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Bilişim Sistemleri (BS): Toplanması, depolanması, işlenmesi ve bilgi alışverişi için bileşenlerin bir araya getirilmesidir. Bilişim Sistemleri iş alanları ile bilgisayar bilimleri alanında köprü kuran akademik / profesyonel bir bilim dalı, disiplindir. Information system (IS): An integrated set of components for collecting, storing, processing, and communicating information. Business firms, other organizations, and individuals in contemporary society rely on information systems to manage their operations, compete in the marketplace, supply services, and augment personal lives. For instance, modern corporations rely on computerized information systems to process financial accounts and manage human resources; Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study.


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Hedef seçimi Tesis seçimi ve oluşturulması Kadro oluşturma Personel seçimi ve alımı İş eğitimi İhtiyaçların belirlenmesi Sorunların tespiti ve çözümlenmesi Uygulama


Bilişim Sistemleri bir çok bilim ve teknoloji dalı ile ilgili olduğu gibi onların uygulanmasında kaçınılmaz bir konuma sahiptir. Organizasyon, Yönetim ve Teknoloji ile iç içe ilişkili ve onların merkezinde olan bir bilim dalıdır.


Bilgisayar bilimleri ve İşlevsel araştırmalar ile karşılıklı diyalog içinde iken, İnsan bilgisayar etkileşimi, Sosyal çalışmaların hesaplanması ile hem etkileşimde hem de iç içe geçmiş bir durumdadır. Fizyoloji, İletişim, Kavramsal çalışmalar, Ekonomi, Bilim ve Teknoloji, Hukuk, Medikal çalışmalarla da bağlantılıdırlar.


İşlevsel kontrolİşlem destek sistemi (Teknil personel) Yönetim kontrolü Yönetim bilgi sistemi (Orta Yöneticiler) Şartlara uygun planlama  Karar destek sistemleri (Usta Yöneticiler) İcra/Yürütme Bilgi Sistemleri (İdareci Yönetici)


Genel Çevre Ortamında İlişkiler Satıcı (Üretici, Toptancı, Bayi) – Müşteri Düzenleyici Kurumlar Hissedarlar Rakipler ve rekabet ortamı Böyle bir ortamda BS’nin en önemli rolü Girdi ve Çıktı arasında İşleme Sınıflandırma Düzenleme Hesaplama ve Geribildirim yapabilmesidir.


Hem Gereklilik Yönetiminden hem de İş Mimarisinden aldığı verileri değerlendirip tekrar Gereksinim Yönetimine ve Teknoloji Mimarisine gönderen bir ilişki ağındadır. Mimari vizyonu, Fırsatlar ve Çözümleri, Göç planlama, Uygulama denetimi, Mimari değişim yönetimleri ile de Gereksinim Yönetimi aracılığı ile ilişkilidir.


Uygulama Alanları ve Katkıları

Uygulama Alanları • Dijital Laboratuvarlar • E-Sağlık Sistemleri • Ağ Yönetimi ve oluşturulması • Servisler • İş akış şemaları • Bütün bilim ve teknoloji altyapıları ve uygulamaları • Eğitim kurumları • … Katkıları • Güvenirlilik • Hareketlilik • Uyma yeteneği • Anlambilim • Farklı olabilme yeteneği • Dağıtım • Ölçeklenebilirlik • …


Amaç: Bilgiyi en verimli bir şekilde değerlendirme ve onu teknoloji, ürün, hizmete çevirmedir. Çözüm Ortağı (Solution Partner) olduğu kurumlara bilişim çözümleri üretir. Önerdiği çözümlerin danışmanlık, tedarik ve uygulama hizmetlerini verir. Kurum olma bilincine ulaşmış ya da bu potansiyele sahip tüm firmalar, müşteri profilini oluşturur.


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Konusunda uzman, eğitimli ve tecrübeli ekibe sahip olmaları beklenir. Takım ruhuyla hareket eder. Kurumların ana hedeflerine yoğunlaşması için gereken tüm çalışmaları üstlenmeleri. (Hastane çalışanları hastalara odaklanması için gereken tüm altyapı ve sistem, kayıt, veri deposu, sorgulama ve istatiksel bilgilerin oluşturulması.) Online kayıt, entegrasyon, e-arşiv, teknik destek vs…


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Kamu Güvenliği Bilişim Güvenliği Yazılım Çözümleri Sistem Çözümleri Ağ Teknolojileri Telekomünikasyon Çözümleri Saha & Destek Çözümleri Çağrı Merkezi (Call Center) Çözümleri Altyapı ve Sistem Oluşturulma Çözümleri Danışmanlık


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Hastane Otomasyon Sistemleri/Sağlık Bilgi Sistemi Finans/Bankacılık Yazılım Sistemleri Öğrenci/Okul İşleri Bilgi Sistemleri Uçuş Bilgi Sistemleri Havaalanı Bilgi Yönetim Sistemleri Demiryolu Bilgi Sistemleri Otoyol Değişken Mesaj Sistemleri Otomatik Meteoroloji Gözlem Sistemleri Meteorolojik Uydu Yer Alıcı Sistemleri Bilimsel Araştırma Bilgi Sistemi İstatistik Bilgi Sistemi Personel İşleri Bilgi Sistemi Muhasebe Bilgi Sistemi Kısacası tüm donanım ve yazılım gerektiren yerlerin otomasyonları


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Bilgi ve Teknolojiyi en iyi şekilde kullanarak «Bilgi Toplumuna» ulaşmaktır. Bilgi Toplumu/Information Society: Küresel/Global/Evrensel çapta kabul gören tek bir tanımı bulunmamakla birlikte; bilginin kendisinin veya bilginin üretilmesine, işlenmesine, dağıtılmasına yönelik faaliyetlerin ekonomik, siyasi, sosyal ve kültürel alanlarda temel girdi ve güç kaynağı olarak kabul edildiği toplumları tanımlayan bir terimdir. Bilgi Toplumu, Sanayi Çağından Bilgi Çağına geçiş ile gündeme gelmiş olup, ulusal, bölgesel veya küresel çapta Bilgi Toplumuna dönüşümü hedefler.


Müşteri bir problem bildirir. O problemle ilgili yazılım, donanım, bilgi sitemleri, bilgi teknolojileri uzmanları inceleme ve ona çözüm üretme sürecinde yeni keşif ve buluşların çıkması, gelişimin doğması kaçınılmaz hale gelir.

Keşif tek başına oluşmaz veya ortaya çıkmaz. Genellikle bir çok dalın ortaklaşa çalışmaları sonucu görünür olur.


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Bilgisayar Bilimleri/Computer Science Mühendislik/Engineering Matematik/Mathematics Yönetim Bilimleri/Management Science Sibernetik/Cybernetics …


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İcra Kurulu Başkanı/Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Genel Müdür/Managing Director (MD) Bilişim Kurulu Başkanı/Chief Information Officer (CIO) Finans Sorumlusu/Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Operasyon Sorumlusu/Chief Operating Officer (COO) Baş Teknik Sorumlusu/Chief Technical Officer (CTO) Strategic Networking Partner Strategic ICT Partner


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http://www.bilgitoplumu.gov.tr Türkiye'de ilk Yönetim Bilişim Sistemleri (YBS) (Management Information Systems, MIS) Bölümü, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi'nde 1995 yılında kuruldu. Türkiye Ulusal Enformasyon Altyapısı Anaplanı (TUENA) e-Ticaret Koordinasyon Kurulu (1998-2002) KamuNET (1998-2002) e-Türkiye Girişimi (2001) 2003 yılı Mart ayında DPT bünyesinde Bilgi Toplumu Dairesi (BTD) kurulmuştur.


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Bilgi İletişim Teknolojileri (BİT) Information Communications Technology (ICT) Küresel Bilgi Teknolojileri Raporu (KBTR) The Global Information Technology Report (GITR) Ağ Hazırlık İndeksi (NRI) The Networked Readiness Index (NRI)


Kaynak: http://www.bilgitoplumu.gov.tr/Documents/1/Yayinlar/BilgiToplumuIstatistikleri_2010.pdf


Kaynak: Eurostat, BTK ve İTÜ verileri


Kamu Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojileri Yatırımları (2002-2010) Yıl

Proje Sayısı

2010 Yılı Fiyatlarıyla Ödenek (Milyon TL)

2002

203

478

-

2003

204

536

+12

2004

211

588

+10

2005

200

815

+39

2006

203

901

+11

2007

237

928

+3

2008

271

836

-10

2009

244

890

+6

2010

177

1 084

+22

Değişim (%)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Merkezi Nüfus İdaresi Sistemi (MERNİS) Kimlik Paylaşım Sistemi, Adres Kayıt Sistemi Vergi Daireleri Otomasyonu Projesi (VEDOP I-II) Ulusal Yargı Ağı Projesi (UYAP) Gümrük İdaresinin Modernizasyonu Projesi (GİMOP) 6. Polis Bilgi Ağı (POLNET) 7. Saymanlık Otomasyon Sistemi (Say2000i) 8. e-Bildirge 9. MEDULA 10. Başbakanlık Mevzuat Bilgi Sistemi 11. Merkezi Tüzel Kişilik Bilgi Sistemi (MTK) 12. Araç ve Sürücü Bilgi Sistemi (ASBİS) 13. Elektronik Kamu Alımları Platformu (EKAP) 14. Çevrimiçi Çevre İzinleri Projesi 15. E-Kimlik 16. E-Pasaport


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Devlet organizasyonları Ticari ve Kurumsal organizasyonlar Sosyal organizasyonlar Kişisel organizasyonlar Yurtdışı kullanıcılar Yerel işletim sistemi, alan adı, hosting, veri merkezi, yedekleme merkezi, e-ticaret merkezleri vs…


A supercomputer is an ultra-fast computer that can be used for large-scale scientific calculations across a wide range of fields. Simulations using supercomputers have become vitally important as a third method of research and development, alongside experiments and theory. These supercomputer simulations can be extremely effective in a variety of situations in which experimental approaches are not applicable. Such situations include, for example, those where the object of study is too large or complex for analytical solutions, or in which experimental observation would require excessive time or high cost, or involve extreme or dangerous conditions (for instance radioactivity or high temperature). Simulations are also useful in cases where the subject of study is not amenable to experiment, such as in the case of the natural environment, geographic regions, or societies. Supercomputers are now used in weather forecasting, in the design of cars and aircraft for analyzing structures and fluid flows, and for a wide range of other purposes. They are indispensable for the future of science and technology and the competitiveness of industry. Comprehensive and high-level electronics skills in high-performance, low power dissipation semiconductor technology, optical communication technologies, network technologies and quality control technology, are all required in supercomputer development. Japan is at the top of the world in this field, but continued research development is needed to maintain and improve the country’s technological capacity.


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What is the computer simulation, which supercomputers are good at? Supercomputers are computers with tremendously high computational power. They can process large-scale advanced computations too difficult for general computers to handle. Used in scientific and technical fields, computer simulations consist of building a virtual model inside the computer and then observing the behavior of that model under various conditions. Simulations make it possible to reproduce and investigate phenomena which are difficult to experiment on in real life. This may be due to the scale, risk, or impossibility of creating the right experimental conditions on the Earth. An easy-to-understand example of computer simulation that is related to our lives is the development and design of automobiles. During automobile development, it is necessary to find the best design to minimize the injuries to drivers and passengers in the event of a crash. While it is of course effective to actually crash a car to test and analyze such situations, it is necessary to keep repeating the crash tests under various conditions to obtain all of the required information. Obviously, preparing the large number of cars required is too costly. In addition actual drivers and passengers are not allowed in the cars being tested. Therefore, it is very difficult in such tests to precisely determine the degree to which the driver and passengers would be injured in a crash, even when using dummies. By using highly accurate computer simulations however, it becomes possible to gather information which would otherwise be too hard to obtain. The result is safer automobile design and development. Computer simulations change Japanese Industrial Innovation In computer simulations, various situations can be reconstructed inside the computer. The shape, sizes and properties of components and devices that make up an automobile can be input into the computer, and the crash conditions can be set for simulation. This then allows monitoring and capturing at each moment how those automobile parts are deformed and destroyed; i.e. developments the human eye would be unable to capture, and from a variety of angles. Analyzing the results of such simulations can offer predictions of previously unknown phenomena. This leads to a significant acceleration in automobile development and design, and typically also improves safety. Of course, since it helps to reduce the actual number of crash tests using real cars, the development costs can also be reduced. Supercomputers that support Japanese MONOZUKURI power and the research by world-leading scientists Japan has been leading the world in various fields including Industrial Innovation, fundamental science, and its applications. In fact, it is the supercomputer that is playing the role of accelerating such research and development by engineers and scientists pioneering in such fields. As a result, the supercomputer has already become an essential tool in the advance of science and technology in Japan. Now in the 21st century, the challenges blocking progress in science and technology have become much more complex. For example, in the transport of passengers and cargo by airplanes and trains, there is now demand for the concepts of "quieter and with less energy" and at the same time "faster and farther". In addition, in the case of meteorology, on the one hand, there is demand for predictions of global warming on timescales of 10 to 100 years, and on the other, accurate prediction of cumulonimbus clouds, that bring torrential rainstorms into cities, on timescales of 30 minutes to an hour. Let's look into some specific instances of changes that the development of supercomputers will bring to our lives, Japanese industry, and fundamental science.


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Significant acceleration in the development of medicines to treat cancer. "Cancer" and "cardiac disease" are the top causes of death in Japan. Recently, it has become possible to capture "phenomena that cannot be captured by the human eye" through computer simulations. When the supercomputers that now support these computer simulations are given much higher performance capabilities, medical treatments for cancer and cardiac disease may advance tremendously. Various medicines are used to treat cancer. But there are still many unknowns concerning the basic mechanisms used by medicines to attach to and act on cancer cells. In the development of new medicines, experiments are conducted one by one on vast numbers of candidate chemicals over long periods of time. The efficacies and side effects of these chemicals are then examined. It therefore takes a very long time and costs huge sums of money before new medicines are released into the market. The availability of high-performance supercomputers may dramatically change these methods of developing new medicines. For example, medicines and cancer cells can be observed at the atomic and molecular levels. By reproducing this moment-by-moment, supercomputers can show, in a form viewable by researchers, how a medicine attaches to cancer cells and how it suppresses the activities of those cells. Discovering the mechanisms of cancer therapy by such medicines will help to resolve problems, and allow more efficient development of effective therapies. This kind of efficient development is also expected to reduce the development timeframes and the costs of new medicines.


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Improving disaster-prevention technology and reducing risk for the whole of society. Supercomputers are making great progress in the forecasting of meteorological information and the development of disaster-prevention technologies. In current meteorological forecasting, the surface of the Earth is divided into grids of sizes ranging from a few kilometers to several dozen kilometers per unit. The values for temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other variables for each grid is then predicted based on data sent from various monitoring sites. These are then used for weather forecasting. To improve the accuracy of meteorological forecasting, it is necessary to use smaller grid divisions. However, the amount of the data being processed exponentially increases as grid sizes decrease. Even using current supercomputers, it takes a long time to process the vast amount of data necessary. In this situation, it is pointless having computational results which do not track the actual weather activities. By using high-performance supercomputers, the surface of the earth can be divided into finer grids. This allows us, for example, to gain more precise information regarding local severe rainstorm predictions than ever before.


Engineers can get inside engines!?

It is expected that advances in supercomputers will launch a new period of progress in Japanese industrial technologies.

Up to now, the strength of Japanese industrial technology has been industrial innovation which has combined refined techniques, a wealth of experience, occasional guesses, and trial-and-error methods. For example, a skilled engineer can determine the internal condition of an engine just by hearing the sound of it, and this technique is also one of those strengths. But the availability of supercomputers will further assist Japanese manufacturing, MONOZUKURI. For example, the tremendous improvement in the computational power of supercomputers has helped to determine the shapes and properties of components, and the behavior of ignited gases inside the engine through simulation. As a result, we can now clearly visualize phenomena in a form that can be seen by the human eye, which previously was only perceived by intuitive feel and experience. For example, how pressures and temperatures would appear in various locations within the engine and how they would change. This new visual approach could be described as something like the engineer actually climbing into the prototype engine to observe its operation. If such computer simulations find problems, the engineer can take steps to resolve them. This will lead to the realization of more fuel-efficient vehicles. Industrial technologies that are the strength of Japan are harnessing such simulation capabilities of supercomputers and exploring the depths of their possibilities.


Computer simulations of complete aircrafts

Currently, in the design and development of aircraft bodies and engines, various computer simulation methods are executed to analyze the complex air flows which occur during flight. During this process, scale models such as the body and wings of a prototype aircraft are tested by placing them within an experimental setup called a wind tunnel. There their performance can be checked in the fast air flow created by massive fans. However, this method cannot be applied to full-scale aircrafts because massive experimental wind tunnel facilities are very expensive and are very costly to maintain. 

One of the expectations of supercomputers is the creation of a "wholly numeric wind tunnel". In other words, a virtual massive wind tunnel facility powered by highperformance computer simulation capabilities. Data from the full-scale aircraft under development can then be input so that experiments can be performed under various conditions. The availability of numerical wind tunnels will provide low-cost, short timeframe design and development capability, together with improved safety. It would also make it possible to investigate performance during high-speed flight, and low-speed flying during takeoff and landing. This would help reproduce air flows and vortices around the prototype aircraft, and enable thorough investigation of energy efficiency and noise reduction. Supercomputers are tools that will strongly promote a raising baseline in Japanese and global industrial innovation.


Supercomputers as a guide to the world which human cannot reach There are potentially infinite phenomena in space. There are also a variety of theories on how the distant stars, galaxies, galactic clusters, black holes, and supernova were born. However, it is impossible with current technologies for researchers to fly out from the Earth and research the distant stars and galaxies to verify these theories.

Researchers therefore use high-performance equipment such as the Subaru Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope for observations to deepen their understanding of space. In addition, researchers are advancing their research using computer simulations of their theories. However, the number of stars that can be included and the length of time required by computer simulations greatly depends on the computational power available. To achieve more detailed simulations of space, supercomputers with higher performance are required. Therefore, supercomputers that can handle large-scale computations are highly anticipated. 

Currently, various theories regarding how galaxies are born are being verified by supercomputers. Simulations will enable us to verify and understand theories on the creation, development, and future of galaxies, and will help us to understand more about Earth's form and about human evolution into the distant future. 


Nurturing next-generation scientists The major objective of the national development project of the K computer is to seek breakthroughs in science and technology through the development and use of a world-leading supercomputer, and the enhancement of international competitive power. Another important objective is the nurture and growth of human resources able to undertake science and technology development by utilizing supercomputers. The establishment of the world-leading K computer could also be called the establishment of the world-leading research and development environment. Worldleading scientists and engineers can come together to open new doors in science and technology through its use. It will be necessary to bring together the science and technologies employed in various fields and fuse them together to solve the challenges of the 21st century; in particular, the analysis of the mechanisms of global warming and the achievement of sustainable, environmentally-sound, economic activities. That is why it is necessary to hasten the establishment of a great supercomputer research environment where world-leading researchers can gather together and share their knowledge and wisdom.


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Simulations will be performed to understand and predict new life phenomena in life-science computation, to support new drug developments that facilitate greater medical and pharmacological understanding, and to achieve predictable medical treatment. We can contribute to building a foundation for a healthy society by expanding the analysis of large-scale life data based on genome research, analyzing the behavior of biological macromolecules within cells, and conducting dynamic analysis of the layers comprising cells, organs and organisms. [RIKEN (Collaborating organizations: School of Engineering / e Institute of Medical Science, e University of Tokyo, and others)]


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Industry as we know it today is based on materials such as semiconductors and polymers that emerged from basic research. Thus the following activities will produce a torrent of industrial innovations in the future: ideas by which to search for new quantum phase and new materials, achieve a deep understanding of material functions, apply discoveries to the mainstream of basic science and next-generation electronic devices offering high functionality and performance, and the efficient generation of earthfriendly, renewable energy. [Institute for Solid State Physics, e University of Tokyo, Institute for Molecular Science, National Institute of Natural Sciences, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University]


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By computing the movement of clouds on a global atmospheric scale, it becomes possible to accurately predict the path of a typhoon or a localized torrential downpour. Consequently, this will help us reduce the damage resulting from a disaster. Moreover, it will be possible to more accurately predict earthquakes and tsunamis, as well as to predict structural damage and the ramifications of complex disaster situations in which these elements are intertwined. This will establish the foundation for the next-generation mapping of earthquake and tsunami activity. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (Collaborating organizations: Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute / Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies / Earthquake Research Institute, e University of Tokyo, Meteorological Research Institute, Tohoku University, and others)]


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The new technologies may be created from largescale but highly detailed analysis of complex phenomena. The combination of optimal technologies may be discovered that contributes to the development of new products that deal with critical future topics, such as resource recycling products. It may become possible to evaluate multifaceted characteristics--such as performance, efficiency, comfort, and reliability--by diagnosing the product as a whole, and thereby contribute to a new, more efficient manufacturing sector. [Institute of Industrial Science, e University of Tokyo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency]


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The mission of understanding is, for mankind, inextricably linked to the universe and our existence within it. Therefore, to unlock the origins of various materials or the complex structure of the universe, events from the big bang up to the current day will be recreated through numerical simulations, and the future will be predicted. Using the fundamental equations of physics, elementary particles atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules, as well as stars, interstellar matter and dark matter, are described. This will reveal the true character and mystery of birth, both in the outer sphere and our own life. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan]


İlk 10 süper bilgisayarların tamamı Linux işletim sistemini kullanmaktadırlar.


Uluslararası Bağlantılar: Dünya Bilgi Toplumu Zirvesi  http://www.itu.int/wsis/index.html Bölgesel Bağlantılar: Avrupa Birliği i2010 Bilgi Toplumu Stratejisi  http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/inde x_en.htm Ulusal Bağlantılar: Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı (DPT) Bilgi Toplumu Dairesi Başkanlığı  http://www.bilgitoplumu.gov.tr/


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http://i.top500.org/ http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/tech/k/ http://www.aics.riken.jp/en/kcomputer/ http://www.weforum.org

Bilgi Sistemlerine Giriş - 2012  

Bilgi Sistemlerine Giriş (BS) - 2012 Information Systems (IS) Mehmet Keçeci

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