Issuu on Google+

Roots of Islam Chapter 3, Lesson 2 Muhammad and Islam 6th Grade History Ms. Russac


Key Terms •

Islam –a religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad, Islam mean “submission to God” Allah –Arabic word for God, same God in other monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Christianity Muslim –a believer in Islam “those who submit to Allah’s will

Qur’an –the sacred book of Islam that is believed to contain the revelations made to Muhammad by Allah through the angel Gabriel

Sunna –traditional Islamic conduct observed by orthodox Muslims, based on the example of Muhammad

Muhammad –prophet for the Islamic religion

Monotheism –the belief that there is only one God

Hijrah –migration of Muhammad to Medina marking the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar

mosque –a Muslim house of worship

jihad –”to struggle” to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil

alms –showing charity to the poor

Russac-6th Grade History

2


Overview Gabriel The angel reveals Allah's words to Muhammad.

Muhammad The prophet recites Allah's words to the people.

Qur'an Allah's words are recorded in the Qur'an.

Russac-6th Grade History

Sunna A record of the example, traditions, and customs of the prophet Muhammad.

3


Russac-6th Grade History

4


Life of the Prophet Muhammad • Born into the Quraysh tribe • Father-in-law was a wealthy trader named Abu Bakr • Worked in caravan trade • A.D. 610 gets vision from the angel Gabriel to recite the words of God • Islam is a monotheistic religion NOW Information: Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

Russac-6th Grade History

5


Spreading the Islamic Religion • • • •

Meccan leaders hostile to followers Quraysh refused to trade Muslims Muslim hardships Islam spreads because of pilgrimage • AD 622 Muhammad & followers migrate to Medina • Migration known as Hijrah, marking the beginning of the Islamic lunar year • Muhammad calls new faith Islam Russac-6th Grade History

6


Medina • • • • •

Jews and Arabs welcome Muhammad Islam continues to grow Nomadic tribes join faith AD 630 Muslim army marched to Mecca City surrenders without battle

Russac-6th Grade History

7


Returning to Mecca •

Removed idols from the Ka’bah

Ka’bah dedicated to one God

Area around the Ka’bah became the first mosque

Qur’an became word of God

Russac-6th Grade History

8


The Qur’an •

Qur’an is an Arabic word loosely translated as “recitation”

Muslims recite the Qur’an

Qur’an completes the revelations of the Bible

Muslims respected Jews & Christians as “people of the book”

Qur’an is the final revelation, and Muhammad is the final prophet

Words and deeds of Muhammad are called the hadith, or Sunna

Qur’an and Sunna, make up Islamic beliefs & practices

Russac-6th Grade History

9


The Sunna • Guiding rules for Islam • Based on words and deeds of Muhammad • Explained the Five Pillars of Faith from the Qur’an

Russac-6th Grade History

10


Five Pillars of Faith •

1. Profession of faith – “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”

2. Pray five times a day – Rituals: washing, bowing, kneeling while praying, face the Ka’bah in Mecca

3. Giving alms – Showing charity to poor, contribute money to building hospitals and mosques

4. Fasting during Ramadan – Fast teaches self-discipline, humility, and sympathy for the hungry

5. Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca – Must make the pilgrimage at least once – Rituals: bathe, cut hair and nails, take off jewelry, where white seamless garment-symbolizing purity – Symbol of Muslim unity and equality

Russac-6th Grade History

11


Islam-A Way of Life •

Qur’an and Sunna: foundation for behavior & moral standards Diet Marriage & divorce Hygiene Recreation Business contracts Women were given right in marriage, education, and work unlike other societies of the time

Forced religious observance in 600s were forbidden under Islam Most rulers decided faith of their subjects Persecuted those who refused.

Russac-6th Grade History

12


NOW Information • Dome of the Rock is located in the city of Jerusalem in Israel • The Ka’bah is in the city of Mecca in Saudia Arabia

Russac-6th Grade History

13


Muhammad and Islam