trip went off the rails, the finer the writing became. A full 213 years later, I am more than happy to use the section of her book, Recollections of a Tour Made in Scotland, AD 1803, that covers the Scottish Borders, where I have lived for nearly 20 years, to discover some secrets about its past.
TOUR NOTES Eamonn O’Neill travelled in the footsteps of Dorothy Wordsworth, who wrote of her travels in her 1803 memoir
Melrose Abbey The magnificent ruin of an abbey so beloved of Robert the Bruce he is thought to have chosen it as the final resting place for his heart
Dryburgh Abbey The burial location of Sir Walter Scott is a remarkably complete medieval ruin offering some of Scotland’s best Gothic architecture
Jedburgh Abbey It took more than 70 years to build this abbey, known for its mix of Romanesque and early Gothic architecture. Spot the remains of buildings where the brethren lived
EAMONN O’NEILL O’Neill is an investigative journalist and associate professor in journalism at Edinburgh Napier University HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 31
OUT AND ABOUT Is this the resting place of Robert the Bruce’s heart? ON THE BORDERS ABBEY TRAIL
BUSTLING BEGINNINGS IN PEEBLES
Peebles, the largest town near our home, is a good starting point, since the landmarks Dorothy Wordsworth mentioned in her journal remain easily located. The main street in Peebles on the Sunday we visit, for example, is still as bustling as ever. I am relieved that I am not accosted and challenged about my ethnicity as Dorothy’s brother William was – the English poet’s attire and method of transport led the Peebles locals to believe the English poet was an Irishman intent on invasion. Today, I scour the horizon and can report there’s not an Irish invasion in sight, only the O’Neill family pointing our sweltering car southwards and heading off to find the abbeys, and maybe Dorothy’s lingering presence along the way.
Repairs to the nave were clearly carried out over different centuries
The ruins of Melrose Abbey, which was founded in 1136
ARCHITECTURAL TIME MACHINE
The first abbey we visit is Melrose, founded in 1136 and functioning until the last monk died in 1590. In between, the magnificent abbey church of St Mary the Virgin, as it was originally known, was destroyed in 1385 by the army of Richard II. By then, it was renowned as the resting place of Alexander II and, it was believed, the heart of Robert the Bruce, who died in 1329. At the time we get there, the abbey is filled with guides and fellow tourists. When Dorothy Wordsworth arrived, she had already bumped into Sir Walter Scott on a nearby street for the second time on her trip, and the author – extremely well known in the area as a writer and sheriff of the regional legal jurisdiction – insisted on giving her a personal tour of the very location we now stand at. My wife Sarah always finds ancient Scottish buildings fascinating time
machines architecturally. She wastes no time pointing out how repairs to the spectacular Melrose Abbey nave were clearly carried out over different centuries by workmen of vastly varying skills. Dorothy Wordsworth spotted the same thing in 1803 and wrote: “…within these beautiful walls is the ugliest church that was ever beheld… What a contrast to the beautiful and graceful order apparent in every part of the ancient design and workmanship!” The sun floods the south transept as our twins eagerly clutch maps looking for the site thought to be the grave of Robert the Bruce’s heart. The dignified little circular marker is soon found and the tale is recounted of how the heart was removed from Bruce’s body (allegedly his express request), embalmed and carried to Spain during the Crusades. Taken into battle, the heart was then retrieved by one of the Douglas family leaders and brought home to Melrose, where it is thought to be buried. My boys’ little faces look duly solemn and stunned. We leave Melrose and drive further south, catching periodic glimpses of the River Tweed, the speed and comfort of our sojourn in stark contrast to the awful weather and hard travelling Dorothy and William Wordsworth encountered hereabouts.
OUT AND ABOUT
19TH#CENTURY ROAD TRIP A gruelling Scottish adventure
Sweetheart Abbey, which provides a tale of love to fire the imaginations of the Marlands, below in their camper van
Dryburgh Abbey is where Dorothy Wordsworth’s friend Sir Walter Scott is buried DRYBURGH ABBEY
SOMETHING OLD, SOMETHING YEW
Dryburgh Abbey, the second on our itinerary, appears like something out of a perfect summer’s day dream, with its transepts glinting against the cloudless blue sky and the wooded surroundings – planted in the 1700s by the 11th Earl of Buchan – lush and silent. Sarah immediately spots a gorgeous wisteria, a cascade of yellow nearby, and buries her face in its scented branches. In comparison, I can’t help but feel pity for Dorothy Wordsworth when she arrived here on a cold, wet day to be greeted by an old, peat smoke-stained, hook-nosed female guide, who, she thought, “was a figure to frighten a child…” Today couldn’t be more different, with bright sunlight piercing the magnificent rose window on the west gable of the south range. I watch our boys scamper among the The ancient yew at Dryburgh Abbey
ruins until we all go into the striking chapter house, the room monks once gathered in. Then we stroll across the abbey grounds to see the dignified final resting place of Dorothy’s friend and guide, Sir Walter Scott. Our final stop is the ancient yew, thought to date from the 1100s and still one of the most significant trees in Scotland. We all find it beautiful, as much for the welcome shade it provides as its history. Dorothy Wordsworth wasn’t impressed in 1803, however, noting “it was a goodly tree, but a mere dwarf compared with several of our own country”. Dorothy might be forgiven for appearing taciturn and tired – the rain was brutal enough to force her to abandon the rest of her day’s travel plans at Dryburgh. Today, drenched only in sweat from the heat, we head back to our car sipping cold drinks and enjoying ice creams.
Siblings Dorothy and William Wordsworth, along with their friend and fellow writer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, decided to go on the early 19th-century equivalent of a road trip, in Scotland, across August and September 1803. HISTORICAL BIG GUNS l The plan was to take a tour befitting the Romantic movement, seeing locations associated with the big names of Scottish history such as William Wallace, Robert the Bruce and Rob Roy. TAXING TIMES l It was a gruelling journey. The trio had disagreements and Coleridge went off on a solo adventure. Their transport was an Irish jaunting car, an open, singlehorse carriage, which meant frequent soakings. The hospitality they met varied enormously, as food and lodgings were sometimes difficult to find. WORDS WORTH READING l The resultant journal (not published until 22 years after Dorothy’s death in 1855), Recollections of a Tour Made in Scotland, AD 1803, was a personal account of the trip in an era when published female writers were rare. ROARING SUCCESS l After its publication, however, the little volume became a massive hit and gathers praise to this day, drawing comparisons with masterly travel writers such as Samuel Johnson and Robert Louis Stevenson.
The ruins of Jedburgh Abbey failed to impress Dorothy Wordsworth
PRAYING TO THE GALLERIES
Some 40 minutes later, we arrive at Jedburgh Abbey, a massive structure dating back to the 1100s and dominating the town around it. It took a king (David I) and a bishop (John of Glasgow) to make this Augustinian abbey a reality in the 12th century. In the centuries that followed, though, its ambitious positioning on the edge of the Scottish kingdom meant it was repeatedly attacked and sacked by English armies until, in 1560, the Reformation pushed it Eamonn and Sarah O’Neill in the nave at Jedburgh Abbey
beyond repair. Parishioners used the abbey until the 1800s, but it declined into the partial and rather magnificent ruin we see in today’s sunshine. There was no sunshine when Dorothy Wordsworth visited on Tuesday 20 September 1803. Instead, she records that she “sat shivering” after changing out of her rain-sodden clothes, hoping to get someone to light a fire so she could warm up. She thought the ruins at Jedburgh Abbey were “much less beautiful” than those she had seen before, and was particularly horrified by the sight of local women using the surfaces of the flat, horizontal tombstones to wash and dry their linen. Our boys run alongside those very same flat graves as we pass the chapter house just beyond the visitors’ centre. Nothing in Dorothy’s account, though, prepares us for the jaw-dropping interior of the nave at Jedburgh. Today, the nave is bathed in late afternoon sunlight, its high arches glowing gold and copper, the galleries
Nothing prepares us for the jaw-dropping interior of the nave at Jedburgh
Abbey adventures for Lorcan and Cormac
above seeming to float in the air. Even our boys simply stare in wonder. Sarah, who spent her childhood in upstate New York, shakes her head, looks at the boys climbing up the narrow stairs inside the nave’s tower and says: “It’s like having the set of an Indiana Jones film for a playground.” Dorothy Wordsworth finished her visit on a more pleasant note than she started it. Her sprightly landlady gifted her some ‘Jethart’ pears, a local fruit speciality in the 1800s, to help her on her onward journey. It is here, in Jedburgh, we leave Dorothy’s holy trail behind. We head north and home, as she headed south and back to England. Her presence in her writings and our travels has been special and I’ll miss her companionship. It is perfect days such as this that ripen the pears and perhaps warm the memories, too.
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MY DAY AS A
marine archaeologist Stepping into the boots of Philip Robertson on a tiny island off the west coast of Scotland, Kathleen Nutt is mesmerised PHOTOGRAPHS: ANGELA CATLIN
MENTOR PHILIP ROBERTSON loves diving into the past
PROTÉGÉ KATHLEEN NUTT out-of-water assistant
36 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
BEHIND THE SCENES
Gearing up for the first dive into the flooded quarry
itting in a small boat off the coast of Argyll with the sun beating down, it’s tempting to think that few jobs will better the one held by the man beside me. I have joined Philip Robertson as he oversees an exploration of two longabandoned and flooded slate quarries on the island of Belnahua. They have been recently scheduled, or given protected status, by his office. His official title is deputy head of designations (inventories and marine) in the Heritage Management Directorate at Historic Environment Scotland (HES). It’s a mouthful, but behind it is an obvious passion for all things marine. Philip has commissioned an external team – John McCarthy, Graham Scott, Isger Vico Sommer and Bob MacKintosh – to carry out the underwater surveys. All of them are, like him, marine archaeologists and qualified divers. Today is the first time Philip has visited the important heritage site. We leave the pier at Ellenabeich, about 15 miles (23km) south of Oban, to make our way three miles (5km) or so across the sea to the island. Philip explains much of his job is desk-based in Edinburgh, managing designations work for different types of heritage sites including gardens, battlefields and marine sites. From time to time, though, he carries out site visits. “I’ve been really looking forward to visiting Belnahua,” he says as we speed across the Sound of Luing. “My team HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 37
BEHIND THE SCENES
went to the island in 2012 to inspect what was left of the quarrying industry on land and we decided we needed to investigate what remained underwater. For me, this is a very exciting day.” We arrive on the tiny island, barely a couple of kilometres in circumference, shortly after 9am and help unload bags, dry suits, underwater cameras, radios and ropes. We have taken tents and sleeping bags in case the weather changes and we are stranded. As we make our way to the quarries, we pick our way over rocks and grass tufts, careful to avoid the gulls’ eggs in nests built among the stones. Graham puts up an ‘alert flag’, signalling that divers are in the water, while Philip discusses which areas of the quarry will be explored. The team carried out a snorkel a few months before and discovered a number of features Philip wants to investigate. The objects identified include a lift used by the quarrymen to winch 38 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
ANGELA CATLIN, SHUTTERSTOCK
Safety comes first when diving at the quarry, where abandoned slate buildings and walls are home to nesting seabirds
BEHIND THE SCENES
and measurements he takes, will help complete the survey. Pointing to a buoy attached to Bob, Philip describes how it shows the team where the diver is in the water, letting colleagues direct him where to swim. A tracking device tied to the buoy also serves a vital purpose. “The waterproof container on top of the buoy contains a data logger with a GPS in it which records positions throughout the dive,” says Philip. “It allows the correlation of photographs taken by the diver to the exact positions in the quarry, helping the team when they go back to the office to make a detailed map. The map of the quarry will show the relation between those aspects in the water and features of the quarry on land, allowing us to begin to interpret how the quarry was used.” While the divers survey one of the quarries, Philip suggests we look at some abandoned buildings and machines beside the quarry. The north-eastern part of the island is covered with remnants of the industry. Here and there, parts of decaying machinery are scattered around. Old passageways and tunnels link the remains of an engine house to a lift that brought the slate from the bottom slate to the surface, of the quarry to the top. carts to carry the Long grass now obscures Philip enjoys slate, tracks along the entrances and we have his overdue visit which carts would run to take care not to stumble and pipes to extract the rain into one. and seawater. Philip examines the main parts of the Philip wants the team to get a closer engine house, comparing it to his staff’s look at a submerged lift mechanism. report. Its roof collapsed long ago. Amid The team work in rotation, each taking all the stones, he points out a coal-fired turns to dive, act as standby diver, boiler that may have powered the winch supervisor and assistant. This time it is and drainage pipes for the quarry. We Bob’s turn to be in the water. walk around to the south-west shore of “Each diver is in the water for about the island that would have been occupied an hour,” explains Philip. “By rotating by the quarry manager, the workers and divers it maximises the time in the their families from the mid-18th century water. This is important when we are at until the site closed shortly after the start the site for a relatively short time.” of the First World War. Bob is helped into his dry suit, The remains of terraced cottages, a mask and breathing apparatus. Safety shop, a schoolroom and even what’s left checks are undertaken and soon he disappears below the surface of the turquoise water. Bob will convey what he sees to the others through a radio system. The information, along with photographs
The buoy has a GPS in it so we can record the position of discoveries
Iona Abbey is roofed with slate from the islands
ROOF OF THE WORLD The slate islands provided distinctive materials for properties across the globe Scottish slate has a distinctive rugged appearance, contributing to the character of the country’s towns and cities. It contrasts with the smooth, rectangular shape of Welsh, French and Spanish slate. Its ruggedness means Scottish roof slates are ‘shouldered’, or sloped off at the top corners, to help them lie flat. The technique increases the height and visual impact of the buildings using Scottish slate roofs. There is no geological way to determine if a particular sample of quarried slate came from Belnahua or one of the quarries on the neighbouring islands Easdale, Luing, Seil, Shuna and Fladda – known as the ‘islands which roofed the world’. This is due to the extent of the industry in the area from the 18th to early 20th century. Many traditional tenements in Glasgow are roofed with slate from Belnahua and the neighbouring islands, as well as some of the country’s most prestigious buildings such as Ardmaddy Castle in Lorn built 1676, Stalker Castle in Appin built in 1631, Cawdor Castle in Invernesshire and the medieval Glasgow Cathedral. Some public buildings in Nova Scotia also have roofs of slate from the islands after the material was exported to the Canadian east coast.
BEHIND THE SCENES
of the public privies, built Remains of pottery in the local slate, can all are found which, like be seen. Up to 130 all items discovered, people lived on must remain Belnahua in the 1870s undisturbed. Divers must leave and with all supplies Third and fourth their finds undisturbed having to be brought in dives are completed later from the mainland, life must in the afternoon and Philip have been hard. is delighted when the team find Philip goes out on the boat for the an overturned slate cart and cartwheels second dive of the day to investigate a set against a wall. different section of the quarry. This time During the last dive of the day, it is it is Graham in the water, the dive John’s turn and Philip hands me the following a similar format to the first. radio and headset to talk to him. “Graham is exploring a submerged I can clearly hear his breathing and retaining wall, working down from the movements as he swims nine feet northern end of the quarry to the or so below us. western side,” Philip says. “Tell me what you can see,” I ask. John As he talks, he tenders Graham, letting describes a rectangular cart about out a safety rope attached as the diver 4ft long and 3ft high loaded with slate swims further from the boat. “It seems ready to be taken away. The scene the retaining walls have been built in evokes the haste when, more than much the same way as drystone walls,” 100 years ago, work was stopped he continues, as Graham relays the and tools downed as the men were information over the radio. gathered up and sent off to the
WRITTEN IN THE STONES
Story of quarrying on Belnahua
1300s Slate from Belnahua and neighbouring islands begins to be used as a building material
1745 Commercial quarrying begins on Belnahua
40 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
The slate industry contributed so much to Scotland First World War. It was thought they would be back within a few weeks. Most never returned. The team also believe there is a small building in the quarry which housed the explosives used to loosen the rocks, but with visibility poor in that section of the quarry, the team hope they might be able to see the building when they return the following day. It is almost time, though, for the charter boat to pick us up and take us back to Ellenabeich. Philip seems relaxed, but the wind has picked up and white horses cover the sea’s surface. Our boat has difficulty getting close to the shore but the skipper finds a sheltered spot on another part of the island and with a sense of relief we quickly scramble on board and head back to port. “It was a very worthwhile day,” says Philip, as we say our goodbyes. “Belnahua is a largely undisturbed time capsule of 18th- to early 20th-century slate quarrying and the fact it has been scheduled recognises that. “The slate industry contributed so much to Scotland and the site at Belnahua is probably the most intact example from the industry which survives undisturbed. It is a special place and we want to make sure it is properly recognised for future generations.”
1787 Six working quarries on Belnahua
1800s Belnahua is bought by the Gillies family
1900s Decline in the price of slate
1791 Population of 132 recorded on the island
1879 Exceptionally large waves are reported, flooding the quarries, housing and piers
1914 Quarries close as men leave to fight in the First World War
1940s Failed attempts to salvage some of the quarrying equipment on the island
February 2016 Belnahua added to Historic Environment Scotland’s list of scheduled sites
ANGELA CATLIN, SHUTTERSTOCK
Philip and Kathleen examine a piece of machinery beside the quarry
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CASTLE CURIOS Some of Edinburgh Castle’s quirkiest stories are hidden in its architectural heritage WORDS: STEVE FARRAR PHOTOGRAPHS: JULIE HOWDEN
etween them, David Storrar and Bruce Chandler have spent 25 years helping protect and conserve Edinburgh Castle. It’s a challenging task, not least because the cluster of iconic buildings atop Castle Rock has constantly changed and developed over the centuries. David is Historic Environment
42 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Scotland’s head of conservation for Edinburgh, responsible for monuments across the capital. Bruce, as district architect, focuses on Edinburgh Castle. Their unrivalled specialist knowledge includes a wealth of intriguing architectural stories bound up in often overlooked parts of the stronghold’s fabric.
Medieval makeover in Victorian times The Portcullis Gate has guarded the main approach to Edinburgh Castle for centuries. Some of its stonework dates from the late 1300s and this strategic point may have been defended for millennia. But the grand, castellated upper floor, known as the Argyle Tower, was only dreamt up in the 1880s by the architect Hippolyte Blanc (who also restored the Great Hall). The tower was designed in the Scots Baronial style and Bruce notes that the intention was to give the castle the sophisticated medieval feel Blanc thought appropriate for the capital city of Victorian Scotland. This was the sort of ‘extreme’ restoration championed by French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, seeking to
Bruce Chandler and David Storrar on the Argyle Tower
create something that seemed somehow more medieval than the real thing. Bruce observes that the tower’s construction required the destruction of an older but much less impressive structure that had capped the gateway since the 1700s. “Blanc did not have evidence of anything more substantial dating from before that time, so
he drew on his knowledge of other castles in Scotland, England and France to come up with an idea of what it should have been like,” says Bruce. LOOK FOR
The slab-and-trough stone roof, a Victorian copy of a medieval church roof style.
SCOTTISH NATIONAL WAR MEMORIAL Moving masterpiece made by many hands Both David and Bruce have a particular affection for the Scottish National War Memorial. “Every detail has a meaning,” says David, “and every time I visit, I see something new.” Like many of the castle’s structures, the memorial’s backstory is complicated, featuring the reuse of older fabric. The earliest known building to stand on the same footprint was a church. In the 1530s, this was converted into an ordnance store for the castle’s guns – you can see blocked-up vents in its sides that were intended to reduce condensation inside. The building was demolished in 1755 and rebuilt as the North Barracks. Stonework from this time, and from further alterations in the mid-19th century, can be seen on the present exterior.
The garden behind the War Memorial was created in 2014
Designed by Sir Robert Lorimer, and built in just three years, the memorial opened in 1927. Some 200 artists and artisans were brought in to produce its exquisite décor. There are many details to search out. Among David’s favourites is a lensed window, designed to focus sunlight on the figure of St Michael above the shrine casket. In 2014, to mark the centenary of the First World War, David, along with the Scottish National War Memorial trustees, led the effort to create a new garden
of commemoration under its walls. In tribute to Lorimer’s remarkable attention to detail, the garden’s stone benches were made from a basalt similar to that which forms Castle Rock, while the commemorative plaque was forged from an alloy containing metal from shell and bullet casings supplied by all of the armed services. LOOK FOR
A carved lion and griffin gargoyle on the exterior; and bronze panels depicting all the services, units and ranks that served.
The tunnel was excavated out of solid basalt
44 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Archaeological goldmine and 20th-century service route Unnoticed by almost every squeezed through spaces visitor, a tunnel passes right never intended for such through the Castle Rock – a traffic. Indeed, the castle service route that is essential had been designed to keep for the day-to-day running people out, not welcome of the castle. As utilitarian as them in. the New Barracks, it was The tunnel’s creation also blasted and excavated from led to some fascinating solid basalt over four months archaeological discoveries, in 1989. as archaeologists revealed The tunnel was essential evidence for the Castle to the development of the Rock’s first inhabitants, with castle as a visitor attraction. Bronze Age remains dating Up until its construction, from around 900 BC. pedestrians and vehicles LOOK FOR had to share a tortuous The tunnel mouth at the top of the route through the gatehouse Esplanade; and the scars left by and Portcullis Gate. Lorries vehicles in the sides of the frequently gouged the Portcullis Gate and gatehouse. historic stonework as they
© Jostein Dahl Gjelsvik
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AWAKEN YOUR INNER EXPLORER
Bizarrely, the New Barracks were built without toilets
Military precaution from the Napoleonic era When it was built in the late imposing building was 1790s, Sir Walter Scott designed to house more described the New Barracks than 600 soldiers but, as looking like a “vulgar curiously, it was constructed cotton mill”. without toilets. In 1861, it was “It caused a furore when officially condemned as ‘one it was new, an absolute of the worst-constructed eyesore,” says Bruce. “But no barracks in the UK’. matter how ghastly previous While the garrison quit the generations may have castle in 1923, the British considered it, people have got army adapted the building used to it now. Indeed, we’d (and installed toilets) to house be up in arms if someone regimental headquarters wanted to take it away.” and other functions. The New Barracks was LOOK FOR: built in a time of civil unrest The uncompromising scale of the when the military urgently six-storey building dominating needed accommodation for views of the castle from the west. an enlarged garrison. The
David redesigned the spiral staircase in David’s Tower to have 39 steps
46 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
DAVID’S TOWER Lost landmark and secret hideaway For 200 years, this medieval tower dominated Edinburgh’s skyline. Rising 30m from the east flank of Castle Rock, it was an impregnable stronghold, a royal residence and a declaration of the monarch’s power. However, in 1573, English cannon revealed how obsolete such towers had become, sending it crashing down at the violent end of the Lang Siege. Despite its catastrophic end, the tower’s remains still stand two storeys high. “It’s above you as you walk into the castle,” David says, “but hidden in the bowels of the Half-Moon Battery.” The buried ruins were rediscovered in 1912 by William Oldrieve, the government’s principal architect for Scotland. Indeed, today’s visitors can descend into the battery to see some of the tower’s lower vaults and passageways. Much remains inaccessible to
the public. Among the closed-off areas is a small privy chamber in which the Crown of State was hidden during the Second World War to prevent it falling into enemy hands. A handful of people were informed of this secret hiding place, including the novelist John Buchan, Governor General of Canada and author of The Thirty-Nine Steps. When David was called on to design a spiral staircase deep within another restricted part of David’s Tower, he found 40 steps were required. But 39 steps felt more appropriate, so he adjusted the plans in tribute to Buchan’s thriller. Special tours can take visitors inside the old tower. The next two take place on Thursday 17 November. See page 55 for more information. LOOK FOR
The medieval arrow slit inside David’s Tower that now looks out into the dark interior of the Half-Moon Battery.
CHRISTMAS MEMBERSHIP GIFT OFFER Buy a gift of membership online and get three months extra free – 15 MONTHS FOR THE PRICE OF 12
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historicenvironment.scot/ member l For more information call 0131 668 8999. Terms and conditions apply. See website for details. Offer valid from 1 October to 31 December 2016
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A personal copy of Historic Scotland magazine posted out four times a year direct to your door My day as a marine HISTORIC SCOTLAND
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Free entry to more than 70 of Scotland’s top paid-for heritage attractions
archaeologist 34 G
ME M B E
THE MAGAZINE FOR HISTORIC
IN GAZ R MA
2016 SCOTLAND MEMBERS AUTUMN
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DAYS OUT INCLUDING
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KEEP UP TO DATE Pick up your events guide at any of our properties or visit historicenvironment.scot/events DAYTIME EVENTS ARE FREE TO MEMBERS, UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED
A RANGE OF EXCITING ACTIVITIES ACROSS SCOTLAND
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Military-themed events lead our autumn calendar as we remember Stirling Castle under siege and the centenary of the Battle of the Somme KEEP UP TO DATE WITH ALL OUR ACTIVITIES AT HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT/EVENTS
48 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
Restaurant/café Picnic area Dogs not permitted Parking
Gift shop Reasonable wheelchair access Year of Innovation, Architecture and Design
HOLDING THE KEY TO SCOTLAND STIRLING CASTLE
Sat 24, Sun 25 September; 12-4pm 0131 668 8885 stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events The year is 1651 and the castle is the focus of English military activity north of the border after the Scots’ field army marched into England under Charles II. Meet the defenders and hear the roar of their cannon and learn how the surgeon tried to keep people alive and what life was really like in the castle under siege.
AFTER THE BATTLE EDINBURGH CASTLE
Sat 8, Sun 9 October; 12-4pm 0131 668 8885 edinburghcastle.gov.uk/events Some of the bloodiest fighting of the Great War took place during the infamous Battle of the Somme in 1916. Join soldiers and civilians of the era as they reflect on the conflict and Scots’ place in the war.
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Restaurant/café Picnic area Dogs not permitted Parking
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Join our archaeologist to discover one of Scotland’s most evocative prehistoric sites and learn how it is conserved.
STANDING STONES OF STENNESS AND BARNHOUSE VILLAGE WALK
VOLCANO FUN DAY
STANDING STONES OF STENNESS
Every Wed, Sep-Mar (except 28 Dec); 10am 01856 841732 firstname.lastname@example.org
Sat 1 Oct; 11am-3pm 0131 652 8150 email@example.com Come to this fun-filled day and explore Edinburgh’s very own volcano.
Join the ranger service for a guided tour of our oldest stone circle and explore the links with the Neolithic village of Barnhouse.
DOLPHINS, TULIPS AND NAPOLEON: THE DUNIMARLE COLLECTION AT DUFF HOUSE
RING OF BRODGAR WALK RING OF BRODGAR
Every Thu, Sep-Mar (except 29 Dec); 1pm 01856 841732 firstname.lastname@example.org Explore the area around the Ring of Brodgar during our daily guided walk with a ranger and find out the special significance of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney.
REMBRANDT DUFF HOUSE
Till Sun 30 Oct; 11am-5pm 01261 818181 historicenvironment.scot/events Examine a unique Rembrandt etching that has been rediscovered in the print room of the Scottish National Gallery. The print is a portrait of the Amsterdam preacher Jan Cornelis Sylvius of 1633.
ARCHAEOLOGY DAY HOLYROOD PARK
SCOTTISH NATIONAL GALLERY
Sun 18 Sep; 11am-3pm 0131 652 8150 email@example.com Discover what life was like in the Iron Age by meeting characters from the past and trying out skills from the period.
DOORS OPEN DAY ENGINE SHED
Sat 10, Sun 11 Sep; 11am-3pm
Wed 12 Oct; 10.15am-5pm £10 – lunch included Book a place at historicenvironment.scot/events Rembrandt’s Portrait of Jan Cornelis Sylvius 1633
0131 668 8683 firstname.lastname@example.org Join us at the Engine Shed, Scotland’s building conservation centre, before it opens next year. Learn first-hand the techniques used to conserve Scotland’s historic structures, and have a go yourself.
DOORS OPEN DAY JOHN SINCLAIR HOUSE
Sat 24 Sep, 9.30am-4.30pm historicenvironment.scot/events 0131 662 1456 Come along to take advantage of our full programme of events – from exhibitions and a series of talks by expert staff to exploring the resources in the public research room.
DOORS OPEN DAY
Georgian building. Get hands on with the object-handling sessions, or try our quiz and stained-glass craft activity.
THE PERGOLA BY JOHN LAVERY DUFF HOUSE
Coming soon; 11am-5pm 01261 818181 historicenvironment.scot/events Please check with the venue for exhibition dates Admire the beautiful oil painting by John Lavery, an Irish painter who studied at the Glasgow School of Art. Enjoy this rare opportunity to view this masterpiece, as the last time it was exhibited was in 1940. OCTOBER
INSIGHT TOUR OF CLAVA CAIRNS
Sat 24 & Sun 25 Sep, 10am-4pm historicenvironment.scot/events 0131 668 8099
Sat 1 Oct; 11am-12.30pm, 2-3.30pm Booking essential Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/events
Join us to explore the house and celebrate the bicentenary of the
Join our experts as they share their discoveries of this remarkable document which has shed new light on the picturesque property.
TRADITIONAL CRAFT SKILLS TASTER FORT GEORGE DEPOT
Thu 13 Oct; 10am-1pm £20 non-member, £10 member Booking essential Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/ member Join us for a practical taster of the traditional craft skills that are used to safeguard the past. Try everything from slating and lime plastering to rough racking.
INSIGHT TOUR: STORIES IN STONE ELGIN CATHEDRAL
Fri 14 Oct; 11am-12.30pm, 2-3.30pm 0131 668 8683 Booking essential Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/events Accompany our collections manager on this insightful tour HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 51
2016 Tours New Tour! Haunted Scotland
Scotland’s most haunted places! Rosslyn Chapel, Fyvie Castle, Elgin Cathedral, Wardlaw Mausoleum, Culloden Battlefield, Clava Cairns, Eilean Donan Castle, Kilmartin Glen, and private luncheon at Scotland’s most haunted castle, Glamis, in the 16th-century castle keep!
October 29-November 6 • 8 Nights • $3,595
Ring in the New Year with a traditional Highland celebration at the award-winning 18th-century Culloden House. A five-star experience!
December 29-January 4 • 6 Nights • $3,095
2017 Tours 14th Annual Outlander Tour®
Based on the book series by Diana Gabaldon. Time travel, history, intrigue, passion, loyalty, and pride – the 18th-century Highlands.
4 Departures: May 14, Sept. 17, Oct. 8 • 7 Nights • $3,595 June 25-July 5 • 10 Nights • $4,595
New Tour! Western & Northern Islands The popular Lords of the Isles and Viking Treasure tours combined! Skye, Lewis, Harris, Orkney, the Northwest and Northeast coasts, and the Highlands.
August 13-27, 2017 • 14 Nights • $5,995
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Enjoy free re-admission for a year by asking us to treat your ticket purchase as a donation.
Restaurant/café Picnic area Dogs not permitted Parking
Gift shop Reasonable wheelchair access Year of Innovation, Architecture and Design
where you’ll unearth the secrets of the Elgin stones.
URQUHART UNDER SIEGE URQUHART CASTLE
Fri 14-Sun 16 Oct; drop-in session held between 12-4pm 0131 652 8155 historicenvironment.scot/events Create your own mini-mangonel, design a defensive tower and learn more about the tactics of sieges.
SELFIE CEILING STIRLING CASTLE
Sat 22, Sun 23 Oct; drop-in session held between 12-4pm 0131 652 8155 stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events Take inspiration from the magnificent Stirling Heads as you design and draw your own selfie. Whether you’re a famous historical hero or vindictive villain, be sure to strike a pose.
BUILDING SCOTLAND EXHIBITION STIRLING CASTLE
Mon 24 Oct–Sun 26 Feb, 9.30am-5pm stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events 0131 668 8683 Find out about the traditional skills and materials that were used to construct Scotland’s historic built environment in this interactive exhibition.
FANTASTIC FESTIVE FEASTS
WINE AND DINE
Wed 7-Sun 11, Thu 15-Sat 17, Tue 20-Sat 24 Dec; 12.30-2pm £34 adult members, £40 adult non-members, £12 child members, £15 child non-members
Sun 18 Dec; 12.30pm arrival for 1pm sitting £60 members, £67 non-members
Thu 15-Sat 24 Dec; 12.30pm arrival for 1pm sitting £28 adult members, £34 adult non-members, £14 child members, £17 child non-members
Tuck into a delicious festive meal in the Redcoat Café and be dazzled by the wonderful view along Princes Street.
THE SOMME AND SHINTY’S HEROES
Fri 28-Mon 31 Oct; 6pm, 7.30pm, 9pm £12, 10% members’ discount available Tickets available at historicenvironment. scot/member
Sat 29 Oct; 7pm 0131 668 8885 £17 adult, £15 concession 10% members’ discount available Tickets available at historicenvironment. scot/member
As darkness falls step back into the 1850s amid rumours of ghostly goings-on at the ancient palace of Linlithgow.
A spectacular commemorative event presented by shinty aficionado Hugh Dan MacLennan. The show pays tribute to the many
Make your Christmas a cracker by enjoying a festive meal in Stirling Castle’s Green Room. Access is limited for visitors with mobility issues – please get in touch before booking
Go to historicenvironment.scot/member, log in and click on events to book. Call Edinburgh Castle on 0131 226 9443 or email email@example.com. For Stirling Castle call 01786 431321 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Soak up the festive atmosphere in the Queen Anne Room and treat yourself to a fourcourse set menu with accompanying wines for every course.
pipers and shinty players who lost their lives in the First World War, including Pipe Major Willie Lawrie – best known for the tune The Battle of the Somme. NOVEMBER
KIDNAPPED 130 TRINITY HOUSE
Tue 8 Nov; 11am, 2pm 0131 652 8155 email@example.com Booking essential Celebrate the 130th anniversary of Robert Louis Stevenson’s literary classic Kidnapped. Hear from
Alan Rankin about his 2016 voyage to re-enact the novel’s epic smuggling route around Scotland.
WINTER WARMER WALK HOLYROOD PARK
Sat 12 Nov; 1-3.30pm 0131 652 8150 firstname.lastname@example.org Booking essential Join the fun on this guided walk and learn about Arthur’s Seat’s turbulent past, created by fire and ice. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 53
TAKING ON A TABLET IS EASY
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ne of the greatest things about touchscreen tablets such as the iPad, Hudl, Galaxy Tab and the rest is how easy they make it to stay in touch. You can use Skype to make video phone calls (which are usually free), send emails, even attach photos to send to family and friends miles away, all at the touch of a screen. With a tablet, you can browse the web or watch TV online, play games or read ebooks, too â€“ and even borrow ebooks from the local library without leaving your armchair. These gadgets are much more convenient than a cumbersome desktop computer and a lot of people find
them easier to use. But thereâ€™s a flip side â€“ if youâ€™re not sure how to use this technology, you can feel left behind. Even if you have a device that can do all these things, you might not find it all plain sailing. Thatâ€™s because these tablets hardly ever come with a proper manual. Thatâ€™s where our new guide comes in. It doesnâ€™t assume you are an expert or a â€˜techieâ€™ and it explains things step by step. The guide is published by The Helpful Book Company and the author Tim Wakeling has helped thousands get to grips with their touchscreen,
PC and laptop since he set up the company 10 years ago. Wakeling explains things in plain English for the less technical, with plenty of illustrations showing what the screen will look like and where youâ€™ll need to tap it. Anyone whoâ€™s struggled with a tablet will find itâ€™s not so hard, once explained simply. There are separate books for the Apple iPad and for Android-based tablets such as the Kindle Fire, Hudl, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Sony Xperia and the Nexus range. An information pack helps explain how to tell which version a customer has, to make sure they buy the right book. The books are available direct from the publisher.
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INSIGHT TOUR: DAVID’S TOWER EDINBURGH CASTLE
Thu 17 Nov, 10am-12pm & 1pm-3pm Booking essential. Tickets available at edinburghcastle.gov. uk/events Join the castle’s conservation architect on a behind-the-scenes tour of the buried ruins of David’s Tower.
ANCIENT EDINBURGH HOLYROOD PARK EDUCATION CENTRE
Sat 19 Nov; 1-2.30pm 0131 652 8150 email@example.com Booking essential
Restaurant/café Picnic area Dogs not permitted Parking
This riveting talk will transport you back to the capital city’s prehistoric past. Discover the fascinating facts behind the rich remains of Holyrood Park’s Iron Age settlement and defences. DECEMBER
A VERY VICTORIAN CHRISTMAS DUFF HOUSE
Sat 3 Dec; 12-4pm 0131 668 8885 historicenvironment.scot/events Discover the origins of our favourite festive traditions as you step into the 1800s with the Duke of Fife as he celebrates Christmas in his magnificent home.
MAKING MERRY STIRLING CASTLE
Sun 4 Dec; 12.30-3.30pm 0131 668 8885 stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events Join our crafty elves this festive season and have a go at creating everything from decorations to cards, crackers and baubles. Enjoy some fabulous festive entertainment with the Swinging Santas.
CHRISTMAS SHOPPING FAYRE STIRLING CASTLE
Tue 6 Dec; 6-9pm
Gift shop Reasonable wheelchair access Year of Innovation, Architecture and Design
£6 including parking Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/ member Join in the spirit of Christmas at our annual fayre in the Great Hall. Boasting local crafts, fine foods and drink, it’s the perfect place to pick up presents for your loved ones.
CAROLS AT THE CASTLE STIRLING CASTLE
Sun 11 Dec; 7-9pm £16 adults, £11 concession, 10% members’ discount available Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/ member It’s the most wonderful time of the year so be sure to enjoy a glass of mulled wine as the Stirling contingent of the National Youth Choir of Scotland performs classic carols and Christmas songs.
TRADITIONS AND TALES OF A VICTORIAN CHRISTMAS EDINBURGH CASTLE
Mon 19-Fri 23 Dec; 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 668 8885 edinburghcastle.gov.uk/events Join us at Edinburgh Castle to learn about the popular customs of a Victorian Christmas and why they remain so popular today.
A VERY MARY CHRISTMAS EDINBURGH CASTLE
A CHRISTMAS CAROL STIRLING CASTLE
Thu 22, Fri 23 Dec (British Sign Language interpreted performance); doors open 6.15pm for 7pm start £16 adults, £12 children, £14
concession, £49 family, 10% members’ discount available Tickets available at historicenvironment.scot/ member Don’t miss this exciting adaptation of Dickens’
much-loved tale that captures the magic of the Christmas season. Join Tiny Tim and more lovable characters as Scrooge’s frozen heart begins to melt and he finally embraces the festive spirit. A magical treat for all ages.
Sat 24, Tue 27–Fri 30 Dec; 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 668 8885 edinburghcastle.gov.uk/events While Reformation Scotland shuns Christmas festivities, Mary Queen of Scots is celebrating the Twelve Days of Christmas with her courtiers. HISTORICENVIRONMENT.SCOT 55
GUESS THE YEAR
HOW TO ENTER If you can identify the correct year from the options on the right, visit historicenvironment.scot/ guesstheyear or post your answer, with your name, membership number and address, to Guess the Year, Historic Scotland magazine, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH by Friday 11 November. See historicenvironment.scot/ member for terms and conditions.
WINNING PRIZE The winner will receive a hamper from Scottish Hampers (scottishhampers.co.uk). The competition is open to members aged 18 or over.
France alongside her husband, Francis II, on 10 July 1559. Mary’s first coronation took place at Stirling Castle when she was nine months old, following the death of her father.
MARY STUART This 16th-century portrait from the Livres d’heures de Catherine de Medicis depicts the young king and queen of France. Mary Stuart was crowned queen consort of
ANSWER THIS QUESTION In which year was Mary Stuart crowned Queen of Scots? a) 1542 b) 1543 c) 1544
SCOTLAND’S STEWART KINGS, JAMES IV, V AND VI, DEVELOPED STIRLING CASTLE AS A CENTRE FOR SCOTTISH ROYALTY. THE CASTLE THAT STANDS TODAY IS A LEGACY OF THE STEWART DYNASTY.
LAST ISSUE’S GUESS THE YEAR The siege of St Andrews Castle began in 1546. Congratulations to Mrs Daphne MacFarlane Smith from Dundee 56 HISTORIC SCOTLAND
WORLD HISTORY ARCHIVE / ALAMY
WORK OUT THE MYSTERY YEAR AND WIN
INDEPENDENTLY INDEPENDENTLY INDEPENDENTLY OWNED AND OWNED AND OWNED AND INDEPENDENTLY INDEPENDENTLY INDEPENDENTLY MINDED. MINDED. MINDED.
AWARD WINNING AWARD WINNING SINGLE MALT SINGLE AWARD WINNING SCOTCHMALT WHISKY SCOTCH WHISKY SINGLE MALT FROM THE ISLE FROM THE ISLE SCOTCH WHISKY OF ARRAN. OF ARRAN. FROM THE ISLE www.arranwhisky.com OF ARRAN. www.arranwhisky.com