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Europe & the Middle Ages c. 500 - 1250 6th Grade History Chapter 10 Ms. Russac


Medieval Terminology • • • • • • • • • • • •

Feudalism: Political and economic system based on the relationship between a large landowner and people who need his protection Hierarchy: a group of people organized by rank and authority within classes Fiefs: large feudal estates Oath of fealty: and expression of loyalty to one’s lord Knight: an armed, mounted soldier who served a lord Chivalry: the idealized code of conduct of medieval knights emphasizing honor, courtesy, loyalty, and fair treatment of the weak Vassal: a person under the protection of a feudal lord Monastery: a place in which a community of religious people live Homage: the ceremonial recognition of allegiance to a lord shown by a vassal Manor: the castle and estate of a feudal lord Serf: a person (or peasant) who was bound to the land and owned by a lord Guild: an association of trades people made up of merchants, craftspeople, or artisans

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Rise of Germanic Kingdoms • Germanic rulers divided up the lands of Europe • The Franks, led by King Clovis formed a strong bond with the Christian church • Monks formed monasteries where they held the writings of the church, and Greek and Roman ideas • Europe stayed Christian after the defeat of the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 752

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Charles Martel • Son Pepin asks Pope Zacharias to recognize him as king • First to rule with blessing of church • Pepin’s son Charles called Charlemagne will also rule with support of church

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Charlemagne’s Empire

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Emperor • Christian Frankish king • 48 year reign dominated by war • 800 AD, Crowned emperor by Pope Leo III after putting down a rebellion • United the Franks & Germanic kingdoms into a Christian empire Age of Learning • Promoted scholarship and learning • Scholars copied ancient texts by hand • Strengthened the church • Religious services performed the same way throughout empire • Forced clergy to become educated • Tried to rid church of corruption Jews in Medieval Europe • Granted Jews the right to own land, trade, and practice their religion • Jews set up trade networks • Free to move around Muslim lands while Christians were not • European Jewish culture and economy grew leading to growth of academies for learning and trade networks

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After Charlemagne • Power struggle between his 3 sons • Lothair, Charles, & Louis • Divide kingdom into 3 sections • Weakens ability to secure & protect • Open for attack by Viking & Muslim invaders 01/03/13

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William the Conqueror

• Duke of Normandy, descendent of Vikings • Defeated English Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 for the English throne • Beginning of feudal system in England • Surveyed the land in England for his tax collectors • Recorded land ownership of the English in The Great Domesday Book

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Feudal Europe • •

Feudalism evolved in response to a need for protection Political, economic and social structures controlled medieval life on the lord’s estate

Society bound by loyalty and need Lords swore allegiance to the king to protect the land and his subjects Knights took an oath of loyalty to protect and serve the lord Ceremonial rituals such a knighting were used to show allegiance, honor, and pay homage to the lord

Interdependence among the classes Lord Knight Serf Woman Slave

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Life in the Country The Feudal Manor • Nobles

• Serf or Peasants

Lord often lived in castles Safe from weapons Built for security Provided food, lodging, armor, and horse in exchange for services from his knights

Bound to the land Farmed and cared for animals Women produced food and clothing

• Women • Knights Protect the manor & lord from enemies Army for the king

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Subject to their husbands & fathers Loyalty to both Little power

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Peasants

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Life in the Country The Feudal Monastery & the Clergy •

Religious people: pope, archbishop, bishops, priests, monks, and nuns

Church ceremonies guided the lives of medieval men & women

Power to condemn or forgive sinners

Joined clergy for beliefs, or to acquire status

Monastery-religious complex on the manor, self-contained community of:  Granaries, breweries, bakeries, wineries, abbey church & library  Monks & nuns taught children, fed the poor, cared for the sick, and sheltered travelers

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Life in the Medieval Town • c. 1000 trade increases • Craftspeople and scholars leave the country manors • Rise of the medieval town

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Life in the Medieval Town European Jews •

Could not own land

Could not join guilds

Paid taxes

Moneylenders & merchants for town, jobs forbidden to be held by Christians

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Rise of the Guilds • Union of people who practiced a trade • Limited membership • Started as apprentice between 7 and 12 years of age • Became a paid journeymen • Need to produce a “masterpiece” to gain admission 01/03/13

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Role of the Guilds • Protect the quality of goods • Set equal hours of labor • Set fair prices • Must be a member to work in the trade • Passed laws • Levied taxes • Sponsored building of streets, buildings, and walls to protect town

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Types of Guilds • Merchant Guilds

• Craft Guilds

 Bankers  Bakers  Brewers  Tradesman  Shop Owners  Jewelers

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 Weavers  Goldsmiths  Blacksmith  Glassmakers  Silversmith  Dyers

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Craft Guilds

Blacksmith Glassblower Carpenter

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Impact of Guilds

• • • • • •

Increase trade Growth of town Decline of feudalistic economy Economic independence Control over own jobs and money Trade and commerce increase – need for protection declines

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Forces of Change in England • • • • •

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William the Conqueror dies 1087 Fiefs grow powerful under King John Disagreement between John and pope Lords renounce allegiance to John 1215 Nobles forced John to sign Magna Carta accepting the rights of nobles

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Magna Carta • • • • •

Signing signaled decline of feudal rule Focused on rights of nobles, and lords Prevented king from taking rights away King must follow the rules of law Led way to rule by law rather than by monarch • Protect personal freedom and liberty 01/03/13

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Europe and the Early Middle Ages