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Colleges in the Colonial Era Era. In Chapter One, Thelin (2011) mentioned nine surviving colleges founded before 1781: Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Dartmouth, Rutgers, and Pennsylvania. Many feel that these colleges stand out as quality higher education institutions that have acquired prestige and longevity. Do you agree with these viewpoints? Consider how these colleges influenced perceptions of higher education today. What about the quality of education then and online learning now? Relate how these trends and events still impact higher education today. Colonial Revival Colleges Colleges. Thelin (2011) noted that the English universities Oxford and Cambridge greatly influenced early American higher education. In addition, Oxford and Cambridge were autonomous, privately endowed and linked to a federation. The “collegiate system” of combining learning and living was a seminal plan for higher education that college founders tried to capture for the American colonies. Discuss the various ways in which early American Colonial colleges did "not" emulate or resisted replicating the Oxford-Cambridge ideal. Describe the reasons for these changes and what the change agents were. Consider important factors such as college funding, curriculum, religion, architecture and the student population .What is your opinion about the changes? Do you feel that the established political powers should have taken a different direction or kept some of the key elements of the OxfordCambridge ideal? Explain why or why not. Reflective Journal. Critically reflect on the personal impact of the foundations of education. Reflect on a time when you studied about the history of the Colonial Era in grade school, middle school, high school or college. What surprised you to discover about higher education during the Colonial era? Have your perceptions changed as a result of examining a few of the historical, political, ethical and/or economic foundations of higher education during this timeframe? How has this knowledge impacted your perceptions and experiences about higher education? Summarize how this information will change your teaching. Colonial Higher Education, 1636-1784 1636-1784. In Chapter One, Thelin (2011) described the influences of several topics and issues in higher education during the Colonial era. Choose a historical, political, ethical and/or economic issue under one of the following topics: § Governance and structure


§ College finances § Religion and the college § Philanthropy § The curriculum § Student diversity and experimentation § The limits of instructional purpose and educational mission Describe and provide examples for the topic you selected and how it influenced higher education during the Colonial era. In addition, please include how the same topic influences higher education today. Consider current and different perspectives on this topic today. Moreover, include and answer the following questions: a. Describe the most important factors of this issue both past and present. b. Examine some of the complexities of this issue both past and present. c. Evaluate some of the challenges of this issue that you feel need to be addressed today. Your paper should be two- to three- pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and written in APA format. Cite at least one reference, in addition to the textbook. Remember to cite all references using APA style. Creating the American Way Way. Medical schools during this time represented a good example of American society’s enchantment for education without the overly strict rules and standards. Reflect on the role of Medical Colleges in higher education during the first half of the nineteenth century. Consider the educational preparation and requirements for medical doctors during this era. How do you feel that differs today? What influences are still impacting higher education today with regards to new educational programs and innovations? Consider the role that government regulation and accountability plays in higher education. How do you feel America’s approach to higher education building might change in the next 5- 10 years? Resilience in American Higher Education Education. Large scale philanthropy contributors who offered substantial gifts such as foundations, trusts, and estates were necessary to higher education budgets in order to pay for salaries, services and the construction of new buildings. The transformation of philanthropy in American higher education was the coming together of industry and religion in what was termed the “Protestant work ethic.” Discuss why this was important to wealthy entrepreneurs. From your readings, what challenges do current higher education institutions face with regards to funding? What are some of the possible solutions to these challenges? Do you believe it is still important today? Do you believe this work ethic perspective has changed in higher education today?


Higher Education, 1785-1890 1785-1890. Your readings described the influences of several topics about National Themes and Local Initiatives in Higher education. Select one topic area from this list. Discuss how the historical foundations of 1785 -1890 have influenced the shaping of today’s higher education on this topic. Your paper should be two- to three- pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and written in APA format. At a minimum, use one external source, in addition to the course text. Remember to cite all references using APA style. § The Land Grant Legacy § Agricultural and Technical Education § Competition and Cooperation in Scientific and Technical education § Women and Higher Education § Normal Schools § Commerce in the Collegiate Curriculum § The Modern University § Liberal Arts Colleges § Student Life § Coeducation and Women § College and Administration: The Large Scale Roots of Philanthropy § Interregional Philanthropy and Black Colleges § The Comprehensive American University Captains of Industry Industry. The wealth and energy between 1880 and 1910 was a unique and dynamic period in higher education. During this time the stock market was volatile and the rules that governed higher education were mostly absent. In addition, there was an abundance of industrial wealth, and a new level of philanthropic generosity toward higher education. Uncertainty and diversity were characteristics of this time period. Discuss the dynamics of university-building in the formative decades between 1880 and 1910. Reflect on the actions and influences of Slossen’s book Great American Universities (http://www.archive.org/details/greatamericanuni00slosrich) and the Association of American Universities. What were some of the historical, political and economic reasons that these associations had so much influence? From your own personal experiences, are there similar associations in higher education today?


America Goes to College College. The age of university-building was also the golden age of the college. Attending college was popular and fashionable during 1890 through 1920. Obtaining a bachelor’s degree was a way for newly affluent families to enhance their social position. Summarize the concept of the “Collegiate Ideal” during 1890 -1920. Consider how the “college man” and/or “college woman” was becoming an imposing figure in American higher education at the end of the nineteenth century. How did this collegiate ideal help the undergraduate college population increase? Analyze the political, cultural and economic factors that were beneficial and challenging to the stakeholders at higher education institutions. Reflective Journal Journal. Critically reflect on the impact of topics, trends, and events of historical eras on higher education and the dynamics surrounding the university-builders in the formative decades between 1880 -1920. Think about what it would have been like to be a college student during this time. Then reflect on the time when you first enrolled in your graduate program. What was your experience? Where you excited about the prospects of one day teaching at the higher education level? What is the subject you would most likely enjoy teaching? Do you think you could have taught the same subject during 1880 -1920? Knowing a little more about the history of higher education, have your perceptions changed about higher education in general. Higher Education, 1880-1920 1880-1920. For this assignment you will explore several topics about the Age of University Building and the “Golden Age” of colleges. Using the free website Timeglider (http://www.timeglider.com/) or Microsoft Word (http://www.microsoft.com/education/enus/teachers/how- to/Pages/creating-timeline.aspx), create a timeline of five or more significant events and/or topics that you find interesting and that influenced higher education from 1880 1920. Feel free to be creative with this assignment. You may include pictures, diagrams and words. In addition please provide a brief summary for each of your significant event and topics. Chapters Four and Five provide several different topics and events to choose from. For example, one significant event could include the Quest for the Great American University. It was an event when 14 university presidents from institutions such as Harvard, Cornell, and Johns Hopkins met to form the Association of American Universities. Another significant event during this time frame was philanthropy on a large scale. This was significant because it was the first time universities had a permanent financial base. A few topics you may want to explore are: § Intercollegiate Sports § Women’s Colleges § Women and Coeducation § The “Collegiate Ideal” and Black Colleges § World War I and the Colleges Provide access to your instructor by uploading all the necessary files and providing all necessary links. Additionally, be sure to cite your sources as necessary, and include a separate reference page in APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.


Success and Excess Excess. Thelin (2011) mentioned that from World War I to World War II, university and college enrollments increased dramatically. However, the retention of students presented a challenge during this time period. College administrators had some difficulty managing students because of the expanded number of students being enrolled. Discuss the role and responsibilities of faculty members during this time. How have these roles and responsibilities changed today? How have these stayed the same? Do you think that college administrators and faculty members did the best they could to retain their students? Why or why not? What could they have done better? Cost of College, 1920-1945 1920-1945. Summarize the changes in the price of going to college from 19201945. Consider student employment opportunities and positive influences of the various relief work programs such as the public work projects during this time. How did colleges and universities benefit from them? Do you feel that a similar type of public work project(s) could work today? Why or why not? What are some options that students have today to pay for college? Give your perspectives on how college education could be funded. Reflective Journal Journal. Critically reflect on the impact of topics, trends, and events of 1920-1945. Have you met or do you know of anyone who taught during this time? If so, what do they say about the advantages and disadvantages of teaching during this time period? As a future higher education educator do you feel that your opportunities have increased as compared to what you read about opportunities for faculty from 1920 -1945? What did faculty do as far as furthering their careers with regards to scholarship and teaching? What do you plan to do to further your career with regards to scholarship and teaching? Do you look forward to publishing? Do you have a particular workshops or training in mind? Write a book? Share your thoughts. Higher Education, 1920-1945 1920-1945. From 1920-1945, there was significant expansion and reforms in higher education. Reflect upon the opportunities to attend college for women during this time period. Women made up about 40% of the undergraduate enrollments in 1940. This was remarkable considering that women were not permitted to earn a bachelor’s degree just 60 years prior to 1940. Also of significance were the women’s colleges of the privileged elite such as Wellesley, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar, and Barnard to name a few. Examine colleges for women during this time period and compare them to your educational experiences today. Consider the following questions: a. In what ways did women college students in this era (1920-1945) influence the current generation of women college students? b. What factors, conditions, and values influence present-day women to enroll in women's colleges? Discuss each one. c. What factors, conditions, and values influence present-day women to enroll in coeducational colleges? Discuss each one. d. If you were an employer, what would you see as the advantages and disadvantages of a female graduate from a women's college? Discuss each one.


e. Have your perceptions changed last 5 -10 years about your own potential prospects for academic and professional advancement? Your paper should be three- to four- pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and written in APA format. At a minimum, use two external sources, in addition to the course textbook. Remember to cite all references using APA style. Gilt by Association Association. From 1945-1970, a new set of problems helped to transform higher education. After 1949 there was an explosion of enrollments due to governmental agencies that recognized that higher education had been proven effective, even during the war. This led them to create public policies at both the state and federal level. Coming of Age in America America. From 1970 -2000, most higher education institutions encountered various challenges and issues. Although higher education made an effective transition to mass education access, it was more difficult to transition to universal education access. In addition, because of the diversity of students who were entering college higher education, higher education institutions required tailoring. Discuss the impact of topics, trends, and events of 1970-2000 era on higher education. Explain the components that contributed to the “Coming of Age” in American higher education. What were the main issues during this time period? Do you feel that higher education institutions solved most of the issues of 1970 -2000? Why or why not? Reflective Journal Journal. Critically reflect on the impact of topics, trends, and events of 1970-2000. Reflect on yourself as a graduate student who may one day teach in higher education. How can you avoid some of the mistakes faculty made from 1970-2000? What teaching approaches and/or strategies worked? In addition, how do you feel higher education will change in the next five years? Do you believe online learning will increase? In terms of professional development and training, what do you believe you need to do to effectively teach at the higher education level today and in the near future? Higher Education, 1970-2000 1970-2000. Your readings described the influences of several topics about the challenges and issues in higher education from 1970-2000. Discuss one topic that addresses the institutional, societal, student, faculty, curriculum, governance or financial issues that were significantly impacted from 1970 -2000. After viewing Dr. Hannah Holborn Grey’s presentation, Uses (and Misuses) of the University Today (http://www.youtube.com/watch?&), incorporate one of her suggested uses and one of her noted misuses of the university today in your paper. Explain how the historical foundations of 1970-2000 have influenced the shaping of higher education on this topic. Your paper should be two- to three- pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and written in APA format. At a minimum, use two external sources, in addition to the course text. Remember to cite all references using APA style. Reconfiguring American Higher Education in the Twenty-first Century Century. Using ProQuest, locate two articles about the emergence of global universities (online education). Provide a summary of your articles and the reference links. Discuss the critical findings related to two of any of the following topics: a. Demographics and student diversity


b. Availability and access c. Variability of disciplines Analyze if the research supports your perspective. Why or why not. Higher Education, 2000-Present In this course, we have examined various topics about the reconfiguration of American Higher Education from 1673 to the present. After watching the short video Complex Change in Higher Education by Fred Buining (http://www.youtube.com/watch?), reflect on various changes that have influenced the reconfiguration of American higher education in the 21st century. Reflect on the topics listed below and select two that you feel have made the greatest impact on higher education. Critically analyze the influences of past eras on present-day higher education. Evaluate how these topics are impacting higher education today. Discuss recommendations for change. For this assignment, feel free to be creative. You can write an essay, create a video, website, timeline (similar to week three), etc. Whatever you choose to create, provide access to your instructor by uploading all the necessary files, and provide all necessary links and/or text in a document. Additionally, be sure to cite your resources as necessary, and include a separate reference page in APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your essays, timelines and/or websites should be ten- to twelve- pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and written in APA format. At a minimum, use five external sources, in addition to the course text. If you create a video, it should be about eight- to ten- minutes in length. All appropriate APA references should be noted in the video. a. The Past as Prologue: From 1900 to 2010 b. Higher Education’s Unfinished Business from 1990 -2010 c. Demographics and Diversity: The Changing Profile of Students d. Big-Time Intercollegiate Sports: Education’s Entertainment e. Research Universities in an “Era of Big Bets” Federal Grants f. State Universities and the New “A&M”: Athletics and Medicine g. The Gridlock of Funding for State Universities h. The millennium in Perspective: American Higher Education from Twentieth to Twenty-first Centuries i. College Students in an Era of Commercialization and Consumerism j. Rethinking the Historic Role of Governing Boards and Trustees


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