CONTENTS SMART SMART READS
Then and now Why it’s great to live in 2010
3-D centrefold Put it up on your wall
now you know Smart answers to your questions
p 22 p 24 p2 SMART Careers quiz get set for 2010 room READS REGULARS chat Ten ways to Ed’s note Find the perfect job for you
p6 SMART technology READS Gadgets get
PHOTOGRAPHS: cover and contents istock photos
p 30 SMART Movies Don’t believe READS everything you see …
Community of Hip your news, your views
be better at everything
What’s new in science? Why cockroaches made the news
Deconstruction We pop inside a toaster
p 19 p 32 SMART Smart maths Brain busters READS Make more moola Train your brain this year
INTELLIGENT ENTERTAINMENT p 31 Books The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time
Sci DIY Make your own 3-D glasses
Music We catch up with The Parlotones’ lead singer, Kahn Morbee
Move three matches to make this fish swim in the opposite direction.
meet your match
Solution at <www.hip2b2.com>.
Photograph your class wearing 3-D glasses and email it to <firstname.lastname@example.org>, and you could win a HIP2B2 T-shirt!
Editor Janna Joseph Art Director Anton Pietersen Managing Editor Desireé Kriel Junior Writer Nicklaus Kruger Copy Editor Sally Rutherford Proofreader Maggie Mouton Contributors Michelle Ainslie, Nikki Benatar, Ellen Cameron-Williger, Linda Pretorius, Mark van Dijk Publisher Helena Gavera Editorial Director Stefania Johnson BSQUARE COMMUNICATIONS EDITORIAL BOARD General Manager Cathryn Treasure HIP2B2 pioneered by Mark Shuttleworth ADVERTISING & MARKETING Sales Executive Michael Daly (JHB) +27 (0)11 263 4804 PRODUCTION, CIRCULATION & SYNDICATION Production Manager Shirley Quinlan Subscriptions John Pienaar +27 (0)21 417 1218 Subscriptions Call Centre 0860 103 662 Repro by New Media Repro Printed by Paarl Print Published on behalf of BSquare Communications by New Media Publishing (Pty) Ltd +27 (0)21 417 1111 • <www.newmediapub.co.za> Advertising Director Aileen Lamb New Business Development Martha Dimitriou +27 (0)21 417 1276 Creative Director Crispian Brown Production Director Lucrezia Wolfaardt Digital Manager Heléne Lindsay Finance Manager Mark Oaten EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS Editorial Development Director Irna van Zyl Business Development Director John Psillos Managing Director Bridget McCarney All rights reserved. While precautions have been taken to ensure the accuracy of information, neither the editor, publisher nor New Media Publishing can be held liable for any inaccuracies, injury or damages that may arise. ABC 101 265
photographs: shaban rahiem
There’s something cool about new stuff. New year, new cellphone, new magazine … but what makes something new so great? I think it’s all about potential. You never know what’ll happen at the start of a new year, and right now, you have no idea what’s on the pages of your brand-new issue of HIP2B2. But one thing I can tell you is that it’s full of new stuff, from the brainiest gadgets (pg 6) to 10 smart ways to a new, improved you (pg 24). And that’s another cool thing about new stuff: it’s almost always improved as well. That’s why this issue is all about improvement – improving yourself, the world and even this magazine. Don’t believe me? Check out our 3-D centrefold (pg 16). But before you do, take a minute to get excited about the new year ahead. 2010 promises to be the most interesting and exciting year yet. So shed your old skin, leave the past in the past and face the future head on. It’s new, it’s improved and, best of all, it’s yours. Janna
HIP2B 2 NEWS
Hip and happening
HIP2B2 gears up for a new year.
by reghardt pretorius
Couch potato competes and conquers
When Brand Ambassador Reghardt Pretorius signed up for the 12th annual Adventure Challenge for schools, there was just one problem: he wasn’t big on exercise. But as part of his project for HIP2B2 – analysing the difference between physical training and natural talent in sport – he had to get off the couch, get into the competition and get to the finish line. Phew! Here’s what he said: ‘Imagine this: it’s 40°C, you have sweat dripping off your face, you’re pushing your bike through sand and you still have 30 km to go. But the excitement you feel as you abseil, swim, cycle, hike and challenge yourself and your team to new limits more than makes up for the hardship. The Adventure Challenge started at Stanford Lake College in Haenertsburg and we covered 300 km of beautiful countryside … but we did this at crazy speeds and in blistering heat. Our team was the underdog, but we pushed ourselves and ended up in the middle of the standings. This challenge has taught me so much about myself. I have learnt that I am able to go really far just because I can, and that pain is only temporary. Also, suffering together is way better than trying to go it alone. I seriously recommend this race to anyone with even an ounce of adventure in them. To take part in the next challenge, click to <www.stanfordlakecollege.co.za/adventurechallenge_high.php>, and make sure you train like mad and have the right mindset.’
ening? What’s happ tV show If you’ve been tuning in to SABC 2 every
Monday at 15:30, you’ll have noticed that our TV show is live again! To discover the science behind sunscreen, coffee making, tattoos and going green, don’t miss our fun- and fact-packed February HIP2B2 shows. Brand Ambassadors Watch this space to find out all about your 2010 Ambassadors, whose names are soon to be announced! Meanwhile, six older and wiser Brand Ambassadors (Louis, Senaly, James, Simone, Jessica and Juan) are about to start their university careers – we’ll be keeping you posted on their progress. And the current 19 Ambassadors will be out and about, so visit <www.hip2b2.com> to read their blogs and stay in the loop. DID YOU KNOW? Couch vs coach
Being a couch potato could make your body ten years older than those of your fitter friends.
We spoke to learners about their plans for 2010. Danielle Da Mota
Grade 12, Jeppe Girls High This year, I’d really like to achieve the best results possible to make it into university. During the Soccer World Cup, I will be at home cheering with friends.
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in tl ai c
Grade 12, Beaconhurst This year, I’d really like to get at least one A for matric. My secret to success: hard work and being organised. My dream job is a teacher, because I want to be able to make a difference in the future. During the Soccer World Cup, I will be as far away as possible!
Micaela de Freitas
Grade 10, Benoni High My New Year’s resolutions are to work hard at school so that I can get into medicine, and to be captain of the rugby team. During the Soccer World Cup, I’ll be in the stadium, screaming among the foreigners for SOUTH AFRICA.
Grade 10, St Dominic’s College This year, I’d really like to give back to charity. It is our responsibility to give back to the community since we have so much. During the Soccer World Cup, I will hopefully be screaming for Portugal in the stadium! la
Interviews and photographs by claire foley, jansie smart & jessica west • istock photos
YOU S A I D
Grade 10, Stirling High School My New Year’s resolutions are to keep my cupboard clean and stop losing my shoes under the bed. My dream job is a geomorphologist. I want to study rocks, but I don’t like dirt … but I’ll make it work. During the Soccer World Cup, I will be hiding from people with vuvuzelas (so annoying!)
mi ca e
Hey Zayne. We loved this idea – you did your research and earned four times what we challenged you to earn. A USB watch is coming your way :-) – Janna
dono va n
My name is Zayne Hibbert. I’m 16 and I go to Cambridge High School. For the entrepreneur competition in the last issue, I researched what East London didn’t have, and found the answer: a stilt walker. So I got my uncle to build stilts, my gran to sew pants and I taught myself to ‘swalk’. A man from Tile Africa hired me for their re-launch, and I earned R2 000. Thanks, HIP2B2! Your magazines motivate me to ‘go the distance.’
on lis a
YOU WROTE Hi there … I’m a Grade 11 student and I am confused about what I want to be. I understand that it is very late for this, but I don’t know what to do. I’m studying Maths and Physics at school and I would like a career in those fields. I’m very good at imagining and I’m also very curious. Please help if you can. I’m also a huge fan of your magazines …THEY’RE TOPS!!! - Anele Mtingane
Hey Anele Maths and Science are required for many fascinating careers, from architecture (if you like building stuff) to zoology (if you like animals). Turn to page 22 for some guidance on the right kind of career for you, then take a look at <www.sacareerfocus.co.za> for lots of info on the many careers that are out there waiting for someone curious like you. Good luck, and stay smart! – Janna
Hey Edwin … Thanks for the compliments! The truth is, science isn’t just about academics. It’s everywhere around us, and it’s funny, fascinating, fun stuff. Keep thinking! – Janna
Invented something? Had a brainwave? Just got something on your mind? We want to know … SMS ‘MOBI HIP2B2’ followed by your thoughts to 33978 (R1,50 per SMS) or comment (for free) on our MOBISITE at <mobi.hip2b2.com>. EMAIL <email@example.com>. WRITE TO HIP2B2, PO Box 440, Green Point 8051.
s r e b m u n
- Mfundo Ndebele
The amount of time Canadian astronomer and eclipse chaser, J. W. Campbell, spent travelling the world in an attempt to witness 12 eclipses. The sky was overcast every time.
In , javelin technology had improved so much that the throws were too long to stay in the stadiums. To correct this, the javelin was redesigned, shifting the center of gravity forward and resulting in a shorter flight … But you can’t stop progress … In , a French long jumper, Salim Sdiri, was skewered in the ribs by a misguided javelin while preparing to compete in Rome.
U guys really rock. i enjoy reading ur magazines even though im in gr10 bt i knw a lot in science thanks 2 u!
- Onkgopotse Tsheko
Hey peeps I would like to compliment you on your magazine. It’s funny, with fun facts, and it uses simple teenage explanations. For example, the explanation in the library of which came first – the chicken or the egg – took two whole pages and I still didn’t understand it, but the Origins Issue of HIP2B2 explained it so simply! The Sci DIYs are also exciting and understandable, and the best part is that the magazine isn’t only about academics, academics and more academics. It ends off well with the music, movies and book reviews (by teenagers), then you leave us with the brain teasers (they’re tricky)! But enough from me. Keep science funny. Peace, love and happiness. – Edwin Kok, G10
1 cow releases ip
Hi my name is Bobby i just wanna say i love your magazine and your ability to reach many children with science.
enough methane gas to fill about 400 onelitre bottles per day.
15 minutes is all it takes for a King Cobra’s venom to kill a person. Thankfully, you’re unlikely to run into one – unless you visit Southeast Asia.
we take it apart
Inner toast slot
Control knob and buttons (11)
End plate Plastic clips
Crumb tray assembly
Spring-loaded slide carriage (7) Element assembly: mica sheets with nichrome wire (1)
Copper contacts (4) Springs (8) Plastic wedge (2) Bread-lifter handle
Power cord Base
Metal tab (6) Electromagnet (5)
Circuit board for toaster settings and LEDs (10) the Inner workings
Bread is toasted by infrared radiation, which comes from nichrome wire (1) wrapped around a mica sheet. As you press the handle down, a plastic wedge (2), (part of the bread-lifter assembly ) pushes the copper contacts (4) together to supply power to the electromagnet (5) and nichrome wires. A metal tab (6) is attracted to the electromagnet and holds down the spring-loaded tray (7). At the
same time, springs (8) pull the grates (9) together to hold the toast in place. The toasting time is regulated by a variable resistor (which slows down the current) on the circuit board (10). Adjusting the resistance â€“ with the settings knob and buttons (11) â€“ changes the rate at which a capacitor (a device that temporarily stores charge) charges. Once this reaches a certain voltage, power to the electromagnet is cut off, and pop! Your toast is done.
Main circuit board
Bread-lifter assembly (3)
text and photo editing: bruce farthing
DECONSTRUCTION: ELECTRIC toaster
W h at ’ s N e w i n S c i e n c e ?
By Nicklaus Kruger • photographs: istock photos, Gallo/Getty images
SMELLS LIKE DEAD COCKROACHES
Tired of chasing cockroaches around with bug spray? Researchers at McMaster University have discovered that the smell of dead cockroaches can drive others away. Why? Because when a cockroach dies, it releases a stinky blend of fatty acids. This death mix seems to be a universal, ancient warning signal – if your buddies are dying, you’d be wise to avoid whatever knocked them off, be it disease or a deadly accurate shoe-squash. So if you want to keep creepy crawlies away, you’re going to have to get a bit nasty. Crush a few disgusting bugs and sprinkle them around the house. Or just wait for chemists to create a more effective bug spray …
EMAIL, THE EINSTEIN WAY
Searching for something you have in common with Einstein, but can’t pull off the hairstyle and don’t even know what E=mc2 really means? Well, according to a Northwestern University study, you probably write your emails the same way Old Al handled his letters. Researchers examined the letters written by 16 famous people, including Einstein and Charles Darwin (the evolution guy). What did they find? That these brainiacs tended to write a number of letters at one sitting and, rather than writing the most important letter first, the order relied mostly on chance and circumstances. Sound familiar? Mind if we call you Einstein? THE GRANDDADDY OF ALL EMAILS
What did the world’s very first email say? Solve the A SWEET TOOTH DOESN’T MAKE FOR A SWEET GUY
You know that guy who always starts a fight for no reason? Well, yes, he’s a jerk, but his sweet tooth may also have something to do with it. A recent analysis of the 17 500 people who participated in a 1970 British Cohort Study, found that kids who eat sweets
or chocolate daily are more likely to be convicted for violence before they turn 34. According to lead researcher Dr Simon Moore, ‘Giving children sweets and chocolate regularly may stop them learning how to wait for something they want.’ In other words, if you don’t learn patience, discipline and healthy eating soon, you just might turn out to be … well, a jerk.
Tell us: What’s your favourite junky snack?
Email the reason you love it, together with your name, school, grade, city and age to <firstname.lastname@example.org> and you could win a HIP2B2 MP3 player.
By MARK VAN DIJK • PHOTOGRAPHS: GALLO/GETTY IMAGES, iSTOCK PHOTOS, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
THEN Can you imagine a world without cellphones and the Internet? Well, that’s the world your parents grew up in. Your grandparents didn’t have TV when they were teens and your great great grandparents may have gone without any electricity at all! Turn the page to see what life on Earth used to be like … and what it’s like today. 11
1. John D Rockefeller (1839–1937) • Nationality American • Industry Oil •Worth $1 billion ($323,4 billion in today’s money) 2. A ndrew Carnegie (1835–1919) • Nationality American • Industry Steel • Worth $937 million ($297,8 billion today) 3. C ornelius Vanderbilt (1794–1877) • Nationality American • Industry Transport • Worth $194 million ($178,4 billion today) Before Donald Trump
Roman businessman Marcus Licinius Crassus (115 BCE to 53 BCE) made over 200 million sestertii (big bucks in those days) through slavery, mining, property and insurance. In today’s money, his fortune would be worth about $170 billion.
Inventions and discoveries that changed the world 6th CENTURY BCE: THE AXE allows Mesolithic cavemen to hunt, kill and carve with previously unimagined accuracy. A far cry from today’s weapons, which can travel long distances to hit a target with terrifying accuracy, but hey, you’ve got to start somewhere.
12th century: Paper Money replaces coins as the form of currency in China, with notes representing a share of the government’s gold and silver reserves. 13th CENTURY: The FORK has been around for a few centuries, but it becomes popular in Europe only in the 1400s. Until as recently as the 1800s, Italians in Naples still ate spaghetti with their hands! Gross. 17th CENTURY: The TELESCOPE gives astronomers like Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton their first close-up look at stars and planets. 18th CENTURY: THE STEAM ENGINE, with its cheap and easy-to-maintain machinery replacing wage-earning humans in the work place, drives the Industrial Revolution. Without this invention, you might have spent your working life in a factory somewhere, wearing overalls and packing baked beans. 20th century: THe Weekend becomes official only around the 1950s, letting people take Saturdays and Sundays off. Before this, workers got one or even no days’ rest.
The coolest gadget: the printing press When a German goldsmith named Johannes Gutenberg started his printing shop in the 1440s, printing wasn’t easy. Someone had to carve each word into a wooden block, then run the ink onto paper. But Gutenberg figured out an easier way: using a metal block for each letter of the alphabet, then arranging those letters on a block to print pages. By the year 1500, more than 30 000 books had been printed and distributed across Europe. Nowadays, you just push ‘print’ …
The most important cities in the world If planes had been around a thousand years ago, everybody would have been flying to: CHANG’AN Okay, so you’ve probably never heard of it, but in 600 CE to 900 CE, it was the most populated city in the world, with around a million people within its city walls. By
The richest entrepreneurs in the history of the world
The Ancient Olympics How the original Olympians competed VENUE The Olympics took place every four years from 776 BCE to 393 CE on the slopes of Mount Olympus – home of the Greek gods. (Now that’s an audience!) SPORTS There was only one event at the first Olympics: a 200-metre sprint. Boxing, chariot racing and a few track and field events were eventually added to the list. ATHLETES Women and slaves were banned from competing (and even spectating!) and
although the athletes could come from any country, they had to speak Greek. CLOTHING All the athletes competed naked. PRIZES Winners were given a laurel wreath and were treated like heroes – often being awarded free lunches for the rest of their lives. There were no prizes for second place. CHEATING Think the old guys didn’t cheat? Think again. Desperate for Olympic glory, the smaller Greek city-states would often bribe opponents … or pay out-oftowners to lie about their origins and compete for their new ‘home town’.
TIMELINE OF TIME
From water clocks to wristwatches. 1600 BCE Babylonians use water clocks, which pour water from one jar into another in a set period of time.
250 CE Egyptians in Alexandria carry around hourglasses to use as basic stopwatches.
The global population in the year 1000 CE was 300 million people … which is the same as the current population of the United States!
Why did everyone go there? Because it was the terminus of the Silk Road trade route and the capital of China’s Tang Empire. BAGHDAD With Europe still in the Dark Ages in 1000 CE, the capital of the Muslim world (and today’s capital of Iraq) served as the centre of global trade. The Baghdad
Academy of Wisdom was a booming scientific institution and the world’s smartest people made their way to this city. BEIJING Known as Dadu (which is Chinese for ‘Grand Capital’) in 1300 CE, this city was the capital of Kublai Khan’s Mongol Empire. Many foreign travellers visited the city around the time, including explorer Marco Polo.
520 CE People in China measure time at night using candle clocks, which burn down at a set speed.
1386 CE Salisbury Cathedral in England installs a mechanical clock that chimes at precise hours, calling the faithful to prayer.
The richest entrepreneurs in the world today 1. Bill Gates (b. 1955) •Nationality American • Industry Computer software •Worth $40 billion 2. Warren Buffett (b. 1930) •Nationality American • Industry Investments • Worth $37 billion 3. Carlos Slim Helu (b. 1940) • Nationality Mexican • Industry Telecommunications •Worth $35 billion
HAVE YOU HUGGED YOUR TOOTHBRUSH TODAY?
In 5000 BCE, the Ancient Egyptians brushed their teeth with a powder made of ox hooves, myrrh and pumice. People used tooth powder until the 1800s, when scientists made the first toothpastes by adding glycerine as a binding agent to mixtures of soap, chalk, borax and bicarbonate of soda. Fluoride – the main ingredient in modern toothpaste – was added only in 1914 … and (here’s a reason to smile) it quickly replaced the soap and chalk. Phew!
The coolest gadget: the iPod Ten years ago, if you wanted to listen to music on the go, you had to use a Walkman, which was bulky and carried one 90-minute cassette tape. The iPod fits 30 gigabytes of music in a matchbox-sized machine – enough space for 7 000 songs or 10 000 copies of Leo Tolstoy’s 1 200-page novel, War And Peace. With more than 220 million units sold worldwide, the iPod is the symbol of the modern upload/download generation. And with each new model adding new functions (wireless Internet access, built-in camera, up to 160GB of storage), it’s the birthday present everyone wants.
Are we making the world a better place?
The quality of living has improved drastically since the dawn of the Industrial Age. In 1900, the global average lifespan was 31 years. Today it’s 66,5 years. But this improvement has come at a cost. The world’s richest countries are also the biggest emitters of Earth-destroying greenhouse gases: China emits 21,5% of the global total, the United States 20,2% and the European Union 13,8%. South Africa contributes 1,5% of the world’s total CO2 emissions, putting us 13th on the list of worst offenders. Most of the things that we use every day – cars, phones, TVs, computers – were developed only in this lifetime … so it’s no wonder our environment is struggling to keep up!
The most important cities in the world New York World’s financial centre and HQ of the United Nations. BRUSSELS Diplomatic capital of the European Union. BEIJING Capital of China, the world’s richest country. Dubai Symbol of the oil-rich Arab power houses.
The global population today is about 6 billion people. That’s 2 000 times more than it was a thousand years ago!
MUMBAI World’s most populous city, with 14 million inhabitants. LONDON Home to Heathrow Airport, which sees more than 61 million international air travellers every year. TOKYO World’s largest metropolitan economy, with
an annual gross domestic product (the total money made in a year) of $1,19 trillion. SINGAPORE This tiny (710 km2 ) city-state is fifth-highest in terms of the amount of money it makes relative to its population size.
T I ME O F
VENUE The Olympic Games take place every four years. The venue changes every year and cities have to bid for the honour. The 2008 Olympics were held in Beijing and London will host the 2012 Olympics. SPORTS In 2008, 302 events were held across 28 different sports – from table tennis to taekwondo. ATHLETES In 2008, men and women from 204 countries took part.
T I MEL I NE
How Olympians compete today
CLOTHING Athletes wear state-of-the-art gear, with moisture-wicking fabrics to keep runners cool, lightweight running shoes to enhance performance, and buoyancyboosting costumes for swimmers. PRIZES The winner of each event is awarded a gold medal (with silver and bronze for second and third places), along with lucrative sponsorship deals. CHEATING Doping is the most common form of cheating, with a handful of athletes being busted at virtually every Olympics. About 4 500 doping tests were done in 2008 and six athletes were disqualified.
The Modern Olympics
1511 CE German clockmaker Peter Henlein invents the springloaded, wind-up pocket watch.
1656 CE Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens uses an oscillating pendulum to keep an tick-tock watch accurately on time. 1969 CE Seiko produces a wristwatch that keeps time with a tiny quartz crystal oscillator. 1972 CE Inspired by 2001: A Space Odyssey, John Bergey of the Hamilton Watch Company creates the first digital watch: the 18-carat gold Pulsar has a red display and a price tag of $2 100. If you could go back to any period in history, which era would you choose and why? Email your name, grade, school, and contact number to <email@example.com> to win a HIP2B2 USB watch, with a 1GB flash drive. (They didn’t make those 100 years ago …).
think. what you can be
Turn the page to see this poster in 3-D! (And find out how it works.)
e k a M
n w o your
glasses Step 1
Trace the template below onto cardboard. Cut out the glasses and then neatly cut out the inside squares for the lenses.
Tape a square of red acetate or cellophane over the left eyehole and a blue square over the right. Do not get tape on the area that will be visible through the lenses. HOW IT WORKS
Because your eyes are about 5 cm apart, they see objects from slightly different
angles. The tiger on page 16 was made by shifting all the red in the image slightly to the left and all the blue slightly to the right. Through the 3-D glasses, each eye can only see the opposite colour to the lens in front of it, making the image look as though it’s being viewed at a different angle by each eye. Therefore, your brain processes the image as if it’s a real 3-D object!
PHOTOGRAPHS: istock photos
• Cardboard • Scissors • Clear tape • Red and blue acetate (preferably) or cellophane (available at stationery stores like CNA)
, y e n Mo
Saving money is smart. Saving money while earning interest is really smart. What’s interest? Well, when you put money in a bank account, the bank adds a little bonus amount to your account at set intervals – almost like a reward for saving. This extra cash is called interest. And for every interest-earning period you leave your money there, you earn interest on that interest. So your money makes you more money. This is known as compound interest. To see how compound interest works, you can use the following formula:
A = P[1+ (r/n)]nt A is the amount you have after interest payment, P is the amount you started with, n is the number of times per year interest is paid, t is the number of years invested, and r is the yearly interest rate (ie, the amount the bank pays in), expressed as a fraction. Because the amount you started with, P, is multiplied by a value larger than one ([1+ (r/n)]), you’ll end up with a bit more moola after the interest is paid. The new balance
y e n o m , y e n o m The maths of making more moola.
then becomes the starting value (P) for the next round of interest calculation. Although the interest rate stays the same, you’ll earn a bit more now, because the amount at the beginning of this round was slightly larger than that in the previous round.
Money for mahala Imagine you and a friend decide to save R100 each every month. Your friend stashes his savings in a piggy bank; you put yours in a bank account. The piggy bank offers 0% interest; the real bank offers you a yearly interest rate of 8% (that’s 8% of the total amount in your bank account). The interest is added to your account monthly, so you earn a twelfth of 8% interest every month. Over time, you and your friend save the following:
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
R1 200,00 R2 400,00 R3 600,00 R4 800,00 R6 000,00
R1 253,29 R2 610,61 R4 080,58 R5 672,56 R7 396,67
By linda pretorius • PHOTOGRAPHS: istock photos
After five years, you’ll have almost R1 400 more than your friend – without putting a single extra cent in! Which is why it really pays to be smarter.
Work it out You inherit R10 000 from a long-lost aunt and you invest it in a bank for five years. The account earns 6% interest per year, but the interest is added to your balance each month. How much will you have after five years? Remember: 6% expressed as a fraction is 0,06. <Solution found on page 32> Double your money
Divide 72 by the interest rate to see approximately how long it’ll take to double your money. For example, if you earn 10% interest, your money should double in just over 7 years thanks to compound interest. This is known as the rule of 72.
Why does but te land upside d red toast own? – Sarah, Grad Scientists e 11
have actually ch ecked why this whenever your happens toast falls off th e table. To land side up, it has butterto make two fu ll turns before the ground. Th hitting e problem is, ou r tables are too When a slice of low. toast reaches th the dangling ed e edge of a tabl ge starts to fall e, first, causing th toast to turn as e it falls through the air. But it too slowly to co turns mplete two flips before hitting ground, which the would need to be three metre for this to happ s away en. Perhaps gi ants’ toast falls side up? But th butteren again, gian ts probably ea slices, which ch t huge anges the equa tion altogether .
To see the toast theory in action, click to <www.hip2b2.com>.
Do humans have a sixth sense?
– Tshepiso, Grade 9
The jury is still out on what gives you that someone-isstaring-at-me chill down your spine. But according to research, scientists think that humans may once have had an extra sense (that is, in addition to the usual five senses: taste, touch, sight, smell and hearing). Two tiny pits containing a bundle of nerves that respond to very subtle scents, called pheromones, sit just behind the nostrils. Many animals secrete pheromones to trigger instinctive behaviour like mating and aggression in the sniffer almost immediately after they get a whiff. Humans apparently have a mutated form of the gene that codes for the pheromone detector. This could mean that our ancestors once had a supersniffing sixth sense, but that it’s useless in modern humans.
Is picking your nose bad for you?
– Anonymous Birds don’t do it, bees don’t do it, but just about everyone you know does it. During a study, more than 95% of a group of teens admitted to nose picking; almost a third said they stuck their fingers up their nostrils more than five (!) times a day. It’s mostly to get an irritating bit of dried snot out of your nose and although generally not harmful to your health, excessive habitual nose picking is sometimes, uhm, picked up among patients with psychiatric problems. There’s even a word for such a disorder: rhinotillexomania, which basically means an obsession with getting boogers out your nose. Gross!
Why do your fingers shrivel up in the bath? – Kobus, Grade 8 Actually, your fingers are expanding rather than shrivelling. The outer layers of skin consist of flattened, dried-out cells. While you’re in the bath, water moves into the cells, causing them to expand. The bigger cells now need extra space to fit on your finger (which hasn’t become any bigger), so they start pushing into neighbouring cells, which in turn push upwards. This transforms your fingertips into a landscape of peaks and valleys. Once you’re dry, the water moves out of the cells and evaporates, and your fingers will return to their pre-prune state.
YOU KnOW Can people live to 200?
– Lebo, Grade 12 The oldest known person was a French woman, Jeanne Calment, who lived 122 years and 164 days. Predictions say it’s possible to extend this to 200, but not without technological help. Cells have a fixed life span, which is controlled by a tiny tail called a telomere at the end of each strand of DNA. Over time, a cell’s telomeres begin to wear down and when they become too short to protect the DNA, the cell knows it’s time to go. Cells that just won’t die become cancerous and cause other life-threatening conditions. Which means that only if technology can halt the ageing process and ward off the negative side effects might Grandma still be around when you become a grandma. Imagine the family photos! By Linda Pretorius • PHOTOGRAPHS: istock photos, Gallo/Getty images
You had questions. We have answers.
Is there anything harder than diamond? – Tebogo, Grade 10
Yup, diamond has officially handed over the crown to two naturally occurring materials: lonsdaleite and wurzite boron nitride (w-BN). Lonsdaleite can handle almost 60% more stress, while w-BN can cope with about 20% more pressure before it cracks. The materials are in some ways similar to diamond, but they differ in the way their atoms are bound. Materials like these are valuable for industrial drilling or use in space flight. But because very little is found naturally, engineers may have to settle for man-made superhard stuff called aggregated diamond nanorods – also much harder than natural diamond, but not nearly as pretty. 21
1 When you page through this magazine, what do you do first? A. Read through the contents page to see what the issue is all about.
[ go to 2 ]
B. Read the ‘Community of HIP’ pages to see what other learners had to say.
You have a very strict deadline for an important school project and you need to have a plan in place. Do you first: A. Ask your friends to help you. If so, go to the box labelled SOCIAL. B. Write a list of everything that needs to be done and then make a plan with dates and goals.
[ go to 4 ]
C. Flip through the pages and look at the cool pictures. [ go to 4 ]
What’s your destiny?
You are planning a twoweek getaway for your next holiday. Do you first: A. Set up an itinerary with places you will go, when you will need to get there and the things you will do. If so, go to the box labelled ANALYTICAL. B. Collect pictures and photos of where you are going and stick them up on your wall. If so, go to the box labelled CREATIVE.
Should you be a brilliant inventor, a supersmart scientist or a popular people’s person? Take this test to find out.
[ go to 3 ]
When you go to a new shopping mall, what is the first thing you tend to notice? A. Where the food court and movies are situated. [ go to 2 ] B. Different shops and their signage, advertisements and how it feels to be there. [ go to 3 ]
Creative After school, you should go for a creative career. You’ll be great at jobs that require you to think outside the box and come up with new ideas. You’ll also excel in any job that requires you to design, create or visualise. Examples of creative careers Writer, artist, fashion designer or graphic designer. Where to study Most creative types tend to go to design colleges that specialise in their particular interest (graphic, fashion, fine art), or you could do a BA degree and specialise in languages to become a writer.
Social You are best suited to a social career. You love working with people and you’re interested in how people think and act. You will excel in any job that requires you to understand human behaviour. Examples of social careers Social worker, life coach, sales consultant, public relations officer, human resources manager or (believe it or not) teacher. Where to study If you’d like to follow a counselling route, choose a BA degree in Social Sciences or a certificate in Life Coaching. If you’re more interested in business, choose a BCom degree and specialise in Human Resources or Public Relations. If you prefer sales, then start off as a sales rep and work your way up.
By Michelle ainslIe • iSTOCK PHOTOS•
Analytical You would enjoy an analytical career. You think logically and rationally and you hate to make mistakes. You like knowing how things work and you will do really well in a career that requires you to do a lot of thinking and analysing with a high degree of accuracy. Examples of analytical careers Physicist, engineer, zoologist, chemist, geneticist, accountant, statistician or mathematician. Where to study If you’re interested in the pure sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Genetics, Maths, etc.) then you’ll need to complete a BSc degree. Future engineers will need to choose a degree in Engineering. If you’re more interested in business and numbers, then go for a BCom degree specialising in Accounting or Statistics.
What if you’re interested in two career types? Did you find it difficult to choose between two options? This may mean that you have a combination career type. To find out what combination type you are, answer question 5 below, and then for the rest of the questions, select the answer that you’d most likely choose as your second option. When you reach the end, combine this result with your first choice to find your combined career type. Read about this below. 5. What do you find is the best way to study for an exam? A. H ighlight the important bits and then make a mind map. If so, go to number 4. B. Write out summaries and set up questions for yourself. If so, go to number 2. C. Join a study group and learn with friends. If so, go to number 4.
Creative and Social You enjoy working with people, but you need to do so in a creative way. You love coming up with new ideas that affect how people think, feel and react. Career options Actor, journalist or marketing agent.
Social and Analytical You love working with people, but you also enjoy planning, thinking logically and coming up with solutions. Career options Doctor, psychologist, radiologist or business manager.
Analytical and Creative You enjoy working in a structured, logical way but you also enjoy being creative and innovative. Career options Architect or editor. Combination career study options
BComm degree Marketing, Business Management. BA degree Acting (specialise in Drama), Journalism or Editing (specialise in Languages), Psychology. Medical degree Medicine, Psychiatry. Specialised college Radiology and Architecture.
Be more ecofriendly The population has more than doubled in the last 50 years. More people equals more stuff being used and more waste piling up. Basically, we’ll have to clean up our act, re-use stuff and freeload on renewable energy to keep life on Earth from running out of steam. Here’s how you can help: • get your school to install water tanks to catch rainwater run-off, which can be used to irrigate sports fields; and • cycle to school – you and the Earth will benefit. • Start a recycling drive at school. Contact the following organisations to find out more: Paper <www.paperpickup.co.za> Glass <www.theglassrecyclingcompany.co.za> E-waste <www.e-waste.org.za/home> Plastic <www.petco.co.za> Cans <www.collectacan.co.za>
Get a date
Be stronger, smarter, faster, hotter and happier in 2010. 24
So, you’ve been eyeing each other for a while, but now what? Well, for starters, brush up on your body language. Research says our bodies do most of the talking early in the dating game. A girl drops hints by shooting brief glances at the guy, tossing her head, smiling and running her fingers through her hair. The guy usually returns interest with similar glances, smiles and with an inviting posture, like stretching his arms over a chair or standing with his legs apart. This back-and-forth code talk continues until the guy (or in some cases, the girl) makes a move. The girl wants to know whether he’s smart, funny and confident, so if his opening line gets her chatting, the deal is more or less done. But don’t panic if you don’t succeed right away: just like everything in life, practice makes perfect.
GET READY FOR 2010
Look your best
When it comes to stylish dressing, the trick is to trick the viewer. Lines in the pattern of the fabric as well as the outline of the piece of clothing create an optical illusion that tricks our eyes into seeing a nicely balanced shape. With the right lines, you can emphasise your good points and hide the less perfect ones. Here’s how In the diagrams below, figure A looks shorter and stockier than B because the horizontal line interrupts the upward illusion; C looks taller than B, because the open arrowhead continues the upward line. E looks wider than D because the vertical lines are further apart, which moves the view across rather than upwards.
Beat a bad hair day Hair is like the frame around a picture. Ideally, your face should be oval-shaped, with a length:width ratio of about 1,5:1. But don’t pull out your hair if your face isn’t oval – the right hairstyle can make all the difference. If you have a wider face, you can add length to it with a hairstyle that creates a vertical line, like a long, straight cut with a middle parting. A hairstyle that draws the eyes across (like a bob with a fringe, or a curly style) can add width to a narrower face. To find your ratio, measure the width across your cheek bones and the length from your hairline to the tip of your chin. Click to <http://tinyurl.com/ shapeyourface> to identify your face shape and find more hairstyle ideas.
To make sure you’re not the one with closed eyes and a gawky grin in photos this year: • think of really happy or funny things. That way, your smile will be natural and your eyes will look like they’re laughing too; • blink halfway through the count of three. Your eyes are sure to be open when the click goes; • don’t face the camera head-on. Turn slightly sideways to slim your outline; and • focus your gaze just above the camera – it’ll make your eyes look bigger.
Will you go bald? (Read if you’re a guy) If either Mom’s dad or your dad is bald, buy a hat. One baldness gene is found on the X chromosome, so if Mom’s dad is bald, he’ll have passed the gene on to her and there’s a 50% chance she’s passed it on to you. Also, you may have inherited two baldness genes from your dad. If you’ve inherited baldness genes from both parents, you’re seven times more likely to go bald than your friend from a hairier family.
25 By Linda Pretorius • PHOTOGRAPHS: istock photos, GALLO/GETTY IMAGES
Be even smarter Hipsters are a brainy bunch. But if you want to be even smarter, you’ll need to eat right and sleep tight. Studies show that kids whose breakfast includes protein, fibre and vitamins are better at memory and problem-solving tasks than those who eat sugary stuff in the morning. Foods containing omega-3 fatty acids (like salmon) boost brain function, while saturated fats (in junk food) can seriously slow you down. Sleep gives your brain time to sift through the day’s info. Junk gets dumped and useful stuff gets saved, so it’s a no-brainer that without enough sleep, school will be really heavy the next day.
Give back Being kind feels great. Studies have shown that acts of kindness cause feel-good hormones to be released. Plus, why should you be the only one who’s doing better in 2010? You can help by giving time, money or stuff. For example: • volunteer at a charity like the Animal Anti-Cruelty League (<www.aacl.co.za>); • give old toys to a children’s home; or • donate some of your savings to charity.
Train your brain
Play a brain game at <www.lumosity.com/k/brain-teasers>.
Make the sports team If you’re serious about skipping the reserve bench this year, start training. Regular exercise not only allows more blood and oxygen to reach your muscles, it also disrupts your body’s physiological balance, making your body work harder to restore the balance. By repeatedly pushing it slightly beyond its comfort zone, you stimulate your body to perform even better.
Get fab abs Strong abdominal muscles (the ones that form a six-pack) help support the spine – and they look really hot. Try these exercises to get yours in gear: A. Lie on your back and lift your legs straight up in the air. Keeping your bum on the ground, lift your shoulders off the ground and reach for your toes with your hands (don’t expect to actually touch them). You’ll feel the upper abs squeeze. B. Get the obliques (your side stomach muscles) working by reaching across with one hand to the opposite foot.
Learn something new
GET READY FOR 2010
Studies of people learning to juggle have shown that learning a new skill causes structural changes in your brain – both in the info processing areas (grey matter) and in the nerve bundles (white matter) that connect them. So learn to sew, play the piano, throw darts or to skip stones. It’s harder than you’d think. The real hogwarts
Juggling is one of the skills you can pick up at Cape Town’s College of Magic – the only official magic school in the southern hemisphere. Click to <www.collegeofmagic.com>.
Achieve your goals It’s always easier to achieve your goals if you know what they are from the start. Write down your goals for 2010 below and come back to this page every once in a while to see what you’ve achieved:
Laughter may not be the best medicine, but it’s pretty good. It reduces stress, lowers blood pressure and distracts us from pain. Got nothing to laugh at? How about the world’s funniest joke (according to scientists at the University of Hertfordshire, UK): Two hunters are in the woods when one collapses. He doesn’t seem to be breathing and his eyes are glazed. The other calls 911, and gasps, ‘My friend is dead! What can I do?’ The operator says, ‘Calm down. First, let’s make sure he’s dead.’ There is a silence, then a shot is heard. Back on the phone, the guy says ‘OK, now what?’ 27
We caught up with The Parlotones’ lead singer,
Kahn Morbee, after the band’s eventful world tour.
From left: Glen Hodgson, Paul Hodgson, Neil Pauw and Kahn Morbee.
By Nikki Benatar • PHOTOGRAPHS: Renee Frouws • Liam Lynch, Warner Music Gallo Africa
k a h n r e vi e ws . . .
Our new album, Stardust Galaxies, is an improvement on the last one – we’ve practised more, toured more and spent more time in studio. Playing with other bands also exposes you to new ideas. We decided to release the album in MP3 format six weeks before it hit record stores, to show our fans that we’re embracing the digital age. In the first week, over 100 000 albums were downloaded! The world tour was amazing. We played 29 cities across four continents in two months and kept our fans posted via Twitter. My favourite song on our new album is the title track ‘Stardust Galaxies’, a duet with Zolani Mahola of Freshlyground. My childhood nickname was Kahnie at home and my schoolmates called me Genghis. Before going on stage, I hum and do a series of vocal exercises. I lock myself in a bathroom and focus on the show and my performance. I also do physical warm-ups: jogging on the spot, push-ups and so on. On this tour, we introduced a band ritual: we high-five each other before walking onto stage. It’s probably a bit cheesy, but it’s become a have-to-do thing. When I was at school, I didn’t have a relevant role model and going into an ‘arty’ career was frowned upon. I was expected to be an accountant. Young people need to know when choosing a career that there’s more than the corporate world. My motto is: do what it is that you want to do. If you want to be an artist, then pick up a paintbrush!
Reality Killed the Video Star He’s lost the dodgy tracksuits and returned to snappy dressing and his signature pop sound. ‘Morning Sun’, ‘Last Days of Disco’, ‘Starstruck’ and ‘Bodies’ are good pop songs. He flirted with rock in the past, but this album is drenched in pop; at times, he sounds like James Blunt or Michael Bublé. I preferred him as more of a rocker, but he drips with charm and his performances are so brilliant that his fans will return in flocks. Like this? Try Take That, Pet Shop Boys and Scissor Sisters. 21st Century Breakdown Green Day started out as a punk-rock outfit and later embraced pop, blues, modern and soft rock. American Idiot (AI), the album before this one, is considered one of the most important albums of the decade. 21st Century Breakdown is a good album, but it lacks the focus and energy of AI and feels like a little brother living in big brother’s shadow. Had it been released before AI, it would have been considered an amazing album. Green Day:
Like this? Try The Offspring, Nirvana and Blink-182.
B2 link • to see the parlotones in action, click to «http://tinyurl.com/ptones».
Only in the movies It’s the end of the world – or is it?
roying the world.
st n, screenwriters love de tio la hi ni an r ea cl nu l ta to
The Earth freezing over? In The Day After Tomorrow, global warming causes a new ice age: think football-sized hailstones in Japan, tornados causing Boeings to crash, a tidal wave half the size of the Statue of Liberty flooding New York. It’s chaos. Mankind is on the brink of extinction. But how many of these larger-than-life scenarios would really be part of the next ice age? Well, the hurricane-like superstorms that cause temperatures to drop below -101,1 °C certainly wouldn’t. In the movie, these storms get their freeze-ray powers by sucking cold air (-100 °C) down from the Earth’s troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) to its surface. In real life, the pressure in the upper troposphere is one-tenth of that on Earth’s surface. As the air falls to the surface and the pressure increases, the volume of air will decrease. According to the first law of thermodynamics (energy can’t be created or destroyed), the labour that would go into compressing this air would be converted into energy, which would raise the temperature to a scorching 57 °C (in ideal conditions). Realistically, we need to take into account the loss of energy along the way, so we’re looking at a more manageable 0 °C.
An asteroid the size of Texas? We all know the Armageddon plot– the humungous asteroid en route to Earth, the nuclear warhead that will blow it apart, the brave crew (headed by Bruce Willis as Harry Stamper) that will save the day … While stray asteroids could be a real-life threat to human civilisation, you don’t need to hum Aerosmith’s ‘I Don’t Want To Miss A Thing’ next time one is on the news. Why? A gazillion reasons, but let’s just concentrate on one little detail the screenwriter overlooked: the kinetic energy needed to blast the asteroid into two halves (weighing roughly 3,0 × 1025 kg each!) and to move these chunks far enough apart to miss Earth in under four hours. In ideal conditions, a total kinetic energy of 3,0 × 1025 Joules (J) would be necessary to separate the asteroid and to propel these pieces at the required 460 m/s. Since the biggest warhead to date has a yield of only 100 megatons, or 4,1 x 1017 J – roughly one one-hundred-millionth of the energy needed to save Earth – it looks like Bruce isn’t likely to save the world any time soon. Want more movie lies?
Visit <http://tinyurl.com/liftcrash> to find out what really happens when the bad guy cuts the elevator cable …
B2 tip • for more end-of-the-world movie fun, don’t miss 2012, starring john cusack.
By Nina liebenberg • photographs: INPRA/EVERETT COLLECTION, GALLO/GETTY IMAGES
or roids the size of Texas Lucky for us, the laws of physics kick in when you leave the cinema.
sions, aste Whether it’s alien inva
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time by Mark Haddon Courtney Crookes
Grade 12, Grace College High School, Hilton
Reviews COMPILED By nicklaus kruger • Book supplied by maskew miller longman publishers
Grade 10, Bloemhof Girls’ High School, Stellenbosch
I loved this book! The style is unusual and charming and I never knew what to expect. My favourite character (besides Christopher) is Siobhan, Christopher’s teacher, who helps explain things to him when he is confused and doesn’t know what to do. I didn’t like the conclusion very much. The story felt so unfinished! I would have liked to see Christopher build up his relationship with his father again before it all ended. A friend of mine has Asperger’s Syndrome, which made this book a particularly interesting read. It has helped me to understand and respect her for who she is. For Christopher, five red cars in a row means it’s a Super Good Day, while four yellow cars makes for a Black Day. For me, a Black Day would be getting up late and finding out that my first period is Afrikaans or History. Super Good Days are holidays or the first or last day of term.
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time
(Vintage 2004 ISBN: 0099450259)
Christopher is special – he’s 15, he’s great at Maths, he loves to learn about prime numbers, and he doesn’t understand other people at all. One night, he comes across the body of his neighbour’s poodle and decides to solve the mystery of the nighttime dog killer. His discoveries reveal strange secrets about the people around him, take him to places he’s never been before … and give readers insight into a mind that sees things a little bit differently.
This book is a great read for any teenager; it’s really different from any other book I’ve read and it’s fun, with some good twists. Christopher is a 15-year-old boy who doesn’t quite understand other people; instead he spends his time solving Maths problems to calm down. The murder of a neighbour’s dog causes his life to change, and we see how terrifying these changes are for him. Christopher shows us that not everyone is the same. There is no such thing as a normal person or a perfect person. My favourite character is Siobhan, who works at his school and helps him to understand that all people are different. Christopher uses Maths to calm himself down – I use sport to do this. I also relax my mind by listening to music, and eventually my mind wanders so far that I forget there is even music playing. This book has shown me that some people may be great in one field of life but may lack in others, and that everyone is good at something. A Super Good Day for me is waking up early and having a good breakfast.
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Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keys (California: Harcourt, 1966) Charlie isn’t very smart – in fact, he has an IQ of 68 and regularly loses out in problemsolving tasks to a supersmart mouse named Algernon. Now, he’s going to be the first human test subject for the same brain-enhancing treatment that Algernon received. ALWAYS BETTER ON THE BIG SCREEN
Warner Brothers has announced it is to produce a movie version of The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time, in association with Heyday Films and Plan B Entertainment. But you’ll need to be patient – the current production status of the project is unknown.
Want to review a book for us? Write to Hip2b2 Book Reviews, PO Box 440, Green Point 8051 or email <firstname.lastname@example.org>. Please include your contact details, school and grade.
brain busters Add it u p Sud oku
Make it better, ma ke it fit
The usual rules apply, but while the large bold numbers provide the normal clues, the small numbers in the top left-hand corners of each coloured cell group tell you what the numbers in that cell group add up to. Use these values to help you complete the puzzle. 19
• Upgrade • Augment • Develop • Rectify • Sharpen • Enhance • Advance
11 6 7
Change the word ‘TAIL’ to ‘HEAD’ in as few steps as possible. You can only change one letter with each step and you must make sure that each step results in an actual word! See if you can beat our record of five steps.
Who imp rove d the most?
smart maths answer
TAIL > TALL > TELL > TEAL > HEAL > HEAD Word morph
Solution: Elevate Make it better, make it fit
First test: John 60%; Peter 48%; Lily 96%. Second test: John scored 80%; Peter got 76%; Lily got 100%, so Peter made the greatest improvement. Who improved the most?
7 2 7 6 5 1 9 8 20 5 6 3 4 1 13 8 8 9 2 5 6 11 1 4 5 3 6 3 7 6 2 7 26 2 6 1 9 24 9 8 7 4 10 4 5 3 7 9
9 3 10 2 4 13 7 5 6 1 24 8 7 35 4 9 5 8 4 8 3 6 1 2 12
1 3 2 4 9 8 7 5 6
4 6 15 8 7 7 2 5 7 3 3 1 9 17 22
5 7 12 9 3 7 6 1 4 2 8
A = P[1+(r/n)]nt = 10 000[1+(0.06/12)]12x5 = 10 000(1.005)60 = R13 488,50
In order to pass their Grade 12 Maths tests, the learners must obtain at least 50%. To score an ‘A’, they must obtain 80% or more. The tests are always out of 50. In the first class test, Peter got half the marks that Lily did and unfortunately failed the test. John got 12% more than Peter, but 36% less than Lily. Three months later, the second class test was written: Peter got 4% less than John, who got 10 marks less than Lily. Both John and Lily scored an ‘A’. Who made the best improvement between the first and second class tests?
BY ellen cameron-williger • Illustrations: ANTON PIETERSEN
Fit these seven synonyms (words that mean the same thing) of ‘improve’ into the grid below. If correctly placed, the seven letters in the central red box will form yet another synonym of the word. Your only clues are the yellow cells, which indicate vowels.