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WILL HINKLEY

STRUCTURES 1

project portfolio


introduction This book is a documentary of work created by Will Hinkley and partners Ivan Huber (Project 01), Justin Hamrick (Project 02), and Jeff Hammer (Project 03) in Structures 1, in the Fall of 2013 at Clemson University, under the instruction of Professor Dr. Carlos Barrios PhD. All projects were cut and constructed by hand and to scale. Projects include deliverables such as sketches, detailed drawings, load tracing analysis’, final models, and photographs.


Lee Hall Reconstruction

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Bridge Charette

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Structural Systems Detailing

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Lee Hall Reconstruction

01 Lee III, designed by Thomas Phifer and Partners and McMillan Pazdan Smith, assisted by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (structural engineers) and Transolar (climate engineers), opened in 2012, is a 56,000 square-foot addition to Lee Hall, Clemson University’s Architecture, Arts, and Humanities building. The purpose of this project was to build an accurate scale model of the structure of Lee III in wood or acrylic, omitting any non-essential structural elements. Reconstruction was based on field surveys; conducting field measurements and comparing them with other students. Project deliverables: accurate scale model, structural drawings, load tracing analysis for one column, and documentation of the process. Project partner: Ivan Huber


2 P03

1 P03

N Framing Plan 1” = 60’-0”

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Photo is of the real condition called out in the Framing Plan above. Pre-fab steel tree columns support wide-flange girders; exact size unkown (running left-to-right), and rectangular beams (running front-to-back). Not seen in picture are smaller wide-flange beams (2) and smaller rectangular beams (2) which support the circular skylight.


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Structural System 2: North and South Facing Curtain Wall Systems

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Shown: North Perspective Elevation

Structural System 3: Interior Offices


All structural and perspective drawings (as shown below) for Project 01: Lee Hall Reconstruction were created in Autodesk Revit. The use of orange is used to highlight the buildings’ superstructure (the main focus of the project). Structural systems not emphasized in the project are the curtain walls on north and south sides, and office spaces inside the building.

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Interacting with a facility on a daily basis as a building user allows us to appreciate the beauty and aesthetic of the space. However, it isn’t until we analyze it in terms of how it works and understand what makes it possible that we are able to fully appreciate it for what it’s worth. Reconstructing the superstructure of Lee III in both digital and model form helped me to establish this thorough understanding of how the structural members work together to create the beautiful, unique, and sustainable atmostphere.

[1] East / West Section

Scale: 1” = 60’-0”

[2] Northwest Section

Scale: 1” = 60’-0”

Actual south view of Lee III

http://www.bdcnetwork.com/13-structural-steel-buildings-dazzle


Short Beam Tributary Area 15ft X 15ft = 225 ft2

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Column Tributary Area 30ft X 45ft = 1,350 ft2

Diagram shows the tributary areas that each of the tree columns’ four different individual structural members are responsible for carrying. As shown to the right, of the four members, the columns (shown in the darker blue) have the largest tributary area: 1,350 ft2. The short beams (shown in red) are responsible for the smallest tributary area of all the members: 225 ft2. Load Tracing Diagram

Column Arm Tributary Area 15ft X 22.5ft = 337.5 ft2

Long Beam Tributary Area 15ft X 45ft = 675 ft2


Load Tracing Diagram

Diagram shows the distribution and paths that loads travel through as they pass through a tree column and travel from the roof structure to the building foundation. As the vertical loads come in contact with the foundation, the foundation must react with an upward force equal to the that which is coming down.


Long Beam

Short Beam Tributary Area: 15 ft x 15 ft = 225 ft Total Load: 225 ft2 x 80 #/ft2 = 18,000# Reactions: ∑ Fx = 0 HA = 0 2

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Tributary Area: 15 ft x 45 ft = 675 ft2 Total Load: 675 ft2 x 80 #/ft2 = 54,000# Reactions: ∑ Fx = 0 HA = 0

∑ Fy = 0

RA + RB – 18,000# = 0 RA + RB = 18,000#

∑ Fy = 0

RA + RB + 9000 + 4200 -27600 - 4200 -9000 = 0 RA + RB = 27600#

∑ MA = 0

[7.5 ft x -18,000#] + [15 ft x RB] = 0 -135,000 #ft + [15 ft x RB] = 0 15 ft x RB = 135,000 #ft RB = 9,000# RA + 9,000# - 18,000# = 0 RA = 9,000#

∑ MA = 0

[1.75 ft x -4200#] + [3.5 ft x 9000] + [11.5 ft x -27600#] + [23 ft x RB] + [24.75 ft x -4200#] + [26.5 ft x -9000] = 0 7350 #ft + 31500 #ft + [-317400 #ft] + [23 ft x RB] + [-103950 #ft] + [-238500 #ft] = 0 [23 ft x RB] + [-659850 #ft] + 38850 #ft = 0 23 ft x RB = 621000 #ft RB = 27000# RA + 27000# + 9000# + 4200# - 27600# - 4200# - 9000# = 0 RA = -600#


Column

Column Arm

Tributary Area: 30 ft x 45 ft = 1,350 ft Total Load: 1,350 ft2 x 80 #/ft2 = 108,000# Reactions: ∑ Fx = 0 HA = 0 2

Tributary Area: 15 ft x 22.5 ft = 337.5 ft2 Total Load: 337.5 ft2 x 80 #/ft2 = 27,000# Reactions: ∑ Fx = 0 HA = 0

∑ Fy = 0

RA + RB – 108,000# = 0 RA + RB = 108,000#

∑ Fy = 0

RA – 27,000# = 0 RA = 27,000#

∑ MA = 0

[15 ft x -108,000#] + [30 ft x RB] = 0 -1,620,000 #ft + [30 ft x RB] = 0 30 ft x RB = 1,620,000 #ft RB = 54,000#

∑ MA = 0

[13.75 ft x -27,000#] = 0 MA = -371,250 ft#

RA + 54,000# - 108,000# = 0 RA = 54,000#

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Step 1: Create the external structure of Lee III out of 3/4� plywood. Adhere template to base for accurate placement of tree columns in step 2.

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Step 2: Measure, hand cut, assemble, and place 24 tree columns; including posts, arms, and stiffners.


Step 3: Cut and assemble skylight framing and attach to tree columns. Tie cables to vertical members on exterior walls. Attach roof structure.

Step 4: Insert pin connections at all joints. Snip pins to size. Clean up remaining scraps.

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The Process


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Finished Model


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Finished Model


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Finished Model


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Lee III at Clemson University. Clemson, SC


Horizontal Structure Charette

02 Designing for a horizontal structure (a bridge) must take into account several critical aspects such as static and fatigue strength, structural efficiency and performance, resistance to deformation, and aesthetics. The purpose of this two-person group project was to build a horizontal structure made of 1/8” basswood sticks which met the design aspects mentioned above. Structures were required to have an overall length no less than 24” with a free span measuring 21”. The structure was load tested until failure through two point loads at the 1/3 and 2/3 points along the free span. Project deliverables: structural model, sketches (if necessary), analysis essay, and documentation of the process. Project partner: Justin Hamrick


Finished Model: basswood

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Concept Sketches

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Template Drawing


Beginning with our initial concepts and sketches, we wanted to incorporate the use of arches in our design to create a strong and economical structure. The ability of arches to span great distances with minimal bracing creates a solution which is effienct both in performance and material usage. We wanted to use arches to their full potential by constructing a series of small arches encompassed by arches.. The intention of four larger arches this strategy was that the smaller arches would deect the forces ourward to the base in multiple loacations, and any deection would be supported by the four encompassing arches.

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Constructing the smaller arches versus the larger arches was a challenge in and of itself, as methods of construction were purely trial and error. Methods both attempted and utilized included clamping the arches in shape, gluing them together with multiple types of adhesives, soaking the members in water to increase their ductility for the shaping process, and finally steaming the members which proved to be the most efficient. A design aw that came about from using the smaller arches was their extreme tensile strength and stiffness due to the short length of the individual members. The spring tension from the arches onto the base of the structure caused the beams used for the base to ex, causing the arches to spring away from the base. To counter this effect, we offset multiple arches underneath the base, essentially creating a mirrored effect throughout the entire span of the structure. This ensured that the structure would be able to handle vertical loads in an efficient manner. Cross bracing between the arches was set as close to 45 degrees as possible and mirrored throughout the entire span to handle the lateral forces resulting from the vertical loads.


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Upon completion of the structure, prior to loading, we determined if the structure was to collapse, it would happen dierectly outside the midpoint on the full length beams. This proved to be a very close assumption as the structure failed immediately to the right of the midpoint on both sides when a load of 45 lbs was applied.

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The consensus of failure was due to the bracing between the arches constructed of supports running parallel to the main support beams. Once under stress, the forces from the braces pushed against unsupported portions of the arches, causing a collapse on the left side, leading to the structural failure of the main support beams. There was no deection/ run time during loading, as the structure simply snapped. Once broken, the structure was sill surprisingly stable, not allowing any bending or twisting other than at the midpoint of breakage.


Looking back, replacing the parallel supports that cuased the structure to fail with smaller arches and more bracing within the arches would have allowed thte structure to take on more forces, thus achieving a greater level of efficiency.

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Finished Model


Structural Systems Detailing

03 Similar to Project 01, this two-person group project takes an in depth look at the structure of an existing building, and produces a detailed model of a chosen section of the building. The building chosen for this project was the Renault Distribution Centre in Swindon, UK, designed by Foster+Partners with Ove Arup & Partners as the structural engineering team in 1982. The building was formed as a series of suspended modules connected to pin-jointed frames. Each module measures 24m2. For this project, a four-module section of the building was investigated and constructed at 1/8” = 1’-0”. Project deliverables: accurate scale model, structural drawings, load tracing analysis for the structure, and documentation of the process. Project partner: Jeff Hammer


Framing plan shows the four-module section which the project focused on. This 2,500m2 section (actual) is roughly only ten-percent of the overall building structure, measuring out at roughly 25,000m2 (actual).

N Framing Plan 1/64” = 1’-0”

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Photo is of the real condition called out in the Framing Plan above. Pre-fab castillated steel beams suspend outward from tube-steel columns and connect to form square frames through pin joints; ultimately creating the repeated overhead condition seen here. Steel cables are bolted to and suspend from large welded joints on the columns to provide stability for the structure and anchor it to the ground.


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Exterior Elevation: Building envelope enclosed by structural framing system.

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Shown: Close North Perspective up of Physical Elevation Model

Building Usage: 1 of 4 uses is a vehicle showroom.


The physical model shown in the image below was created using dimensional basswood for large beams, Plastruct plastic styrene I-beams for the smallest beams, circular wooden dowels, and thin steel rods to mimic the steel cables of the actual structure. Model was cut and built entirely by hand with the assistance of a drill press.

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Appreciating the Renault Distribution Centre structures’ ability to span such great distances was difficult before I began working working on the physical model for the project. Even at such a small scale, I was able to get a good sense of exactly what it was that I was re-creating. Re-constructing a section of the Renault Distribution Centre made me realize that although the structure may seem simple relative to the task it accomplishes, the details that make the structure possible are a work of art and extreme precision.

South Elevation / Section

Scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”

Load Tracing Diagram

Scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”

Actual south view of Renault Distribution Centre

http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/renault-distribution-centre/


Step 1: Measure, cut, and assemble roof frames. Drill press used to drill all castillated holes in webs of I-beams.

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Step 2: Repeat process for all beams. Flanges and webs for all beams cut individually and assembled.


Step 3: Drill template holes in base, erect structure to this point, assemble midway framing members to square frames, attach midway structures to erected framing.

Step 4: Attach cables to columns and beams, clean model of debris, paint.

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The Process


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Finished Model


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Finished Model


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Finished Model


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Renault Distribution Centre. Swindon, UK


PROJECT PORTFOLIO


Structures Portfolio