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c o mp i l e df o r o u r F i n a l E n g l i s hS t u d i e s A s s i g n me n t


MOTHERLAND : Essays about The Issues of Our Nation Copyright Š 2011 by WRITING 02

Editor in Chief Maulanna Maryunani

(16711384)

Editors Guntur Adisurya Ismail

(16711307)

Aditya Parama Setiaboedi

(16711372)

Steven Lukas Goentoro

(16711379)

Adie Tri Hanindriyo

(16711196)

Design and Layout Jawahir Asy Mahdy Maro

(16711247)

Religia Shaliha

(16711243)

Nevi Ayu Envirani

(16711261)

Finance and Printing Joanna Nadia

(16711256)

Eugenia Clarissa Olivia

(16711254)

Fakultas Teknologi Industri

Institut Teknologi Bandung 2011


I n d o n e s i aa sac o u n t r yh a sg o n et h r o u g hal o t . A f t e r d e c a d e so f s u f f e r i n gf r o mb e i n gaD u t c h , t h e nB r i t i s h , a n dt h e n J a p a n e s ec o l o n y , I n d o n e s i af i n a l l yf o u n di n d e p e n d e n c ei n1 9 4 5 . T h ei n d e p e n d e n c ei t s e l f wa s wa yo v e r d u e , a n dwh e ni t c a me i t wa sah u g er e l i e f f o re v e r y o n ei n v o l v e dwi t ht h en a t i o n . B u t , a f t e r6 6y e a r so f I n d e p e n d e n c e , ag l a r i n gq u e s t i o ns t i l l r e ma i n s . H o wf a r h a v ewec o mea s an a t i o n ? I n d o n e s i ai sac o u n t r ywi t hh u g ep o t e n t i a l . N oo n en e e d st og ot h r o u g ht h el i s t o f n a t u r a l a n dh u ma nr e s o u r c e st h a t t h i sc o u n t r yh a s . B u t , i t i sv e r yi r o n i c a n dh e a r t b r e a k i n ga t t h es a met i mewh e nwet r yt oc o n n e c t t h o s ef a c t st ot h es i mp l e f a c t t h a t I n d o n e s i ai sn o t t h ed o mi n a n t f o r c eo f t h i sp l a n e t . S u r e , i t ' sn o t s o me t h i n gt h a t wemu s t p u r s u e , b u t wi t ha l l t h e p o t e n t i a l wec u r r e n t l yh a v e , o n emu s t wo n d e r wh yi s t h i s c o u n t r ya t i t s c u r r e n t s t a t e ? T h a t i s wh ywec r e a t e dt h i s c o mp i l a t i o no f e s s a y s , t i t l e d" Mo t h e r l a n d : E s s a y s A b o u t t h eI s s u e s o f O u r N a t i o n " , wh i c h h o p e f u l l yc a no p e no u re y e st ot h et h i n g st h a t wes h o u l dc a r ea b o u t b u t h a v e n ' t . T h i sc o mp i l a t i o nwi l l d i s c u s ss e v e r a l , t h o u g hn o t a l l , i s s u e s t h a t h a v ea f f e c t e du s a s an a t i o na n di s s u e s t h a t n e e dt ob er a i s e da wa r e n e s s a b o u t . T h i s c o mp i l a t i o n wi l l b es p l i t i n t of o u r c a t e g o r i e s ; E n v i r o n me n t a n dN a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , G e n e r a l We l f a r ea n dS o c i a l I s s u e s , E d u c a t i o n , C u l t u r e a n dS p o r t s , a n dP o l i t i c s , I n d u s t r ya n dE c o n o my . T h i sb o o kwi l l b eo p e n e db ya ne s s a yt i t l e dI n d o n e s i a , t h eP r o b l e ma t i c P a r a d i s ea n dwi l l b ewr a p p e du pb ya" wr a p p i n gu p "e s s a y , t i t l e dI n d o n e s i aS h o u l db eaG r e a t C o u n t r y . C r e d i t t ot h ec r e a t i o no f t h i sc o mp i l a t i o nmu s t g ot oG o dt h eA l mi g h t y , f o r wi t h o u t I t wewo n ' t b ea b l et oc r e a t et h i s c o mp i l a t i o n . C r e d i tmu s ta l s og ot oo u rb e l o v e dl e c t u r e r , D r . B a mb a n gS u p r i j a n t oM. E d . T E S O L , s i n c eh i sg u i d a n c ea n d l e c t u r i n gh a s h e l p e du s g r e a t l yi na c h i e v i n gt h i s . A l s o , I p e r s o n a l l ywo u l dl i k et ot h a n kmyf e l l o wWR 0 2c l a s s ma t e s f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i o n , a n dg o l d e nwo r d s wh i c hwi l l b ea r c h i v e di nt h e s en e x t p a g e s .

B a n d u n g , 8D e c e mb e r 2 0 1 1

E d i t o r i n C h i e f Ma u l a n n aMa r y u n a n i ( 1 6 7 1 1 3 8 4 )

i i i


i v


v


INDONESIA,

THE

PROBLEMATIC PARADISE

Randi Liustanto | 16711213 | 087877999337 | 2017 words

I

ndonesia is a maritime country and also

there are some traffic lights that does not work and

an agricultural country. Indonesia is a rich

makes people confused. Traffic jam is really a huge

country with plenty of natural resources

problem for our country. Traffic jam does not only waste

and human resources. Indonesia has all kinds of mineral

our precious times but also traffic jam waste our money.

and has one of the biggest rain forests in the world. We

If we usually travel for two hours when there is no traffic

also have large area of sea that have a lot of fish and so

jam, when there is a major traffic jam it can take four to

much tourism attraction. If Indonesia’s forests are burnt,

five hours. The longer time you spend on your car, the

all country in the world will also affected by it. Indonesia

more fuel you waste and it is all because of traffic jam.

also has plenty of fossil fuel beneath its islands. As a

The total loss caused by this traffic jam for this first half

maritime country Indonesia has thousands islands with

year in Jakarta reach 46 trillion rupiah. We can see how

their own characteristics. With all of those advantages,

these transportation problems really matters for our

Indonesia should be a developed country yet Indonesia is

country.

still a developing country. Then what holds Indonesia to

Then, what should we do to overcome this

be a developed country? That is because there are a lot

problem? The government has tried to solve these

of problems going on in Indonesia. In this case, I will only

problems for years, yet the traffic jam is still around us.

describe the transportation, medical, and educational

How is that possible? Is it because the government

problems, because these problems are the biggest

attempt useless? Or are there any other factors that

concern of our country right now.

make traffic jam so hard to overcome? Actually what the

First, Indonesia has a really big problem of

government did is not useless at all. It is the growing

transportation in big cities. Every day in big cities at rush

number of vehicle that makes the government’s effort

hour, we can always see how crowded the roads are. The

seems useless. The best way to solve this transportation

roads are so crowded that they became a traffic jam. In

problem can only be done by us. We should lessen the

big cities like Indonesia, traffic jam will not occur just

frequency of using private car and we should adapt to the

because of the huge quantity of cars, but also because of

mass public transport like “Trans Jakarta” which is also

the infrastructure that does not enough to serve our

known as bus way. Bus way is a public transport that can

needs. For example, there are plenty of broken roads in

transport many people at once so it does not cost as

Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital city. Another example is

many fuel as if each people drive their own car. Bus way

1


2

has its own way created by the government so that it will

really many people utilize this treatment and since there

not be affected by the traffic jam since the only vehicle

is not a lot of doctor at small cities so that treatment

that can use that way is Trans Jakarta bus. But, instead of

cannot really solve the problem.

using the Trans Jakarta bus, people tends to drive his or

Then, what can we do to solve this problem?

her own private vehicle but use the bus way that is

The only way to solve this problem is by distributing

created for the Trans Jakarta bus. This kind of behavior

doctors evenly across this country. But, the doctor will not

makes the bus way also crowded and later, the Trans

enjoy living in small cities, so we have to distribute the

Jakarta bus is also affected by the traffic jam. We can see

development of cities evenly. When the development of

how such a great facility created by the government does

this country distribute evenly, then the doctor will not

not succeed because of our behavior that is not

have a problem working in small cities anymore. When

commendable. That is why if we really want to overcome

there are enough doctors in every city and with the free

this obstacle of transportation, we cannot just rely on the

medication from the government we can solve the

government but we also have a role that we need to do.

problem of high medication price. The last problem is the

Next, there are medical problems. What

cost of drug that is really expensive. Drug or medicine is

medical problems are actually happening in our country?

made by detailed and precision measurement. The

First problem is the uneven distribution of doctors

material is also not easy to get. That is why medicine has

between big cities and small cities. We do not have a

a high price. Then what can we do to solve this problem?

problem in the number of doctors we have. We have

We cannot reduce the price of a drug and we can

thousands of doctor graduates each year. But, most of

distribute a drug for free. But, the government has

them only stay in big cities like Jakarta or Bandung. Why

already made policy by creating a cheaper drug for the

do the doctors only stay in big cities? Based on what I

needy. That drug is called generic drugs. Generic drugs

see, most of the doctors stays in big cities because the

have same ingredients like normal medicine. The only

life in big cities is much more comfortable and have more

different is the price. Since generic drugs are created for

entertainments rather than the life in small cities. With

the needy, so the price is quite cheap.

this uneven distribution of doctors, people in small cities

Last, there are problems in Indonesia’s

have difficulty to find treatment. That is why Indonesia’s

education. What are the problems in Indonesia’s

level of health is still very low. The second problem of

education? First, there are a lot of kids at the age that

medication is the cost that is very high. How come the

should go to school that do not go to school. Some of

price of medication becomes so high? We all knew that it

them cannot go to school because they cannot afford

costs a lot of money to become a doctor. So, in order to

school’s fee but some of them actually do not want to go

compensate, doctors usually charge a pretty high cost.

to school even though they actually can pay the school’s

Then what will happen to poor people that could not

fee. Some of them that cannot go to school because they

afford the price? The government already made a

cannot afford the school’s fee are mostly poor people. In

treatment for the problem of high price in medication like

Indonesia, there are two kinds of school and that are

creating a free medication service. But, since the

private school and public school. What are the different

awareness of such thing from small people is low so not

between private school and public school? Private school

Indonesia, the Problematic Paradise


owns by one people or a group of people while public

education is one of the most important aspects. Education

school owns by the government. Private school usually

can have chain reaction to how your country will become

has a higher price than the public school, because the

later. If the country’s education is good and have a high

government has already set aside a huge amount of

quality, when they grow up they can labor themselves.

funding for free education for poor people while private

The percentage of unemployment will reduce greatly.

school also get the government helps but it only helps

When the amount of unemployed people is low, the

lower the price of education. Why did private school cost

economy of the country will greatly evolve. With the

so much? Private school usually seeks for profits. That is

great economy capability the development distribution

why it costs a lot of money to study at private school. If

will become even. When the development is evenly

there is free education then why did some of the kids still

distributed, the population distribution will become even

do not go to school? Because the socialization of that

as well. Then the problem of transportation and

program is not really good so they do not know that

medication as I mentioned earlier will be solved also.

there are any free educations. If there are a lot of kids

But, if the education of one country is poor, when they

that did not study at school, then when they grew up they

grow up they will not be able to be employed. The

will not be able to keep up with the growth of the world

percentage of unemployed people will drastically rise.

and they will be left behind. Those people who are left

The economy of the country will not be able to develop

behind will keep on being poor.

well as well. The development of the country will stay

The second problem in Indonesia’s education is the insufficient facility of school. We can watch at news

uneven forever. Then the problem like I mentioned earlier will happened.

that there are a lot of schools that are not in a supportive

That is why we have to make a serious

condition for studying. For example, there are a lot of

prevention of those. What can we do then? We can help

schools that have leaking roof. When it is raining, they

by donating money to the government’s body that related

cannot study because everything is wet. Another example

to this kind of problems. The government also has to

is there are some schools building that collapse because

build more school at small cities and improve the building

of earthquake. If there are no schools where else can the

that is in a really bad shape. The government should also

students study?

socialize the existence of free education to the people.

Another problem is the schools that are not distribute evenly. There are thousands of schools in big

When all of those things are done, the problems of education will be lessening by quite much.

cities like Jakarta, but it is really hard to find one at area

So these three problems really are a pain in

like Papua. Since there is no school in their area, they

this country’s ass. They are transportation problems, the

cannot study as a result. In this case of problem the lack

medication problems, and the educational problems. The

is not only in the school building, but also lacks teacher.

transportation problems caused by traffic jam and the

In some area, there is only one teacher that teaches all of

amount of vehicle that keep growing irregularly, the a

the subjects. This is not effective for studying but it is

medication problem with the distribution of hospitals and

better to have one teacher teaching everything rather

doctors that are not even and the price of medication and

than there is no teacher at all. In every country,

the high price of medicine, and the educational problems

Opening Essay

3


4

of the children that does not go to school and the

many compared to the other countries, for example large

infrastructure that is not sufficient. But we can solve all

sea and plenty of fossil resources that will makes all

those problems by participating in everything. If this

countries jealous. We should be able to utilize the best

entire problem is conquered by Indonesia, Indonesia

possible of our beloved country Indonesia and glory our

surely will become one of the most feared countries in

country Indonesia.

the world. Especially when Indonesia has all kinds of natural resources and human resources that are really

Indonesia, the Problematic Paradise


God of Knowledge

&


IS IT NECESSARY TO LEARN ENGLISH?

Natasia | 16711218 | 085273351608 | 2001 words

T

he education in our country is evolving

quality and it is one of the tools to increase the welfare in

every single day. We can always see it

our country.

from the number of the course subjects

We are now in a globalization era. All of us

that is required for the students to take. It is also

know what this means. This is an era where the people

increasing gradually. Natural sciences, social sciences,

can communicate between each other easily. Someone

language or literature, arts, and even sports. There are

from China can know about the condition of his friend in

more and more subjects that the nation wants the young

suburban Africa easily. A mother in Japan can call his son

generation to learn. From the language or literature

in America easily as she misses him. Not only that, the

world, it has been a long time since English is supposed

globalization era has brought us to the state where the

to be learned by the people of the nation. The

countries are also communicating between each other,

government asks the people to learn it from when they

filling up the necessity that they can obtain from each

are young. Nowadays, the students need to take the

other. And now since the population of the world is

course starting when they are in 1st grade of Elementary

growing, the spread of human resources and the job

School. Some primary schools even already prepare the

fields are not the same in every country, and the borders

materials. English has become one of the most important

that were fencing the countries are vanishing, a lot of

courses that the government wants the people to learn.

people are now considering finding opportunities, such as

We, as the people, cannot refuse that. English is the

jobs in another country. Even in our country, we find it

language of the world. It brings no wonder that the

usual now to see foreigners come back and forth.

government would want the people to learn it. But,

Therefore, the government desires us to be prepared for

unfortunately, not all of the people say so. Some people

this era. One of the tools that we can use to survive in

acknowledge this development of English in our country

this globalization era is English. English is, once again,

as a threat that could affect the nationalism of the nation.

the language of the world. The countries in the world are

They think that we betray our vow, the vow that was

using English to communicate between each other. By

declared in 1928 and as now we know it as “Sumpah

requiring the people in our country to learn English, our

Pemuda”, by learning English. Nevertheless, even a lot of

country would have human resources that are prepared

people say that learning English contradicts “Sumpah

to face the globalization era. It can benefit both the

Pemuda”, it is necessary for our people to learn it,

government and the people themselves. For instance, if

because English is one of our nation survival tools for the

someone finds out that it is a better opportunity for him

globalization era, it will help us to measure our education

to find a job in another country, at least he already has one big modal that he can use to survive in that country.

7


8

English. He can use it to communicate with the people

school stands on the standard rate. It starts with the

there, despite it is not an English-speaking country. That

National Standard School. If the school can apply English

really offers a benefit for him. On the other hand, as the

as their basic language in classes and they also use

foreigners also come to our country, with the help of

integrated curriculum, the school can be considered as

English, they will want to invest more in our nation. For

International Standard School. This surely leads us to the

the reason we know how to communicate with them, we

fact that English is one of the best tools to measure the

could infer what they really seek, so we could offer the

education quality in our country.

hospitality they need. That will bring benefit to our nation.

The next thing that let English become so important to be learned in our country is that it can

Another fact that makes it important for us to

increase the welfare in our country. We all already know

learn English is on account it can be one of the tools to

a country needs another country to develop. It could

measure our education quality. Until now, a lot of people

never stand by itself if it wants to be a great country.

say that the education quality in our country has

Even America, that has been the greatest country for

increased significantly. But, unfortunately, there is no

decades, would never be a superpower country if it does

exact way to measure it. We know that the education

not get a hand from other countries. And there, where the

quality in every school spread across the nation is not the

English is needed. By getting our human resources to

same, but at least we want to know how the average of

understand English, we could develop our country. We

the schools has gotten so far. One way offered to

could exchange benefits with other countries which will

measure it is by using the National Examination. Again,

bring more income to our country. We might also send

unfortunately, National Examination is not reliable as a

people abroad to study the systems of the well-

tool to measure the education quality. The process of the

developed country, so that the people could come back

National Examination itself has been awfully affected

and apply their knowledge to build our country. It will

with the cheating, hence we cannot rely on that. On the

also lead to get us more income. We could also bring

other hand, if we use English as one of the tools to

more foreign investors to our country that could bring us

measure the quality of the education in our country, we

a lot more job fields which could decrease the number of

could actually predict how the condition of our education

the unemployment in our country. And since the

really is. See, if we want to know the ability of the

capability of English could also increase the education

students of English. We would not want to know their

quality, it means that we are going to get a lot better

ability just based from a test, where they just sit and

human resources. They would have better skills and they

circle the letter a,b,c,d or e on the paper in front of them.

are more prepared to work on the jobs that they are

It will be measured from the aspects of how they read,

going to do. This will surely make the citizen in our

write, listen and speak. It is more practical and the

country have better jobs. By getting the better jobs, it

students do not need to cheat to prove that they are

will surely also decrease the number of unemployment. If

capable of English. Also, nowadays it has become a trend

it keeps going on the rate of unemployment, which is still

for the schools to get acknowledged about their standard.

such a huge obstacle for our nation, will eventually touch

And English has become one part that decides where a

a very low number. For certain, it will also increase our

Is It Necessary to Learn English ?


national income. The increase of the national income is

consider it to be more fun conversing in English. This is

the proof of the increase of the welfare of the nation. It

believed to decrease the love to the nation language,

will lead our nation to be a well-developed country.

Bahasa Indonesia, and eventually lead to the decrease of

Regrettably, there are some people who do not

the love to the nation. Therefore, some people cannot

agree about the need of our country to have the people

consider the requirement to learn English in our country

learning English. Those people say that learning English

as something that could bring joy to the nation.

actually ruins the vow that was declared by the people in

Nevertheless, the notion which states that the

war era. In 1928, about two decades before our nation

learning of English could bring harm to the nationalism in

got the independence, the young generation of our

the future could be prevented. Until now, English in our

country, which is now considered as the national heroes,

country is only used for the need of education and the

had a conference to secure their commitment to unite our

nation development. There is no motion stating that

nation. That vow is called “Sumpah Pemuda”. In that vow,

English will be one of our national languages. There are

one of the statements stated that „We, as the Indonesian

some other countries that consider English as one of their

people, will only speak one language, Bahasa Indonesia‟.

national language beside their indigenous language. But

Looking from that vow, for some people, learning English

we are never considering that. Hence, there is no worry

is so apparent betraying the vow. We already promised

that English will ruin the nationalism of our nation.

that we are just going to speak one language which is

Especially, for reason we have local languages that any

Bahasa Indonesia. Nevertheless, since people now are

area in our nation proudly uses it in the daily life. So, as

also learning English, Bahasa Indonesia is not the only

long as we still conserve the use of Bahasa Indonesia, the

language that has been spoken. There is also a motion

language that unites all the 33 provinces in our nation,

brought by those people that learning English has

and we still consider it as our first language, we can still

decreased the culture our nation has valued from a long

learn English just as a tool that we can use to develop our

time ago. The learning of English apparently opens the

country to be a great country.

door of chance for the western culture to slip into our

In summary, there is a notion stating that

culture. The assimilation of the two cultures cannot be

learning English could bring our love toward our nation

resisted. As an illustration, by the number of people who

into an end. But it can be prevented as long as we still

learn English is increasing, the using of English idioms in

trust that Bahasa Indonesia is our mother language, the

daily conversation is also increasing significantly.

language that unites all the differences that we have

Without anyone noticing it, the idioms have just been

across the nation. And we are still proud using it. As long

spread around and people are using them in their daily

as we use English only for the need of education and our

conversation. This is for sure bringing the impacts to the

nation development, we would surely taste the real

culture. It brings the changing to the way people speak

benefits of learning English. We could prepare our

and the language they use to talk. Another thing that

country to be more ready for the globalization era, we

people believe will happen from the learning of English is

can use it as a tool to increase our education quality and

that the nationalism in our nation is also going to

eventually to measure the quality itself, and also we can

decrease. For example, nowadays a lot of people

increase the welfare of our nation, so that we can be

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

9


considered as a great nation. It is never impossible for

We just need to use all of the tools, and one of them is

our country to be considered as one of the greatest

learning English.

countries. Our nation is still developing and always will. 10

Is It Necessary to Learn English ?


INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZED SCHOOL:

STOP OR CONTINUE? Nevi Ayu Envirani | 16711261 | 081328277884 | 2318 words

E

very citizen shall have the right to an

This is then followed by the government

education.

guidelines in 2007, which defined what the „international

This was written in the first line of Article

standard school‟ really meant; a school/madrasah which

31 in chapter XIII of The 1945 Constitution of the Republic

fulfils all the National Standards for Education and which

of Indonesia which tells us that each and every citizen of

is further enriched by taking into consideration the

this country, whether young or old, rich or poor, have

education standards of one member nation of the

their own rights to gain knowledge and receive

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

education, especially from formal schools. And by that the

(OECD) and/or another advanced nation which has

government has the obligation to fund it. As the years go

particular strengths in education such that it achieves

by and the globalization era have finally come right in

competitive advantage in the international forum.

front of us, preparations need to be done by our country

Actually the term „international standard‟ is being used

in order to face this coming era. Education, as we all

by Indonesia only, although some other developing

know, is one of the most essential because with it, high

countries have established a similar program. The use of

quality individuals will be born. To survive the impact

the term „international standard‟, which was really

brought by the globalization era, adapting is a real must.

ambiguous, gained people‟s attention with the emerged

Therefore, the quality of our education needs to be

comments and concerns asking what actually is the

improved in order to be able to compete with other

„international standard‟? Or who has the authority to

nations in the world. As a solution, the Ministry of

assess a school to be certified as an „international

National Education established a program to level up our

standard school‟? Not only the term used gained protests

schools, called the International Standard School (ISS) or

and comments, but the whole „international standard

Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional/Sekolah Bertaraf

school‟ program also gained comments and a huge

Internasional (RSBI/SBI) in Bahasa Indonesia. Law No 20

amount of critics. People from various backgrounds, jobs,

Article 50 on the National Education System followed this

and economy level criticized it after the program had run

in 2003 stating that the central government and/or local

for a while. This issue has been one of the hottest topics

government should establish one „international standard

to discuss in the education field. Pros and cons around

school‟ at each educational level (i.e. elementary, junior

this issue have been circling around for quite some time

secondary, senior secondary, and senior vocational

and even up to now. This „international standard school‟

secondary school).

program initially has a very bright intention, that is to prepare the young Indonesians to face and to be able to

11


12

handle the impact of the globalization era and it is one of

financial contribution to their respective schools. These

the government‟s efforts into making the quality of

actions trigger inequality in education and might lead to

education in Indonesia the same level as other nations

discrimination against students depending on their

worldwide. With regard to this reason, it motivates

income status, as „international standard schools‟ seem

schools across the country to improve their quality and

to become more exclusive and less affordable.

also make parents aware of the importance to prepare

Underprivileged students seem to have less chance to

their children in competing but despite all the good

receive their rights on quality education under these

intentions and advantages, the continuation of this

circumstances. This commercialized public education

program needs to be evaluated because most of its carry

needs to be stopped because it runs contrary with the

out lacks in many aspects including the concept

constitution about the same access to education for

implementation, management aspect, and readiness of

everyone.

schools.

Second, it seems that the „international In terms of concept, there is a huge miss in the

standard school‟ program have issues on its

implementation of this „international standard school‟

management. Seeing from the miss in the

program both by the lawmaker and the executor. The

implementation, it can be concluded that there is not

government intends to improve the quality of our

enough supervising in this program. Supervision is highly

education in order to increase the international

needed in any kind of program in order to avoid misleads

competitiveness. For that reason, „international standard

like what has happened. Without supervision, some

schools‟ are established, with lessons in English and

schools might just interpret the whole program and its

Bahasa Indonesia, fewer students, and an adopted

details as they would want which can lead to

integrated curriculum. With regards to this, the Ministry

misinterpretation about the concept of this „international

of National Education supplies an annual block grant of

standard‟. The government and the authorities need to

between 300 million rupiahs and 500 million rupiahs for

“watch” the schools as they have been given a large

„international standard schools‟ to buy equipments and

amount of money to maintain the program. The quality

hire staffs. They even permit schools to collect additional

must be checked periodically and the usage of the fund

fees from students that may be needed by schools to run

given should be checked as well, whether it is used to

the international program, whereas other state schools

improve the quality of the school, be it the teaching

are meant to be free. The permission of collecting

quality or the facilities. As part of the supervision,

additional fees from students is actually against the Law

indicators of this program‟s success need to be decided as

of National Education System, which regulates the

well. Guidelines of the standard and the parameter of

government‟s obligation of funding schools in the basic

success should be created and socialized to all of the

educational level (i.e. elementary and junior secondary

subjects involved. But above all, the supervisor team

schools). Thus, in reality even though the students of

itself is the most important part because if they, as the

elementary and junior secondary schools are not

authority, do not understand well the standards, the

expected to pay school fees any longer, the students of

scorings, and the parameter, everything will not run in

„international standard schools‟ still have to make a

the right track. What happened in reality is that the

International Standardized School : Stop or Continue ?


Ministry of National Education has succeeded in producing

when it was the examination weeks. The exam paper was

the program but has failed in guiding and supervising the

written in English, not just ordinary English, it was English

implementation.

that friends and I could barely understand the meaning. It

Finally, the „international standard school‟

was what is called broken English, it was Bahasa

program implementation lacks in the aspect of readiness

Indonesia translated directly to English without caring

of the schools in Indonesia to be converted into

about the grammars or whatsoever. What exactly is the

„international standard schools‟. The program was

purpose of using English in subjects other than English? Is

implemented directly from the oven without any case of

it because merely using English makes the school look

trial and error. This can be shown in the implementation

superior? Or is it because it is the international

of the concept into its curriculum, learning process,

language? Well, Japan and China uses their mother

communication language, and also the teacher‟s

tongue yet they still have internationally qualified

qualification. The curriculum used in „international

people. Indonesia too has loads of internationally

standard schools‟ is an adoption from integrating both

qualified people and I guess we do not want to ruin them

the national and international education standards.

with some broken English, do we? If we want our

Actually, there are not many differences between a

youngsters to master English, let‟s just leave it to the

normal state school with an „international standard state

English teacher and let other teachers teach with the

school‟. What differs the most between the two is that

language they all master, Bahasa Indonesia. But if

English is also used besides Bahasa Indonesia for the

teaching in English is really that necessary, give the

teaching medium in an „international standard school‟.

teachers time to learn it thoroughly, not just to reach a

The problem is that the English used in many subjects is

high score in TOEFL, so they will not give the wrong

far from the basic English and that a lot of teachers find it

guidance to the students.

difficult. It is true that some schools hire trainers to teach

Even though the „international standard school‟

their teachers English or some other schools got their

program possesses a lot of weaknesses in its

teachers to join English courses but it is only miracle that

implementation, like any other issue, which have both

can make someone be able to master English in just a

positive and negative sides, it still brings its own

count of days. So in the end, most teachers teach with

advantages to the subjects involved in its practice. Firstly

what can be called broken English and students end up

because of the establishment of this program, schools

not understanding the lesson. This is one example of the

start to compete on having the best teaching program,

effects of the premature decision on bringing the

the best facilities, the best students, and the best of

„international standard school‟ program to reality without

anything possible to be compared. I honestly do not know

further preparing the subjects involved first.

the real intention on having the best of the bests,

I have experienced it myself for my former

whether it is only for name and fame or it is for letting

high school was one of the „international standard

the students experience studying and learning at school

schools‟ in town. I did not have much difficulty in the

with only the best of things. But due to the competition

learning process even though some of my teachers used

arising, schools become even more aware of their inside

both English and Bahasa Indonesia, but the problem came

and outs and try to make the best of it. Well then, this

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

13


14

program has likely brought good motivation to our

schools‟ have failed its carry out, but evaluation,

schools and has gotten them to try and improve their

redefinition, and reconstruction need to be done before

quality. Secondly, the growing idea of this program is

running this program all over again. The government and

evidence that our government still truly cares about our

also the executors, including the schools, of this program

education and its sustainability in the global era. Even

should ask themselves what really is the aim of this

though most of the carry out was not like what it was

program? Why should we establish this type of program?

expected, still, the aim itself is a thoughtful one. The aim

What concept does this program undertake? How should

to level up our quality of education and bring it to the

we carry out the real meaning of the concept? And lastly,

same high as other nation‟s was like the biggest dream

what are the parameters of the success of this program?

ever and the government was trying their best to make it

A thorough research and absolute preparation is

real. Basically, this program shows just how much the

definitely an important stage before taking the program

education in our country has finally indicates its growing

into reality.

improvement and tries to strike the international world.

Like wise man said “slowly but surely”, it

I do believe that the government has a good

really is better to take things slow, steady, and not rush

purpose on establishing the program of „international

anything. Achieving a goal needs process and a process

standard school‟. The establishment of this program aims

needs time. As for the redefinition which needs to be

the preparation of young individuals in Indonesia so that

done, there is one suggestion on the new definition of

they will be ready and well armed to face the already

this program, “An „international standard school‟ is a

coming era, the globalization era. Besides that, this

school which provides high quality educational service for

program is one of the efforts made by our government in

students qualified academically and non-academically

order for our schools and education quality to reach other

who have the knowledge, skills, possess positive

nations level which are higher than ours. This lets schools

personal attitudes, and also have the ability to

gain the spirit to improve their quality, be it the

collaborate internationally.” People and also the

curriculum, the staffs, or the facilities and it also

government should talk this program through and then

increases the level of awareness on parents about their

decide whether this is the best and most effective way to

children‟s readiness to face the future in this global era,

get the education in Indonesia where it needs to be. If by

which means that international competition is no doubt to

chance this program really is the best, then justice needs

exist. However, the „international standard school‟

to be present because as we all know from the opening of

program‟s carry out has too much holes in it that can

this essay that basically, everyone has a right to an

barely be patched without taking some time to rethink

education. By that, the government has the obligation to

and evaluate. The holes are found in its fundamental

make sure every corner of this country receive it. Thus,

aspects and even in its center, which is why the program

young qualified Indonesians will soon be born and ready

should just be stopped for the time being. Although I truly

to face the international world.

understand that not all of the „international standard

International Standardized School : Stop or Continue ?


STOPPING PSSI’S SPORADIC NATURALIZATION PROGRAM IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO

Muhammad Akbar Arrozaq| 16711276 | 081321022353 | 2000 words

N

aturalization, acquisition

which of

means the

citizenship

the best ways to globalized football. People who came

and

from the famous football country and replaced his

nationality by somebody who was not

nationality with the new one can share the style of his

a citizen of that country at the time of birth, is a familiar

football play with players form new country. They will

word in recent years. In Indonesia, it became famous

learn how to play as good as him.Naturalization will bring

since Christian Gonzales pledged his allegiance to this

many benefits for our football. For examples, Japan has

country and replaced his Uruguayan passport with a new

three naturalized Brazilians on their national team to

one with the Garuda symbol on the front. PSSI, the top

date: Ruy Ramos, Wagner Lopes and Alessandro Santos.

football association in Indonesia, do naturalization of

Those players had proved their quality by spending at

Christian Gonzales due to the lack of Indonesia football

least seven years in Japan before obtaining citizenship.

game. Then, Gonzales could contribute an instant impact

Another examples come from Italy and Spain. European

and the Red and White benefited from his presence. As a

powerhouse Italy didn’t think twice about having half-

goal-poacher with decent ability to hold up the ball, he’s

Argentine Mauro Camoranesi on its team because the

been the answer to our problem in the attacking

skillful winger had cemented his reputation in Verona and

department. It has been proven from his appearance in

Juventus. Same thing applied to Brazilian-born Spanish

AFF Cup 2011. Gonzales’s success triggered PSSI officials

midfielder Marcos Senna, who won the European title

to list several other potential names for naturalization.

with La Furia Roja. Senna spent five years in Villarreal

Some of them are young Dutch players with Indonesian

before changing his nationality. They can combine their

ancestry; some are foreigners who have spent a

own football style with naturalization player’s skill to

considerable amount of time playing football in our

make an amazing and lovely football play in their

league. Some people believe that naturalization is an

national team. Same thing can happen in Indonesia. PSSI

instant way to get more medals in several championships

has taken some players in Holland who have Indonesian

but, it is not good for the development of young player.

blood such as Stefano Lilipaly, Diego Michiels, and Irfan

This essay will look at the impact of PSSI’s sporadic

Bachdim to be naturalized. This way became solution

naturalization program for the progress of Indonesia

since some failure of Indonesian National Team in

Football.

several events such as AFF Cup, Sea Games, and Asia It is true that naturalization can make our

Cup. PSSI hopes naturalization players will be the

football game more interesting. Naturalization is one of

solution for this crisis.

15


16

In other hand, naturalization is no use since

to National Football team the fewer opportunities of our

PSSI just takes player from other country without

local football player to enter the team. As we know that

knowing his ability deeply. An announcement by the new

naturalization player that PSSI takes is born from better

national team coordinator, Bernhard Limbong, that PSSI is

football academy. For example, Diego Michiels from

not going to continue the naturalization program,

Holland. He have got an exceptional academies in

produced mixed reactions. Those who agreed with

Holland. There were many famous player from this

Bernhard believe that local players should be prioritized

country such as R. van Persie, Marco Basten and the

to preserve our own talent. The opposing side suggested

recent player who has retired, van Der Sar. They have

that naturalization benefited the team and they can’t see

been popular among of all football fans. However,

why it should be stopped. Naturalization shouldn’t be

Indonesia’s football academy left behind away from

opposed because sometimes it’s needed and partly

them. PSSI will just look for quality not academy.

inevitable thanks to globalized football. However, this

Besides, our local young player must work hard for the

program is just sporadic and lottery-like. It seemed like

competition of national team selection. In fact, coach will

they scanned the list of all professional footballers in the

select the best player for each the position, but PSSI will

Netherlands and if they were half-Indonesian they were

accentuate the naturalization players than local. If we

offered naturalization regardless of their ability. If

look our neighbor, Malaysia, they have a good system for

they’re half-bule(read : Half-Indonesian), they must be

young football academy. We can compare the quality

great. That might be the way the PSSI thinks. As result,

between Malaysia and Indonesia. While AFF Cup and Sea

naturalization players may have the same or even poorer

Games 2011, Indonesia and Malaysia have met three

quality than our local football players. For comparison,

times in each final (included two legs for Final Match for

even in smaller countries like Qatar and Singapore,

AFF Cup). We know the fact that Malaysia had beaten our

naturalizing foreign players require a few years of

National team both in AFF and Sea Games. Malaysia won

settlement to determine whether or not they are good

both match and quality although the main players of them

enough to don the national colors. Those examples of

are from U-23 National Team. This proves the quality of

countries have considered that they will only recruit

their football academy. Different from Malaysia, most of

players with enough or more than enough ability.

clubs in our National League prioritize foreign player and

Naturalization should make an improvement of football

naturalization player then young player. Young players

play in one country, especially for National Team.

must have more chances to play to develop their own

Naturalization player should be fulfilling and fixing the

ability.

spesific areas in formation which must be improved.

The next reason for stopping naturalization

However, the reality is different. The level of our football

program is if naturalization player have joined national

game hasn’t been increased by the arriving of

team, will they play for prestige or pride of nationality?

naturalization player.

Since they are come from different country and they were

The other reason to stop this sporadic program

no born as Indonesian, they will not look Indonesia as

is naturalization can inhibit the potential of our local

their motherland. Even if naturalization player have no

young players. The more PSSI adds naturalization player

Indonesian blood, the foreign players who have stayed in

Stopping Pssi’s Sporadic Naturalization Program Is The Right Thing To Do


Indonesia for long time), they have no some relation with

This problem will also be in commnucation between

Indonesia and Indonesian. They can win some cup for

players in team. Altough naturalization players have

Indonesia, but they don’t love Indonesia. They just want

ability above the mena abilty of our local player. Their

to play football and get prestige. Are they serious to

will be useless if they just play individually. Football is a

make a change in Indonesia football or just want play in

team game. So football need communication between

national team. For most of our local players, be selected

team member to make a better game and compact team.

and playing in national team is a big dream as they enter

The last problem from naturalization program

football world. As result, all players selected to join

is PSSI’s capability to keep players in their good form. As

national team will play with high spirit and proudly. They

we know that Indonesia’s football style is different from

are proud because they can be representative of

style of Europe country. Indonesian footballer prefers to

Indonesian to play in any competition and make

play fast and use winger to make a goal chance, but

Indonesia name fragrant in the world. The proud of

European will play many accurate passing. The different

nation not only for player but also for the fans and all

style will make a little problem for naturalization players

Indonesian. Fans will be proud if Indonesian player can

to adapt in Indonesia’s football style. This adaptation will

contribute a success to the team because they both

reduce little skills of naturalization player because they

players and fans are Indonesian, same nation.

will play in Indonesia’s football style. The other cause

Besides, naturalization players have different

that will make their performance down is climate and

language with Indonesian. They came from foreign

weather in Indonesia. Naturalization players who come

country that has it’s own language. We know that football

from Europe which has 4 weather seasons will meet with

is game which need all parts of physical body, including

tropic region in Indonesia. It’s hard to play in such

mouth. Although football player don’t kick the ball with

different climate condition. PSSI must prepare special

mouth, mouth is an important part of communication. In

training program if PSSI want to keep them in their good

football game, there are some different role that are

form. PSSI can ask the help from trainer from Europe to

goalkeeper, defender, mildfielder, forwarder, and coach

make an alternative training type. This endeavor must be

team. They have to make a harmony and compact in team

done if PSSI don’t want naturalization player to have

in order to win the match and play football beautifully.

lower ability than our local player so that PSSI’s

The harmony will come after they can commincate each

naturalization program will not be failed.

other clearly. The capten will motivate all his team, while

There are many arguments that avoid

coach will give instruction. All of those will run if the

naturalization program. Naturalization program may give

communication clear. The main factor of communication is

positive or negative effects for out football development.

languange. Two person with the same language can

We know that the idea for naturalize player is in order to

communicate to each other easier than two people with

give a better change for our football. This program will

different language. It’s the same for naturalization

give many benefits for Indonesia’s football if PSSI, the

player. They will get a problem in communcation. For

top association football in Indonesia, 1) is selective for

example, if the coach is an Indonesian, naturalization

naturalization, 2) limits the number of naturalization

player will get problem if coach give him an instruction.

player, and 3) gives more chances to young player to

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

17


18

show. First, PSSI must be selective for naturalization

future of our football is in young players’ hand. By giving

which means PSSI must form a team that have a task to

more chance, young player are able to take more

scout the ability of player’s candidate. Player who will be

experience because experience is the best teacher.

naturalized must have high skill above the mean. Second,

To naturalize or not to naturalize is the

PSSI shouldn’t be sporadic in naturalization program. PSSI

prerogative right of PSSI. Indonesia may be success with

must consider that naturalization players is only the

naturalization program if PSSI has good strategy in this

catalyst to make a better football game in Indonesian

program such as be selective for naturalization, give a

national team. They aren’t main focus of development.

limit to the number of naturalization player, and give

Their ability will be a good example to be learned by our

more chances to young player to show. These steps will

local players. If the number of naturalization player in

help naturalization program to give significant effect for

Indonesian national squad is too much, team will depend

our football development. However, if PSSI just take

on them. The problem will come if they get an injury.

player randomly or we can call it sporadic, naturalization

Third, PSSI should give more chances for our young

program will be useless. As the summary, stopping PSSI’s

football player to take a part in national team. The

sporadic naturalization program is the right thing to do if

limitation number of naturalization player will give more

it has no any strategy and consideration.

oppurtunity for local player, especially young player. The

Stopping Pssi’s Sporadic Naturalization Program Is The Right Thing To Do


INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL DRESSES,

MODIFIED SOME TO POLITER VERSION?

Siti Aminah Fairuz Annisa | 16711284 | 083187565695 | 1907 words

dresses are considered to be not polite enough. It can be seen from some men traditional dresses that do not have top cloth, or something like „kembenâ€&#x; for women, or the way to dress up for some ethnic groups in East part of Indonesia. Therefore, an opinion to modify traditional dress to politer version comes up. But there are some contras against this opinion. The paragraphs below show the side which agrees and does not agree with this idea.

T

raditional dress is all stuff which is worn

The first argument that supports the contrary

by a person or group of people from

side is we must preserve our national culture. National

particular ethnic in order to show their

culture is culture that has been inherited from our

culture ethos in social living. Indonesia consists of

ancestor. It has been our identity and a symbol which

different ethnic groups, spreading on the entire land from

shows that this culture is ours and has been existed for

Sabang to Merauke. Different ethnic means different

long time. National culture is being kept in many kinds of

culture, different culture means different way to dress

shape, and one of them which is here as the topic is

up. Because of it, in Indonesia, there are many traditional

traditional dress. So, by preserving our traditional dress,

dresses that represent each of these ethnics. The way

it means that we have taken a part in preserving national

they create their traditional dress really depends on what

culture. We cannot change or modify them to other shape,

culture that grows in their society. We can see this from

because it indirectly will erase the purity of our culture.

many different models of traditional dress. There may be

We of course do not want to lose the identity and history.

tens or even hundreds of models, because most areas

We certainly do not want that event (when some of our

have more than one traditional dress model. For

cultures were claimed by neighborhood country) back to

example, the dress used in wedding ceremony is

happen. That event has clearly shown us the impact if we

different with the dress used in other ceremony, like

are careless in keeping the culture. It really saddens to

thankfulness ceremony. This vary of traditional dress is

see, let alone if we, by our own hand let them lost by

good to enrich Indonesian culture. But, there is

changing them to other version. This is our culture.

clumsiness in presence of these dresses. Some traditional

19


Culture that will amaze the whole world. We have to be proud of it. So let us preserve it.

The other reason why modifying traditional dress to politer version should not be done is because politeness standard is different in each area. It is a

Next, it‟s hard to change something that has 20

been set in for long time. We even can say it is almost impossible. Why? Just take a look at this example: everyone in Indonesia eats rise as staple food, we eat rise every day since we were very young, if there is a day we do not eat rise, we will feel something different and lack of an important thing. We can imagine what will happen if we stop eating rise or changing our staple food with other, such as potatos. Maybe we will lose our appetite and prefer not eating. Just the same with this example, we can see how hard to change culture that has grown for long time. Culture has integrated to the society life and been an important part to support its presence. We can not change or remove it easily. The society in that ethnic will refuse all kinds of the changing, and preserve their culture as possible as they can. If we can, it will not last in long term because they will not feel comfortable with unusual culture and finally this will bring bad impact to the society life itself. Moreover, in some ethnics, changing culture is considered as an action that violates the custom norm. They really uphold the culture as their ancestor‟s heritage, and that‟s why that culture is so sacred for them. Even though they are told that this change is better for them, politer version of traditional dress for this case, they will not accept the changing cause it has been set up in their mind that it is a bad thing to change the culture. It is not a small business and need a complicated process, like gather the whole society

culturally-defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context. It‟s easier to understand if we look at this example. For Sumatran, a polite dress is a dress that covers the whole body (this can be seen from their traditional dress). While for Javanese, a polite dress doesn‟t have to cover the whole body, like one of Jogyakarta men traditional dresses, the cloth does not cover body from stomach to chest, and the women wear something like „kemben‟ (cloth which is wrapped to the body, like using towel) on top and long skirt as their daily traditional dress. We need to have clear reference if we want to claim something. But, the fact shows that there are still different perceptions, which means we cannot claim what polite for us is the „real poilteness‟. Because perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information, in reallity it is hard to unite all of the perceptions. More different the perception, more different the output given by someone to response something. So, as long as the perceptions are still different, modifying traditional dress action cannot be realized cause each of the areas will keep standing on their own perceptions. For example, we cannot force the Papuan to cover their body with more cloth, because in their perception, they have been wearing a polite and proper enough dress, and it is a common thing.

in the ethnic, unite the mindset, and make a right decision together. Changing or removing a part of

Moreover, for a group of people who think that

cultures, such as modify the traditional dress is just like

the traditional dress is not proper to them, just adjust the

plundering a worth pearl which is protected by a wild

dress to their own condition, do not force the whole

monster. Almost impossible.

ethnic system to change or modify the traditional dress.

Indonesian Traditional Dresses, Modified to Politer Version ?


For example, if there are some people feeling worried to

above, polliteness. Politeness is best expressed as the

wear their traditional dress because it breaks their

practical application of good manners or etiquette.

religion rule, they can adjust the dress for themself, like

While the goal of politeness is to make all of the parties

modifying it to the shape that is considered more propper

relaxed and comfortable with one another, these

by them. We often enough to see some women who wear

culturally-defined standards at times may be manipulated

veil in daily life, modify the “kemben” or other dress

to inflict shame on a designated party. Politeness is the

model into Islamic style. It‟s easier to adjust with our

aspect which is often discussed and has been like an

condition which is very simple, than to make a big change

eastern culture icon. From this, we can see that it is

that consists of big risk and also complicated.

emphasized more. Generally, polite dress is interpreted

Another reason why the contra of this idea appears is because today, mostly ethnic groups wear their traditional dress only around their ethnic environment. They only wear that dress in some tribal ceremonies, such as wedding, thankfullness, or death ceremony. So it means that they are with the other people who have same perception about politeness. It does not matter because all people there will consider it as a common thing. They wear it only for ethnic necessity. When they are back to heterogen community, they will wear common (not traditional) daily dress. It has been avoided the other from feeling annoyed or the opinion of unpolite when see the dress without have to modify the traditional dress.

as a dress that covers human‟s “aurat”. Just like has been explained before, by covering aurat, it will make someone comfortable to be around the other, cause there is no “anoying view” to see. Some Indonesian traditional dresses are reflecting this thing, like in West part of Indonesia (mostly in Sumatra), but poorly, some others are not. Even it is really contrary to this, like what happens in East part of Indonesia. Papuan is the most concrete example of this phenomenon which can be seen. They only cover a little part of their body and let their aurat uncovered. It is so bad to see when they are being reported by televesion, there are sencors everywhere, we just have shown to the people in other country something that is not confortable to be watched. It is so possible if they think that it is not a polite way to dress

However, the people who agree with this action

up. And it can bring bad image of Indonesia as a country

think that those traditional dresses do not completely

which upholds the Eastern culture. That is why it will be

represent the eastern culture, which emphasizes

much better if this kind of traditional dress, with still

politeness. As we all have known, Indonesia is a country

preserve their characteristic patern culture, is modified to

which is famous with its eastern culture. If we talk about

politer version. So, with an approach by government and

eastern culture, it means we talk about many things, such

integrated national support to this ethnic, there is still a

as opinion, time management, life style, politeness,

possibility to realize this action.

relationship, ceremony, response to new thing, children, old age, transportation, the way eating, tour, solving the problems, self-confidence, spending the vacation, diet, and many other things. Now we are only taking one aspect from all of the aspects about eastern culture

In summary, the idea to modify the Indonesian traditional dresses to politer version has made the two contrary sides to come up. From the paragraphs above, can be seen that it is mostly inclined to the contrary side

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

21


22

because of the duty to preserve our national culture,

for the pro side to come supporting the idea. But, it is all

difficulty to change something that has been set in for

back to ourself, if we feel that using traditional dress

long time, the differences of politeness standard in each

brings not good effect to our life because of the model (it

area, adjusting the culture to the condition of each of us,

is understandable cause it is from our ancestor, who

and today the ethnic people very seldom show their

were still primitive and has not had religion), just adjust

appearence with traditional dress in front of heterogen

(can be by modifying) it to our condition, but the most

people out of the ethnic environment. However, those

important thing is do not ever erase the element of

traditional dresses do not completely represent the

culture from it. It is however the national identity that

eastern culture. And this statement has been the reason

have to be preserved.

Indonesian Traditional Dresses, Modified to Politer Version ?


NATIONAL FOOTBALL TEAM OF INDONESIA

HAS NOT SHOWN THEIR BEST PERFORMANCE YET

Raymond Harris Kristanto | 16711285 | 08170056870 |1997 words

D

o you like football? Or maybe it is

So, I think the national football team of

your life? There are a lot of people

Indonesia has not shown their best performance yet.

that take football as their priority. In

Indonesia has a lot of human resources with high interest

many country football is the most popular sports, for

in football, but we can‟t be the strongest team among the

example United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, France, Germany,

other South East Asia National team. This condition

and Indonesia as well. Football has become so close in

probably because our national football team change its

Indonesian people life. The high interest of football is

trainer too frequently. This condition makes our team

seen when our national football team play in every

unstable and the result is our national football team has

championship, the stadium is always full of fanatic

never become a champion in AFF Suzuki Cup and we have

supporters who gave their best support to our beloved

never won a gold medal in SEA Games since 1991 in

national team. This is the proof how Indonesian people

Manila. However, our football federation has done a lot

like football better than the other sports just like

of things to improve the quality of our national football

basketball, volleyball, badminton, etc. Now, let me tell

team, such as naturalizing some players, finishing the

you about our National football team history. It was

internal problem of our football federation (PSSI) and

began in 1938, we were the first Asian team that

making a better football competition, so the young talent

participated in FIFA World Cup, at that time our national

can sharpen their talent and become a professional

football team named “Hindia Belanda”. Unfortunately, we

football player.

lost from Hungary by score 6-0, that was our one and

First of all, Indonesia has a lot of human

only match in FIFA World Cup until now. Our national

resources with high interest in football, but we can‟t be

football team achievements until now is less than we

the strongest team among the other South East Asia

expect. We have never passed the qualification for Asia

National team. We have 234.2 million people (according

region in FIFA World Cup. For AFC Asian Cup, the best

to www.bps.go.id). It is almost 10 times of people in

results we can get that is reaching the first round.

Malaysia (27,730,000 people in 2008 according to

However, better achievement we got in ASEAN Football

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysia), but we can‟t use

Cup Championship, 4 times of being runner-up (in 2000,

this amazing amount of human resources yet to develop

2002, 2004, and 2010), can encourage Indonesian people

a great national football team. With only 27 million

that we can do more than what we are doing right now.

people (ten percent from our people), Malaysia can develop a better national football team, they beat us in

23


24

2010 AFF Cup Final. Why? There are a lot of factors that

Second, PSSI change Alfred Riedl, as National

cause this situation, both from the player and the official

Football Team coach, suddenly. The change decided after

in PSSI. Some of our national football players have a low

the little „chaos‟ finished. The new leader of PSSI, Djohar

discipline, for example, Irfan Bachdim, he can‟t play for

Arifin, announced the change because he think our

our U-23 national football team in SEA Games because he

national team needs a refreshment and the second

was absent from training. He is a great player but he has

reason is that he can‟t find the contract paper between

no responsibility at all, so the consequence is he can‟t

PSSI and Alfred Riedl in his office. Bob Hippy, member of

play for our national football team. A great player was

Executive Committee of PSSI and also the coordinator for

made from a hard training, the harder you train, the

Indonesia National Football team, clarified that the

better skill you get, so the players must not be an egoist,

change was made because the contract with Alfred Riedl

and they have to improve their disciplines.

was done personally, not as institution. That is why the

Another reason why this “abundant” of people

change was made, personal contract is illegal.

in Indonesia can‟t make us the best football team in South

Because of that, PSSI choose to change the

East Asia is our “habit”, early marriage, the performance

coach. This condition is really difficult for the players.

of an athlete will be decreasing after they married. There

They have to start it from the beginning again with new

is no particular reason for it, but that is the fact, let say,

coach, different style of coaching, different strategy, and

once again, Irfan Bachdim, without any intention to

different personality. I think that is too careless decision

intimate him, but he is the best proof for now, after he

from the leader of PSSI, because Alfred Riedl has a quiet

married Jennifer Kurniawan, his career as football player

good track record as a coach, he brought Vietnam

decreasing really fast, his team Persema lost the match

National Football team through quarter final for the first

versus Semen Padang by score 6-0, and he didn‟t play for

time in 2007 at AFC Asian Cup. He also gave Laos a

our U-23 national football team in SEA Games. I don‟t

“history” when Laos win over Indonesia for the first time

know what the reason for sure. It is probably because his

in SEA Games 2009 by score 2-0. When he coach our

concentration is divided, first for his family and for

national team, he gave us a satisfying result, two

football. So that, he can‟t give quality time to improve his

“massive” win over Malaysia (5-1) and Laos (6-0) in AFF

skill in football. However, we can‟t blame the players

Cup 2010. He made a big step for our team; he put in two

only. We need to see our football association, PSSI, as

naturalization players into our national football team,

well. As we all know, a few months ago we had a

Christian Gonzales and Irfan Bachdim. These very

problem with PSSI. The problem came from the election of

positive results from Alfred Riedl can‟t make PSSI

the leader in PSSI, too many people interfere in this case,

consider a wise decision and still fired him, and then PSSI

so that, the election ended with deadlock. With no leader

replaced him with Wim Rijsbergen. The effect from this

and corruption case inside PSSI, the committee in PSSI

careless change can be seen from the result that our

can‟t do their responsibility properly. This condition last

team gets. We were never winning a match at group

for a few weeks, and affect indirectly to our national

phase in World Cup 2014 Qualification; we lost from Iraq

football team.

(3-0), Bahrain (2-0), and Qatar (3-2). The other evidence is seven players from our national football team protest

National Football Team of Indonesia Has Not Shown Their Best Performance yet.


and refuse Wim as their coach. This conflict between

that we are the best team in Asia. This is not our best. We

players and coach show us there is a disruption in our

can do more than what we do in the last twenty years.

national football team as the effect of careless decision

Although our national football team not yet

from the leader of PSSI. These conditions that make our

gives their best performance, it doesn‟t mean that they

national football team can‟t give us their best

are give up without any effort. Our football federation

performance.

has done a lot of things to improve the quality of our

The last but not least is our national football

national football team, such as naturalizing some

team have never become a champion in AFF Suzuki Cup

players, now in our national football team there are some

and we have never won a gold medal in SEA Games again

naturalized players, they are Christian Gonzales, Irfan

since 1991 in Manila. One parameter of a team is in their

Bachdim, Kim Jeffrey Kurniawan, Greg Nwokolo, Viktor

good or bad performance is the trophy they get, how

Igbonefo, and Diego Mitchiels. Even though our “local”

many win they get over the others. In AFC Asian Cup, the

players have skill as good as them, their presence in our

best that we can do until now is get through the first

national team give a huge contribution, motivating the

round, never more than that. In the greatest football

other to be better and better again. This is the beginning

event, World Cup, the highest phase that we can pass is

of our national football team resurrection, I hope we can

the first round in 1938 under the name of Hindia Belanda.

keep this positive trend and become a champion.

After that we never pass the Asia qualification. Our

Finishing the internal problem of our football federation

national football team have never win a trophy in AFF

(PSSI), people in PSSI surely realize that their internal

Cup, our highest achievement in AFF Cup is become the

problems can give bad effects to our national football

runner-up in Tiger Cup 2000, Tiger Cup 2002, Tiger Cup

team, so they try really hard to finish it and start the

2004, and AFF Cup 2010. We can‟t even be a champion

“new” PSSI to make a better national football team so

among the other South East Asia nations. Our national

that, we can become a champion not only in South East

football team result in SEA Games is not satisfying as

Asia, but the world champion. Making a better football

well. The last time we won a gold medal in SEA Games

competition is also important, so the young talent in all

was in 1991 in Manila, Philippines. It has been twenty

clubs that participate in this competition can sharpen

years since our last gold medal in SEA Games. We have

their talent and become a professional football player.

been “sleeping” for twenty years. Our performance was

This is crucial for the future of our football. This young

bad in recent twenty years. This bad result is the proof

talent is the only hope of Indonesia to be in a best

that our national football team are in low performance.

performance, and furthermore we can be the world

We should be the best team in South East Asia, but we not

champion if we can give our best support for our young

yet arrive at that point, we need much more

talent.

improvement, our player‟s quality, experience, and

From the explanation above, the conclusion is

discipline. In the other hand, PSSI as our football

our national football team can‟t give us their best

association need a correction too. We need a team work

performance is because, Indonesia has a lot of human

between PSSI and the players. If they can do this I‟m sure

resources with high interest in football, but we can‟t be the strongest team among the other South East Asia

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

25


26

National team, it can be because our national football

have never won a gold medal in SEA Games since 1991 in

team changes its trainer too frequent, this condition

Manila. But, with some improvement just like naturalizing

make our team become unstable and the player need to

some players from other country, finishing the internal

start the whole things from the beginning due to different

problem of our football federation (PSSI), and making a

coaching style, different personality, and different

better football competition for the young talent to

strategy. Not only that, the low level of playerâ€&#x;s

develop, then become a good-professional player, will

discipline and the playerâ€&#x;s early marriage can give bad

bring us to a bright future, where we can be the best

effect to the team. That is why our national football team

team.

has never become a champion in AFF Suzuki Cup and we

National Football Team of Indonesia Has Not Shown Their Best Performance yet.


IMPORTANCE OF THE QUALITY OF SCHOOLS IN INDONESIA

Deby Suandi | 16711298 | 085782329909| 2018 words

I

ndonesia is a country that is fertile and

First, education is needed to build a great

has many natural resources are abundant,

nation. Become a developed nation is certainly a goal to

as we know. With abundance natural

be achieved by each country in the world. It has become

resources Indonesia should have a high level of

an open secret that the forward or whether a country is

prosperity. But in fact, Indonesia is still far from that

influenced by the educational factor. Once the importance

level, due to his lack of human resources with the

of education, so that a nation can be measured if the

potential to be able to use it. For example many people

nation forward or backward, because as we all know that

are exploring large-scale natural resources but we do not

an education course, Human Resources will print a good

think about their impact on the environment and

quality in terms of spiritual, intelligence and skill and

preserve it back

education is the next generation printing process. If the output of this educational process fails then it is difficult

As we know education in Indonesia is not

to imagine how to achieve progress. For a people who

evenly distributed to all people and regions. Example of

want to advance, educators must be viewed as a

educational facilities in areas that are less touchable for

necessity as well as other needs. So of course the quality

example in Papua, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, is still very

of education also affects the development of a nation. We

minimal and does not even have the facility at all. School

take the example of America. They would not be like

fees are expensive also be the reason why there are still

today if their educational level same with us. Then what

many children at school age who can not get to school.

about Japan? Japan highly appreciates education. They

There are also at a particular custom that only allow

are willing to spend huge funds for education only.

people who have high positions are allowed to take part in education. But actually the case is as we all know that

Educational institutions of formal schooling

education is the right of all people.

system is the lead agency to develop the knowledge, coaching abilities and skills, and instill modern attitudes

The importance of an understanding of

of individuals required in the development process. The

education as expressed Daoed Joesoef about the

evidence indicates a close connection between a person's

importance of an education, "Education is all areas of

formal education and participation in development.

livelihood, in choosing and building a good life, in accordance with human dignity" And certainly from the

Improving the quality of higher education will

statement we can conclude that education is very

create skilled people are able to exchange ideas, create

important and can not escape from life.

new ideas, improve economic productivity, and contribute

27


28

to broader development because these ideas contribute

generations. For example, the decreasing levels of crime.

to the health, environmental, better governance, and

Crime may decline because it shows a higher quality of

improve human welfare. With its high quality of schools

education it will decrease the risk of crime. Perhaps this

or educational facilities, it can provide benefits indirectly.

as the effect of young people remain in school and not be

There are personal benefits and social benefits that can

unemployed and on the street.

be obtained. Personal benefits that we can for example, better health can be obtained. Indonesia has a development trend that is also found in other states. Graduates of universities in Indonesia can enjoy better health than 8.4% of high school graduates in general. This applies equally to health for high school graduates compared to graduates of primary school. Figures were taken from 13 studies that interviewed many individuals in several countries. The more people who complete their education in a population, the health status in the population will exceed what can be obtained from the increase in income per capita.

Secondly, with education we can solve the common problems that are sweeping the nation. One of them is poverty alleviation. Nowadays, it is important for every citizen and government to work together to focus their attention on combating poverty that occurs primarily in rural communities where they face many and diverse problems faced by the case, including the lack of real participation in government 'manage' interests and the needs of rural communities, the region where they lived isolated both to the outside world and to the access that they should enjoy as state facilities, especially access to education resources in advance, so the impact

With the increasing population health, the aging

on the growth and progress of the village to be relatively

of the population will be much longer. This is due to their

slow. In addition, their short-sighted that education is not

inability to control the income per capita is related to

everything. This causes them to experience a crisis of

other factors. Again, this not only happens to those who

motivation and the desire for education needs that lead

are able to graduate from higher education, but graduate

to low quality and quantity of education in the rural

non-degree (secondary education) are also able to live

community level.

about 4.5 years longer than those who only completed primary education. Household management was becoming more efficient budget funds for domestic use is more efficient, and results can be saved from a greater percentage of income. This can occur at every level of income per capita increases if there is awareness on education. Furthermore, with increasing family income, families invest automatically for children to learn at home, which is an important source of additional savings for the building of a nation. In addition to personal benefits, there are also social benefits which is a benefit for others and future IMPORTANCE OF THE QUALITY OF SCHOOLS IN INDONESIA

Therefore, efforts are also required to increase rural community awareness of the importance of education in preparing a generation of quality for the benefit of future village associated with the existence and survival in order to alleviate poverty and improve the welfare of both sustainable livelihoods for rural communities in particular and nation in general, to make education a staple in their lives in developing creativity and innovation The role of education is one of the development efforts in combating ignorance and eradicate poverty


which is expected to occur and increase sustainable

attitudes, feelings, words, and actions based on religious

prosperity for its people, especially in rural communities

norms, laws, manners, culture, and customs.

that the welfare of his life is quite low compared to surrounding urban community that is easy and fast-paced in accessing resources are available. In accomplishments, other efforts are undertaken to support the achievement of poverty eradication through community participation to help each other and worked together in an integrated empowerment, continuous with a clear target.

For Indonesia today, character education also means doing business in earnest, systematically and sustainably to awaken and strengthen the awareness and confidence of all Indonesian people that there will be no better future without having to build and strengthen the character of the people of Indonesia. In other words, there is no better future that can be realized without

Third, the quality of a good education and good

honesty, without increasing the self-discipline, without

teaching and learning process, the character of a

persistence, without the spirit of high learning, without

dignified human being can emerge, so that people of

developing a sense of responsibility, without fostering

good character will arise. Therefore, character education

unity amidst diversity, without the spirit of contributing

is needed. Character education, now it is absolutely

to the progress together, and without a sense of

necessary not only at school but at home and in social

confidence and optimism. But still many people who think

environments. Even now no longer a participant character

education is not important, they are more concerned with

education early childhood to adolescence, but adulthood

how his or her way to make money and meet their living

is absolutely necessary for the survival of this nation.

needs. When in fact is, to get welfare needs sufficient

Imagine what the competition which appeared in 2021? At that time, the children of today will face the competition with his colleagues from various parts of the country in the World. In fact we are still going to work will feel the same feelings. The demands of quality human resources in 2021 would require good character.

education, so because the lack of people's desire to attend school then the lower the quality of people's welfare in this country. Lack of people's desire to attend school is due to the low quality of education. The low quality of education is caused by several factors, both formal and informal education undervalued. The cause of the low quality of education such as Low physical

However, the character is the key to individual

facilities, the low quality of teacher, low welfare of

success. From a study in the United States, 90 percent of

teachers, The low student achievement, the low

cases of dismissal due to bad behavior as irresponsible,

educational equity opportunities, the low relevance of

dishonest, and poor interpersonal relationships. In

education to the needs, and The high costs of education

addition, there are other studies which indicate that 80 percent of a person's success in society is determined by the

emotional

quotient.

Character is the values of human behavior associated with the Almighty God, yourself, fellow humans, the environment, and nationhood embodied in thoughts,

For example an educational institution in Central Kalimantan Institute Assurance

for Education Quality

(LPMP) Province of Central Kalimantan

(Kalimantan) to assess the quality of schools in 14 districts / cities in the region received less attention from local government.

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

29


30

A total of 618 primary schools in

future. Efforts to improve the quality of teachers is one

district, no one can meet the assessment of the entire

of the program is supposed to do. To that end,

national education standards it. While the eight criteria,

government support is needed as an effort to improve

only one or two schools that would be met direct review.

the quality of teachers which in turn will impact on the

Eight national education standards are content standards,

quality of graduates.

processes,

educational

assessment,

graduation

competencies, management, educators and educational personnel, finance, and standards of school facilities and infrastructure. Therefore, in order to increase the good quality of the school, regional head of each region should pay attention to the issue of education. Local Government needs to allocate matching funds schools, or providing training to teach students that every effort. Lack of education depends on the quality and local governments, rather than force their students. If the local government concerned and provide training or guidance to teachers on a regular basis, of improving the quality of education will be more advanced.

Many factors must be improved local government in education, such as completing school facilities and prasara hinterland, such as giving a collection of new books as reference material to learn the students and teachers. In conclusion, although there are still many problems that occurred in Indonesia in improving the quality of education, we do not have to give up and keep trying to develop and advance the education system to become a good and right. From the educational process will also be born of human resource potential. This will be a provision in the face and solve the problems of life and life, both as an independent, community residents, as well as citizens. Other than that

Good schools are not only seen from the

of the educational benefits we can advance the

completeness of facilities and infrastructure, but also the

development of the nation toward a better, solve

quality of teachers. This needs to be done to improve the

problems that are happening, and build the character of

quality of teacher training for the professionals in the

the nation so that it can compete with other countries

IMPORTANCE OF THE QUALITY OF SCHOOLS IN INDONESIA


ARE YOU READY FOR 12-YEAR COMPULSORY EDUCATION ,

INDONESIA?

Devina Jonathan | 16711336 | 081927542892| 2036 words

T

he implementation of compulsory

government will be used to complete the lack of

education in Indonesia began with 6-

materials and to pay operational system fees of the

year compulsory education. The 6-year

schools such as electricity, water, telephones, salary of

compulsory education has been reached in 1984 and

the teachers, textbooks, stationary, report books, and so

achieved Avicenna award from UNESCO. The success of 6-

on. For the students that are not capable of paying the

year compulsory education is then continued with 9-year

tuition fees, government has provided several types of

compulsory education, which has been discussed to be

scholarship that will help the students so that they are

implemented in 1994 when Wardiman Djojonegoro

hoped to attend school and finish their nine-year

became minister of education and culture in Indonesia.

education. Now, after years of implementing the 9-year

The 9-year compulsory education is first planned to be

compulsory education, our minister of education,

complete in 2004. However, 1998 economy crisis that has

Muhammad Nuh has planned to have a 12-year

put Indonesia at its worst economy condition ever has

compulsory education that will be started to be

affected the number poor citizens and caused the lack of

implemented next year in Indonesia. The initiation step

country‟s device and fund. Because of the economy crisis,

will be like 9-year compulsory education that is allocating

the number of poor citizens in Indonesia increased from

more budgets to senior high schools and Islamic senior

22 million in 1997 to 40 million in 1998. The impact of the

high school students. The program of the government

economy crisis is that many parents can‟t afford to pay

seems good since we know that 9-year compulsory

the elementary school and junior high school tuition fee.

education is actually not enough to increase the

This condition has insisted the country to postpone its

sustainability of our human resources. But, is the

programme until the economy condition is first recovered

government really ready to implement a 12-year

and it can reduce the number of poverty. After the long

compulsory education? Will the 12-year compulsory

recovery, the 9-year compulsory education policy was

education run well? We don‟t think so. Although 12-year

being active again. Government started to run this 9-year

compulsory education is needed by Indonesia, Indonesia

compulsory education policy by first allocating more

is not ready for this policy because Indonesia doesn‟t

budgets to education sector up to 20%. The additional

have enough budgets for it, also the 9-year compulsory

budget was received first hand by local government and

education policy actually hadn‟t run well.

after that it will be distributed to local elementary and

Indonesia‟s education system is in for a major

junior high schools. The additional budget from the

step, with the government„s plans to increase compulsory

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32

education to 12 years. In late May, Vice President

decreasing slowly and is predicted to not be able to reach

Boediono said the government was increasing efforts to

its goal this year. Indonesia has planned to achieve a

introduce compulsory 12-year basic education for all

6.5% economic growth this year, but it seems that it can

Indonesian children by 2014, with initial pilot programs

only reach 6% or less. It has put more people in doubt

to be launched in selected regions some time this year.

that government has sufficient funds to be allocated to

“We‟re committed to rolling out this program in stages,

education

as part of our effort to boost the country‟s academic

Muhammad Nuh, who was accompanying the Vice

standing,” Boediono said during a visit to a school in Bali.

President on his Bali trip, has acknowledged that funding

The proposed increase in the term of compulsory

will be a hurdle, though one he believes will be

education is part of the government‟s campaign to make

overcome. While there has been little opposition to the

the country more competitive in the global marketplace

proposal of extending the compulsory education, there

by strengthening the economy‟s foundations, according to

has been a doubt among the experts that the country will

Boediono. “We will use this program to increase the

be able to fulfil its promises. There are still many people

quality of our nation in an effective way,” he said. If the

that are suffering from poverty whose life depends on

government keeps to its schedule, it will be the third

the help of the government. By this policy, government

extension of compulsory education in the past three

will sacrifice these people for the sake of education and it

decades. In 1984, six-year mandatory universal

will sound immoral. Since there are many things to

education was introduced, ensuring that all students

concern, the 12-year mandatory education is still a long

attended elementary school. This was followed in 1994

way to go.

sectors.

National

Education

Minister

by the establishment of a nine-year compulsory

Nine-year compulsory education program has

education system, covering the six years of primary

ended 2 years ago. Government assessed that it has

schooling and three years of secondary school. Any

been completed perfectly because the rough participation

further increase in the term of compulsory education will

number (APK) of the children attending elementary school

add a significant burden to the national budget, which

and junior high school has reached around 95%. But,

already dedicated a large part of state spending to

many people worried that it was only quantity which

schooling. In the 2010 budget, some US$21 billion,

government pursued to complete this program. Based on

approximately 20 percent of total planned expenditure,

the datum of the department of national education, the

was allocated to the education portfolio, of which almost

rough participation number of the children attending

50 percent represents the wages of teaching and

junior high school, that is 92,52% is only an average

ancillary staff.

percentage. It is stated that 5 provinces with the highest

With some 51 million primary and secondary

percentage are DKI Jakarta, DI Jogjakarta, Bali, East

school students covered by the compulsory education

Java, and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. This means that

system, an increase in the years of compulsory education

actually there are still provinces that did not reach the

would create a massive burden of funding to

rough participation number like East Nusa Tenggara,

accommodate

staffing

Papua, West Papua, and West Kalimantan, but because

requirements. Also, the economic growth of our country is

there are provinces with higher APK, statistically, it can

new

infrastructure

and

Are You Ready for 12-Year Compulsory Education, Indonesia?


be said that Indonesia has been successful in

among people in Indonesia, we indeed believe that this

implementing the nine-year compulsory education

program is actually needed to increase the quality of our

program.

human resources. It is admitted that the implementation Another case that shows the failure of this

policy is a news from Bandar Lampung

of nine-year compulsory education by government is not

that the

enough to increase the quality of our humans and it can

Tanjungkarang District Court in Bandarlampung sentenced

be seen from the number of unemployed people that is

Haidir, a state elementary school principal, to 16 months

still beyond the normal rate. James T. Riady, vice

in prison and a fine of Rp 200 million (about US$23,500)

president of KADIN Indonesia in educational employment

for embezzling School Operational Assistance (BOS) funds.

and health sector, said that nine-year compulsory

Presiding judge Ida Ratnawati said the defendant had

education program didn‟t match the condition of our

beyond any doubt been proven guilty of corruption. The

country anymore because we were entering the golden

defendant was proven to have misappropriated Rp 35

era of development then. James explained that the

million from the 2005-2010 BOS funds and deducted Rp

education system, which was not linked and matched,

420,000 from the 13th salary instalments of seven

indeed failed because the world of education in 20th

teachers at the school. This is not only the case that is

century was dominated by industry sector. The only thing

related to the corruption of BOS funds. There are

that we need is 12-year compulsory education with the

hundreds cases like this happen on all over Indonesia.

increase of quality of education so that we can create

Complains also came from the parents of the children that

good outputs that are ready to work and industry-

received BOS fund. They said that they had to pay

conscious. If we take example of South Korea, 12-year

another kind of fees or called „pungutan‟ from the school,

compulsory education has been implemented since a long

meanwhile government had free them from any

ago so it is actually Indonesia‟s duty to provide 12-year

operational fees related to the operational system at

education for its people. The National Education Ministry‟s

school or the examinations. We can see from this fact that

director general for secondary education, Hamid

nine-year compulsory education has not been well

Muhammad, said that actually the ministry planned to

implemented technically. There are still many children in

increase the capacity of high schools in the country. The

remote areas which cannot get this basic education. There

government and the House of Representatives had

are also many problems that followed the

agreed to add 8,000 seats, he added. The government

implementation of nine-year compulsory education. Many

would also raise the number of scholarship recipients for

experts are doubt that government can run 12-year

junior high school graduates and prepare school aid funds

compulsory education program well because of these

for 6.7 million senior high school students. Hamid said

cases. We believe that it is better if the government

“We propose to give Rp 200,000 [US$22.40] each

evaluate and increase nine-year mandatory education

annually.” The funds will be disbursed next year, he said.

first and increasing the quality of it before moving on to

Education is one of the basic needs to increase human

12-year compulsory education.

quality and it is right that the government needs to work

Although the plan of implementing 12-year

hard to provide funds so that this program can be

mandatory education has brought much controversy

implemented as fast as possible. No matter how hard it is

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

33


34

to get enough funds to implement this policy, Indonesia

fast as possible in order to compete with other countries.

must be ready for this program in order to survive and

Indonesia is a country with low quality of human

compete with human resources in other countries.

resources and education and if we are stuck with 9-year

So to summarize, the condition of our country

education policy, we will not be developed and will

indeed becomes a barrier for us in implementing this 12-

always be a remote country in the eyes of other

year compulsory education program. We still have other

countries. 12-year compulsory education is not a

sectors to concern such as the welfare of the citizens,

luxurious policy since other country like Korea has

economic growth, and so on. Allocating more funds to

implemented it for a very long time. It is Indonesia that

education sectors will become a burden to other sectors

needs to struggle hard in order to implement it as soon

and will surely become a burden to our country. Also, the

as possible. But, Indonesia surely canâ€&#x;t run this policy

latest policy, 9-year compulsory education had not run

without the help of other people or organizations. If this

really well and still has to be evaluated. There are still so

program is really to be implemented, the help from

many problems which need to be solved in this policy

private companies and participation from all layers of

before we move on to a bigger program.

people in Indonesia are really important to think about

Obviously, a 12-year compulsory education

the needs of education so our fresh graduate is ready to

program is a good program. This program is aimed at

help the development of this country. And also, private

fulfilling the goals that are stated in UUD 1945 about

companies need to contribute more to education sector so

national goals, that is creating smart people. We indeed

that we can create smart generation that can be the pride

believe that we really need 12-year compulsory

of our country.

education program to be implemented in our country as

Are You Ready for 12-Year Compulsory Education, Indonesia?


RISING OR NOT: QUESTIONING THE INDONESIAN CHILDREN’S READING INTEREST

Firda Fairuz Zakiyah | 16711338 | 085885435960| 2406 words

R

eading

is

important

for

the

educational practitioners, because reading can help shape

development of human mind, especially

a lot of useful skills, such as learning, thoroughness in

for child’s mind. From the very early

thought and view towards life, knowledge expansion,

stage of human’s life, many parents had tried to give

enhancement in communication skills, and overall

their children books to help them develop their mind. At

improvement in intelligence – which is desperately

first, the first mind development they had is learning to

needed for this country to develop into further

read the book. After they became more fluent reading the

advancement in technology and social welfare. Even with

book, they started learning about how to understand a

the learning facility, such as schools and library, that

book context, such as its story, its character – if the book

have been improved, the reading interest seemed hard to

they read is a story book – or its topic, its language, and

be improved. Improving this interest, according to most

its uniqueness – what makes them so interested in

educational practitioners and parents, are the most

reading – if the book they read is a nonfiction book, such

important key to help improving this nation’s condition

as a book about the sea, about the nature, or about how

through the children education. The inhibiting factors that

daily things like telephone is invented. In Indonesia,

affect the growth rate of reading interest in Indonesian

reading interest in the children has somehow become a

children are the increasing number of electronic media,

hot discussion between educational practitioners and

such as the increasing number of TV shows and video

parenting experts. Many of them still thinks that

games, not mentioning also the movies that attract

Indonesian children’s reading interest are still extremely

children’s attention and interest for watching it, and also,

low, especially when compared to other ASEAN countries’

the fundamental factor, that Indonesian information

children’s reading interest. Even so, some of them think

spreading culture is mostly based on oral tradition. Every

that the reading interest might have grown, although

day, from year to year, with the advancement in the

slow, in a steady rate compared to the previous decade.

gaming technology, there are more and more video

Another point that came into the discussion is the book

games that are available for children. Sure, not all video

quality that are being read, if there is indeed an increase

games are made for children, but children are so

in rate of reading interest, then it might have little, or

interested on video games that they even interested in

even no meaning at all if the books children read have a

video games that are not made for their age. The same

low quality. The reading interest in Indonesian children

condition also happens when it comes to the TV shows.

had become an interesting discussion for parents and

This condition of children’s interest in video games and TV

35


36

shows, not only hinder children to read books, but also

people could afford for such education. In short, oral

expose children to the negative sides of video games and

tradition has stronger prevalence in Indonesian culture,

TV shows (such as explicit violence, offensive language,

that later influence much of Indonesian’s view on written

provocative material like drug abuse and sex and so on).

culture, specifically reading.

On the other hand, the oral tradition of information

Still, some people think that there is some hope

spread in Indonesia is also quite inevitably influences the

left to help raising the reading interest rate among

inhibition of reading interest growth in Indonesian

children in Indonesia. With the written tradition that the

children, and this factor is so subtle, that most people are

ancient kingdom ever had, some people think that it is

unaware of this factor and unfortunately, because of its

prove that Indonesian people ever had a strong written

subtleness and fundamental nature, this factor become

tradition, and might be even have it again, when the

quite hard to be overcome. Indonesian people, regardless

children’s reading interest are successfully raised. Not

of their ethnicity, relied mostly on oral traditions, such as

only that, some steady increase in educational book

daily conversation between housewives, public speech by

publishing and purchase can actually prove that children’s

a prominent figure in a region (for example, if it is a

reading interest are slowly increasing, perhaps in a

village, then the prominent figure in the village is usually

steady rate. Even with the increasing number of

the village’s administration chairman or the ustadz/other

appealing TV shows and games for children, and

religiously influential person) to spread information from

increasing number of comic books, and generally a small

one source to many people and store information, usually

interest in reading articles on books about science and

collectively. There are many ethnicities that have shown

technology, Indonesian children’s reading interest on

written tradition in spreading and keeping information,

books with good quality have steadily increased,

such as the ancient Javanese, that kept information in

although slowly, from the previous decade until today.

lontar scrolls, bronze plates and other kind of medium.

But what is the growth proof anyway? With the

Some points to notice, though, most ethnicities that have

increasing number of children playing video games and

shown this written tradition are usually have some

watching TV shows, there does not seem something like a

advancement not only in daily life, but also in their

growth in reading interest. Just like what have been

society life and education. They have a more structured

mentioned in the introductory paragraph, the increasing

administration in their society, which is usually marked

number of video games released and TV shows aired

by existence of a kingdom in a region where the ethnic

have made it more difficult to encourage children reading

group lives. And they also have a structured system of

books. The survey conducted by PIRLS, Progress in

education, which is marked by records about traveling

International Reading Literacy Study, in 2006 showed that

scholar that came to Sriwijaya kingdom to learn about

Indonesian children only ranked the 36th from 40 in

religion. The number of kingdom and educational

reading interest. Indonesia was only better than Qatar,

institution are, however, limited compared to the number

Kuwait, Morocco and South Africa. There were 40

of ancient villages led by chieftains that were spread all

countries from Asia and Africa that participated in the

over Indonesia. The influence of the educational

survey, and the fact that Indonesia scored only in the

institution at that time is also limited, since only few

36th place showed that the reading interest in Indonesia,

Rising or Not: Questioning the Indonesian Children’s Reading Interest


especially in its children are very low (there is currently

made solely for the purpose of entertainment. While

another survey conducted again by PIRLS in 2011, yet

children usually read story books partly because of their

until this essay is written, there has not been any new

parents buying the book for them, children who usually

publication about the survey, which means that the

reading comic book mostly buys them because of their

survey is still in progress). The survey was conducted in

own will. If only most people didn’t view comic in a bad

2006, but most people in Indonesia, especially those who

light, most people would have considered children

concerns the reading interest in children, assumes that

reading comic books as a good sign of literacy.

the survey’s data still relevant until today. This shows

Unfortunately, most people considered comics not as a

that there hasn’t been any growth in children’s reading

notable read, and indeed a reading interest in children

interest.

are measured on how frequent children read educative Even so, it has to be admitted that the fact

books, such as school textbooks, nonfiction books, like a

about children’s interest in games and TV shows are

book about science in daily life and so on. Books like

indeed inevitable. There are indeed many of the children

abridged classic novels for children can also count as

who are interested in those things, and this can be

educative books. There are indeed many parents who

regarded as a normal thing, as long as the children didn’t

bought their children story books, but perhaps there are

show excessive interest (or obsession, in another word)

still a few parents who bought these abridged classic

on them. Even with the great number of children playing

novels for their children. So, as long as children’s reading

games or watching TV, there are fortunately a group of

interest is only comics and story books, perhaps

children of who started to show an increase in reading

Indonesian children’s reading interest might never

interest. They are the children who often read children’s

increase both in quality and quantity.

magazine, following a comic book’s story and reading

Aside from children’s keen interest on comic

story books. Children that have any of the three criteria

books, there is some things worth to be noted. The

previously mentioned belonged to the group, and some

publication of children’s novel in Indonesia have helped

people think that this could be a good sign of

raising the number of child readers and children’s

improvement in children’s reading interest. Even if they

reading interest since the publication of the first volume

are only reading comic books and children’s magazine,

of Harry Potter in Indonesian language. Harry Potter,

these signs show that it might be easier to lure them into

with its interesting story plot and universe, has helped

reading educative materials compared to those who

many children, not only helping them to love the activity

rarely read materials read by this group.

of reading book, but also helping them imagining the

Yet skepticism still arises, even if the children

story that happened in the book, recognize and

are reading books, most of them will usually read comic

appreciate a story plot, get involved emotionally in the

books and story books. Comic books, as almost

plot development of the story, and all other things that

everybody assumes, are usually light reads, and often

are included in literature appreciation skill – which is an

didn’t contain much educative material for the children.

important skill that can also help their mental and

This could be true for most comic books, since most comic

intelligence development. Aside from Harry Potter –

books, especially comics that were made for children, are

children’s novel literature qualities are quite varied, but

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

37


38

generally most novels that are published and targeted

Even if it seems like Indonesian children shows

children as the main consumer are good, both morally

no interest in the previously mentioned topics, there are

and entertaining-wisely. With the increasing number of

quite a few children that show interest in science,

publication in this genre, everybody can safely assume

technology and society updates (It might be hard to

that children’s reading interest is on the rise, although

picture children having interest in society updates in such

few people sure how quick the rate is going up.

an early age, yet the interest that was meant in this

With all the children’s raising interest in novels,

essay was interest to identify the society they live in,

there is something more important about this issue about

such as who is the current president, what are pancasila

Indonesian children’s reading interest. If Indonesian

and its principles and so on). What are proofs of this

children only show reading interest in comic books, story

interest anyway? First, there are an increasing number of

books and novels, how will they have and show any

comic books which topic are science and technology,

interest towards science articles or even magazines and

which are followed by the increasing number of people

books about science, technology and even economy and

purchasing the books. Second, there are comments on

social sciences and the development of it. Indeed that

science article in children’s magazine. Third, in a science

there are many people who grow this interest as they

magazine, like National Geographic Indonesia, there are

became an adult, but that is also caused by the

even letters from readers telling that their children also

habituation most of these people get from their

interested in that magazine. The increasing number of

childhood. If only more and more children get this kind of

educational comic books, aside from the publisher’s will

habituation, the habituation of reading educative

to bring in a new variation in the children’s section, can

material, such as books about science (which are suited

also be viewed as an attempt to improve children’s

for the children’s need), educative story books and

reading interest – an attempt that works, at least

novels, the rate of reading interest in Indonesian children

seemingly. Comments about science article in a children’s

could be improved for better. But as some educational

magazine, might not always become a strong evidence

practitioners said, Indonesian children has only reached

for showing children’s interest in science, but comments

listening interest and watching interest in phase of

on it shows that there are children who follow updates in

mental development skill towards reading. Indonesian

science and technology updates. The readers’ letter about

children haven’t even reached reading interest, according

their children’s interest in National Geographic Indonesia,

to these experts, and this is proven virtually when people

on the other hand, is an impressive evidence of children

mostly sees Indonesian children busy playing video

who follow science and technology. This shows that, even

games, on line or off line games, and watching TV shows

if not all children mentioned in the letters are reading the

at their past times. With most children actually only

magazine, it shows that there are children’s interests in

playing games or watching TV shows, it is clear that

reading science articles, or even books, and the number

Indonesian children shows no interest in reading articles,

of children seems to be increasing, judging from the

especially articles about science, technology and society

increasing number of readers’ letter telling story about

updates.

their children’s interest.

Rising or Not: Questioning the Indonesian Children’s Reading Interest


All in all, it can be said, even if most

population of Indonesian children, started to increase,

Indonesian children doesn’t show any interest in reading

most notably since the publication of Harry Potter in

books, there are a number of Indonesian children that

Indonesian language. It is certainly growing, although at

show their interest in reading book, and the number of

a slow rate. 39

the latter group, although only partially from the total

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports


WHY INDONESIA SHOULD SUPPORT ITS ATHLETES

BEFORE THEY WIN MEDALS

Maulanna Maryunani | 16711384 | 085720185900| 2197 words

F

resh off of a surprisingly successful SEA

away absurd amounts of money in this fashion is

Games campaign, things are looking up

regrettable, and should be avoided in the future. There

for Indonesian sports. 182 gold medals,

have been arguments that imply that those billions

151 silver medals, and 143 bronze medals total to 476

neither is that relevant nor significant for an economical

medals. Which is more than a quarter of the whole 1807

balance of a country, especially a country supposedly as

medals being contested in Jakarta and Palembang.

big as Indonesia, but we tend to think otherwise,

Impressive for a nation which has always been, since the

especially with all the poverty going on. The cash should

turn of the century, pictured by its own people as a

be managed with precision up to the cent, and throwing it

struggling nation with success being very scarce. But

away in this fashion is ill advised.

unfortunately, it's not all good news. In a rather eccentric

Continuing with that, the fact that we use this

and somewhat lazy way, the Sports and Youth Minister

method so many times in the past, it’ll need more and

Andi Mallarangeng has decided to give a 200 million

more money for it to be a perennial “wow” factor every

rupiah bonus for every gold medal won, 150 million and

time our athletes take the field. The 200 million rupiahs

100 million for silver and bronze respectively also. And,

bonus per gold medal is unsurprisingly the highest it is in

though as comforting and pleasing it is to see our

our history ever since the SEA Games was created, and in

athletes being handsomely rewarded for their

the 2013 SEA Games only God knows how big it will swell

achievements, we should stop our results-based way of

(again). As our inflation grows, so does our expectation of

rewarding athletes because it is expensive, morally

big amounts of money, and as we are apparently not that

incorrect, and not exactly what our athletes want.

attentive towards the inflation, the bonuses will have to

We will start with the fact that giving a lot of

grow exponentially in the future for it to be something

money needs a lot of money. Yes it’s obvious, but not

buzzed around in the media and in the general public.

necessarily stupid. We always hear about poverty

And of course, a bonus wouldn’t be as attractive without

becoming common in some parts of the country, and we

its buzz and hype surrounding it. When you put it through

continually hear about the general mismanagement of

your head, it is ridiculous how a country whose

Indonesia’s resources, which directly results in said

governmental system are one of the most corrupted in

poverty. And yet the government spent billions on

the world continue to be eccentrically wasteful in its

something classified as a bonus. Speaking just purely

expenses, particularly for something which, forgive us,

from an economical point of view of, the point of giving

40


can be classified as not that important to the general

important, and failure to do so might be a reflection on

welfare of the whole nation.

our country as a childish state not mature enough to

Staying on the previous point of wastefulness, we will bring up the fact that those twenty-something

organize itself. It’s not ethically correct to use obscene amounts of money for bonuses to our athletes.

billions will be better off not being used for just

Why, you say? Well first of all, rewarding only

“bonuses” for our athletes. Think about the things that

the ones who win and turning a blind eye over the ones

can be done with twenty billion rupiahs. Think about the

who lost (and left without any medals) defeats the entire

schools we can build. Think about the homes we can

purpose of sports and sportsmanship in itself; the

build. Think about the water cycle systems that can be

principle of “it’s how you play the game, not whether you

optimized to minimize the effects of our annual flooding

win or lose”. Results-based bonuses obviously reflect

in Jakarta. Think about how many small and medium

nothing about the spirit of sportsmanship. By implying

businesses that can be invested, subsidized, given

that system, the government is essentially saying, “Get

incentive, and helped by the government. We really

us medals, at all costs. That destroys sportsmanship.

should think about all that. And afterwards, we should

Sure, when they win they should get rewarded since

look at the government and ask them what on earth is

they’ve done their country proud. But if the country can

wrong with them. This country has a lot of wastefulness-

only take pride from the ones who win, how demoralizing

related debacles over the past, like the new congress

would that be to the ones who had lost? How

building, the marriages of the offspring’s of our

demoralizing would it be for them? Who can blame them

presidents, ministers and congressmen, and so on. Which

if they felt unappreciated? Isn’t it possible that athletes

is not that dissimilar to this case. As with all the money-

can run the same number of miles, spent the same

related controversies this country has had to endure, this

number of hours, and dedicated the same amount of

one is no different in which we all would be left asking,

blood, sweat, and tears for their homeland, even when

“Why isn’t the money be used for something more

their results might turn out differently?

important?”

Another point is that the system of rewarding more

Another big negative point we see in this

money to the winning athletes will set a bad mindset for

success-based system of rewarding athletes is that it’s

athletes, especially the younger ones. Sure it will

not an ethically or morally correct way of self-conducting

encourage them to train harder, thus performing better,

of an organization as important a Sports and Youth

and so forth, but it’s also worth noting the fact that it

Ministry. This point might be a bit subjective and relative

creates this mindset for them to concentrate only on the

to each person, yet in our opinion the point still stands.

results of things, rather than the process of getting there.

You might’ve read books or watched movies about what

And we’re not just talking about sports here. This goes

rich antagonists usually do in their efforts to get what

way beyond sports. A results-based mindset of living

they want: they use their huge amounts of money. That

goes against the spirit of Pancasila, of this country’s code

fictive scenario can get all too real with Indonesia. Oh

of conduct. It might seem a stretch and it might feel

sure, our money won’t go to a bad cause, but treating our

somewhat dramatizing it, but if our government’s not

resources with respect, wisdom, and maturity is

interested in promoting the code of Pancasila anymore to

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports

41


42

the young generation, it would seem very hypocritical to

doing this, the government is simply not abusing

expect an overall improvement of conduct and moral

patriotism, and that abusing it might throw us back into

standards for the people of Indonesia.

fascism. But to teach and preach about patriotism,

Let’s take a deeper look at this mentality we

shouldn’t these athletes just be proud to represent their

speak of. In a nutshell, it’s called a win first mentality.

country? Sure, bonuses are good, but too much of that

It’s what some people get when being competitive, a

might create a mercenary way of thinking; that is,

little too competitive. You see, there should be a point

money-motivated ambitions. We all know that money is

where you have worked so hard to complete a goal, you

important and we’re not against that, but at least be sane

should just be happy and proud of the effort you’ve put in

and proportional about it. Too many of those bonuses and

and be happy where you are, without caring about the

some of those athletes will be, naturally, hungry for

result of it. Of course those things might be a little too

more and when the cash suddenly stop, so will their

fantasy to be true, and we see that in everyday life, you

efforts and their desire to make their country proud.

get judged solely by your results. But still, isn’t it wrong?

Lastly, we should stop results-based bonuses

And by judging who deserves the biggest bonuses solely

because it is, currently, not what they want, nor what

by the kind of medal you get--something so stupidly

they need. Those who have not got the mercenary

quantitative it’s mean and lazy—aren’t you legalizing

disease have simply stated that they would prefer the

that wrong, and promoting that wrong? I mean, this is the

money to be invested in facilities and infrastructures for

government, the one thing that actually controls the

the sports. One athlete, a roller-skating gold medalist,

athletes, monitors them, and can basically create pie

prefers to spend it on a training camp in Hong Kong,

charts based on their day-to-day performances. Why not

because they have better facilities. Isn’t it ironic? Why

base the bonuses on that? Again, it’s just a consequence

not invest those billions to creating better facilities to be

of laziness by the government, something that terribly

like Hong Kong? It wouldn’t be nearly as expensive, and

goes against the spirit of sportsmanship itself, and it will

even if it would, we would actually be helping the

create a bad mindset for the continuing generation of

athletes, for a change.

Indonesia, win-first not work hard. Really, they do this AND expect fewer riots on football matches?

Some people might say that the first part is contradictive to the rest of the essay, since this system

Another mindset that might be detrimental to

has yielded results. In a sense, it makes a lot of point.

the young generation is related to the obscenely large

Since it has proven to be effective, why change it? Why

amount of money that seemed to be had to be involved in

fix it if it’s not broken? Well that’s exactly the point. What

those bonuses. They are representing their nation here!

is “broken”? If we just looked at the facts that we won

It’s a pride in itself! Don’t you remember Civic Studies? It

the SEA Games and stop at that, well then it’s not

teaches you exactly to take pride in your country, and

“broken”. But, if we look at the grand scheme of things,

representing them to compete against other countries

the effects it might have on future generations, the

should be an internal victory that should be savored for

effects it might have on our economical cash flow, etc, it

the rest of your life, regardless of the result, and

is broken. It’s also worth mentioning that they would’ve

regardless of the bonus. Sure, you might just say that by

won anyway regardless of the bonuses, so this “sign of

Why Indonesia Should Support Its Athletes BEFORE They Win Medals


gratitude” is somehow excessive and hypocritical for a

Not this, since it’s irresponsible, it’s a sign of the

nation with still a lot of poverty.

government’s laziness, and it’s not healthy for the

Another contradiction to our argument is that

athletes themselves. We propose that the money be used

the “wow” factor of those figures of money might attract

for things that have more long-lasting effects, like

young people to sports. Yes, it will. And obviously

infrastructure.

43

everyone will be benefited if more young people take up

So, in conclusion, we all want Indonesia to be

sports rather than become gangsters, do drugs, and

great at sports. No one doubts that. The government

cause havoc in the streets. But, there are better ways of

does, the public everywhere across the nation do. But

suggesting them to take up sports. It’s irresponsible to

there are ways to actually make this a reality. There are

only dangle money in front of their faces; it won’t

good ways, and bad ways. The good ways might need

improve their mindsets at all. Teach them patriotism,

careful planning, they might need patience, and they

sportsmanship, and hard work, the core values of sports.

might need a longer time compared to the bad ways of

Don’t teach them greed and results-based appreciation.

doing it. This is currently a bad way of doing it. Of course

It’s bad for the generation, it has gotten bad enough, and

we all have to grow up to appreciate it if the government

so it needs to stop.

does the good way of doing it, and all things growing up

Therefore we urge the government to stop this

will have growing pains. But, won’t the pain be worth it if

results-based way of rewarding athletes for the reasons

it yielded results? Won’t we all be happy afterwards,

we have clearly stated above. Investing money in sports

when we get the results, and got it the right way? We’d

should not be like this. Give them better facilities, give all

all be the judge of that, personally.

of them better pay, give them better sports education.

CHAPTER 1 : Education, Culture, and Sports


Goddess of Earth

&


THE LACK OF PEOPLE’S ATTENTION TO ENVIRONMENT

Devi Tania Ulitha | 16711189 | 081802024700|2027 words

I

ndonesia is a stunning, and amazing

still apathetic about environment surround them.

country with its unique characteristics and

Environment is often treated not the way it should be.

splendid beauty. It is an archipelago

Environment is often considered last but the fact shows

country which consists of more than thirteen thousands

that it is so much more important. The issue of global

islands. Moreover, it is the earth’s largest archipelago.

warming is spreading, but there are still people who

Indonesia is located between two oceans and two

litter and use energy unwisely. What have we done to

continents. The two oceans are Indian Ocean and Pacific

protect our environment? Some of us may think that this

Ocean, and the two continents are Asia and Australia. As

duty is for the government and it is not our own business.

a tropical country that is located in the equator of the

But we should not think that way and stop being selfish.

earth, Indonesia also has many natural resources. There

We are the citizen of this beautiful country and everyone

are two types of natural resources. The first type is

should play their part and do something that we can do

renewable natural resources, such the air we breathe,

wherever and whenever we are.

the water we drink, the wind that blows, the petroleum

Trashes are things that we do not need because

we walk on, the wind that blows, the animal life

there is no value of usimg of them anymore. For example

surrounding us, and the plants. The plants in Indonesia

plastics that are used to carry groceries we bought after

are so abundant, for example, the woods, rubbers,

we went to grocery-shop or even a straw that we use for

coconuts, rice, and spices. The second type of the natural

drinking. After we use these things, we just feel like we

resources is non-renewable natural resources, such as

do not need them anymore, we often throw these trashes

coal, petroleum, tin, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, gold,

away. Either we throw them to the trash can, or worse,

silver, platinum, and many more. No wonder, Indonesia

anywhere we want. Not throwing these trashes to the

includes one of the richest countries in the world for its

trash can shows that people are being irresponsible for

natural resources. The facts that are mentioned above

themselves and moreover, for the environment. It is so

make us proud of our beloved country. Unfortunately,

much better if we throw them where they are supposed

there are some parties who are being irresponsible and

to be, which is to the trash can. But, we should do more

exploit these natural resources unwisely. Furthermore,

than that. The amount of the plastics on earth now is

industries of these natural resources nowadays just think

nearly uncountable. There are tons of them! This big

about profit and do not care about further effect of this

quantity is not balanced by the time that a plastic needs

big exploitation. Not only in industry, but also people are

to decompose. We should realize and do something about

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this. In this era of globalization, people should get more

money as they can, without considering the effect on the

and more creative. These trashes can be transformed into

environment. This often happens to big industries, for

something much more useful or even beautiful. Plastics

example a petroleum company. Since petroleum is a non-

and straws can be turned into sophisticated handcrafts,

renewable natural resource, a petroleum company should

such as baskets and or even synthetic flowers for room

consider that exploring petroleum should be done

decorations.

carefully. Workers in apetroleum company should notice

Energy cannot be created and cannot be

that the amount of petroleum is decreasing from time to

destroyed. It can only be converted into a different type

time and in the future we will still be needing petroleum

of energy. Those two statements tell us the importance of

to survive in our lives. They ought to explore, not to

energy. Energy is really vital and important in human’s

exploit due to the long - lasting use of petroleum. It is for

life. We need it for our lives. This occurs not only for the

the greater good later in the future.

present time, but also the future. The presence of energy

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into

helps us through a lot of activity. We use the electricity

a natural environment that causes instability, disorder,

for almost all the basic needs in our lives, such as for

harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical

lighting in our house, to heat water, to charge the battery

systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form

of our cell phones, and so on. Furthermore, electricity is

of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or

used as a source for many electronic devices to function

light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be either

properly such as computers, televisions, and radios. We

foreign substances or energies or naturally occurring

should be aware that energy should be used wisely.

contaminants. There are different forms of pollutions

Therefore, we should not waste energy. People nowadays

such as air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise

still think that energy on this earth is abundant and it can

pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination,

be used freely. For example, people charge the battery of

thermal pollution, visual pollution, and water pollution.

their cell phones for hours and after the battery is fully

But the main three we are going to discuss is the air,

charged, they just pull out the cable that connected the

water and soil pollution.

charger and the cell phone, but they do not pull out the

As we all know, industrial wastes are needed to

plug-in from the socket. This behavior has become a habit

be thrown away since they are the product of the

that we cannot tolerate. If we do not pull out the plug-in

chemical reactions in industry that cannot be used

from the socket, the electricity still flows and it is not

anymore. Furthermore, industries in Indonesia often

transferred to the cell phone since we already pulled the

release the industrial wastes wherever they want

cable out. This emits the carbon dioxide or CO2 and it is

without thinking the side effect about this action to the

not environmental friendly. Therefore, people should

environment. The release of chemicals and particulates

notice this and stop wasting so much energy.

into the air can cause bad effects such as difficulty

Industries in Indonesia are big, wide, and

breathing and even contamination of crops. In 2009,

complex since there are many natural resources that our

there were 60 coal industries in Cimahi which released B3

nation has as mentioned above. At this time of day,

waste that caused the increasing concentration of ashes

industries often do whatever it takes to earn as much

in the air. Furthermore, there are some chemical

The Lack of People’s Attention to Environment


substances that can cause a phenomenon called acid rain.

this country, the government does not just stand still to

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that

keep our environment healthy. There are many

is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated

government’s policies for the environment, for instance,

levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful

the ‘Gerakan Sejuta Pohon’ which are held to handle the

effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure.

lack of trees and fresh air these days. Trees are really

Acid rain is caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur

important for the air to penetrate the air pollution which

dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water

is caused by smoke and other gas emission of the cars,

molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Therefore,

trucks, motorcycles, bus, and even the smoke of the

industries should at least have to reduce the release of

cigarette, since trees absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from

sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere to avoid these harmful

the air pollution and release oxygen (O2). So, the air will

effects.

be fresh. Furthermore, the government also gives prizes Water pollution is the contamination of water

for people who care and do something meaningful and

bodies e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater. Water

useful to the environment called ‘Kalpataru’. Not only by

pollution has caused many damages on plants and

making policies, the government has also shown its

organisms which are living in these bodies of water. In

attention to the environment by giving advices to the

almost all cases, the effect is damaging not only to

citizen to be much more aware of environmental issues.

individual species and populations, but also to the natural

Besides, they also encourage people to participate in the

biological communities. Industries often just throw the

government’s environmental movements. These facts

waste to the lakes, rivers, oceans, or even groundwater

show that the government takes the environmental

without considering the composition of the waste,

problems seriously. Environment is a part of our

whether it is dangerous, harmful, and can disturb the

everyday life and it should be treated wisely.

water ecosystem. There are living organisms in the

School is a part where people, or particularly

water, like fishes and plants, which in the end we will

students, are educated, prepared, and trained to face the

take and become our food. This is not a small problem.

real world after they graduate. Many values and norms

Industries should think twice whether they want to throw

of life are planted to students so that they can be aware

the wastes to the water because many people’s lives

of what is outside of their current life, including the

depend on it.

environment. Education has become a part to increase

The third kind of pollution is soil pollution.

awareness of environmental issue. At this time of day,

Industries use many chemical substances in producing

there is a private middle school in Indonesia, particularly

something. The increasing amount of industries and the

in Bandung, which gives students a subject called

intensity of chemical usage affect on the soil pollution.

‘Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup’ or Living Environment

Soil pollution are caused by oil and fuel dumping,

Education. By giving this subject, student will at least be

disposal of coal ash, or direct discharge of industrial

much more aware of the environment surround them and

wastes to the soil.

hopefully they can do something to solve the

Even though there are a lot people who are

environmental problems.

being apathetic about the environment, as the leader of

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

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50

The Go Green Movement is a movement that

improving public’s enthusiasm about the issue of global

operates to solve the environmental issues, specifically

warming in Indonesia, and inviting all people to live

the global warming. Global warming is happening and

greener. Even people of young generation care,

people should take part, participate, and do something.

contribute, and do something to spread and tell Indonesia

The people’s attention for the earth has formed an

this environmental issue and the importance of going

environmental forum called Go Green Indonesia. Go

green at this time of day.

Green Indonesia is a blog whose content is more focused

In conclusion, people still pay little attention to

on the dangers of Global Warming is now a hot issue

environment issues and they are being apathetic.

among the public. Go Green Indonesia was established on

Environment is often thought last. Moreover, people are

February 8, 2008by two teenagers Indonesia; Lalla

being selfish and just mind their own business.

Pratami(who was aged18 years old) and Melinda

Environment is a part of our everyday life, not only in the

Rachman (who wasaged15 years old). With a passion for

present, but also in the future. What we do know

greening Indonesia, they took the initiative to deploy his

determines the environment and our life in the future.

danger and warn the people especially the people of

Therefore, we should treat the environment well and

Indonesia. Go Green Indonesia has goals. They are

take care of it.

spreading global warming problem throughout Indonesia,

The Lack of People’s Attention to Environment


OUR LANDFILL SYSTEM,

LESS EFFECTIVE.

Ryan Fitrian Sofwan Fauzan | 16711221 | 085320095656 | 2007 words

W

e could say that garbage and

areas, which will ruin this city’s scenery. That is one

wastes has become one of part of

example that shows an image of garbage dumping

our lives, especially when we live

system in Indonesia. And I think that method is less

in a modern era like now when everything is not fully

effective to be used as a way to solve this. Furthermore,

from nature like it was.

statistics shows that

Almost every activity we

major urban centers in

do produce garbage. Also

Indonesia

in fulfilling our needs,

nearly 10 million tons

garbage and wastes has

of garbage and waste

always become the side

annually that increases

effect. When eat, we

2-4 per cent annually.

produce garbage from our

Even it is predicted that

foods, when take a bath,

by 2019, the volume of

building a house, cooking,

waste in Jakarta will

cleaning house and many

exceed the capacity of

produce

other activities will generate garbage. And it will be such

Bantar Gebang landfill. That’s only one of so many

a pain to know and realize when every single citizen in

problems we face about this. We must concerned about

Indonesia could generate garbage that much every day,

this and start thinking for a solution, so the problem can

just can’t imagine what will happen next if this if leave as

be handled appropriately with such an effective and

it is. It cannot be denied that the waste will always be a

efficient landfill system before it will be worse and even

problem for this country, especially about the quantity

become a bigger problem.

matter, the volume of garbage in Indonesia already exceeds

the

threshold.

Have

you

Moreover, the impacts caused by this garbage

ever

have given us many disadvantages for the people who

seen a mounting pile of garbage when moving through a

live in areas around the landfill. This garbage will cause

city, especially major cities in our country? I bet

bad smell and unpleasant view. It also can be source of

most of you have. For example, in Bandung, West Java,

various diseases and also will pollute and contaminate

you can find those dirty and nasty mountains in certain

ground water that very important to citizen nearby for

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52

their life. But, even though our landfill system has many

cans, bottles, and some wet wastes among that garbage

deficiencies, as mentioned above, our current landfill

are absolutely dirty. Some people maybe cannot bear

system still have positive side, that is the garbage is

seeing this kind of view because of how disgusting it is.

organized in a single place in each area, which far better

And one more important thing, this is will also make the

than if it is scattered in many places.

tourist from foreign country that visit Indonesia will feel

First, the garbage will cause bad smell. It is a

uncomfortable, and indirectly this will make the image of

sure thing that garbage can not be separated from the

our country is not good. This impact of open public landfill

term bad smell or stinks. These bad smells are come from

system that adopted by us now is really disturbs our

spoiled food and other things that full of microbes. People

smelling and vision as explained before and it make the

who live near the landfill dumping will suffer this every

citizen feel more uncomfortable, so the government

day, off course this is not good because it can be

should noted it.

distraction to their activity so that they will be difficult to

Next, the stacks of garbage that open and

focus and concentrate. They will be bothered every time

exposed to public is also can become source of various

they feel something gross and disgusting through their

diseases, as we will expect from such a dirty place.

noise, it’s like that you forced to inhaled bad air because

Diseases that caused by this are various, starting from

the air has already contaminated with the bad aroma

minor to major and severe ones. The most general

from the garbage, and your necessity for breathe the

disease that caused by this garbage problem is

fresh air is not fulfilled. This will bring many bad impacts,

respiratory disorder, which caused by nothing but the air

such as the children cannot concentrate when they are

that not fresh enough to be inhaled by us. Furthermore,

studying or feel disturbed when they are playing, also

as we know, garbage is where pathogen bacteria,

you will lost your appetite to eat something in that

microbes and even viruses are belongs to. They come

uncomfortable condition. Then, your comrades, colleagues

from spoiled and dirtiness of those garbage, it’s seems

and friends maybe become unwilling to visit your house

like that dirty places are have special attraction to them.

because of this. In some cases, the bad and disgusting

Garbage is also a good and fit environment for disease-

smell not only will smelled for short distance, if the

spreader animals like mosquito, rats, green flies, and

mountain of garbage is way too huge because of it is not

others, most of those animals are vectors. Those

moved for a long time, the bad smell can be smelled from

microbes and animals can cause cholera, dysentery,

miles away so more people are disturbed by this.

diarrhea, typhus and even malaria. It’s not good because

The bad smell is not only come from the

all of those diseases are kind of serious and need to be

garbage directly, it can be come from another source like

treated immediately and it can cause death if not. Things

the ‘landfill workers’ that will spread the smell even in

will turn worse when the weather are not friendly to us,

wider range. Besides causing bad smell, this open landfill

people’s immunity is decreasing during that time and will

will make unpleasant view to people who see it.

more vulnerable and easy to get sick, especially for

Mountain of various garbage that makes our eyes feel

children, this is will be a very serious threat because of

hurt, plus there will live dirty animals like rats and flies

their fragileness compared to adults. And the citizens that

that disturb our vision even more. Spoiled foods, plastics,

live near the landfill must be prepared the extra

The Lack Our Landfill System, Less Effective


protection for the sake of their health if they don’t want

citizen’s important needs is badly interfered because of

to get sick because of these microbes and animals. This is

this inefficient landfill system.

quite a big problem, for sure, that caused by this open

However, although there are so many

landfill system in Indonesia. Citizen’s health is affected,

deficiencies and disadvantages of our current garbage

so government must be pay attention more to this one

dumping system, there is still a positive side behind this.

because health is a vital thing in life. Moreover, there is

That is the garbage is currently organized in a single

already many health crisis in Indonesia that caused by

place on each area or district, and this is just good

another problems, and it will be ironic if this will just

because if those garbage are randomly scattered in

worsen that crisis.

several dumping or landfill areas, it will be quite difficult

In addition, open garbage dumping system, like

to manage them, and maybe will be more messy than the

in our country, will pollute and contaminate ground water

current system and more citizen will be disturbed by

that is very important to citizen nearby for their live.

these side effects. Bad smell everywhere, disgusting

Ground water is come from water that seeps slowly into

view everywhere, it is far worse than our current system.

the ground and then collected in the certain layer of the

You can imagine when you traveling in a big city in

ground, this is like the water is being the filtered during

Indonesia, you will see a mountain of garbage that

the seeping process. The water can be from rain or

disturbs you in every few miles, it’s awful. But still,

anything else. Ground water is really essential for our

government need to do many changes, here and there, in

life because it’s like water repository which many water

garbage dumping system so that the disadvantages will

necessity is depend on this. Our daily water supply is all

decrease and the advantages will increase, as we - the

from the ground water, either for drinking water, for

citizens - always want.

cooking, take a bath, washing clothes, dishes and cars, all

We need to start thinking about the solutions

from the ground water. Thus, it will be a trouble when the

for all of these problems and impacts that caused by our

ground water is polluted and contaminated. Seems like

current system. The solution that can be taken by the

that something which polluted the ground water, the

government is to change the dumping system so it is not

contaminants, is something like dirty liquid from the

disturb the citizens, or at last, less than how it going on

garbage. When those garbage are remain too long above

now. For example, it can be started by sorting the

the ground surface, the polluting liquid will seep to the

garbage into some categories so it will be more

ground and contaminate the fresh ground water and

organized and neatly maintained. Then, the government

when rain comes, it seep faster and more water is

should keep that the garbage made no contact with the

polluted and it’s a disadvantage for people who live

ground directly so it will not pollute and contaminate the

nearby because their water source is mixed with dirty

ground water. The important thing is to make sure that is

substances so they cannot feel safe and hesitate to use

no bacteria, microbes, or viruses from the landfill that

the water. The contaminants from the garbage can be

will cause many diseases spread in citizen’s

chemical, pathogens, etc which can cause some changes,

environment. Quarantine system seems very effective to

physical and non-physical, to the ground water that

do those things. For addition, government can make

maybe harmful to the citizens. And once again, one of

something like the ‘recycling centre’ at each landfill so

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

53


54

that some of the garbage can recycled there and this will

disgusting smell and also unpleasant view that disturb

reduce the size of the ‘mountain’. This is also can give a

and distract the citizens from their daily activity and also

job to citizens around the location, to make them improve

ruin a city’s beautiful scenery. Besides that, it also can be

their creativity, also give them a different experience

source of many serious diseases that quite dangerous for

which is better than if they just being a landfill worker

the citizens because some of which can cause death. And

who just struggling between dirtiness, bad smell and

not less important, we need to remember that a mountain

diseases that maybe threaten them. And if the recycled

of garbage will pollute and contaminate ground water

products have high value, it will be a ‘jackpot’ because

which is the source of fresh water that really needed for

they will get economic advantage from this. Besides from

us to live the life. But behind all of those problems, the

government, we also must give some contributions so the

advantage of this system still exists, that is the garbage

problem can be solved or at last decreased. We can start

is organized in a single place on certain area instead of

by the simplest thing like using recyclable product, for

scattered. But the government need to do plenty changes

example, or sorting the garbage in the house.

in the system so it will be less disadvantages for the

In conclusion, our country’s - Indonesia’s current public dumping system still has many deficiencies and give many disadvantages for the citizens, especially who live near the landfill area, because it cause bad and

The Lack Our Landfill System, Less Effective

citizens.


ORANGUTAN OR

PALM OIL

Annisa Mienda C. | 16711237 | 081320721394 | 2182 words

I

ndonesia is a country which has

species of animals,with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird

richnatural resources.

and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.

The Indonesian

archipelago, that lies between latitudes

Unfortunately, the life of an endemic species of

11°S and 6°N and longitudes 95°E and 141°E, stores

mammal in Indonesia is recently threatened. It is

plenty of minerals such asgold,tin,coals, oils, and so

orangutans, whose amount are decreasing rapidly over

many others. The surface of its lands also produces

the last few years, are almost close to the number of

many commodities that are useful for the life of

extinction. Many researchers have tried to find the

Indonesia’s citizens. Many daily foods are originated in

reason and published the result of their research. The

their fields that spread over the islands, including fruits,

reason for orangutans’ extinction is that humans destroy

tomatoes, peppers, corn, rice, cocoa, cassava, beans,

forests for making palm trees fields in order to produce

sweet potatoes, and coconut.Not only that, some plant

palm oil. As the forest is orangutan’s main habitat,

that provides something besides foods, such as palm

destruction of this place has influence on orangutans. In

tree, flourishes on its ground. Indonesia is also well

other words, human’s demand has threatened the life of

known with its tropical rainforest that covers about 60%

the forests, as well as orangutans.

of the country. This rainforest consists of trees canopy that can grow to over 100 meters high. About a million of

Actually, there are several logical reasons

animal species hang on their life to these tropical

behind the large-scale plantation of palm trees. First of

rainforests, depending on their availability to provide

all,as we all know, the main product that people expect to

foods and houses for them. Indonesia's size, tropical

get from a palm tree is the oil, which comes from the

climate, and archipelagic geography, also support the

fruit. After taking five to six months maturing from

world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil).

pollination to maturity, the palm fruit is reddish, about

There are about 28,000 species of flowering plants in

the size of a large plum and grows in large bunches. Each

Indonesia, consisting 2500 different kinds of orchids,

fruit is made up of an oily, fleshy outer layer, with a

6000 traditional medicinal plants, 122 species of bamboo,

single seed (the palm kernel)which also rich in oil. Oil is

over 350 species of rattan, and 400 species of

extracted from both the pulp of the fruit and the kernel.

Dipterocarpus, including ebony, sandalwood and

For every 100 kilograms of fruit bunches, typically 22

teakwood. Indonesia is also home to about 300.000

kilograms of palm oil and 1.6 kilograms of palm kernel

55


56

oil can be extracted.The palm oil itself is used as a basic

Indonesia citizens. Goenadi (2008) estimated that the

ingredient for some products, such as butter, cooking oil,

presence of palm oil industries in Indonesia will probably

biscuits, soap, detergent, pomade, and even cosmetics.

provide employment to about six million people who

Besides, the waste of the palm tree’s stem, which is rich

spread all over Indonesia and relieve them from poverty.

of potassium, is used as a fertilizer after passing through

Also, there are still many other benefits that can be

several fermentation processes. The palm kernel waste

gained by the workers of palm oil industry, such as

can also be given to the kettles as their high-nutritional

certain income, health insurance, and even education

content of foods, whereas its trunk and midrib are two

access for their children. The villagers, who mostly work

main materials in making particle board. Thereby, the

as farmers, also hang on their life to the palm oil fields.

palm oil tree gives a lot of benefits to the human as they

In 2008, the Indonesian Committee of Palm Oil claimed

can utilize almost all parts of the tree.

that more than forty one percent of palm oil fields in Indonesia were owned by the local farmers, while forty

Secondly, the existence of palm oil field has

nine percent were private companies’, and the rest ten

been contributing a lot in the economic sector of

percent were managed by the government. Hence, the

Indonesia. The total amount of world’s palm oil

palm oil field and industry definitely play a big role in

production now is considered to be about forty five

giving income to the farmers and villagers, which later

million tons, with Indonesia and Malaysia as the world’s

will upgrade their standard of living.

main producers and exporters. Due to the report from

Fourthly, it is estimated that as the year goes

Indonesian Committee of Palm Oil, in 2008, Indonesia has

by, the world’s demand for palm oil will be continuously

produced more than eighteen million tons of palm oil and

increasing. For more than thirty years, the world’s

exported around fourteen and a half million dollars in the

consumption level of palm oil has been increasing

shape of palm oil products. This activity of exporting

rapidly. It is recorded that the consumption level between

palm oil products has evolved significantly since the last

1988 and 2008 had grew up tenfold; from four and a half

decades, as the world’s demand for palm oil increases.

million tons to more than forty five million tons each

Thus, the palm oil farm and industry can be considered as

year. Approaching the year 2020, the world’s demand for

two main contributors for the country’s income.

palm oil will reach the number of sixty million tons

Thirdly, a study in 2004 showed that the growth

approximately. This is probably happen because

of agriculture helps to alleviate poverty, especially in the

nowadays, many developed countries begin to

village. It is estimated that for every one percent growth,

switchtheir way of consuming trans-fat into safer and

the amount of poverty decreases for 1.9 percent. World

healthier fat. Most countries have already recognized the

Growth in 2009 also stated that since the last ten years,

bad effects of trans-fat and begin to limit its use.

palm oil industry has been an effective way to decrease

Moreover, some countries such as Denmark, Switzerland,

the amount of poverty. The activity of planting,

and some states in The United States, have banned the

harvesting, and processing palm oil is actually tends to

use of trans-fat in their restaurants and fast-food

be labor-intensive. Therefore, the palm oil industry

franchises. Thus, the demand of palm oil increases in

contributes a lot in providing job opportunities for

order to replace the use of trans-fat. Palm oil is a source

Orangutan or Palm Oil


of unsaturated fat which has no smell, tasteless, and

year. This rate of killing is enough to tip the species

certainly safe to be consumed. These characters make the

towards inexorable extinction.

palm oil as an ideal ingredient in making margarine,

Actually, the great amount of losing orangutans

grilled or packaged foods, and even to cook fast foods.

will bring bigger and worse impacts to the balance of the

The palm oil also contributes in developing bio fuel,

ecosystem, including the humans. According to the

although now there are only five percent of world’s

Honolulu zoo, orangutans eat a variety of fruits and

biodiesel products that use palm oil as their fuel. These

insects. Fruit, which takes a considerable part of most

conditions will absolutely be beneficial to Indonesia,

orangutan’s diet, has become a principal resource. That is

where palm oil is the second largest agriculture’s product

because when eating fruits, orangutans do not eat the

of this country.

peel, instead they eat the seeds. The seeds have been

On the other hand, as it was said before, the

distributed through orangutan’s feces into soil. Thereby,

presence of palm oil fields disturbs the life of orangutans.

forests, which are habitat of the orangutan, get help from

In order to get more and more palm oil, the palm tree

them. In other words, these interactions happen in nature

farmers and companies expand the area of palm tree

by giving and receiving each other’s effects. The

fields by destroying forest, which is the home of

orangutans also play an important role in the rainforests

orangutans. There will be not enough trees for

as they are considered as a keystone species. Keystone

orangutans to rest in or finding food for them to eat. The

species are species whose existence in an ecosystem

orangutans become homeless, and they might find

greatly affects the health of other species and the

difficulties in hunting foods. As a result, orangutans will

ecosystem at large. When a keystone species' numbers

come to the villager’s occupant in order to find a new

decline or they completely disappear, the survival and

source of foods. Based on the events that have occurred

abundance of many other species in the ecosystem are

in many palm oil fields in Indonesia, the orangutans will

negatively impacted. A comparison between different

find the palm fruit as their new foods, due to its good

rainforest areas in Sumatra and Borneo where

taste and high nutritional contents. This actually brings

orangutans live shows that the biodiversity of plant and

bigger problem to the life of orangutans. The farmers and

animal species is also the highest. Their protection is

the palm oil companies will be aggrieved, considering

vital to the overall health of the lowland forest

they have spent a lot of money in seeding and fertilizing

ecosystem in which they live in. That is why, if

a large scale of palm oil trees. If the companies and

orangutans have been threatened, this kind of interaction

farmers would take revenge, orangutans will be killed

system might be broken off. The orangutan’s extinction

because they are regarded as pests that harm the

that is in progress is likely to affect the whole parts of

plantation of the palm trees. In Kalimantan, on the island

the ecosystem.

of Borneo, so many orangutans are murdered each year

The presence of orangutans also helps to

(on average, between 1,970 and 3,100 annually). In 2006,

maintain the existence of renewable resources, such as

there were only 4800 orangutans left in Borneo, while in

water, fresh air, woods, and even stability of micro-

Sumatera, around 1000 orangutans are found dead each

climate. These fundamentals things are absolutely basic needs of every living creature. As fruit eaters and

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

57


58

travelers, orangutans play a large part in dispersing

is like living the whole life without legs; we may run our

seeds and keeping diversity of rainforest plants. The

lives, but will probably drown in guilty and misery. The

rainforest plants itself play a very important role in

palm oil might be replaced by another alternative natural

keeping the ground water supply. Moreover, the leaves

resource, but if once we lose the orangutans, we will

of every plant certainly provide fresh air to its

never get them back or get them replaced. Actually, there

surroundings, as they do the process of photosynthesis.

has been a law that regulates the life of preserved

The leaves will deflect the energy from the sun, while

animals in Indonesia. Yet, when there is human-wildlife

absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing the oxygen at

conflict, strict laws do not appear to be the answer. It is

once. Through this natural process, the stability of micro

pretty hard to prove guilt and then prosecute a human for

climate will be preserved well.

killing a protected species. Indonesia’s national law

The last thing that is also important to be noted is that we have to respect and protect orangutans as our

outlawing any killing of orangutans obviously has not been much of a deterrent.

close relative ape. Orangutans are the most similar

Therefore, if the government really concerns

animal with mankind, because they have a mental ability

with the life of its citizen and the country’s nature, the

to solve problems like a human. It means that the

first action that is ought to be done is to limit and look

extinction of the orangutans could affect humans in the

after the activities of palm oil industry. The government

future. Although they have a high intelligence to know

should not let the presence of palm oil industries that

how to survive, if they cannot live, humans, who know

flourished disturbs the life of orangutans. The national

how to live, also will not survive. If a living thing cannot

law that regulates protected species is also need to be

survive, it is impossible for humans to survive, as they

obtained. Thus, the relationship between human and the

both interact with each other either directly or

nature will grow in harmony.

indirectly.Destroying forests is the same as destroying our houses, and threatening orangutans is same as threatening ourselves. Therefore, we have to protect them, because they are human’s depiction in the future. According to the arguments that are written above, we can briefly conclude that the presence of orangutans is more important than the palm oil. Taking the earth’s products by sacrificing another creature to die

Orangutan or Palm Oil


WATER PRIVATIZATION SHOULD BE DONE

Jawahir Asy Mahdy Maro | 16711247 | 085649762636 | 2442 words

W

ater as the substantial segment of the

about water regulation. This had engendered a firestorm

existence of human life covers almost

of controversy in everybody’s understanding. Some

97,8 % of the earth surface. Surprisingly,

people judge that turning water, which has been

we can only consume it as fresh water for no more than

considered as community properties, to be a commodity

0,9% from its total capacity because the remains embody

may

as salt water, ice or glacier. What makes this ironic is that

regardless of its beneficial aspects, the privatization of

not all the fresh water is spotless and hygienic to drink

water may also impel some drawbacks in economic &

which nowadays has become a concern both in developed

politics, social, and health & environmental aspects.

breed

several

advantages.

Unfortunately,

and developing countries. It probably not considered as a

First, privatization of water has ability in

serious problem in such countries as United States, Japan

letting the disease germ infect the economic and politics

or Singapore. Yet third-world countries like Indonesia

facet. The case arises since permitting the water to be in

appear to struggle more in facing the scarce of clean

hand of private company is not economically efficient. As

water and trying to discover the best approach in

we have already recognized that privatization invariably

allocating the water to their population. During the

leads to the boomed price that can be two or three times

1980s, United States and United Kingdom started

higher than normal price under the public water-utility

privatizing their water systems. This movement

ownership. The dilemma exists in almost all the regions

continued into the twenty-first century which also

in the world where water is close to one's chest. The

influenced developing country. Indonesia which currently

motive of this ascension is because there are

facing the scarce of fresh water started the water

considerable costs involved in upgrading water

privatization in the innings of Megawati Soekarnoputri.

harnessing, purification and distribution systems. For

Eight months before she gave her chair to Soesilo

such expensive projects, water companies borrow private

Bambang Yudhoyono, she found time to hatch a policy to

money, which is subjected to towering interest rates from

regulate the water system in Indonesia. The public seems

financiers and state taxation. The companies recover

do not know that substantively the privatization exposed

their costs and expenses by charging the consumer.

as the consequence demanded from IMF and World Bank

Ironically, the consumer is forced to play a role as a

to thaw the loan of restoration of water sanitation and

money miner of the company to recoup not only the

environment. In 19 February 2004, water privatization

capital cost but also the interest, taxes and other

was legalized in line with the birth of the UU No.7 2004

overheads on the capital. Thus, the consumer is forced to

followed by the publishing of series of local policies

bear the burden. The daily expenses will be swollen as

59


60

the outcome of this expenditure explosion. Let take the

over the supply of water has doubly increases the

example in our near developing countries such as India.

incentives of the company to offer bribes with the goal of

The water price-hike is also an indirect consequences of

securing the contract. Along with the idea, the politics

the conditions imposed on the government by the World

system in government must have been not in a fruitful

Bank and IMF in return for structural adjustment loans. As

situation and at the end of the day it left only the misery

the sine qua non for such loans, the government

of the society.

establishes the policy of water and electricity

On the other hand, a method of reallocating the

privatization. As a result, rates for water irrigation have

essential assets like water from the public sector to the

since doubled or even tripled. The escalating of fees in

private sector appears to be a bright solution for some

order to pay the fresh and safe water looks to be

problem dealt by the government. One reason why

unaffordable for the impoverished and vulnerable

government pursue privatization that in this case for

populations.

water system is in order to trim down the size of the

Another problem which still equally significant

existing government, based on the idea that many

is created when the government hands over the water

governments have become too large and overextended,

systems to a private enterprise, it becomes extremely

consisting of pointless layers of bureaucracy. Hence,

difficult and prohibitively expensive to reverse the

many countries require restructuring in order to improve

decision. What makes is so difficult is that global market

efficiency, which can be achieved through privatization.

for water is estimated to be over $500 billion. With such

As the related sequel, by privatizing water, the role of

a huge profit, the corporations will strive in taking the

the government in the economy is abridged, thus there is

water belongs to their private power. The scenarios

less chance for the government to negatively affect the

succeed swimmingly because they are aided and abetted

economy. Moreover, it also bound the possibility of

by financial institutions such as the World Bank, WTO and

government to corrupt the money which generally caused

IMF, which enforce many free trade agreements and

by petite transparency and centralization.

structural adjustments programs on developing countries

Privatization can have a positive secondary

as a prerequisite for a “developmental" loan. This

effect as well on a country’s fiscal situation. The perform

emerge a chance that a water corporation can utilize one

to privatize the public sector as water enables countries

of the many free trades treaties to take legal action

to disburse a portion of their existing debt, thus reducing

against the government for withdrawing from the

interest rates and raising the level of investment. By

agreement to privatize water systems. Although this has

dropping the size of the public sector, the government

not yet come true, in some cases there are many

curtails the total expenditure and begins collecting taxes

instances filed by water corporations which against the

from the water company that are now privatized. This

local government and backed out of the contract during

process can help bring an end to a vicious cycle of over-

the history of water privatization. Furthermore, the

borrowing and continuous increase of the national debt.

current circumstance bestows an opportunity of gaining a

Second, separating the water regulation from

lot of money in sin which mostly measured as corruption.

public access can disastrously crash the social aspect. One

The potential for huge profits and long term monopoly

scenario that is going to take place is that the gap in the

Water Privatization Should be Done


midst of the wealthy and the impecunious society will be

daily needs. And once again the social security will come

extended. This is well thought-out as a social crisis. When

upon a calamity.

the crisis unceasingly transpires, lengthy there will pop

Conversely, when government gives over the

out set of people that are divided into whether they are

water public sector to the private company, it instead

moneyed or not. This state of affair shows that the

bobs up several constructive effects to the social aspect.

country is in a cleavage which can cook up the collapse of

It actually can unlock wider prospect of employment. The

the country itself. What's more, another raison d'ĂŞtre

logical process is followed like this. When the company is

why privatization of water is not good in the view of

privatized, it will have a full right to manage the assets

social side is that it can evoke a great number of jobless

which in this explanation is water. The company will put

people. This is a broad advantage of government

the water on the market as a commodity and definitely

involvement in industry. The private sector is obviously

the charge is determined by itself. For a particular time

much more vulnerable to market fluctuations and the

the price that has been acceptable in society

potential for layoffs. Investing in public-sector industry

unexpectedly changed to be pricier. The effect is that

helps create a more stable base of employment. This is

there will be one more water corporation which is

particularly important in times of national difficulty or

established with cheaper price that compete the current

recession. For instance, the sudden layoff happens in

company. This will go on continuously that there will be

2000 in Bolivia. After seven days of civil disobedience

new companies sprang up like mushrooms. With lot of

and angry protest in the streets, the president of Bolivia

companies exists, hence there will be a lot of job vacancy

was forced to terminate the 40-year water privatization

that provide work for a lot of people to be their

contract granted to Aguas del Tunari, subsidiary of

employees. As a result, the quantity of unwaged people

Bechtel Corp. This causes hundreds people should sink in

is decreasing. Lkewise, when the sector is handled by

a intricate moment of having no occupation.

government, ordinarily the safety of the worker is not

Other feature why being without a job can be a

really being highlighted. The worker’s wages also seems

nightmare when the open company such as water

so dry. Yet privatizing the sector will build up the safety

company is altered to be personal company is that there

of worker and their wages. A 1999 report by the city of

will be some changes in the body of the company. There

Indianapolis on the performance of the public-private

is a kind of restructuring the company because the

partnership in running the city's water system for five

corporate have a full authority to manage their company.

years said that employee wages and benefits have risen

The restructuring, indeed, will give someone his walking

between 9 and 28 percent, accident rates have dropped

papers. The ouster not only happen to one person but it

91%, and grievances are down 99%. In other words, the

can happen to many workers. Accordingly, there will be

prosperity of the society will be stabilized or even

more people which have no role in the drama of gaining

improved.

money. They will be difficult in feeding their family and

Third, transferring the ownership of water from

causes destitution. Like the dominos effect, the poverty

public to private sector will spoil the environment. Many

can trigger someone to do criminal in order to fulfill their

people scrutinize that private company used to seeking the uppermost income yet forgetting the ecological and

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

61


62

environmental issues that have everything to do with

their drinking water. Another illustration come from

water quality, watershed health, and sustainability.

Santa Clarita Valley, Los Angeles that found the residents

Private companies often sell or redevelop watershed or

of this region may soon depend on an aquifer polluted

groundwater land which is in point of fact naturally

with ammonium per chlorate as their drinking water

marked as open space to shield watersheds and

source. Ammonium per chlorate is a by-product of rocket

groundwater sources. The establishment and the

fuel production which was used in military ordnance

development of the factory in reality created an

production at Whittaker Bermite in the Santa Clarita

impervious cover and contaminated run off which results

Valley. These chemical substances can impair proper

in loss of important habitat and ecosystem services.

functioning of the thyroid gland, which controls growth,

Other detriment also happens because the corporation

development, and metabolism. It also affects the

mines and depletes the water at a rate faster than it is

developing fetuses, infants, and children with thyroid

replenished which affect the hydrology cycle. One fact

impairment from exposure to ammonium per chlorate

that the case has been raising badly is apparent from the

may suffer mental retardation, loss of hearing and

increasing threat of the community complaints against

speech, or deficits in motor skills. A very high exposure

indiscriminate mining of groundwater by a private water

of this substance may cause thyroid cancer.

company which run in soft drink commodity in the

In contrast, giving a trust to the private

Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Residents

corporate in handling the water system will help saving

from the villages surround the industrial unit say that the

the environment and increasing the health rate of the

indiscriminate water mining has dried up many wells and

general public. Looking the system of centralization will

contaminated the rest. The factory's bottling plant was

only breed a lot of unsupervised aspect like water.

set up in 1999 in the middle of fertile agricultural land,

Regularly the government is too hectic to ensure the

with proximity to a number of reservoirs and irrigation

progression of regulating the water in the country. By

canals. Regrettably, the mining of more than 1 million

privatizing these assets the regulation will be work

liters of ground water per day has parched the lands of

swimmingly under full supervision. When the process is

some 2000 people within 1.2 miles of the factory.

fully supervised then the company can save the

Other drama that will turn out as a result of the

environment by using the standard guideline of

environmental devastation is linked to the quality of the

exploiting water. Further, the quality of the water can be

water which can impact our health. Due to the

carefully protected.

indiscriminate mining, the ground water has become

In summary, turning over some or all of the assets of a

polluted with the excessive calcium and magnesium.

water system to a private company provokes assorted

Nearly 100 people have reported to have the stomach

polemical issues in economic, politic, social, health and

aches, which related to the brackish and milky water that

environmental fields. Part of the humankind believes that

they are unlikely being forced to drink. Another notable

specializing water as nonpublic assets is an excellent line

example comes from the small town of Walkerton in

of attack to put the governmental arrangement in order

Ontario, Canada, where seven people died and 2,300

and help ameliorating the monetary conditions. The

others became ill as a result of E. coli contamination in

privatization also open up the huge opportunity of

Water Privatization Should be Done


employment which followed by the advancement of

up tremendous people should ungrudgingly obliterate

worker’s safety. Simultaneously, it is considered to be an

their profession. The social predicament is also going to

agreeable method to maintenance the water quality. On

come to pass followed by the destruction of environment

the contrary, water privatization is deemed to be a recipe

and health of the populace. 63

for disaster. It is truly not economically profitable and even defaces the politic system by corruption. It also fire

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces


SHOULD FORESTS BE CUT DOWN IN LARGE SCALE FOR

NATIONAL LAND DEVELOPMENT?

Agnes Farida | 16711376 | 085761247984 | 2000 words

I

ndonesia is a developing country with a

many kinds of dangerous animal, so forest is so suitable

great chance to reach the ‘developed

for national land development project as all that we have

country’ in some years later. As a

to do is just cutting down the trees, shooing away the

developing country, Indonesia still has many aspects to

animals or take them to the zoo, and we have an empty

be developed such as education, health system,

area to be processed and managed. But the truth is forest

economic, politics, balance of law, welfare, national

has deeper and important meaning than that. Eventhough

stability and military, and last but not least, national land

forests are the most probable area to be used for

development. National land development is a

national land development, forests in Indonesia should

development to increase the commercial use of an area in

not be cut down in large scale because Indonesia is best

a country so the welfare of that country will be increased

known for its forests, also forests are the habitats of

too because of the increasing of national income from the

other living creatures, and forests have an important role

productivity of that developed area. National land

to keep the environment natural and help us preventing

development is one of the most important aspectsto be

the global warming.

considered because it can generally represent the

One of the reasons why forests in Indonesia

country’s development. National land development can

should not be cut down in large scale for national land

be done by increasing the industrial areas, government’s

development is because Indonesia is best known for its

offices or projects, and commercial buildings such as

forests. Indonesia has a special title ‘Zamrud

bank, department store, hotel, and private offices. Where

Khatulistiwa’ or in English iscalled the emerald of the

should the government do the national land development

equator. Indonesia is a tropical country which has

project? Are there plenty of areas that haven’t been

numerous number of tropical and conservation forests,so

untouched? What is the first answer that comes to your

if we look Indonesia from the sky, it will be looked like a

mind after reading those questions? Well, I bet majority

group of emeralds that is spread along the equator. That

of people who read those questions, and actually me, will

is where the title ‘Zamrud Khatulistiwa’ comes from. That

answer the first question with only one word, forest. Why

title means a lot for Indonesia because that title

does ‘forest’ come first to our mind? As we know, the

represents the beauty of Indonesia in the worlds view. If

most suitable area to be managed and processed is an

we cut down the trees for national land development, the

empty or abandoned area, like forest. For some people,

uniqueness of Indonesia will be gone. Indonesia will not

forest is just an open area that is filled with trees and

be green and beauty again, because the beauty of

64


Indonesia will be replaced with the pollution from new

areas. Of course the coastal areas will always be flooded

industries that are built for the national land

and nobody can live there. Imagine that the wild animals

development. Emerald of the equator will be transformed

from forests will come and live in the center of our capital

to something stuffy, dusty and, non eco-friendly area if

city because their habitats, the forests, have been

we use the forests for national land development. When

destroyed and they have no place left to be lived in. That

the beauty of Indonesia has gone, Indonesia will not be

kind of incident has been happened in Indonesia about

recognized as a beautiful and green country but this

three months ago. A group of elephants entered

country will be seen as a developing country which is not

citizenries’ thirty hectare agricultural field in Pidie, Aceh,

quite well developed, because the development that is

and destroyed their field. That incident caused the

done by the government do not see the balance of it and

citizenries could not harvest their plants and made them

the nature. It means that the new development brings a

experienced so much loss. From that incident, we can see

new deterioration. As a result, the positive effect of that

that destroying other living creature habitats is very

new development will not increase the development of

dangerous because it can disturb the balance of our

the country since it causes other aspect to have

nature and leads to disaster.

deterioration and give negative effect. Like a

The last but not least reason why forests in

mathematical problem, a positive value plus a negative

Indonesia should not be cut down in large scale for

value gives zero or nothing, since the value of those two

national land development is because forests are

things are equals, as a development of a country.

important to keep the environment stay natural and help

The next reason why forests in Indonesia

us to prevent the global warming. As we know, global

should not be cut down in large scale for national land

warming has been a hot issue nowadays. The

development is because forests are the habitats of other

temperature of Earth surface has been gradually

living creatures. As we know, in a forest, there are many

increasing from time to time due to the amount of carbon

varieties of plant and animals. Forests are the habitats

dioxide that is increasing too because of human activities

for them. Forests also keep those other living creatures

like industrial activities through the waste that it

away from the area of human activities, and also fulfill

produces in the form of smoke from factories. The high

the needs of those other living creatures. Forests are gift

amount of carbon dioxide leads to global warming. To

from God to human because it is so rich and have many

prevent the Earth from global warming, the first and the

advantages. Can you imagine a world without forests? It

most important thing to do is decreasing the amount of

will be so weird and lack of natural resources. If we cut

carbon dioxide. How can we increase the amount of

down the forests for national land development, it means

carbon dioxide? Actually, due to the law of the

we destroy the habitats of abundant varieties of plants

conservation of matter by Lavoisier, we cannot create or

and animals. What will happen if the habitats of those

destroy a matter. So, to decrease the amount of carbon

other living creatures being destroyed? Of course our

dioxide, we can increase the amount of trees on Earth.

mother nature will lose her balance. If our Earth has lost

Trees can absorb the carbon dioxidefrom the air because

her balance, the first thing will happen is disaster.

carbon dioxideis needed by plants for doing

Imagine there are no mangrove forests in the coastal

photosynthesis. Matters that are produced by plants from CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

65


66

photosynthesis are oxygen and water vapor. It means, by

different aspects and our country can be developed

increasing the amount of trees on our planet, carbon

country as soon as possible.

dioxidecan be absorbed in a higher amount and the

Looking from the importance of forests and the

oxygen can be produced in higher amount too. If we cut

fact that a great number of land is needed to do national

down forests for national land development, the amount

land development project, forests in Indonesia should be

of trees on Earth will be decreasing and as the result the

saved from a large scale cutting down, because forests

temperature of our planet will be hotter and hotter.

are crucially needed and they do not have substitute to

Nowadays, people in many different countries have

hold their role in keeping balance of our natural

experienced the effect of global warming through the

environment. Forests are like water that supports our

extreme weather that is never happened before and

Earth’s life. They hold important roles such as being

leads to many natural disasters like flood, landslide, and

habitats of various plants and animals, protecting clean

so on. So, by cutting down trees for national land

water supply, preventing some natural disasters like

development, we will accelerate the phenomenon of

flood and landslide. A small scale forests cutting down

global warming and the ending of human races.

can be done to supply the needs of lands for national land

Even though, based on the three reasons

development so that our country can develop faster to

above, forests should not be cut down in large scale for

reach the status developed country. That small scale

national land development, actually forests are the most

forests cutting down should be regulated by the

probable area to be used for those development. One of

government so that will be no deviation which can cause

the reasons is because forests are areas that have not

our forests being used up for national land development.

been touched and processed. Forests are just filled with

There should be a limitation to the wide of forests that

trees and plenty dangerous animals and sometimes just a

can be cut down based on the measurement of the

several forests do not really take an important role to an

minimum wide of forests area needed to keep the

area since there are so many forests in Indonesia. Also,

environment in balance. This measurement can be done

forests are not lived by human, so forests will be so easy

by the expert of natural science from national educational

to be built. Our government does not have to pay a lot of

institution, so that the measurement is precise and does

money in form of compensation for citizenry whose land

not influence by other parties that have an importance to

is used by the government for national land development

the result of that measurement. There should be a non-

project. Forests in Indonesia are also so many and

government group of supervisor to prevent the misuse of

spread along the archipelago. In fact, our country needs

position from government worker that can do bad things

those many lands to be managed and changed into

from inside the government organization itself. And also,

commercial land so that our status can be improved from

the government has to search for other alternative land

developing country to developed country. If we use those

that can be used for national land development beside

forests for national land development, our country will

forests.

gain big number of profits that can increase our country’s

In summary, even though forests are the most

income and can be used to maintain other development in

probable areas to be used for national land development, forests should be saved from large scale cutting down for

Should Forests be cut Down in Large Scale for National Land Development?


national land development, because forests is the symbol

to supply the needed land for national land development

of beauty of Indonesia since Indonesia is called as

project so that our country can improve its status from

‘Zamrud Khatulistiwa’. Also, forests are the habitats of

developing countries to developed countries.Even though

various plants and animals that cannot be replaced by

the small scale of cutting down forests is permissible,

any other areas. Furthermore, forests are the best thing

that small scale cutting down should be supervised by

that can prevent the Earth from global warming because

independent organization so that the deviation of cutting

they can absorb large amount carbon dioxide from human

down the forests will not exist and we can keep our

industrial activities and release oxygen and water vapor

environment in balance. With this kind of solution, our

as the product of photosynthesis that can freshen the air

country will develop our national land gradually without

and keep the temperature of our Earth in stable

have to cause deterioration on other important

condition. But, forests can be cut down just in small scale

development aspect.

CHAPTER 2 : Environment and Natural Resoursces

67


God of Humanity

&


DOCTOR DILEMMA

Adie Tri Hanindriyo | 16711196 | 087878752092|2017 words

O

ur health is an (if not the most)

Indonesia have a tendency to choose money over

important aspect of our lives. Being

patients, the spread of medical facilities can be more

healthy is sometimes taken for

organized than ever, and because healthcare is a vital

granted as we do our daily routine without ever skipping

aspect of public life.

a beat. Studying, working, playing around, doing the

First of all, the problem with the uneven

laundry, all of it. But the truth is, without good health,

distribution of doctors is that not everyone is receiving

most of our daily routine will be impossible to do and our

the benefits of the healthcare system. The government

lives will become very messy indeed. Bad health

expects people to pay taxes; in return, the government

prevents us from being able to accomplish even the

uses the money to ensure the people’s welfare, including,

easiest of tasks properly. A simple headache or cold is

of course, the healthcare system. One use of the taxes

enough to ruin your mood for an entire day, probably

collected is to facilitate doctor training programs in

even an entire week. Health is important, and no man

hospitals. As written in Bab IV, Pasal 48 of the RUU

alive can deny it. So important that countries around the

Pendidikan Kedokteran, hospitals which have a doctor

world establish public healthcare systems to take care of

training program can send a list of funding needed to

their people. Medical facilities are available to everyone

keep the program running to the government, so that the

who needs medical care. And among these medical

government can fulfill it at a later date. However, doctors

facilities, the most vital component are the medical

who graduate from the training programs are not

experts, or doctors. As such, doctors are continuously

properly positioned and as a result, the distribution of

needed in hospitals across the nation. The country is

doctors across Indonesia is uneven. As a result, people

constantly encouraging and helping doctors-to-be in their

who live in rural areas receive next to zero healthcare,

study and training, for they are the future hope of the

while people who live in major cities can receive proper

country’s medical welfare. However, currently in

healthcare very easily. This is wrong, because taxes are

Indonesia the spread of doctors is uneven between

meant for the whole country, not just a few select areas.

provinces. This fact proves that the public healthcare

The government’s efforts to supply healthcare for all its

system in Indonesia today is still lacking. In order to

people results in only a handful receiving it. In fact,

resolve this problem, the placement of doctors should be

according to the Head of Presidium Persatuan Dokter

managed by the government because healthcare is not

Umum Indonesia (PDUI), Dyah Agustina Waluyo, 30% of

only meant for a few areas, individually doctors in

hospitals in Indonesia, as of April 2011, do not have even

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general doctors. This is a truly sad fact of the healthcare

involves working with different people daily, and

system in Indonesia. The government clearly needs to do

needless to say a mistake could easily cost someone his

more than aid doctor training programs financially. It

life. The government must be able to give the doctors

needs to manage the spread of doctors across Indonesia,

what they have rightly earned. Not only higher pay, but

begin placing doctors in rural areas as well as developed

also support in the form of medical staff, facilities, and

areas, and backing the medical staff with proper medical

funding. Only then will the healthcare system truly have

facilities also, all in order to ensure the people’s welfare.

a chance of succeeding.

But how does this problem, this uneven

As mentioned above, not all doctors choose

distribution of doctors across Indonesia, occur? Basically,

money over patients in their dilemma. Some choose to do

each and every doctor more or less has the same

what is really best for their country and serve where

dilemma upon receiving his / her practice license : money

they are most needed. The only problem is, sometimes,

or patients? While some become doctors solely for the

the place chosen is not the place which needs them the

sake of humanitarian reasons, others chose to become

most. There are multiple variables that determine how

doctors because the pay is good. And in certain, well-

many doctors are needed in an area. Chief among them is

populated and well developed areas, the pay is very

the amount of patients; the number of doctors in a

good. It doesn’t mean that there aren’t doctors out there

hospital must be proportional to the amount of patients

who prefer to go to a rural area and help those really in

the hospital receive daily or monthly. It is equally

need of help. It’s just that unfortunately, many others

wasteful to have 20 doctors yet only receiving 5-6

prefer to choose areas with good pay, great cities and

patients per day and to send a single doctor to a hospital

metropolitans such as Jakarta. Therefore, doctors are

200 patients visit everyday. The medical facilities present

inclined to work in great cities instead of areas which

must also be a consideration. A surgeon can not work in a

really need them most. This can be seen from the data

hospital without proper surgical implements, a sterile

from Bappenas; in 2003-2004, the greatest concentration

room especially. To send a surgeon to a hospital without

of doctors are seen in Java (East Java and Central Java

a basic sterile room is the same as telling him to kill as

have over 2000 each, indeed the two provinces with the

many patients as he can. A system is needed, one in

most amount of general practitioners on the list). Great

which every single hospital all over Indonesia can

cities in Indonesia have more medical staff per hospital

coordinate its needs and wants with the central

than rural or remote areas in Indonesia. In short, this

government in Jakarta. If a hospital needs medical

country has doctors where they are not really needed

facilities for example, aid could arrive within days and if

and does not have doctors where they are most needed.

the hospital needs more medical staff, the government

This has to change. Giving the government control over

can provide them as soon as possible. And the only way

the placement of new doctors can quickly solve this

for these demands to be met quickly and efficiently is by

problem. Although, the government must also put

letting the government have control over the placement

themselves on the doctor’s shoes. Few people in this

of medical staff and facilities in Indonesia. With this

world (let alone in Indonesia) are content with stressful

system, no more miscommunications will be necessary

yet low-paying jobs. Being a doctor is not easy. It

Doctor Dilemma


and the healthcare system will have taken another step to realizing public welfare.

Let’s look at it from the other side, for a moment. Why shouldn’t the government be able to

Besides general doctors (GP / general

coordinate the spread of doctors in Indonesia? Well, first

practitioners), the hospital also needs specialists. These

and foremost, there’s freedom. Doctors are not

specialists are people who handle cases of patients

employees of the government; in other words, they do

specific to their expertise. For, example, dentists are

not work for the government. Actually, except for doctors

experts on dental issues, cardiologists know the human

working in government hospitals, they can not be

heart inside out, osteologists are experts on bones,

ordered around by the government. They have as much

opthalmologists study the human eye their entire lives,

freedom as a worker in a public company, especially

and surgeons perform surgeries with excellent skill. The

regarding where they work. Which leads to the second

human body has branched numerous branches of science,

reason : doctors have the right to make a living. Not that

and hence specialists are trained in every branch. And

working for the government is not making a living, but

compared to general doctors, for each branch these

what is important is that like any other man making a

specialists are even rarer. Yet these handful of people

living, doctors should have the freedom of choosing his

must be able to ensure all of Indonesia’s health. Such a

own method of earning money, as long as it is legal and,

daunting task can only be performed with exceptional

in Indonesia, halal. It was mentioned above that every

organising, and also another reason why the government

doctor faces his/her choice : money or patients? While

should be allowed to determine the placement of newly

choosing patients over money is certainly a noble idea,

graduated doctors and specialists.

choosing money is not exactly a “bad” thing. Doctors are

It is written in the Indonesian Constitution,

people also, and they need money just as much as we do.

UUD 1945 Bab XIV, Pasal 33 Ayat 2, “Cabang-cabang

Doctors have families too, people he / she must support,

produksi yang penting bagi negara dan menguasai hajat

and one could argue that by prioritizing patients over

hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara.”. Any industry

money, a doctor has deemed strangers of more

or production acts which is important or vital to most of

importance than his / her own family. Doctors who choose

the nation is under direct control of the government. The

money over patients make a logical choice, to provide for

BUMN (Badan Usaha Milik Negara) are also established

his / her family first and other people along the way.

according to these rules set in the constitution. So why

Families are also the third reason: leaving your family is

not healthcare? It also involves the lives of many people

hard for anyone, including the best doctors. The majority

(everybody’s, really), and it is also important and vital to

of doctors and specialists in Indonesia comes from well-

the country. If healthcare fails, the government fails as

developed cities like Jakarta and Bandung. Which means

well. The country is crippled, and the people are sure to

the probability is very high that they have a family / are

rebel against the government. Which is why it makes

starting a family in their hometown. Other doctors –

sense for the government to take control of the entire

those who came from rural areas – will probably take

“industry”, fulfilling its “supply” (facilities) and meeting

the rare chance and find a work in great cities. In a way,

the “demands” (patients). By doing so, the government

the doctors shouldn’t be blamed; the current system

will secure the future of the country and its people.

should be. Because of the disparage in national building,

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

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most doctors are taught and trained in major cities and

healthcare system in Indonesia. This problem is caused

only a handful come from rural areas. And those who do

by the current system, in which most doctors come and

come from rural areas have to take what chance they

work in great cities (which offer more salary) and rural

have at making a better living, one of them, by working

areas are left behind in the national building. Regardless

in places which offer a great salary. The current system is

of the freedom doctors have, the fastest way to achieve

simply not working, and handing control over to the

better public welfare is to give control of the placement

government suddenly would fail to address the issues

of doctors and specialists over to the government. Putting

present. But putting the patients first is always the rule in

the patients first is a general rule for every doctor, too.

this noble proffesion, and by that viewpoint, I believe

By doing so, the healthcare system would be beneficial to

that more control by the government is the fastest way to

every single member of this nation, just like it was

achieve better public welfare.

devised to be.

The uneven distribution of doctors and specialists have always been a problem for the

Doctor Dilemma


STOPPING BULLYING CULTURE AMONG

ACADEMICS

Asri Nur Zahirah | 16711202 | 022 92689897 |2194 words

B

ullying in schools is a growing problem

girls. Recently, in 2008, Yayasan Jiwa Amini did a survey

nationwide. As we have known, it

and found out that about 67% of high school students in

probably has existed for as long as

Jakarta had experienced bullying in their schools. The

schools have existed in Indonesia. We can even say that

bully varied from classmates, seniors, juniors, teachers,

perhaps bullying is one of the cultural issues not only in

to principals. According to Komnas Perlindungan Anak, by

the education field, but also in the society as a whole. It

November 2009, at least there had been 98 cases of

might have been around since long time ago, but it is not

physical assault, 108 cases of sexual abuse, and 176

impossible for us to prevent it from happening, especially

cases of psychological harassment found in school

in places of education.

environments. There have been also more cases of

By definition, bullying is a form of aggressive

bullying during the time of school campus orientation, in

behavior whereby a person displaces their aggression

which seniors usually take are in charge of the event.

onto the wrong person (in this case, school bullying is the

IPDN case is one of the examples.

tendency of individuals or groups use persistent

The big number (and we can argue it is

aggressive or unreasonable behavior against scholars or

increasing, or at least not decreasing) of bullying in

staff in academia.) It can include verbal harassment,

schools has become a worry in Indonesia. Many school

physical assault or coercion and may be directed

bullying problems have been brought into the attention to

repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps on

the mass media, but there might have been more cases

grounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability.

of bullying that remain unheard (as said before, the

This is because there is a power imbalance between the

victims are too powerless and intimidated by their bullies

„superior‟ bully and the „inferior‟ target. The imbalance is

to speak up even to the people they trust.)

also the reason why the victim feels afraid to speak up.

A related reason why it is such a worry to our

In a school environment, there are various

country is that because bullying has serious and lasting

possible permutations of bullying; be it principal bullying

effects. While these effects may also be caused by other

lecturer, lecturer bullying student, and student bullying

factors, research has found bullying has significant

another student. However, the frequency of bullying is

effects not only for those who are bullied, but also those

found to be high among students towards other students,

who bully others and maybe other people. People who

and is often more prominent among boys compared to

are bullied tend to develop higher risk of depression and

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anxiety. They also have the tendency to have decreased

bad environment and/or were victims of bullying in the

academic achievement and school participation. For the

past do it. For some other people, bullying is a way to

weaker ones, they may have increased thoughts about

feel better about themselves, feel important, and control

suicide that may also persist into adulthood. Sometimes,

other people. People also think they will be popular if

if they have a tougher mental, they will survive the

they make fun of others and spread gossip. They bully to

bullying and become the new bullies who retaliate for the

get attention, to get what they want, or maybe to punish

cruel experience they‟ve got. Meanwhile, those who bully

people they are jealous of and laugh at them. This one is

others are more likely to get into fights, vandalize

where people obtain enjoyment from bullying, derive

property, and drop out of school. They are more likely to

satisfaction from it, and think that it is a joke, while it is

have criminal convictions and traffic citations as adults as

clearly not a joke to the victims. Then there are seniors

well; in one study, 60% of boys who bullied others in

who scold and do physical abuse for the sake of

middle school had a criminal conviction when they reach

disciplining their school juniors. They claim that this is the

age 24. It certainly creates troubles to the ones involved

best way to build their juniors‟ character and mental, and

in it and the ones who handle. More importantly, it has

one of the ways to gain respect, while in my opinion, it

turned into a serious issue to the point where school is no

will just make the juniors feel uncomfortable and angry

longer a safe place, which means it has become an issue

towards the seniors, so this is an unacceptable excuse.

in the education community of Indonesia, since rationally,

Now that we know a few reasons behind

people will want to have themselves at peace, so of

bullying, we must also know why it is hard to detect

course more people will not want to go to school due to

cases of bullying in schools when there are in fact many

insecurities. The extent of this problem is the slow but

of them. As mentioned before, students who are victims

certain death of education and morality of Indonesians.

of bullying are typically anxious, insecure, cautious, and

This shows how dangerous bullying can be and what

suffer from low self-esteem, rarely defending themselves

consequences it can lead to.

when confronted by students who bully them. They may

However, for such a serious yet complicated

lack social skills and friends, and they are more often

issue, we cannot solve it easily with a simple solution.

than not socially isolated. Because of this, they feel like

We cannot just tell the bullies to stop or the victims to be

they do not have people to ask for help in their side. In

honest about their problems. Thus, we need to find a

the end, they suffer the peer pressure by themselves.

different, better approach to this point at issue.

This raises another question: they do have parents in

The first is we must know the reason behind all

their side, why don‟t they tell their parents? Well, I

of this: why do bullies bully? Why do some kids turn to

believe that the victims are hesitant to admit the abuse

bullying? One of the answers probably is that they do it

to their parents for myriad reasons. Bullying is scary,

to solve their own problems. After all, it is much easier to

humiliating, and confusing, and when it first happens,

bully someone than to work things out, manage your

most people are not sure what to make of it. They might

emotions, and learn to solve problems. Bullying is the

be embarrassed at being a victim or scared that they will

proverbial “easy way out,” and sadly, some people take

be bullied even more (most bullies blackmail and

it. This is the main reason why people who grow up in a

intimidate their targets beforehand, after all), so they

Stopping Bullying Culture among Academics


think they must remain silent in order to belong. Some of

victims to ignore the bully and just get over it, although it

them might feel like they did something to deserve it.

is a very common recommendation, because ignoring the

There are also victims who don‟t tell their parents about

bully simply doesn‟t work in a lot of cases. When a victim

the full extent of the bullying they endured despite the

pretends not to perceive the abuse, they appear to be

torment, because they don‟t think it will do any good.

weaker through the bully's eye, and it will just continue.

Aside from these, the reason why they don‟t ask for help

You may tell them to „man up‟ and try defending

is probably because they want to be accepted by their

themselves if necessary, but do not do this either if you

peers; they want to blend in, so bringing up this topic of

think it only worsens the situation. Then, get involved as

'I'm being teased' obviously makes them stand out and

much as you can; you can take a stand and share

highlights the fact that they don't blend in with their

whatever concerns you have about bullying. You can also

community. They might think they will be accepted if they

approach the victims and be their friend; after all, it

just obey their superior, „popular‟ peers. Sometimes, the

doesn‟t hurt to make more friends, in fact, it is a nice

relationship between bullies and victims isn't so

thing.

straightforward; if the victim counts the bully as a friend

Adults are very important here, especially

(or wants to be his or her friend), telling other people

parents and teachers. Parents need to be supportive to

may not seem like an option.

prevent their children from growing in a bad household,

Another problem lies within the third party: the

so that they won‟t become bullying victims or bullies in

school itself. This factor may seem like it doesn‟t have a

their school. I should stress many times that a broken

role in this, but it does play a rather big part in this case.

home will result in an unhealthy family. A kid raised in a

Most of the students who have actually reported the

good environment will grow to be a better person. This is

bullying said that the school staff did nothing in response.

not only about their home, but also their school. A school

This can be frustrating to the victims, because the school

should only teach good things and a good school should

they trust to be able to handle the situation chooses to

have a policy regarding bullying. As they say, in

„ignore‟ the problem. This creates room for the bullies to

Indonesia, school is the second home and teachers are

feel even more superior. Occasionally even, from my own

the second parents; bullying only happens in a broken

experience, the superior status of the bullies (for

„family.‟

example, the bully is a member of a wealthy family or

More in the school itself, seniors should be

that he is a son of an authority figure so that their

enlightened that both verbal and physical abuses are not

parents or family can bribe the school to not punish him)

the ways to discipline their juniors. To me, character

make them feel even freer to bully. This really happens

building is not done in that way, and if they do that, they

in Indonesia, whether people want to believe it or not,

clearly need the character building themselves. Morality

and it is a sad thing.

is the keyword here, and every school should teach

So, in my opinion, the thing that we should do

morality to their students. No matter how prestigious the

first to help stop school bullying (in this case, in

school is or how smart the students are, in my own

Indonesian schools) is to know the bullies, the victims,

conceit, if they have no morals, or just have the „wrong‟

the location, and the time. Secondly, do not ever tell the

mentality, then they are nothing. A real prestigious

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

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78

school will have respectful students, not bullies as their

opportunity for bullies to take their campaign to a whole

students. Implementation of cooperative learning

new level by reporting their victims as bullies and

activities to reduce social isolation and increasing adult

subjecting them to the shame of being punished. In order

supervision at key times (e.g. recess or lunch) in school

to avoid this kind of tragic consequence, anti-bullying

will also help.

measures must be thorough in the investigation stage as

Having a strict enforcement of disciplinary actions is another way to help preventing bullying. While disciplining bullies can reduce the chances of bullying

they are firm in the punishment stage. There are just many ways to stop bullying, and these are a few of them.

taking place within the school, it may not necessary

In the end, I feel that school bullying in our

reform the bullies themselves. According to an article in

country is a serious problem that can dramatically affect

“Educational Horizons,� bullies often take pride in being

the ability of students to progress academically and

suspended or expelled for their actions. While the bullies

socially. Nevertheless, it is still possible to prevent it

who are dealt with by expulsion cannot wreak havoc in

through many ways if we know the roots, like all the

the school, they may continue to seek victims in their

other problems. A comprehensive intervention plan that

neighborhood or other areas. Bullies who are punished

involves all students, parents, and school staff is

with detention may even react by harassing their victims

required to ensure that all students can learn in a safe,

worse than before. But this is able to be solved by one of

fear-free, and positive learning environment.

the above solutions: by giving the bully a class on morality. However, once in a while, strict anti-bullying measures can have the effect of punishing the wrong students. Methods that allow students to report bullies' identities anonymously, for example, may create an

Stopping Bullying Culture among Academics


STRESS, THE ILLNESS OF

GENERAL WELFARE

Aria Ajidarma | 16711208 | 081321101245 |2008 words

P

eople have a lot of basic needs to

people choose poor decision, and decrease the work

support their life. The basic needs

enthusiasm of people.

include food, jobs, salary, health and

The first negative effect of public stress is it

many others. Fulfilling the basic needs is necessary for

can decrease the public health. In stress condition, people

people to gain prosperity. When people have gained the

will live unhappily because they have many things to

prosperity, they can live a normal life without stress. But

worry. If people live unhappily in a long period, it will be

sometimes the government doesn’t pay much attention

bad for their health. Stress condition can change a

about these basic needs. For example, city parks doesn’t

person’s behavior. For example, people with stress will

have public toilet. Even if it does have, the condition of

have difficulties to sleep at night. At the night, the human

the toilet is not good because it is often too dirty. The

body is expected to have some rest from the day activity.

government indeed placed a public toilet in the park but

But people with stress can’t rest well at night because

they don’t hire some workers to maintain the condition of

they hardly to sleep. It is because they have a lot of

the toilet. This might be a small problem but actually it is

things in their mind. When the human body doesn’t have

important because dirty place can be a source of disease.

enough sleep, the immune system of the body will

Another bigger example is about job. Many people with

weaken. Weak immune system will make someone easier

low education can’t get any job so they can’t make money

to be infected by viruses or bacteria that will cause some

for living. When people don’t have any money, they can’t

disease. When people infected by viruses or bacteria,

support their family needs such as buying some food,

they will suffer some illness and needs some special

paying the school fees for their children or getting some

treatments from the hospital. Since poor people don’t

treatment from hospital when they suffered some illness.

have enough education and any money to get treated,

They will live in fear because they don’t have any

they will ignore the illness without knowing the danger of

guarantee to keep living normally. This condition will

the disease. As the result, the death rate will increase

inflict some stress and worsen their condition further.

because of the illness.

Therefore, it is important to prevent people becoming

The second negative effect of public stress is

stress. The increase rate of stress can decrease public

people will think only the negative. Stress can make

health, make people think only the negative, make

people not be able to see the positive side of something. For example, people with low education and skill will

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become stress because they have difficulties in finding

example, we know that poor decision-making can turn

job and support their family needs. This situation can be

good condition into the bad one and also affecting many

worse if there is no help from the government at all.

people.

Those people will think that the government doesn’t care

The fourth negative effect of stress is it can

about their condition. Therefore, people will no longer

decrease the work enthusiasm of people. People need to

trust the government. This will make harder for the

keep their performances to keep working in a company.

government to help them since they will only think that

They need to work professionally to keep working

everything the governments do is just for the

together with other employees and fulfill their duty.

government’s need. The lack of trust for the government

Employees often encounter some situations, which will

from the people will cause demonstration or even riots

give them pressure in working. For example, too much

everywhere, which will cause many victims. With so

assignment, very limited time to finish all the tasks, poor

many riots, the government will have even more

coordination between employees, and poor leadership,

difficulties in helping the people. With no doubt, this

which is needed to lead the employees. This will cause

condition will decrease the general welfare.

some stress in working. Under stress condition,

The third negative effect of stress is it will

employees will feel bored and tired quickly. If there is

make people choose poor decision. People under stress

too much stress and pressure, the employees will lose

condition can’t think straight about something because

their ability to control themselves. There is a chance that

they have a lot of things in their mind. This will lead them

they will become desperate. When that happens, they will

to choose a poor decision. Poor decision-making can bring

lose their work enthusiasm, which will decrease their

a disadvantage not only for the maker but for other

performance in working. This condition will become

people as well. Stress people are already confused with

worse if they can’t overcome the stress condition. They

their own problem. When they want to finish something,

will become more unable to concentrate in finishing their

they often act without thinking properly. For example,

tasks. This condition is not good both for the employees

sometimes the government is sharing supply of food and

and the company. The decreasing performance of the

clean water to the poor people. So many people want to

employees will cause a new problem for the company,

get the food and clean water that they have to queue up

which will also become the problem for the employees.

for hours before they can get the supply. People under

Eventually, some employees will feel not be able to keep

heavy stress often can’t be patient to keep himself or

working in such condition and decide to quit the job to

herself in line. There is a chance that they will decide to

avoid stress. They think that quitting the job will release

cut the line to get the supply faster without thinking other

them from stress, but actually this will become new

people who are still queuing in the line. As the result,

problem. Since they quit the job, they don’t have any

other people will be mad and there will be a fight among

income for living. Also, they will less meeting and

the people. This kind of situation is not good because

interact with other people. This can be a new source of

there will be injured people caused by the fight. The

stress, which will give them hard time. In the worst case,

supply sharing which is expected to help the poor people

some people in deep desperation will decide to commit

ended in such an unpleasant condition. From this

Stress, the Illness of General Welfare


suicide. The high rate of death is a sign that general

experience stress condition. Therefore, it is important for

welfare is not maintained properly.

people to have good mental quality. Good mental quality

However, sometimes stress can bring some

is needed by people to face any kind of problems in their

advantages for many people. People feel stress because

live. This kind of mental quality can be achieved by stress

they need to finish something under bad conditions.

because stress conditions can be some kind of exercise to

Actually, this can become a positive thing if people can

increase mental quality of the people. With good mental

overcome their stress in their own way. The first

quality, people will not become desperate and give up

advantage of stress is it can increase the creativity of

easily when facing many problems at once. They will

people. This is because they feel that they really need to

become people who can manage to finish their own

solve some problems they are facing. So, they think of

problem even in a bad situation. This is because they

every possible way to finish the problem. This way,

have already experienced stress and manage to

people often get some creative and unique idea to solve

overcome their weaknesses so they can concentrate to

their problems. As we can see from the previous

finish everything they face even in bad situation. Also,

example, people who work in a company often feel stress

strong people will less need help from other people. They

because of the condition in the workplace and some

can finish their problem without rely too much to other

people even quit the job to avoid stress. After they quit

people. This can become an advantage when the

the job they will face a new problem about their financial

government is not being able to pay attention to them

condition and so they will become stress again. But if

because they can survive without much help from the

they can overcome the stress, they will try their best to

government. As the result, they will not become

find a way to keep living. They will struggle with all their

desperate and give up easily.

skills and think of everything that can be a source of

The third advantage of stress is it can force

income. As the result, some people can manage to keep

people to work better. Actually, stress that comes from

living without working in a company. Some of them

workplace is not something to be feared. It is true that

succeed to create their own job. For example, a man who

work stress can bring negative effect. But at some point,

quit his job has managed to open a small restaurant. If he

work stress can make people do the best of them to

try his best and keep learning how to develop his

finish the works. We already know that people who work

restaurant, he can succeed his restaurant business. He

in a company often feel stress because of many

can develop his business from a small restaurant into a

situations such as too many assignments, very limited

famous restaurant, which has many branches. This kind

time to finish all the works, and many other situations.

of situation often happens to a people who keep

But in fact, these kinds of situations give the employees

struggling and develop their creativity even in a bad

some kind of challenge in their work. The stress which

situation where other people might have already given

comes from the challenge helps the employees to do their

up. From this example, we know that at some point stress

best in finishing some problems. If there is no work

can increase general welfare of people.

stress at all, there will be no challenge for the

The second advantage of stress is it can make

employees. They will think that live is easy and they

citizen strong. There is no doubt that every human will

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don’t need to work hard. This condition will make the

relying too much to the government. Company should be

working performances of the employees decrease.

care about their employees by adding recreation

It is important for people to experienced

programs that can relieve the employees from deep

stress, since it can make people work hard which will

stress. Indeed, the company must not let their employees

increase general welfare. But stress also can make

relax too much otherwise they will become lazy

people desperate and lose their will to live. The best

employees. But preventing them from become desperate

solution is to keep stress rate at some balanced point

is also important.

that can increase the people’s performance but not let

In conclusion, stress can cause many negative

them to become desperate and give up. Government

effects to general welfare of people such as health

should pay attention to poor people who need help by

problems, financial problems and others, although stress

giving not only supply of food but also skills and

can make people work hard to sustain their lives.

education that can be used by them to keep working and living. Food supply is important, but skills and education is the key for them to keep living by themselves without

Stress, the Illness of General Welfare


SUNDA STRAIT BRIDGE:

SHOULD IT BE REALIZED?

Kharisrama Trihatmoko | 16711214 | 08081272660976 |2003 words

O

ne night, my family and I went to

not realized yet, it had made such sensational situation

Lampung Fair Exhibition which was held in Sumpah Pemuda Sport Field.

When we were visiting one stand which promoted a lot of unique things, suddenly one man, who was not far from us, told to his friends excitedly, “You won’t believe what I see just now in that stand!”. Then, his friends responded, “What?”. Without much talking, the man then asked them to go with him. Due to my big feeling of curious, as if I

wherever. Being part of people living in Lampung, I also

had been hypnotized, I took steps to follow them. After

give my opinion about the construction of the bridge that

walking some minutes, suddenly they turned to a stand

will connect the province where I live with the opposite

which I could know that it showed off the developments

province which is separated by a strait. A lot of

in Lampung. Seemingly, the man wanted to show one of

information which I get finally makes me think

those developments which I remembered that I had ever

eventhough it would need abundant fee, it may be good

read it in newspaper. That was the construction of Sunda

to realize the construction of the bridge. More clearly,

Strait Bridge, a bridge that will connect Sumatra and Java

although it may need a lot of funds, the presence of

Islands.

Sunda Strait Bridge in Indonesia can provide great It is still strongly remembered in my mind, how

impacts for the development of this country, especially in the fields of transportation, industry, and social life of the society. However, some people would argue that the construction of Sunda Strait Bridge consumes a big fund from the country’s budget. Unquestionably, it is true since that bridge will be the second longest bridge in the world if it is realized. Therefore, building that bridge will need very high fees which come from many factors. First, it

enthusiastic my classmates talked about it in every their

will use very high-level technology. Unfortunately, our

discussion. Eventhough it was still a plan at that time and

83


84

current technology is still not enough, which means we

estimation about 6.29% per year. On the other hand, this

have to use the technology from other countries like USA,

condition is not supported with the effective

Japan, Denmark, England and any other developed

transportation facilities. The transportation currently

countries that have ever built the similar bridge. Using

used needs two until three hours to cross the strait and

their technology means we have to spend a lot of money

sometimes it could be more due to annoying factors like

to pay them. Second, we must also count the fee of the

bad weather, extreme sea waves or the limit of the

materials for building the bridge. Remember that it will be a very large public bridge that must use high quaility but highly costs building materials. Third, we must not forget about the salary of the people who work for it. Since it is a big project that needs a lot of human resources, we have to consider suitable salaries for each person who are involved in the process. If those three mentioned factors are counted up, they can take a very big portion from our country’s budget. This matter makes some people think that it would not be wise to realize the plan of constructing Sunda Strait Bridge. Whatever the fee needed, however, the presence of Sunda Strait Bridge brings a lot of benefits. One of them is that the bridge makes the transportation between Java and Sumatra Islands be more effective. Currently, the transportation of goods and services between Sumatra and Java islands through land way and

available ships. This matter causes the flow of transportation run slowly and as the impact, it could disturb the fluency of activities which sometimes could lead to financial and time lost. For example, as we have ever seen on television every year, the condition of Bakauheni and Merak port when Lebaran Day is going to come is so extreme. The number of the vehicles and the people who want to cross the strait are not balance with the load of the available ships. As the consequence, very long queues happen which make the mobility runs very slowly and not effectively. Some big vehicles like trucks

ferry ship have been really crowded. The data taken from the shipping service company shows that the total of passengers who leave Bakauheni (Sumatra) reaches 450,523 people each year and they who leave Merak (Java) reach 364,329 people each year with the growth Sunda Strait Bridge: Should It Be Realized?


even must stay on the same position in the queues till

from the World Bank on 2007, the average growth of

some days which make them deliver the orders lately. It

manpower in those two areas is 1.9% above the growth

gives them not only time lost but also financial lost. Due

of East Asia and Pacific which is only 1.2%, with the

to this reason, the presence of connecting bridge which

propotion of poverty about 17%. With the presence of

can help in creating fluency and effectiveness on the

Sunda Strait Bridge access, the influence of those two

transportation flow is considered highly necessary.

islands on the world geoeconomy will be very significant.

Move from the transportation side, Sunda Strait

Especially to the industrial sector of tourism service and

Bridge then can give positive impacts to the development

the transportation across ASEAN even Asia-Australia,

of industrial activities in this country. Until now, the

including the economy access with the peninsula of South-

industrial activities are mostly concentrated in Java

East Asia (Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore). The map of

islands. As the consequence, Java island grows faster

industrial geoeconomy then will change by the connection

than other regions with the most glaring development in

between Sumatra and Java through Sunda Strait Bridge.

Indonesia. This not-good condition should be altered soon

Besides transportation and industry, Sunda

since it raises serios problems that finally could be

Strait Bridge can also give positive social impacts

obstacle for our nation development, for example the

especially to the two islands, Sumatra and Java. All of us

presence of underdevelopment areas and the limit of

know that Indonesia is a very crowded country. Based on

Java areas toward the industrial activities which continue

the data taken from the World Bank on 2007, with the

increasing. Therefore, there should be effective solution

number of people about 225.6 millions, Indonesia stays

to distribute part of the industrial activities in Java,

on the fourth rank in the list of the most crowded

minimally to Sumatra, since Sumatra is the nearest one

countries in the world after China, India and USA. This is

from Java that still needs to be developed. For it, Sunda

good because it means that there is abundant manpowers

Strait Bridge can be an effective way. As a result, the well

to develop this country. However, the problem comes

distribution of development between the two islands can

when these a lot of human resources are not distributed

give significant positive impacts to the industrial

well. About sixty percent of those people live in Java,

development of this country. This is because some of the

which only has width about only six percent from

industrial areas which are very concentrated in Java are

Nusantara at whole. This is a big problem which has

distributed to and developed well in Sumatra.

many impacts to the development of our country. For

Sumatra still has many empty places which

example, because of the bad human resources

should be explored maximally and it can be done by

distribution, the development in this country can not also

distributing some industries in Java islands which has

be distributed well. This happens because human

been too crowded to those empty places in Sumatra

resources are the most important element besides the

islands. At last, it could make Sumatra and Java islands

natural resources to develop areas. If the human

to be together as the most powerful one to develop the

resources are concentrated in one area, it is only that

industrial activities in Indonesia. In the world economy

area which can be developed well. This matter that occurs

constellation, the position of Sumatra and Java island has

in our country where it seems that only Java which

important roles for regional context. Based on the report

develops quickly. This matter finally could raise other

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

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86

more serious problems like the bad communication

Based on the benefits that we could get, it may

especially to the areas which are so far from Java where

be good to realize the plan of constructing Sunda Strait

the impact is not good for the stabilization of politic,

Bridge. Although it may need abundant fee, there are

economy and social of this country. Therefore, it is

many benefits that we could obtain for long period after

strongly suggested to decrease the human concentration

the bridge construction. Based on the last report from the

in Java by distributing some parts to other areas in

National Development Ministry, the project of Sunda

Indonesia. Sumatra can be the best option since it is very

Strait Bridge is estimated to consume fund till US$ 25

near from Java and it still needs more manpower to

millions (Rp 215.375 triliuns) and the investation for the

develop the big potentials that it has. Sumatra is very

fee of properness and basic design will take US$150

rich with its abundant natures which are still not explored

millions (Rp 1.29 triliuns). The details of this estimation

intensively yet. This is so unbalanced with the condition

are still possible to increase as more intensive the

in Java which has been too crowded with the human

discussion are held. This is so unbalanced with the

resources.

condition of the available fund source since the

The presence of effective connecting facility

contribution of country’s budget is only 30% and the

like a bridge could help in creating the balance of natural

remains are from the private sector. This problem can be solved, however, if the government and the private sector can hold a good cooperation and the government can find other fund sources. The fund sources which are possible and can have potential could be from the project sponsor, internal loans, external grants and the publishing of the country’s islamic law commercial papers. These fund source could assist the government in

resources and human resources between Sumatra and

facing the financial problems for constructing Sunda Strait

Java. Besides that, it could make the communication

Bridge.

between those two islands be more fluent and effective, and the mobility of the people and their access to the two islands can be easier and faster. For instance by the presence of Sunda Strait Bridge, we do not need to face anymore the problems that could annoy our journey when we use ships like bad weather, high waves or the limit of the ship availability. Besides that, for us who like using plane service better than using ship due to the faster journey, by the presence of Sunda Strait Bridge, we have another option for our travelling which is cheaper

To conclude, by considering the big benefits

compared to the plane and faster compared to the ship

that we could get and the solution that we could do to

service.

solve the raised problems, it is good to realize the project

Sunda Strait Bridge: Should It Be Realized?


of Sunda Strait Bridge. The construction of Sunda Strait

Japan as the second longest bridge in the world. It means

Bridge is one of the megaprojects on international-level

that after it is realized, it will be not only alternative way

that Indonesia has. Therefore if it is realized, it will be

for solving the problems in Indonesia but also a

not only something challenging but also pride for

prestigious icon for Indonesia in the eye of the world. 87

Indonesia. Moreover, this bridge will shift a big bridge in

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues


INDONESIA’S CORRUPTION HABIT

Dina Cahya Maulia | 16711217 | 08112235891 |2047 words

I

ndonesia is blessed with abundant natural

Kalimantan, Awang Faroek Isaac, complained about the

resources. Indoesia has so many different

irony of the utilization of natural resources (SDA) in his

kinds of flora and fauna. Several regions

district when met indonesian legislative in Jakarta.

of Indonesia has deposits of minerals in enermous,

Governor pointed out, how a coal mining company in the

waiting to be mined. The abundance of our ocean become

region can produce 45 million tons of coal annually, but

a major source of income indonesian people. Indonesia is

the fact is only 5% for domestic needs, while 95%

also famous as an agricultural country.

intended for export. Tragic and very ironic indeed.

Most of

indonesia’s area are fertile land, thats why majority of

It shows you that even in the middle of mining

Indonesian people are farmers. With all this wealth, our

exploration on large scale, which would produce many

country used to be a developed country. But till now

benefits, we can not see the improvement of the

Indonesia still a developing country, even majority of

development of human resources, infrastructure, even

indonesian people are below the poverty. Why did it

the welfare of the society. More over, the danger caused

happen to our country? Why with all the wealth that we

by mining has been threatened the existence of the local

have, welfare is still difficult to reach?

citizens of east kalimantan lives. The local citizens have

Corruption has a major role in this problems.

to face the eviction of agricultural land. Department of

All assets of wealth that indonesia has should be able to

Agriculture in East Kalimantan records every year 12

improve the welfare of our society but high level of

thousand of agricultural land converted to mines. This

corruption in our country make it seems imposible to us

case has not been solved by the government clearly.

to get out of poverty that countinues to handcuff. We can

Some indications show there has been bribery by the

see this issue is happened in east kalimantan region. Can

mining companies to the local government employee and

be ascertained, all local citizen in east kalimantan are

police in term of license. Bribery is one of types of

proud of their area which reserve abundant natural

corruption. For the average person, a bribe is the most

resources. Unfortunately, the local citizens can only be

obvious evidence of corruption. Based on wikipedia,

pride but can not enjoy what their region have. Everyday

bribery is an act implying money or gift giving that alters

coal mining is conducted along the mahakam river. Than,

the behavior of the recipient. Bribery constitutes a crime

that coal be exported and only little percent of the result

and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering,

are used for domestic needs. As reported by kompas

giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to

newspaper (5/2/2010) that the Governor of East

88


influence the actions of an official or other person in

many kinds of programs to improve indonesian people’s

charge of a public or legal duty.

live have been made by the government , such as BLT

This is one of the potrait of life of Indonesian

(financial assistance that given by the governmen for the

society. Among the abundance of natural resources

poor) , raskin (assistance in the form of inexpensive

doesn’t make us prosperous enough. Misery and poverty

rice), BOS

are still around us. Foreign assistance in the form of

educational equipment) and many others. These

investment in our country should be improve the quality

programs at the beginning were successfully carried out

lives of our society but in fact it is used as an opportunity

but on their way the programs have some obstacles.

for some unresponsible

Funding for this programs was corrupted by

people, such as local

(financial assistance for school to fund

government official, to get some profits in a bad way.

unresponsible employee in the government.

For example they asked ilegal levies or receive bribes

assistence intended to be received by the ones entitled to

from the company in order to facilitate the company’s

it has turned out to be improperly distributed . This is one

operation. Bribes by firms in Indonesia arise principally

of the evidence of corruption in indonesia’s government

from regulations --licenses and levies --imposed by local

quoted from pojokantikorupsi.com. This issues is about

government officials. Greed for money has blinded many

the loan to Indonesia from world bank to buy school

people.

books was stolen by corrupt publishing companies. Corruption is operationally defined as the

The

“ World Bank Demands Indonesia Return $10M

abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption in

Associated Press 09.29.2004

Indonesia is endemic. Rizal ramly (Econit Advisory Group)

The World Bank has asked Indonesia's government to

in his paper estimates that 30 per cent of loans to

repay US$10 million it loaned the country to buy school

Indonesia have been lost through corrupt avenues, that is

textbooks, after an investigation found the money was

almost US$13 billion (Bisnis Indonesia 1998a). There is

stolen by corrupt publishing companies.

considerableevidence that a strong negative relationship

The bank barred 10 individuals and 26

exists between the extent of corruption and economic

companies - whom it said took part in "fraudulent and

performance, pervasive corruption reduces the efficiency

corrupt practices" related to the scheme - from receiving

of government in general and in particular reduces the

any more World Bank-financed contracts, it said in a

effectiveness of private investment and foreign aid.

statement released Wednesday.

Transparency International (1998) recently ranked

Indonesia is one of the world's most corrupt

Indonesia at number 80 of 85 countries on its corruption

countries. Central and local government officials

perception index. Economic Risk Consultancy Ltd. (1998)

regularly siphon off large chunks of foreign aid and loans

ranked Indonesia the most corrupt of twelve Asian

despite crackdown efforts.

countries it considered. Society become the biggest victim of this corrupt habit in Indonesia. Many people’s rights were

The US$10 million was part of a package of loans, the first of which was disbursed in 1995, that was earmarked to buy junior high school textbooks.

stolen by the executive in government. One of them is

The bank launched an investigation in late 2000

right to get help to improve the quality of life. Actually

into graft allegations linked to the textbook procurement CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

89


90

after local news magazine Tempo alleged widespread

eradicated. Maybe usually corruption is a kept secret and

irregularities in the program.

therefore the behavior of the corrupt agent near

"Following an investigation ... the World Bank

impossible to observe in real life but if we faith,

declared misprocurement and requested the Government

combanting corruption will be a possible thing to do. Only

of Indonesia to repay $10,000,000 from the disbursed

Indonesians can overcome corruption in Indonesia. The

proceeds of the loan," the bank's statement said.

current financial turmoil in Indonesia presents an

The statement did not say whether government officials were involved in the corruption. No one from the government was immediately available for comment. It was not clear how the World Bank intended to press its demand.

opportunity to address and fight corruption, referred to as KKN (the Indonesian abbreviation of corruption, collusion, and nepotism). There are some strategies to prevent the corruption. First was the need for an honest and clear

The World Bank, which has lent millions of

commitment from the leaders in government and

dollars to Indonesia since the 1997-98 Asian financial

business to combat corruption. When there is inadequate

crisis, says it is committed to ensuring that none of its

transparency, accountability, and probityin the use of

loans are stolen.

public resources, the state fails to generate credibility

There are estimates that corrupt government

and authority.Establishing a code of conduct for top public

officials steal up to a quarter of development funds that

officials, including a pledge not to accept bribes. Leaders

international agencies disburse in Indonesia “

are role model for their employee, so they must have a

Corruption distorts resource allocation and government performance. Corruption makes the rights

good personality to be followed because if they haven’t good personality, their employee may follow them.

of the society is undermined.Corruption makes the rich

Second , to establish a zero tolerance policy for

become richer and the poor become poorer. Corruption is

those found guilty of corruption. Nowadays in Indonesia

like a drug, once you try it you will be addicted.

the functionaries still got special treatment even they

Therefore the chain of corruption is difficult to cut.

have done corruption. The law doesn’t treat people based

Corruption is not unique to Indonesia. Nowadays

on their social status. Anyone who is involved in

corruption is no longer considered as a criminal act but

corruption should be subjected to the positive law. It

has turned into a habit in Indonesia. It’s very difficult to

doesnt matter if the person is a high ranking official or

avoid corruption in Indonesia today.

even a relative of the president. Third, the capacity and integrity of enforcement

Surveys of external perception, in which

need to be enhanced. The best law has no value if it is not

Indonesia currently ranks among the most corrupt

enforced. The best judges and magistrates are wasted if

nations of the world. But whether Indonesia is more or

cases are never brought to them. Good investigations are

less corrupt than other countries is immaterial.

wasted effort if the judge or magistrate is corrupt.

Corruption levels by any objective standard appear very

Fourth, the public needs to be educated on the

high, and cause the vast majority of Indonesians

advantages of good governance and participate in

themselves to see corruption as an evil that must be

promoting it. In order to prevent corruption it is

Indonesia’s Corruption Habit


necessary to enlist the support of the public. The public

the old system needs to be ruptured. One way of

itself bears a large share of responsibility for insisting on

achieving this would be to establish an anti-corruption

honesty and integrity in government and business. They

commission which could prosecute, in very public cases,

need to learn to report incindents of corruption to the

high profile officials guilty of corruption. To begin reform

authorities and to tell their children the right values that

of the public sector, ways must be found to increase pay

integrity is good and corruption is bad. Moreover non-

levels to reduce the major incentive for corruption in the

government organisation’s can perform an important

Indonesian Civil Service.

function in mobilising resources to run anti-corruption campaigns and research programs.

To begin to change the culture of corruption in the Indonesian civil service a necessary first step is to

Fifth, Indonesia has to focus on educating

increase renumeration offered to holders of public office

future public leaders, professionals and corporate

in Indonesia, as it is currently under the average cost of

executives while they are in universities learning their

living and a major incentive for corruption. This strategy

crafts. We must train all university students in Indonesia

should be a part of general reforms to improve service

about what it takes to work and live with integrity, how

quality, recruitment procedures, training, performance

to manage organisations ethically, and how to do

appraisal, promotion, rewards and salaries.

business without resorting to bribes. In a decade,

The combating of corruption finally needs

Indonesia would have developed a critical mass of new

people’s active participation. The progression of the

leaders with integrity competencies that would carry out

awareness and critical attitude of people are really

the fight against corruption into every major profession,

needed in supervising apparatus’s behavior, especially to

every public sector and every region.

the law apparatus and mafia judicature for the purpose of

Corruption is a major problem in Indonesia

establishing the law and KKN judicature in Indonesia. So

requiring reform of underlying economic and political

that, socialization and law awareness are applied to the

structures. The economy needs to be made more open

society, in the sake of developing the attitude of

and political structures need to become more democratic.

anticorruption in all lines and areas.

Combating corruption is instrumental to the broader goal of achieving more effective, fair, and efficient government . To initiate this process, the equilibrium of

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

91


HIGHLY NEEDED :

TIGHT REGULATION OF THE NUMBER OF VEHICLES IN INDONESIA

Joanna Nadia | 16711256 | 08562235220 |2116 words

O

ne day in Bandung, a young man was

sell things to people in the vehicles, but we should

on his way to his workplace, riding

realize that without tight regulation, we will face many

his car. He was in a hurry that time,

problems since the road will be more crowded because

but the situation did not support him at all. The road was

the number of transportation keeps increasing, there will

already full of motorcycles, private cars, buses and

be more traffic accidents, and too many vehicles will

angkot. Some of the angkot were waiting for passengers

pollute the air badly.

(in Bandung it is called „ngetem‟) and they stopped

Based on survey done in 1999, the number of land

everywhere the drivers wanted to stop. Some of them

transportation registered by the State Police was 19

also dropped their passengers not on the left side of the

million. It increased to 27 million in 2003, consisted of

road. As a result, the angkot blocked the road, causing

71 percent motorcycles, 13 percent passenger cars, 8

traffic jam. Other cars and motorcycles, including the

percent trucks, and 3 percent buses. The number keeps

young man‟s car, could not move. The guy tried to be

increasing until now, in 2011, based on survey done by

patient facing the situation, but he started to lose his

Gaikindo (Gabungan Industri Kendaraan Bermotor

temper when a car with high speed suddenly cut his way.

Indonesia), or The Association of Indonesian Automotive

Finally he got mad when a motorcycle hit his car. He got

Sole Agents in English, and AISI (Asosiasi Industri Sepeda

out of his car, stopped the motorcycle, and insulted the

Motor Indonesia), or Indonesian Motorcycles Industry

motorcycle‟s driver. What the young man experienced

Association in English, there are 50,824,128 units of land

represents the condition of traffic in Indonesia today,

transportation in Indonesia, including private cars,

particularly in big cities. It seems common and no longer

motorcycles and public transportation. Compared to other

extraordinary seeing a lot of cars, motorcycles, or public

countries in South East Asia such as Thailand which has

transport along the road, causing traffic jam almost

only 25.29 million unit, or Malaysia which has about 7.28

everywhere nowadays. Whereas, it shows that there is

million units of transportation, Indonesia has the highest

something wrong with the regulation of the number of

number of land transportation. From the statistics, it can

vehicles in our country. It is true that vehicles help the

be concluded that since 1999 until 2011, the number of

passengers to get to other place easily and it also helps

vehicles in Indonesia has increased more than two

many people make a living by being drivers of public

hundred percents, an enormous raising in only ten years!

transportation, private drivers, or street vendors who

Even Gaikindo and AISI predicted that the number will

92


continue raising and the number of cars sold in Indonesia

pedestrian could across the road easily. Compared to

will reach a million in 2014. It can be imagined what will

accidents happen on the road in the old times, today the

happen next if we let this phenomenon keep happening.

number of traffic accidents has been an important thing

The road soon will be extremely crowded and we can

to be worried about, because it keeps increasing

predict that traffic jam will happen everytime since there

everyday. According to the data from Kepolisian Republik

are too much vehicles on the road. For example in

Indonesia, the number of traffic accidents in an area is

Jakarta today, traffic jam has already been a “daily

directly proportionate to the number of vehicles there.

menu� for the people as there are too many vehicles

National Consultant for Injury from WHO Indonesia said

there. Although Jakarta has already had Busway as a

that from 2007 until 2010 the rate of traffic accidents

new alternative to move to other place, traffic jam still

increased from 16,000 victims to 31,324 victims. And in

happens everywhere. That is because the inhabitants find

2011 they predicted the number would reach 34,000

it is not comfortable, ineffective and inefficient using

victims. As the number of vehicles in Indonesia increases,

public transportation such as Busway, so they choose to

there will be more traffic accidents. However, it is not

have and use private cars or motorcycles instead of

only the number of vehicles that increases traffic

public transportation. There are still many public

accidents, but also the number of the drivers which also

transport besides busway, like metromini and bajaj in

increases. Nowadays there are more people who have

many places in Jakarta. The effect is the number of

private cars or motorcycles and sometimes they allow

private vehicles increases, the number of public

their relatives who are not mature enough to ride the

transportation also gets higher, as the government tries

vehicles. They think that as long as the youngster can

to solve the traffic jam problem by providing more public

ride their cars or motorcycles, it will be okay to let them

transportation. As a result, the government receives

go everywhere by themselves. It is a totally wrong

many complains from the citizens. The traffic jam

opinion, because although the youth seem ready enough

problem occurs not only in the capital city, but also in

to face the situation on the road, the fact is they are still

many big cities in Indonesia, since in big cities the

not mature enough to overcome unexpected things that

activities are more complicated than in small cities or

may happen while they are riding the cars or

villages. Traffic jam caused by too many vehicles on the

motorcycles. The more vehicles people have, the chance

road has been a remarkable problem that has to be found

for the youngster to use them carelessly is getting

the solution, because it can hamper the activity of the

bigger, and that also means traffic accidents may happen

citizens in the region where it happens.

more often. Many accidents happened because the drivers, who are still young, are not experienced and

Every person needs safety and protection wherever

most of them do not have legal driving license. The

or whenever he goes. People need to have their

drivers of public transport are also the same. Today we

environment is basically secure and reasonably

see more public transportation driven by unexperienced

predictable. In the past, when there were less vehicles on

and impatient drivers. They drive recklessly without

the road, the environment is more secure and more

thinking about the passengers and othersâ€&#x; safety. The

predictable as the road was not too crowded and the

first thing in their mind is getting as many passengers as CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

93


94

they can and make more money, so they ignore the

emitted primarily from cars and trucks, formed by the

traffic rules and make “their own rules� on the road.

combustion of gasoline or other fossil fuels. Sulfur

Whereas, the rules are made to avoid accidents happen,

dioxide (SO2) is dangerous since it may risk little children

but because they disobey the rules, traffic accidents

and asthmatics by reacting in the atmosphere and

happen everywhere. It is not extraordinary anymore

forming fine particles. It is emitted by the burning of

seeing collisions between public transportation with

sulfur-containing fuels, especially diesel. The increasing

other vehicles, or vehicles hitting the pedestrians, which

number of motor vehicles in Indonesia may raise the

sometimes cause death and financial loss to both sides.

health problems caused by air pollution. Although there are other factors that cause air pollution around us,

Humans, animals and plants are living creatures that

motor vehicles are still the first factor, considering that

live on Earth. One of their characteristics is they need air

we have more vehicles than factories in our country.

to breathe. Breathing happens all the time in living

Many vehicles in Indonesia use fossil fuels, which

creatures involuntarily. As we know, breathing is a

produce poisonous and dangerous gases as mentioned

process that moves air in and out of the lungs in order to

above from the combustion. There are still few vehicles

inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. In other words,

that are designed not to pollute the air. Even most of

the exchange of gas carbon dioxide and oxygen happens

public transport we have in Indonesia use diesel fuel,

while we are breathing.

The primary function of

which causes terrible air pollution, especially buses. Bus

respiratory system does its duty to supply the blood with

produces dark colored fumes containing carbon

oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all

monoxide, that is not good for people around the bus and

parts of the body through breathing. To get this process

may make them hard to breathe. If we let those gases fill

occurs perfectly, we need fresh and clean air. But the

the air around us, we will get very little fresh air to

environment around us today does not support us to get

breathe well and in the end our lives are endangered

fresh and clean air because air pollution is everywhere.

because we inhale more poisonous gases than oxygen

As time goes by and the number of vehicles increases, air

that is really needed to get the metabolism in our bodies

pollution in our country is getting worse. There are still

occurs well.

many vehicles which emit air pollution during their operation, refueling, manufacturing and disposal that

In contrast, the high number of vehicles in Indonesia

may cause health problems. Some of the major pollutants

has help many people to get from one place to another.

from motor vehicles are nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons,

The population in Indonesia which is getting bigger every

carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxides

year shows that more vehicles are needed to balance the

(NOx) can cause lung irritation and weaken the bodyâ€&#x;s

population growth. With the increasing number the

defenses against respiratory infections such as influenza

inhabitants, especially in big cities, will need more

or pneumonia, hydrocarbons may irritate the respiratory

transportation to support their activities or jobs, which

system, causing coughing, choking, and reduce lung

sometimes located in places that are far away from their

capacity. Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks the transport of

houses. It cannot be denied that transportation really

oxygen to vital organs in the body, such as brain. It is

helps people to get to many places easily. If the number

Highly Needed : Tight Regulation of The Number of Vehicles in Indonesia


of transportation in a certain place does not equal to the

many problems with no end, such as the traffic accidents

number of people there, surely the persistence of

problem. Despite the reality that all of the inhabitants

activities there will be hampered. When there are more

need more transportation, the government has to think

transportation, more human resources are also needed to

about the effects if they do not limit the number of

be the drivers of the vehicles. For example, public

vehicles in the country, besides thinking about the

transportation in Bandung, today in Bandung we can find

advantage of having many vehicles on the road that can

public transportation easily everywhere, including angkot

increase peopleâ€&#x;s welfare. In conclusion, the number of

and Damri buses. The drivers come from other cities in

vehicles in Indonesia should be regulated tightly by the

West Java, like Garut and Cianjur, small cities with less

government before it is too late. Vehicles that are not

job opportunities than in Bandung. By being the drivers of

friendy to the environment and cause bad air pollution

angkot and buses, people who are jobless can make a

should be prohibited to operate and replaced by the eco-

living for their family, since they do not have to be highly

friendly one. The number of private cars and motorcyles

educated to be the drivers. Besides the drivers, street

on the road also has to be limited. The government

vendors are also helped by the increasing number of

should socialize using public transportation that does not

vehicles in Bandung. They can sell things to the drivers

cause air pollution or using traditional transportation,

and passengers, which are also increase in quantities,

such as bicycles, to the citizens instead of using private

and they will get more money to survive. More

cars or motorcycles, and they also can give reward to the

opportunities to earn money people get means the social

citizens who obey the regulation. It is better avoiding the

welfare in our country will increase.

unexpected impacts before they affect many aspects in our lives.

The increasing number of vehicles in Indonesia is an important thing to be worried about, since it may cause

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

95


I CAN CONTROLL YOUR MIND!

DO WHATEVER I SAY!

Aditya Parama Setiaboedi | 16711372 | 085861884992 |2034 words

S

LEEP!”, Master Rommy Rafael snapped

forbid it? Is there any other benefit of hypnotist beside of

his hand and said that “magical” word,

“controlling people‟s mind”? If hypnotist can “magically”

then

out

make people under our control, can it be used to cure or

unconscious and did whatever Master Rommy ordered. It

heal people‟s diseases? With the correct technique, I

was a cut scene from the show “Rommy Rafael Master

believe that hypnosis is the best way to solved people‟s

the

volunteers

went

Hipnotis” that used to be aired in

problem both of physical and mental

RCTI. Another story about the magical

problem.

power of hypnotist is the rumor that it

The word hypnosis is from

is a kind of criminality in the form of

Greek language, hypnos, that means

controlling people‟s mind. When

sleep because James Braid, who

stranger touched your shoulder and

introduced

then the next thing you know was

believed that it was one of the form

your hand phone, wallet, and other

of sleep. Although hypnosis is not

precious things had been taken. It is

really sleep, the word sleep has been

the

term

hypnosis,

the common issues that we hear about hypnotist from the

very popular in hypnotism. For the next paragraph, I will

news. If we watch the electronic cinema and there is

use word hypnosis to refer to the object and hypnotist to

scene about hypnotist, the scene will show you about

refer to the people who is doing hypnosis. In the

how not logical hypnotist is. I once watched a comedy

introductory paragraph I use word hypnotist so that the

show “SKETSA” in TRANS TV. There a man dressed up like

reader can understand about the topic by using common

the Mentalist Master, Deddy Cobuzier. He just said, “Look

word that we hear it every day. There are many

at my eyes” and then the screen turned into a hypnotic

definitions about hypnosis. To facilitated the difference,

spiral. The result is everything went out as he said.

the hypnosis experts under the U.S. Department of

Although it didn‟t be as expected, hypnotist seems can

Education, Human Service Division, make definition

make something or someone turn into what we order to

„Hypnosis is the by-pass of the critical factor of the mind

be magically. If hypnotist could be that powerful, why

followed by the establishment of acceptable selective

then it is not banned? If hypnotist use the black magic

thinking‟. From that definition, every time someone‟s

which is gotten from satan, why then the religions don‟t

feeling and thought being affected by what they see,

96


hear, or feel, by knowing or not they have been

The hypnosis steps can be explained

hypnotize. But the depth level of hypnosis that we

scientifically and it is free from the unsure of black magic

experience everyday is light hypnosis level, different

or other syirik things. Hypnotism is much like electricity.

with the level of hypnosis used in the stage hypnotism

No one knows for sure what is it, but we use it anyway.

and hypnotherapy that is deeper.

Similar to the discovery of electricity, the knowledge

The history of hypnosis comes from the culture

about hypnosis will lead us to the understanding about

of many races from the past, such as ancient Greek,

the power of hypnosis. By understanding human mind

Egypt, and in Indonesia itself. The phenomena of healing

system which is unique and interesting, we will know

by certain music or spells are the part of hypnosis. For

there are strange phenomena which uncommon and even

example, In Indonesia we know “Debus” attraction. In

consider to be magical things, such as cataleptic (the

Debus, the players enter the hypnotic condition (trance)

hardener of body muscles), anesthesia (the mute of body

with the help of spell and strong believe so that they

censor system), hallucination, remembering past

don‟t get hurt when eat glasses or stab by knives. In

memories (regression), etc. As the time goes, many

western, there was Mesmerism age when Franz Anton

people know the use of electricity and the phenomenon

Mesmer could heal people by just touched them. Mesmer

itself become usual thing. Same as hypnosis, if ones

claimed that in human body there was a magnetic energy

have known about hypnosis completely, they will

and he could heal any diseases by magnet. In that

consider it just a normal knowledge.

period, he was very successful with that healing method.

The steps of hypnosis can be explained easily

After the mesmerism era, there were many figures that

by the approach of human mind theory and the

follow Mesmer step to study about hypnosis and hive a

brainwave technology.

lot of contributions for developing of hypnosis

consciousness, there are conscious mind, unconscious

knowledge. James Esdaile (1808-1859) was a prisoner

(also known as sub-conscious) mind, and critical factor

surgeon that used hypnotic method in his surgery without

between them. The conscious mind used in our daily

drugs. With that, the live rate of his patients after the

activities when we think, study, work, etc. The

surgery increased drastically from 5% into 95%! An

subconscious state doesn‟t mean that we are lost our

Austrian neurologist and psychologist, Sigmund Freud

consciousness of fainted. We just enter a condition that

(1856-1939), had theories about psychoanalyze that are

we can access our abundance talent in our selves. The

used in modern hypnotherapy and being studied in

analogy is similar to the Iceberg. Remember the iceberg

psychology lecture.

In stage Hypnotism, the name

that hit the TITANIC ship? From the surface, the iceberg

Ormond McGill (1913-2005) was famous because of his

only can be seen 12% of it, the rest of 88% is hidden

book The New Encyclopedia of Stage Hypnotism which

under the sea level. It is the same as, the conscious mind

was released by Crown Publishing House in 1996.

is just occupied little part of our potential, while the other

Hypnosis has been through a various stories across ages

huge potential is available in the subconscious state.

and by the contribution of many people has made

That is why in hypnosis, people can do many

hypnotism to be like today.

extraordinary things by accessing the subconscious. In

Human have two types of

Master Rommy Rafael shows, he used to show super CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

97


98

strength (an old woman was being hypnotize and she

Theta brainwave occurs when someone is in

able to lift up a car by using her hand) and super sensory

deep meditation and dream in sleep. When we

(a booster in human sensory system by the help of

have dream, the condition of the eyes called

hypnosis). The show was true. It wasn‟t manipulated by

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) because of its

the help of satan or magical tools. Hypnosis can even

rapidly moving. In theta condition, the source

cause many unbelievable things such as finding our

of talent in subconscious mind can be accessed

“higher-selves”, “resurrecting” the beloved ones,

easily.

meeting our past and future version, etc. So, how can we access our unconscious state? Actually we enter the hypnotic state every day,

4. Delta (0.4-3 Hz) : sleep Delta brainwave occurs when someone is in dreamless sleep.

Cell regeneration and

every time we go to bed and wake up. When we search

detoxification process occur during this

something, for example a car key, when panic we don‟t

periode.

find the key even though it is in front of our eyes.

By the technique of hypnotism, one can enter the alpha or

Naturally, we have been entered hypnotic state which is

theta state easily so that they can access their potential

in scale 29 from 30 point of depth in David Husband Scale

in subconscious mind.

(DHS). The point 29 in the scale is negative hallucination

Hypnotherapy is a form of therapy that used

which means the condition when human cannot something

hypnosis technique to treat the client‟s problem. The

even though it is there.

practice of hypnosis have been used in the medical and

The work of hypnosis very depends on the

psychological practitioner since 1955 when BMA (British

activity of human brain. A device named EEG (Electro

Medical Association) claimed that hypnosis can be legally

Encephallo Graphs) can detect human brainwaves by

used in therapy process. Since that, hypnosis has been

calculate its frequency. Here the description of human

used widely throughout the world. Many researches

brainwave with the activities of it.

have been made to study this knowledge and schools

1. Beta (14-25 Hz) : normal

have been built to teach the knowledge. From the

Beta brainwave usually occurs when someone

previous paragraph, we know that hypnosis is the direct

is doing activities. This condition allows us to

communication with the subconscious mind.

do many things at the same time (multitasking).

subconscious mind gets information, it will keep in

2. Alpha (8-13 Hz) : meditative

If the

permanently. For example, when we were kid, we

Alpha brainwave occurs when someone is in

learned how to ride bicycle. Although we do not ride

light meditation, relax, before sleep condition,

bicycle anymore, we still can ride a bike smoothly

and the start to access subconscious mind.

because the memory has been stored in the subconscious

Alpha condition is the best condition for

mind by repetition and exercise. In hypnosis, the

studying because of the increase of focus and

hypnotist communicates directly with the subject‟s

concentration.

unconscious mind so that the suggestions are planted

3. Theta (4-7 Hz) : meditative

I Can Controll Your Mind! Do Whatever I Say!

permanently in their mind.


To become a hypnotherapist, one must have a

known that that type of criminality is hypnosis, so the

license or certificate from trusted hypnosis organization

misconception about hypnosis is spread widely. Although

through a series of education. False or fake

there are still many people blind about hypnotism, there

hypnotherapist who failed in treating their client‟s

are also many people in Indonesia who study and use it.

problem can worsen the image of hypnotherapy in public

The fact can be seen by the increase of the member of

opinion. The world‟s oldest hypnosis organization is

IBH and hypnotherapist. In Gramedia bookstore, we can

National Guild of Hypnotist (NGH) which was built in

find many books about hypnotism from various authors.

America in 1920. In Indonesia, the biggest and oldest

Hypnosis is not a form of controlling other

hypnosis organization is Indonesian Board of

people‟s mind. It is a communication with thesubject‟s

Hypnotherapy (IBH) which was established in 2002 by Mr.

unconscious mind.

Yan Nurindra. Now, if we want to study a hypnosis and

researched by many scientists, so it is free from black

hypnotherapy we will take an IBH-based course. By

magic of help from satan. To become a hypnotherapist, a

Hypnosis has been studied and

taking the course, we will get a brief knowledge about hypnosis and hypnotherapy. As the proof of completing the course, we get a non-academic title C.H. (Certified Hypnosis) and C,Ht. (Certified Hypnotherapist) after our name and become member of IBH. The organization\also give facilities for the member to make the hypnotherapy practice easier.

In Indonesian Health Government,

hypnotherapy is registered in traditional healing method, equal to “bekam”, herbal medicine, and acupuncture . If one have been the member of trusted hypnosis organization, they will have credibility to perform a hypnosis show or do hypnotherapy. The media publications about hypnotism are not 100% true. If we watch a hypnosis scene in the film, it shows that hypnosis is a mind-control thing or black magic. By the explanation in the previous paragraph, we have known that hypnosis is not like that. Also the likehypnosis criminality is not really hypnosis at all. It is the

license from credible hypnosis organization must be gotten through certain education. Although the hypnosis has been approved by medical association, the wrong publication about hypnosis in Indonesia has created wrong opinion in public. Gradually, the misconception about hypnotism in Indonesia has been cleared. With the evidences and facts that I wrote in the essay, readers would accept that hypnosis is the best way to deal with the human problem

black magic technique called “Gendam”, which is similar to “Babi Ngepet” and “Nyuwun Tuyul”. The public have

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

99


IS IT NECESSARY TO HAVE A BLACKBERRY IN INDONESIA?

Jeihan Sumawi Putra | 16711373 | 081911401699 |2024 words

N

owadays, everybody knows about the

this smartphone has been changed drastically, most of

existence

BlackBerry

the people in Indonesia use BlackBerry individually and

Smartphone. This smartphone has

just used it only for personal communication like the

many sophisticated service such as push email, internet,

other cell phone in common. So, the BlackBerry is really a

navigator and the most popular one is BlackBerry

smartphone that give us many sophisticated features to

Messenger (BBM). At first, BlackBerry devices have been

give us many benefits for our socialization,

developed

and

of

the

designed

communication, business and many other

In

aspects, but on the other hand it has give

Motion (RIM) since 1999. After that, in the

some negative effects too for the users.

middle of December 2004 this smartphone

Thus, actually is it necessary or not to

finally come to Indonesia by Indosat

have a BlackBerry in Indonesia?

by Canadian company Research

company. Nevertheless, it just become so

The writer wants to discuss

popular and being interested on the

about this problem in order to realize the

beginning of 2009. Then, many other

BlackBerry users and the people who want

operators in Indonesia was begun to

to buy a BlackBerry Smartphone. Many

follow the Indosat operator serving the BlackBerry

people agree that BlackBerry has influenced the users

service such as : BlackBerry Internet Service and

even it almost changed the character of the users. The

BlackBerry Enterprise Server+ (BES+). Futhermore, the

research told that when a person has a BlackBerry, he

BlackBerry has become the 4th rank of the most used

tends to be alone and become individualist, he likes using

phone in the world, compared with the other cell phone

his BlackBerry better than socializing with his relatives

company : Sony Ericsson, Apple and Google company.

and friends in the real world. It seems his BlackBerry

Likewise in the world, the BlackBerry syndrome has

become his world, where they live in its virtual world.

spreaded in our country Indonesia, even it seems the

They don’t need to socialize in the real world because

BlackBerry has made a new unique lifestyle and fashion.

they could chat with their friends using the BlackBerry

If we take a look the development of BlackBerry in

Messenger (BBM) feature. Wherever and whenever they

Indonesia, there is something strange here. At first, the

are, their BlackBerry will be there too. Thus, the

BlackBerry was used by a company to connect between

BlackBerry users seem to be anti-social. Of course by

staff and manager there, but in Indonesia the function of

becoming anti-social it will make many other problems

100


too. The relationship between parents and children will

at the same price. For example, if we have 2 million

become worse, it happened because the members of the

rupiah and we buy a BlackBerry, we will only get a

family are busy with their own BlackBerry even when

standard BlackBerry with only 2 megapixel of camera.

they suppose to interact and chat at lunch or dinner. The

But, if we choose the other cell phone like Sony Ericsson,

BlackBerry also affects the relationship between husband

we will get a 5 megapixel of camera and touch screen

and wife. Of course the wife will be jealous and annoyed

phone. We still need 1.5 more million rupiah for a

when his husband is busy chatting with the other woman

BlackBerry with 5 megapixel phone camera. So, if we

using his BlackBerry. So, the BlackBerry has changed the

conclude all the negative sides of BlackBerry, it makes

character of the users that make them become anti-social

the users become anti-social, make their relationship

and make user’s relationship become worse.

become worse, wasting their time and it’s an expensive

Beside that, the effects of BlackBerry are not

phone. In the special case, if a terrorist or corruptor use

only make the users become anti-social, it also wasting a

BlackBerry Messenger it will be hard for the police to

lot the user’s time. Based on the writer’s experience,

track them because the server of BlackBerry is on the

when somebody has already had a BlackBerry

other country. It is different with the other cell phone

Smartphone, they will like to use their time for using

which

their smartphone. Since the BlackBerry has the most

Communications) network or CDMA (Code Division

popular feature BBM which has been explained before,

Multiple Access) network which easily tracked by the

this feature make the BlackBerry users easier to

police because the server is in Indonesia.

use

GSM (Global

System

for

Mobile

contact/communicate one another between fellow

On the other hand, this smartphone give us a

BlackBerry users. This feature also gives us some

lot of benefits too. It is proved that the BlackBerry has

interesting services such as : photo sharing, music &

made the users easier to communicate with their

video sharing, status update and BlackBerry groups. Of

relatives. Because of the amount of BlackBerry users is

course all of the services give us a lot of benefits, but

still increasing, it will be easy for the users to

they also have the negative effects too. By the existence

communicate between them. The BlackBerry Messenger

of these services, we will attracted to always check and

(BBM) feature has made this smartphone become so

take a look our friend’s display pictures or their status,

popular and being interested. As explained before, BBM

not only once a day but many times a day. There is no

give us a lot of useful service. The user will know the

doubt, this activity will take our precious time and

condition and the situation of their realtives by looking

unfortunately the update of our friend’s display pictures

their status and display picture, this information will be

and status are usually not really important. Imagine that

useful for opening a new conversation or what we called

if we don’t do that thing, we can use the time for other

“breaking the ice” to start a new conversation. Beside

more worthy activities. In addition the price of BlackBerry

that, with the BlackBerry group feature it makes us

is not cheap, it’s expensive! We can compare its price

possible to create our private group so we can share any

with the other smartphone like Nokia, Sony Ericsson and

info and picture for the benefit of the group itself. Also,

Apple. The features especially the phone camera of

the BBM give us the service to do conference where we

BlackBerry is worse than the camera on the other cellular CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

101


can chat with many friends at the same time for a certain purpose.

102

The last but not least, the BlackBerry Smartphone give us a lot of sophisticated features. Some

The next benefit is the BlackBerry is really

of them have been explained before, here is the rest. As

good for business. Since the initial function of the

the basic function of a cell phone is for communication,

BlackBerry is actually for communication in a company

BlackBerry has almost every instant messenger

which has been explained before, the BlackBerry has

application such as: Yahoo Messenger, MSN Messenger,

given many useful services especially to support your

Google Talk and many others. Besides, this smartphone

business. The service is integration of multi account email

also support for social networking especially for

which allows us to integrate maximum 10 our email

Facebook, Twitter and My Space users. BlackBerry is

addresses. Each of your email account will be

really compatible for the user who like surfing the

automatically updated as soon as you have sent, erased,

internet, it equipped with a good and simple browser,

or read your email on your smartphone. The other

also enable the user to do mobile streaming when they

service is push email, your emails will be sent

want to access the video clip and music. The BlackBerry

automatically to your smartphone and you will get the

Tethered Modem also allows us to upload or download

notification as soon as you receive it. So, you will be

files in a large size. This smartphone also has BlackBerry

more relax to enjoy your time because you don’t need to

Maps & GPS feature that used as our navigator. It will

check your email on your Personal Computer (PC) or

guide us well to our destination place by telling us when

notebook, just check it on your smartphone. In addition,

we have to go straight, turn left or turn right. This is

to support your business, BlackBerry also has a calendar

become possible since the GPS system using the satellite

feature which a staff can send or receive and continue

to find where we are and connect it with our destination

any appointment or meeting schedule from this

place. Of course with this feature we can travel anywhere

smartphone. It also can be synchronous with the calendar

without afraid of being lost. Not only good for that, this

in your desktop. We can also put our schedule and plan in

smartphone is also good for entertainment. It is also

this calendar which added with the reminder. So, it will be

good for listening the music, video recording, taking a

really useful for us to arrange our precious time.

picture and voice recording. And for the last, the

Futhermore, there is also a special contact application

BlackBerry in general is also equipped with the QWERTY

that make us possible to connect between our desktop

keypad which comfort the user to type quickly and also

and our smartphone, so we can access our co-workers in

equipped with trackball or trackpad which used as the

the list of address in a company. Of course, it will

pointer in our smartphone.

increase our work productivity while we are not at the

Like most of the things in the world, BlackBerry

office. And the last ita benefits for business that we can

Smartphone has its positive and negative sides. So, the

open any kind of file that common for office such as

solution is how to use it wisely and smart to minimize the

Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint and JPEG for pictures.

negative sides and maximize the positive ones. Here is

We can also edit the file of Microsoft Word and

some tips to use this smartphone wisely. First, we have

PowerPoint using this smartphone.

to realized that we live in the real world not in a virtual world. So, socialization and communication by using our

Is It Necessary to Have A BlackBerry in Indonesia?


smartphone can’t replace our real socialization in the real

themselves who can decide whether it is necessary or not

world. Don’t be addicted with your smartphone, just use

to have a BlackBerry is the users themselves. They have

it when you are really need it and don’t let your

to consider all of the aspects such as: their economy,

BlackBerry Smartphone make you anti-social. Actually if

jobs, social life, age, and how all of the features in

you can use it smart, this smartphone could help you and

BlackBerry really useful for their life. If it is not really

tighten your relationship and friendship. Be mature! Don’t

important for you to have a BlackBerry, don’t buy it, but if

let your BlackBerry take all of your precious time, you

you are a businessman and need it, so have it. Please do

should realize there are many other more worthy

not buy a BlackBerry just because of your prestige. The

activities rather than looking your friend’s update of

most important thing after you buy it is learning all of the

status & display pictures. This smartphone is expensive,

features to use it effectively, then after you know that,

so you should learn all of the features of it then you have

use it wisely and smart. And the last one, don’t let

nothing to lose after buying it. And don’t forget to use

BlackBerry change our Indonesian culture and character:

BlackBerry not for crime.

our solidarity and hospitality become individualist and

After discussing about the negative, positive

anti-social.

sides and the way to use it wisely, let us go back to the basic question of this essay: “Is it necessary to have a BlackBerry in Indonesia?”. Actually the person

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

103


ABORTION IN INDONESIA,

SHOULD BE BANNED ?

Steven Lukas Goentoro | 16711379 | 081805149535 |2169 words

Right Of Life

people do abortion , such as she gets pregnant before married, her husband does not want that pregnancy, etc.

Taken away because of the fear of responsibility,

Regardless of the reasons, abortion in Indonesia should

Taken away and denied opportunity

be banned, because of the reason of humanity, Indonesia

Taken away so I could not be.

culture as a religious country, the dangers of abortion,the

Oh, mama, didn’t you love me?

abortion law in Indonesia, and by illegalizing abortion we

(A poem from a baby who died due to abortion.)

also indirectly illegalizing free sex in this country. Before I state my reason about why we should

W

hen you read that poem , you may

illegalize abortion in Indonesia, we must make our

say that that is a very impossible

definition about abortion is same in this essay. In general

action when a mother do abortion

medicine, abortion can be divided into 3 kinds of

to her baby. But we must face the reality. Abortion is

abortion, i.e. spontaneous abortion, medical abortion,

everywhere and we cannot deny that Indonesia is one of

and induced abortion. Spontaneous abortion is usually

the biggest country in the number of abortion in the

known as miscarriage. Medical abortion is a medical

world. Based on BKKBN (the government organization

action which is taken in case of emergency, and if it is not

which manage the population problem) data, in Indonesia

done the mother will die. Induced abortion is usually

alone, each year there are 2 millions abortion cases, such

called abortus provocatus. Induced abortion is usually

a surprising number . With that number of abortion, you

done to unwanted pregnancy, so that they who do

can imagine by yourself how many life that has been

induced abortion just killed their babies. In my essay I

taken each year. If we want to compare, the number of

want to make clear the term “abortion” is induced

American victim in world war II (one of the biggest war in

abortion, so I do not talk about medical abortion and

entire history) is 407,316, that is only one-fifth of the

spontaneous abortion.

number of baby who is killed by abortion each year. The

The first reason why we should illegalize

number of abortion is only an estimation of BKKBN

abortion in Indonesia is about human right. Every human

because there is no comprehensive research about

in this world has some basic rights and one of the most

abortion in Indonesia, so that the number can be a bigger

basic and essential right in this world is the right to live

number in reality. There are many reasons why some

our life. Baby just like another human in this world, also

104


has right to live his own life. Since sperm fertilize ovum,

God, (in Indonesian, Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa). The

the fetus is called living creature so fetus also has right

statement also has consequences that we, as Indonesian

for living. Fetus is a living creature, so there is no excuse

people must obey our religion rules. I absolutely believe

if someone do abortion because they just say that fetus is

that there is no religion that exist in this world which

not a living creature. If you say that the process of

teach us cruel action, such as murder. If we believe that

abortion does not make the fetus feel any pain , you

belief, should we have another regulation to prohibit the

should watch the video of abortion in Youtube or other

abortion process? Abortion can be classified as a murder

website in internet. The process of abortion is very

so that there is no religion allow abortion as a legal

immoral. Process of abortion depend on the month of

action.

pregnancy. If the fetus is below a month the process of abortion can be done just like a vacuum cleaner. There is a special tool called suction which will suck the fetus and the fetus will die suddenly. For the fetus who is between one until three month, the process is initiated with a different tool called cunam abortus, a tool which is used to cut the fetus into small pieces so the fetus can be taken out easier from woman uterus. The other process of abortion is also very cruel and someone who do that kind of process is just like no human anymore. Maybe , a mother which do abortion does not feel hurt because of anesthesia , but you can imagine by yourself the feeling of a baby, who supposed to be loved by his mother. Human right is also regulated by Pancasila (the basic philosophical foundation of Indonesia state) in the second statement states Just and civilized humanity, (in Indonesian, Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab). In that statement imply that every human have equal right to live his life, include fetus who is also a human. Someone who kill her baby is also not a good citizen because they do not obey one of the basic principle of Indonesia people about human right. The second reason is about Indonesia culture as a religious country. As I have elaborated before in the previous paragraph, abortion is a very cruel thing to do. Indonesia is a religious country. It is also confirmed in the first statement in Pancasila, Belief in the one and only

Next is about the dangers of abortion. Abortion also has a very high risk. If someone say “ Abortion is a safe medical treatment , it is just fine and you do not feel anything during the process, you can go to your home directly after the abortion process.” it is absolutely wrong and he just say that words maybe to promote his abortion clinic. The risk of abortion can be during and after the abortion. Based on the book “Facts of Life”Brian Clowes, Phd as the author of the book explains to us , there are at least twelve risks which are faced by the woman who do abortion i.e. a sudden death caused by internal bleeding, sudden death caused by wrong anesthesia (which is usually done by someone who are not anesthesia specialist), death caused by serious infection in the uterus, Uterine Perforation (the uterus is torn), cervical laceration which can make her next children will suffer from disabilities, breast cancer (due to imbalance in the level of estrogen hormone in woman body), ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, placenta previa which can make a serious bleeding in future pregnancy, a woman can be sterile, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometriosis ( infection in uterus layer). Beside the physical effect, abortion also affects the mental health of a woman seriously. The woman can be affected by a syndrome which is usually known as Post Abortion Syndrome in psychology world . As recorded in the journal “The Post-Abortion Review” in CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

105


an article which is titled “ Psychological Reactions

that he will receive the same punishment as the woman

Reported After Abortion” (1994), when a woman aborted,

and the medical personnel will receive.

she will feel some kind of a psychological disease, such as she will lose her pride as a woman, she will shout 106

hysterically without a reasonable reason, she will have a nightmare about her baby in the night, she will have desire to have suicide, she will start to use drugs, and she will not enjoy any sexual activities although with her legal partner. In Indonesia, abortion is also the big three of woman murderer. If we avoid abortion , we can reduce the number of woman death due to abortion process in Indonesia. Another reason is about Indonesia law which

Last reason , I want to say that by illegalizing abortion, we just indirectly illegalize free sex in Indonesia. A lot of people say that Indonesia is eastern country, so the number of abortion due to free sex and unwanted pregnancy in Indonesia is very low, but it is absolutely wrong. In Indonesia, if someone get pregnant before a legal marriage, she will feel very shy. She will also be a family disgrace. Her future just like something that has been decided, she will get a very bad future, and there is no man who want to take her as his wife, such a pity thing. Because of all of the reasons, it is particularly

control the abortion. In Indonesia,

logic that if someone get pregnant

abortion can be classified as a

before marriage, she will do abortion

planned murder. Based on all of

to cover her disgrace. The statistic

health law in Indonesia abortion is an

also show the same thing. Almost all

illegal action, no matter the reasons

of the woman who do abortion in

are. Besides health law in Indonesia,

Indonesia is a young woman who get

doctor ethics code also tell the same

an unwanted pregnancy and she is

thing. No doctor in Indonesia is

shy about her pregnancy. Her

allowed to do abortion. If some

unwanted pregnancy mostly is caused

doctor say it is the mother’s right about her pregnancy,

by free sex. Indonesia is one of the biggest country in

the doctor is not a real doctor. Chapter 80 in the

this world who do free sex, though some people do not

Indonesian Law about Health in 1992 said “ All of the

admit that. Based on some survey which was done in

people who do induced abortion will be in jail for fifteen

some big city, such as Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya,

years and also can be fined five hundred millions rupiah”.

almost all of the teenager in big city are not virgin

That law has told us clearly that Indonesia government

anymore, in other word they ever did sex, maybe with

does not allow us as Indonesian do abortion, even

her boyfriend. You can imagine by yourself, with a legal

though the mother ask the doctor to do the abortion. Both

law which control the abortion in Indonesia the number of

the medical personnel and the mother can be accused as

abortion do not decrease, but increase. If there is no

a planned murder. Not only the mother and the medical

legal law in Indonesia, you can wonder the number of

personnel , all of the people who know the abortion plan

teenager who do free sex in Indonesia will increase

and force someone to do abortion can also be accused as

rapidly. Prohibiting abortion is one way from our

a murderer. If a woman partner want his partner to do

government to reduce the number of Indonesian

abortion, he also act as a murderer and the punishment

teenager who do free sex. Beside she can get unwanted

Abortion in Indonesia, should be banned?


pregnancy, free sex also bring a lot of bad impact for

most important thing is the education, both formal and

teenager and her future, such as sexually transmitted

informal education. By taking a higher education , woman

disease and it can break up her future.

can choose a better choice in her life, for example she

Even though abortion has been proven to bring such a big number of bad impacts to woman, there are still a group of woman , especially in US, that support abortion. They say that abortion is just like another medical process and every woman in this world does have choice to do that . It is also implied that woman in this world can have her own decision to continue or do abortion process to her pregnancy. They can say that pregnancy is the mother’s business and we do not have rights to disturb it, but just like I said before, every living creature in this world, especially human has rights for living. If the mother has the right to her pregnancy, I can ask you the same question, “ Does the baby have the same right to live his life as a normal human?� The baby also has equal right for living, so we do not have right to take his life away. So, to reduce the number of abortion in

should avoid sex before marriage. By avoiding sex before marriage, the number of unwanted preganancy can be reduced and the number of abortion in Indonesia can be reduced also (the biggest reason why the woman do abortion is unwanted pregnancy) In conclusion, abortion is a very cruel thing to do. Abortion should be banned strictly in Indonesia, because of the reason of humanity as stated in the second statement of Pancasila, the dangerous and the risk of abortion,

Indonesia

culture

as

a

religious

country,Indonesia law, and abortion is closely related to free sex and It can destroy a teenager future. As Indonesian future generation, I just want to say, Indonesia is a very big country. Indonesia is also known as a country with high and polite attitude. Abortion is a thing that very inappropriate to do. Do we as young generation want to destroy Indonesia good name? The answer is in your hand

Indonesia, the most important thing is not the law. The

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

107


WHY THE DEATH PENALTY IS NOT SUITABLE FOR CORRUPTORS

Kevin Kegan Kusuma | 16711382| 085278382402 |1405 words

I

ndonesia is one of many countries in this

humane punishment. So many people do not agree with

world that have many resources. So

this punishment. This punishment cannot be applied in

Indonesia can become rich country. But,

Indonesia is because several conditions and reasons.

the fact is Indonesia until now do not become a rich

Death penalty cannot be applied are because there are

country. One of the reasons that can explain why these

several examples of the country that do not apply death

situations happen is because there are many corruptions

penalty can make the criminals learn the lessons, human

in Indonesia. Many corruptors act and receive dirty

should have second chance to change his/her life, and

income.

because it is a violation of human rights.

Based

on

nusantaranews.wordpress.com,

Indonesia is one of the most corrupt countries in Asia

Talk about several countries that do not apply

Pacific. Indonesia win the corrupt ranking, above other

death penalty but can make the corruptors have the

countries in Asia Pacific like China, Malaysia, Singapore,

lesson, we have several countries as the examples. One

India, Brunei, etc. And what has the government do to

of the countries is New Zealand. “New Zealand is one of

prevent and punish all of those criminals? Until now our

the most honest country in the world�, as recorded in

government still do their best, like search, catch,

archive.kaskus.us/thread/3171251. Why is it that New

interrogate, and then bring the corruptors to their

Zealand can be one of the most honest countries in the

punishments. But, is it enough to keep the corruption in

world? They do not use death penalty as the punishment

Indonesia to a low number?

to their corruptor. One fact that I can recognize is that

The fact is the ordinary punishment like jail

New Zealand government have good mental. They are

punishment does not have enough effect to make the

honest and do not greed. All of these mental turn down to

criminals have the lessons. So until now, there is an issue

their next generation. Parents and teachers in New

to give the corruptors a very effective punishment, death

Zealand teach their young generations about honest

penalty. Death penalty has been executed in several

mentality. The government and their people then set up

countries like Saudi Arabia, Republic of China People,

the good examples for their young generations. I think

Iran, and United States. According to the United Nations

Indonesia can learn this thing from New Zealand. Begin

survey in 1998 and 2002, the death penalty gives the

from our government to set up a good example for all of

criminals some important lessons, so the criminals rate

the Indonesia people. So it requires no death penalty at

slowly decrease. Although it is an effective way, but I

all. Other country that can set a good example for its

think it is not a good way to punish a human being. Death

people is Finland. Finland has a good rank in the most

penalty brings hatred to the victim family. And it is not

honest country. It has same method as New Zealand, its

108


people ashamed of taking something that is not their

and in Indonesia poured into Undang - Undang Dasar

right. Finland people live in simple live, they do not want

1945, such as in article twenty-seven point 1, article

to become too rich. Other countries those have good rank

twenty-eight, article twenty-nine point 2, article thirty

too are Denmark, Sweden, Swiss, Dutch, Australia and

point 1, and article thirty-one point 1. The examples of

Singapore.

human right is like right to live, right to have education,

Now talk about second reason why I think

right to live together, right to have job, and right to have

death penalty is not necessary in our country. According

same treatment in front of the law. Since Indonesia

to all religions lesson in this world, killing a human is

fundamental law organizes us to respect human right

definitely a sin. All religions in this world teach us to love

through Undang – Undang Dasar 1945, so I think there is

and respect all living creatures in this world, isn’t it? No

no point that state Indonesia can give the death penalty

religion teaches us to kill each other. So base on this fact,

to those who have corrupt. Indonesia already has

I think it not humane if one person get the death penalty

Committee of Corruption Fight (Komisi Pemberantasan

just because he only take or corrupt the society rights.

Korupsi) to search, catch and bring the corruptor to the

They must have their second chance to change their

court. The maximum punishment for the corruptor should

selves. We can take many lessons and learn about this

be jail punishment for all year of his/her live, not a death

second chance from the story in this best seller book,

penalty. If Indonesia enables the death penalty

“Opening the Door of Your Heart” (Indonesia version is

punishment, one false decision for the corruptor will take

“Si Cacing dan Kotoran Kesayangannya”). From this

his/her live, and we cannot give the live back to its owner

book, the author, Ajahn Brahm, who is a monk that has

if he/she has proven to be not false in the future. United

been traveled world to give lesson about live, teach us to

States already experienced this condition. When the law

give apology to the one who do something wrong to us.

of United States give the criminals death penalty, but it is

“We must give them second change because all human

a wrong decision, so the criminal live cannot be return.

can have that right”, said Ajahn Brahm in his book. It is

Although Indonesia has the Committee of

not a wrong choise if you give the corruptor the apology

Corruption Fight, the corruption number does not

and second chance. So they can turn their live to a good

decrease, it may increase slowly lately. So many people

one, not a bad one. I think Indonesia is a humane country

of Indonesia think that Indonesia must have the death

that still can discuss something and give the criminals

penalty for the corruptor, like that has been done in

second chance.

Republic of China People. In China, the president state

Last and the most important reason, death

this to his people, ”Prepare one thousand dead cases for

penalty cannot apply in our country is because death

our corruptor, and prepare one special death case for me,

penalty is human right violation. Our country is one of

if I proven to be corrupt too.” This state of China

many countries that give commitment on serve human

President informs us that death penalty is legal in China,

right. What is human right? Human right is the right that

and China people afraid to corrupt because if it is true,

human have since one grow in its mother womb. Human

their lives will vanish. China law is so clear and mean. It

right occurs universally. Fundamental of the human right

makes China can decrease its corruption number. Many of

poured into declaration of human right of United Nations,

our people think this death penalty is such an effective CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

109


110

way. I think this is an effective way too, but I still state

chance for the corruptor to turn their way to the good

that death penalty cannot be our country punishment for

one. Indonesia has commitment too for the human right

the corruptor.

and if Indonesia enables the death penalty, it is a

A country should do its best for the sake of its

violation to the human right. Not every country can be

people. Indonesia can do many things to decrease the

like China, who uses death penalty to press the number

number of corruption. I think Indonesia does not need to

of corruption, and Indonesia is one of those countries. I

use death penalty for their main punishment for the

think it is more suitable if the maximum punishment for

corruptor. And Indonesia is a country that has many

the Indonesia corruptor is jail punishment for his/her

religions in, it is true if Indonesia should give second

entire life.

WHY THE DEATH PENALTY IS NOT SUITABLE FOR CORRUPTORS


&

God of Generousity


RISKING HUMAN BASIC RIGHTS TO MAINTAIN NATIONAL ECONOMIC STABILITY.

IS THAT WISE?

Religia Shaliha | 16711243 | 085721121488 |1849 words

W

ho‟s not proud of being world‟s

There should be numbers of proper job available for

number one country? Sure, it would

Indonesian people considering that Indonesia is in the

be very remarkable to be world‟s

process of building many aspects of the country. It‟s quite

number one. But how would it feel to be the country that

ironic knowing that Indonesia which has abundant natural

has world‟s largest number of migrant workers? Still it

resources has more than half of its citizens in poverty. I

would be a pride if only the „migrant workers‟ which was

find this case as a problem for our country. Even though

mentioned refers to professional workers or experts. But

Indonesian migrant workers are the second largest

unfortunately, the „migrant workers‟ that was mentioned

contributor to Indonesia‟s foreign exchange incomes,

just now refers to domestic migrant workers, who works

many of these “foreign exchange heroes” experience

as labors or servants overseas. I think that predicate of

exploitation and abuse throughout the migration process,

world‟s-number-one would feel really different to have,

both in Indonesia and abroad. Beside that our

because it is not a kind of achievement to be proud of.

government cold not solve this social economic problem

Although the term „migrant workers‟ itself has different

immediately. And furthermore there are still many

official meanings and connotations in different parts of

proper jobs that migrant workers could get inside the

the world, in my opinion and in this context of problem,

country. Facing this migrant workers problem, some

the predicate of the country which has largest number of

people might give their cold shoulder in responding this

different workers somewhat conotates to a sort of less

kind of issue. Some other might feel cheap to talk about

pride or inferior image of our country. But that‟s the fact

this problem; the rest might moreover ridicule those

that happens in our nation. Our nation, Indonesia has the

people who choose to be migrant workers to keep their

world‟s largest number of migrant domestic workers.

life. Considering that this problem is closely related to

Our country is a rich developing country that

poverty, some people don‟t want to concern about this

should concern more about its citizens‟ social welfare.

problem because they don‟t want to care about the „ don‟t

Government should be able to guarantee all of this

have‟ people‟s business. But once more, this is one of our

nation‟s citizens to have a decent life economically by

nation‟s biggest problems, so who is going to care about

managing the of „quality‟ jobs in the nation itself rather

this problem if it is not us, this nation‟s next generation?

than keep sending numbers of migrant workers abroad

According to International Labor Organization

and risk their life to ensure the national income stability.

(ILO) News, there are approximately 700,000 documented

113


114

Indonesian migrant workers that go overseas each year

return home that time because she had nothing to go

to seek better income opportunities in the Middle East,

home with. She felt pity for her sister, who would have to

South East Asia, and East Asia. Of these documented

stop studying and have to make money if she didn‟t

migrant workers, approximately 80 percent are women

work. She didn‟t want her family to worry about her so

working as domestic workers abroad. In total,

she didn‟t tell her family about her troubles. Realizing

approximately 2.7 million documented Indonesian

that she is the only backbone who is responsible to get

migrant workers are currently working overseas. With

her family a decent living, she went to Bahrain because

this big number of migrant numbers looking for a better

she heard that the salary deduction is low there. It was in

opportunity in earning money, in fact most of them

Bahrain that things became even worse for Anitha. In the

treated inhuman by their bosses. There are many cases

first household where she worked, the youngest son tried

have come in relation of this migrant workers abuse

to rape her, and then she ran away. Anitha then went to

issue. It has been often reported that they get

Dubai where she was told she would work as a secretary.

exploitation in working for their boss from verbal abuse

But her boss there had other ideas. He also tried to rape

until physical torture and sexual harassment. So many

her, but she managed to thwart his plan by threating to

migrant workers come back from the country which they

kill either him or her by some scissors. Angered by her

were working in with pitiful physical yet psychological

refusal to obey him, her boss said that he would send her

condition as the result of the abuse they get during the

to Kurdistan, which he told her was part of Italy. Anitha

time they were working overseas.

believed what her boss said until she arrived and found

The case of Elly Anitha may illustrate how

some local bank notes at her agent‟s house and realized

vulnerable these workers are. When she turned 18,

that she was actually in Iraq, in the middle of war zone.

Anitha was expected to go overseas to work and support

When she was caught trying to escape, she was beates

her younger siblings. Her father was only a farmer and

severly. But Anitha refused to give up, and after two

her mother is a housewife, and they had lots of children

years lobbying to international labor groups and the

to be given a living. She didn‟t want them to suffer

Indonesian embassy via stolen mobile phones, her agent

because of this. So she chose to go to Malaysia by the

finally returned her passport and come back to Indonesia.

reason that the language was not very different from

The story above is just one example from many

Indonesian, so she expected there wouldn‟t be any

cases that has been turned out. This may describe what

problem in language. After three months she made

happens exactly to the migrant workers overseas. From

decision to go home because her employer started asking

Anitha‟s case, we have the information that the most of

her all the time if she wanted to be his girlfriend. But she

migrant workers definitely treated without honoring their

changed her mind that she still had to pay off debts to

basic right as human not only by their employer but also

her agent, who had paid for flight and visa documents, so

the agents that send them overseas. The migrant

she made two trips to Hong Kong. Both times, she was

workers agents seem to play a business on them since

underpaid and verbally abused and ended up by suing

they withdraw money from the migrant workers

her second employer to court. She won the case, but

administration fees yet they don‟t ensure the survival of

unfortunately the troubles did not end there. She didn‟t

the migrant workers at the time they are overseas. They

Risking Human Basic Rights to Maintain National Economic Stability. Is that wise?


cut some of the migrant workers salaries to cover this

to solve an international problem is throughout a

fees, and moreover they don‟t allow the migrant workers

diplomacy. But the governments who are relied the most

to go back home before they pay off the documents

to take over this problem could show a really serious

administration fees whatever the reason is. And the

concern and act immediately. We need a fast handling

worse fact is some of the migrant workers sender agents

before there are more and more migrant workers

even don‟t have any legal license from the government.

become innocent victim of human right abuse and law

This is absolutely puzzling the situation when migrant

blindness. Governments should really pay attention to

workers face serious problems and have to get help

this social welfare problem.

immediately. Once they contact the local migrant workers

Actually, there are still plenty of jobs which is

institution, their name aren‟t on the list of documented

more human that can be developed in this country. If they

migrant workers and there‟s nothing significant they can

cannot afford formal education, informal courses from

do with illegal comers remembering they don‟t have any

government with the collaboration with social

force of law without any legal documents.

organization should have been given to the non-well

It is a nature of human to survive their life and

educated group. This will give them special skill that they

struggle in a battle when he finds his life threatened. So

can do to earn money in a better way, and without have

was it that happened with the migrant workers who get

to risk their lives abroad such as being migrant workers.

exploitation and abuse by their employers. When a

However, the sending of migrant workers has

migrant worker gets his or her life in a risk because of

been contributing so much in Indonesian foreign

the abuse that is done by the employer, they might fight

exchange incomes. It is amounting to about USD 2.4

back to defense hiself or herself. If a migrant worker

billion1 annually comes from those nannies and domestic

involves in some kind of serious conflict with his or her

workers overseas. Undoubted, they have affected the

employer, the conflict is frequently found to be ended up

stability of our nation economic. But still i think it is not a

in court. The migrant worker surely has to understand

wise way to reckon migrant workers on increasing

about the bureaucracy of law which is prevailed there.

foreign exchange incomes. We do still have more better

But once again unfortunately, migrant workers usually

way to maintain our country economical stability.

come from non-well-educated category, and without much

In conclusion, it is clear that many Indonesian

understanding about the prevailing law they will find it

migrant

hard to win the case. Different country means different

exploitations and basic human rights abuse. Of course we

culture. And from different culture there certainly apply a

don‟t want this problem become more severe and we

different law, for example, Saudi Arabia which imposes

don‟t also want any migrant worker become the next

really strict punishment such as beheading punishment

victim of the trafficking .

for a murder. With the condition of migrant workers who

involvement by the governments as the side who has

have their life in risk, and also don‟t understand the law

authority in handling this problem is really expected

well and the different kind of prevailing law, the role of

further. After all, I think we have to set our mind as an

governments are really expected to be able positioning

educated citizen of developing country. What we do,

itself as a mediator. Some people say that the best way

represent our nation character. So let‟s begin to give

workers

overseas

have

experienced

Therefore, proactive

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

115


respect to our nation by having innovative mentality and

1) According ILO news 2011

developing our nation in an honorable way. Finally, personally i think the sending of migrant workers overseas had better be decreased or even more stopped. 116

Risking Human Basic Rights to Maintain National Economic Stability. Is that wise?


THE PROLIFERATION PHENOMENON OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN INDONESIA IN RECENT YEARS

Clarissa Olivia | 16711252 | 087880198289| 2506 words

H

ave you ever consumed Nestle or Coca

and the limitations of local government in controlling

Cola products? Have you ever worn

management decisions. Indeed, the rapid growth of

Levi's jeans or Crocs sandals? Are you

multinational companies has two sides of the same coin,

a user of Apple or Blackberry? Are you an owner of

which on the one hand provide benefits to Indonesia, but

Toyota, Honda or Mercedes Benz vehicles? Are you a

on the other hand harm Indonesia significantly. The

customer of HSBC or BCA? Unwittingly, we are the

phenomenon of the proliferation of multinational

consumer of multinational companies’ products and

companies in Indonesia in recent years provide benefits

service. A multinational company is a large-scale

to Indonesia, such as: the improvement and development

company that has investments and operates in more than

of Indonesia’s economy, more jobs are available to

one country. In recent years, multinational companies

reduce the unemployment rate in Indonesia, increase of

grow and develop rapidly in Indonesia. This phenomenon

the national per capita income, and the development of

is a sign of the beginning of globalization era that

Indonesian labor’s professional skills; on the other hand,

occurred in the entire world. Today, along with

this phenomenon has malign influences on Indonesia:

globalization, foreign investment in Indonesia is getting

Indonesia’s natural resources are exploited and

easier. The existence of global cooperation agreement to

monopolized by foreigners, dependence on multinational

establish the free trade area (AFTA) prompted many

companies that resulted in the demise of local industries,

multinational companies to invest in developing countries

and reduction of the role and power of Indonesian

that have superiority of human resources and raw

government.

materials that are easy to get in Southeast Asia region, especially in Indonesia. Indonesia, which is a developing

In

this globalization

country, must prepare for the sudden onslaught so

era, every country competes to be the most developed

Indonesia will keep steadfast though swamped by

and lies in forefront both in economy and technology

globalization stream. Countries in Southeast Asia is

development. Likewise,to be

favorite destinations for multinational companies to

globalization era, Indonesia must strive to develop the

invest their capital resources, due to these factors: the

economic growth. One of the main factors to boost the

low cost of labor, the ease to obtain natural resources,

economic

the establishment of market to distribute their products,

and quality of national production. In order to improve

117

increase is by

able

to survive in this

increasing the

quantity


118

national productivity, Indonesia may not be able to rely

that Indonesia's labor market cannot accommodate the

solely on national capabilities, but has to collaborate with

labor force out of high school and undergraduate

others to achieve certain goals. A strategy which is

optimally. Whereas, in accordance with Article 27 verse 2

implemented by Indonesia is to open up opportunities for

of the 1945 Constitution, every citizen is entitled to a job

investors and multinational companies to invest and

and a decent living for humanity. Therefore, the

operate

know,

Government should immediately seek a solution to this

multinational company is the spearheading of the

problem of unemployment in order not to turn off the

implementation of

success

productivity of the Indonesian citizens especially the

of Indonesian strategy can be proved based on Central

young generation. Domestic firms are an opportunity to

Bureau of Statistics data: the increase in national

create jobs and absorb work force within a

production reaches 5.6 percent within a year. This is such

country. Nevertheless, often due to limited capital,

a fantastic result, which affects the improvement

domestic companies are sluggish in creating and

of Indonesia's economic growth until the third quarter

expanding employment, so they cannot accommodate the

of 2011 as much as 6.5 percent over the same period a

labor force significantly. An encouraging thing is through

year earlier. With the significant increase of Indonesia's

numerous and rapid growth multinational companies in

economy year-over-year,

nation should

Indonesia, more jobs are created so they can absorb

be optimistic because Indonesia has proved to be able to

Indonesian work force optimally. More and more jobs

compete with

of

available to workers, especially graduates, the greater

globalization. The encouraging results indicate that the

the employment opportunities for workers, so that the

proliferation

of multinational

unemployment rate in Indonesia has decreased. This is

companies have a positive impact on economic

proved by the Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia, the

growth in Indonesia.

number of unemployed fell to 6.56 percent in 2011.

in

Indonesia.

As

we

globalization.

other

The

the nations

phenomenon

all

in

this

era

Nowadays, finding a job is not an easy thing

Humans have

many

needs and desires in

because a number of professional requirements are

life. To make ends meet, people work and earn

demanded. Especially in Indonesia, the amount of labor

money. Each worker gets wages for the work he has

per year is not proportional or comparable with the

done. Wages earned by each worker is different from

number of jobs available, so that the case of

each

unemployment emerged. The case of unemployment is

occupation, place of work, educational background, ability

one of national major problem that is quite complicated

and professionalism, etc. In addition, each state has a

and still cannot be solved optimally today. Based on

standard minimum wage, as a reference for enterprise

statistical data, the number of unemployed in Indonesia

to provide wages to

in 2010 reached 7.14 percent.

regional minimum wage in 2011 was 1.29 million

Ironically, most of

other, depending on

the

type of

work,

employees. In Indonesia, the

unemployed in Indonesia are on the young and

Rupiah. The

productive age group, in range of 15 to 24 years. The

received by each employee will determine the average

high proportion of unemployed in this age group indicates

income of the Indonesian population. Average income

The Proliferation Phenomenon Of Multinational Companies In Indonesia In Recent Years

amount of

wages


of a resident of a state is called as per capita

the worst in Asia by foreign investors. Facts are

income. National

the

sometimes painful, but it is the truth indeed and the

strength of a country's economy and population welfare

Indonesian must fix and improve themselves. The next

standards. The proliferation of multinational companies

question is how can Indonesia move forward if the work

in Indonesia gives a positive impact, which is the increase

ethic as the system of work is verypoor? The trick is to

of

per capita

learn from the Westerns. Undoubtedly, the Westerns

income. Multinational companies have a remuneration

haveprofessional behavior: a marvelous work ethic,

system that linking employee performance with the

hard-working, disciplined, responsible, committed,

gains in the form of salaries and facilities. To

working rationally and systematically, and working as

improve employee

companies

effectively and efficiently as possible. This is what makes

set high standard of wages for their employees, and even

the Westerns be terrific at work. Well, it is not an easy

far exceeds the regional minimum wage. This condition

thing to change Indonesian work ethics instantly, but

affects

Indonesia.

Indonesia must be able to emulate the work ethic of the

Therefore, national per capita income is estimated to

Westerns slowly but surely. Actually, Indonesian get

have exceeded U.S. $ 3,500 per capita per year in 2011

benefits from the presence of multinational companies in

from U.S$ 3,004.9 per capita per year by 2010. Indonesia

Indonesia which can transferscience knowledge, business

should be proud for the splendid increase in national per

ethics, technology, and skills for the local workforce. As a

capita income and opens up more opportunities for

result, the productivity level of Indonesian labor will

multinational

increase significantly. In addition, the ability of

per capita

Indonesia’s

the

income describes

national

performance, foreign

total national

companies to

income of

invest and operate in

Indonesia.

professional management of Indonesian labor has also increased because there are such training, seminars and

Every nation has own work ethic, which is

workshops to enhance knowledge of the company’s

different one to another. Work ethic is often associated

labor. In these past few years, the professionalism of

with the success of a nation in the fields of economy,

Indonesian workers would have increased significantly,

industry, etc. Developed countries such as America,

which will affectthe national productivity and leads to a

Europe, Japan, etc have an excellent work ethic. Let us

better performance.

observe the work ethic of the Indonesian in more depth. Indonesia has a great philosophy that is Pancasila,

In the

contrary

of

providing benefits

but failed to implement it as the work ethic of Indonesia

to Indonesia, covertly, multinational companies precisely

people. This is because Indonesian does not commit and

inflict a loss upon Indonesian citizens on a large

is not serious in implementing the principles of Pancasila

scale. Due to limited knowledge, skills, and technology

in daily life. As the time goes by, the Indonesia work

factors, Indonesian has not been able to cultivate their

ethic declined and it is very difficult to find an employee

wealth of natural resources optimally. Therefore,

who acts and behaves professionally and is committed to

multinational companies invest in droves to operate

his job. Moreover, according to a survey conducted by a

in Indonesia to cultivate Indonesia’s natural resources for

statistical agency, Indonesian work ethic is considered as

their

production.

Indeed, with the

rise

of

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

119


multinational companies in Indonesia, Indonesia experien

proliferation of multinational companies in Indonesia is

ced

growth and other

one of the evidence of nation's reliance on foreign

a modern-dayof

investors. The government seemed to provide privilege

colonialism, foreign companies exploit natural resources

for foreign investors as a sort of gods, while the main

of Indonesia, which should be processed for the welfare

purpose of these multinational companies is to maximize

of the citizens of Indonesia, instead. Do not let the

global profits from their investments. So that, all of their

multinational companies are high on the hog, whereas

actions aimed at achieving the main goal, not to develop

Indonesian are living in poverty. Withthe excuse of

and advance the state in which they invested. Welfare

globalization, multinational corporations actually run

and development of the host country is considered as the

modernimperialism,

international

responsibility of the respective state governments. The

standardization. They monopolize the naturalresources of

Government should open their eyes and ears that the

Indonesia

resources

local industry needs a lot of support and attention in

are transferred to countries of origin then, according

order to survive in the fierce competition in this era of

to the principles of international capitalism. This is such a

globalization. Furthermore,

detrimental thingfor Indonesia because of Indonesia's

Indonesiantoward local products is very poor. The

abundant natural resources are even enjoyed by foreign

Indonesian citizens are more likely to choose foreign

parties for the glory of their countries. The outcome that

products of multinational companies because it has the

Indonesia gets is not comparable to the rate of loss

prestige and they are considered more secure. The result

of natural resources of Indonesia. In my opinion, the

is local industries are unable to compete with

positive development of globalization is should be used

multinational companies and dropping like flies. How can

as motivation for Indonesia to be able to reorganize

Indonesia be a developed country if the attitude of

themselves

domestic industry's

dependence on foreign companiescannot be eliminated

ability independentlywithout the dependence on foreign

and support for local industry cannot be grown? Indeed,

companies.

each country would need other countries as part of one

a

rapideconomic

positive developments. However, like 120

and the

and

armed

with

results of these

develop the

the

pride

of

world, but the nature of this dependence should be Having a dependency on something is human nature that we always want to be in safe and comfortable

avoided in order not to become a boomerang for their own country.

zone. Reciprocally, it happens to our beloved country, Indonesia. The Indonesian citizens have alreadyfelt safe

Tempted by the various advantages offered by

and comfortable with the "help" from foreigners.

the presence of multinational companies, Governments of

Thiskind of situation arise dependence toward foreign

developing countries in Southeast Asia compete to

companies thatslowly entrenched within the nation as a

invite the

cancer cell spread and damage the body's organ

countries. With theexpectation of the emergence of

systems. Gradually and almost imperceptibly, this

a locomotive effect on the growth and prosperity of the

dependence would undermine the nation's independence

country, each Government seeks to create favorable

in running Indonesia’s economy and industry. The

policies for foreigninvestors, such as the reduction

The Proliferation Phenomenon Of Multinational Companies In Indonesia In Recent Years

companies to invest

in their

respective


in tax rates, tax holidays policies, incentives, and various

policies issued by the Government for the sake of

subsidies. These policies are like a pig in a poke, without

the company alone.

a deep consideration toward them. Actually, when a country

tries

to

attract foreign

In conclusion, the proliferation phenomenon

companies

of multinational companies in Indonesia in recent years

of the

leads to a debate. There are parties who are pro and

companies will gradually reduce the role and powers

other parties are con. There are always two sides of a

of the state Government itself. The depiction of the

coin, the presence ofmultinational companies doesnot

Government and the multinational companies’ position

mean developing countries will automatically get

can

and

benefits in all dimensions, but actually there are other

developing

dimensions which are exploited.Indonesia does have the

countries represent aspects of the supply with the site,

advantage of the increasing economic growth and quality

labors, and materials derived from natural resources.

ofhuman resources. However, there is such opportunity

While multinational companies represent the demand. As

cost to be paid by Indonesia in order to achieve these

we all know, in economic theory, when supply is greater

gains. Thus, which choice will be specified by

than demand, then

bargaining

Indonesia? It all depends on each economic and industry

position will be greater than the Government's

individual actor. For me, a bird in the hand is worth two

bargaining position, so that multinational companies can

in the bush, having something that is certain is much

play

In

better than taking a risk for more. It is better for

Indonesia, with a dependence on foreign investors, the

Indonesia to build and develop the nation independently

foreign companies in Indonesia have a higher

as Indonesia gained the independence sixty-six years

position than the Government of Indonesia. Indeed, the

ago, rather than depends on foreign parties. As

Government endeavors to create economic growth in

a younger

order to prosper the citizens, but there is a price to

domestic

pay for that purpose. As a result, multinational

bemore innovative and developed. If not us, then who

companies often intimidate Indonesia implicitly through

else?

toinvest, the presence

be analogous

to “The Law

of

Demand". Governments of

"take

the

it

multinational's

or leave

Supply

it"politics.

generation, let products

us love and support of

local

the

industry to

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

121


BANK CENTURY : A LITTLE PIECE OF INDONESIA’S CAPITALISTIC HYSTERIA

Rifky Aliza Hasan | 16711258 | 085720403812| 1900 words

B

ank Century is probably one of the most

my argumentation about Bank Century affair in this

famous and spectacular bank in

essay.

Indonesia. Since 2009, it has been

First point which has to be considered here, as

survived as a headline in mass media. Best-seller soap

the key problem of Century’s affair, is the 6,7 hundred

operas even had to retreat when TV shows about the

billions of Rupiah bailout from government to the bank

bank were broadcasting. Remarkably, the shows were

when the great global economical crisis of 2008 was

free from any commercial break. Although those facts

taking place. The crisis began with a rise in subprime

were tremendous, people who performed were not

mortgage delinquencies, foreclosures, and resulting

gorgeous actress or phenomenal hosts, they were just

decline of securities backed by said mortgages in the

ladies and gentlemen in formal gathering. So, why it is so

USA. Millions of global investors drastically reduced

special? Of course because it deals with a lot of money.

purchases of mortgage-backed debt and other securities

Need further explanation? Sure, it deals with mysterious

as part of a decline in the capacity and willingness of the

billions of rupiah, not just a lot of money. It hypnotizes

private financial system to support lending there. Causes

Indonesian people around the country because it has

proposed include the inability of homeowners to make

very dramatic chronicles. It is dark, really dark scandal,

their mortgage payments (due primarily to adjustable-

considering involvement of some VVIPs and fantastic

rate mortgages resetting, borrowers overextending,

financial losses. The meeting of supervisory committee

predatory lending, and speculation), overbuilding during

who worked on this issue of DPR (House of

the boom period, risky mortgage products, high personal

Representatives) overwhelmed TV extensively in 2009.

and corporate debt levels, financial products that

Those meetings were thrilling because of the speaking

distributed and perhaps concealed the risk of mortgage

dexterity of the house members and the plot itself.

default, bad monetary and housing policies, international

Unbelievable! It was sudden and massive economical

trade imbalances, and inappropriate government

hysteria after the 1998 crisis in Indonesia. Political,

regulation. Three important catalysts of the subprime

economical, criminal, and conspiracy theories explode

crisis were the influx of moneys from the private sector,

every single day from nearly each dimension. It is very

the banks entering into the mortgage bond market and

hot topic until now. Therefore, I will tell the historical

the predatory lending practices of the mortgage lenders,

background and technical causes first and then explain

specifically the adjustable-rate mortgage that mortgage

122


lenders sold directly or indirectly via mortgage brokers.

banks, limitation of consumer goods import, temporary

On Wall Street and in the financial industry, moral hazard

stoppage of the auction of SUN (State Debt Letter),

lay at the core of many of the causes; it is a special

buybacks stimulation of government companies, until

characteristic and also the lamest side of the capitalism.

using the swap facility with another central banks, e.g

Gigantic corporations such as Lehman Brothers, Merrill

Bank of Japan, Bank of China, and Monetary Authority of

Lynch, and AIG received enormous losses or even went

Singapore. In this case, actually, government did

bankrupt. It was worse than Great Depression of 1930s

impressive steps because the goal of prevention was

and spreaded epidemically fast around the world.

reached. Those indicators were getting better gradually.

Multiple bank failures happened in Europe. For example,

So, here is another checkpoint: the bailout was included

one of them is Northern Rock, the eighth richest bank of

in these steps. It was just a part of crisis typical

UK, main sponsor of Newcastle United. In Asia, Japan as

procedure; a lot of countries also executed it in that time.

the economical leader got its first-estimated negative

So, what was wrong with this brilliant and quick actions?

economical growth. During April 2008, IMF (International

Bailout is only given to banks which

Monetary Fund) estimated that global losses for financial

categorized as systemically important bank (SIB). There

institutions would approach $1 trillion. Our critical

are two general criterias to decide whether a bank is a

question is: “Did it harm Indonesia?”.

SIB or not: capital size and interconnection. Bank Century

During the year of 2008, IHSG (Jakarta

was minor, but inter connected; that was government’s

Composite Index) performed free-fall from Rp. 2.830 to

argument. Bank Century’s assets were too small to be

Rp. 1.155 and Rupiah was depreciated from Rp. 9.393/US$

systemic and even it was interconnected, the bailout was

to Rp. 12.100/US$, both in the period of January-

way too much. The huge question mark comes out when

November. BEI (Indonesia Stock Exchange) had to be

we realize that there is no capitalist who can explain the

suspended because the market was poorly negative.

essential meaning of interconnection in this case. It is one

Capital flights kicked sporadically in the country because

of truly epic weaknesses of capitalism. Although the rules

Indonesia didn’t give blanket guarantee to avoid its

in Indonesia and other countries say that the disability is

misuse by bank owner or committee (former Vice

the way to avoid moral hazard and it can be assisted by

President Jusuf Kalla was the first man who said no to

real-time analysis during the crisis, it is still very

this policy; although one of Indonesia top’s economists,

subjective and unimplementative. Why should we keep

Faisal Basri, blamed him for Century’s case because of

Bank Century alive with the bailout? Once again, it was

this). Credit Default Swap, Financial Stability Index, and

just a dwarf, even with bad reputation before the crisis.

another economical measurable indicators had given

The bank which was a merged bank from three tiny

sufficient proofs that Indonesia was also contaminated.

banks: Bank Danpac, CIC, and Bank Pikko, had been

Government must prevent the economic radiation before

destroyed from inside because of silent robberies by its

it reached the real sector. They were only given one shot

chairmen. In the supervisory committee of DPR’s

and not much time. A lot of policies were implemented.

meetings were revealed that many economical experts

Starting from 17 hundred billion rupiahs of the liquidity

who was invited in the event didn’t agree to put Bank

addition for banking system through government’s

Century as SIB. BPK (Supreme Audit Agency) had

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

123


124

mentioned also in their investigative audit that

Governor when the Century’s decision was made. Leaked

government didn’t use valid data and transparent

and confidential state documents that obtained by mass

parameters to decide Bank Century’s status. However,

media have unveiled that President SBY may also have

government had strong arguments to defend their

been involved in the controversial bailout of Bank

decision, even this essay will be extremely long and out

Century. The set of documents comprise official letters

of purpose if I compile economical scientific evidences

and reports from former finance minister SMI (she is one

and legal bases of their policies that they had presented

of World Bank managing directors now) to the President

widely. It is an endless contradiction, too economical to

when she slapped a default status on the bank and

understand, but it is clear to see the mistakes if we look

considered it a threat to the banking system. The

down and deep to the real world of people.

controversial book that written by George Junus

Here is an tragic fact occurs: former Bank

Aditjondro (also distinguished by the throwing accident

Century’s customers are now confused and furious

by its writer to one of legislator from President’s party at

because their funds are gone with the wind. Some of

a discussion forum), Gurita Cikeas, revealed some

them get mental illness, or even commit suicide. In the

sensitive figures too. At this segment, everything seems

other hand, government stands still with their arrogance

untouchable. Many political and economical experts think

and justification. I don’t know whether the stakeholders

that it may be revealed at 2014, after the current leaders

missed this probability because they were in panic attack

stepped off, typical RI-1 affair. Of course, it is not the

during the crisis or they really covered something behind

right way. KPK (Corruption Eradication Commission) is the

those ineffective rules. Government has announced that

only hope. It is a big opportunity for the brand new

at least half of the bailout will be recovered because

chairmen of KPK to prove their integrity. In the other

Bank Century now re-operates as Bank Mutiara under

hand, those poor victims only be able to wait sadly while

extra supervision and those assets which was stolen by

this drama is rolling slowly through day by day.

the owner, Robert Tantular, which has been punished in

Eventually, the phenomenon of Bank Century is

custody for 5 years and Rp.50 billion of fine, is being

still just one of the darkest and unsolved problems in

searched around the world. Unfortunately, it is silly to

history of Indonesia. This case is similar with BLBI

hope from a newly-born-small-intended bank to return

(Central Bank Liquidity Assistance) case which was

the fund and the legal processes are unreliable as usual;

happened at the monetary crisis of 1998 and produced

slow, dirty, and flooded by tons of lies. In this point,

100 times bigger loss. We have to conclude wisely that

people start to think about the conspiracy prejudices of

the bailout is right call technically, but it has serious

the case, pointed straight to our respectful leaders today.

criminal tendencies. Unfortunately, powerless people are

Some people believe that the whole case was

the victim as always. I want to accentuate here that such

just alibi for a hidden ultimate case. They have a theory

events and scandals like Century and BLBI have become

that the bailout was used as “payment for glory” for the

sufficient evidences that teach us how bad and

2009 general election’s champion party. It got more

incompatible capitalism is for our beloved country. Money

intense when the winning Vice President, Professor

should be used for human’s wealthy, not make people

Boediono, was Bank Indonesia (Indonesia’s Central Bank)

hurts each other wildly. It is more ruthless than World

Bank Century : A Little Piece of Indonesia’s Capitalistic Hysteria


War. The kingdom of Wall Street will be really vanished

disappointed if they watch Indonesia in this era. We

soon, so we must prepare and protect our people.

should be very sorrowful and ashamed if we are grateful

Indonesia today is worse than Indonesia in the New

for their struggle in the past for the independence of

Order. It is filthier and has less prosperity for the people,

Indonesia. They died for us, but what have we done as

but now in smooth and liberal style. Government is such

free people to develop this country? The last one, I have

an awkward tyranny now. Indonesia may need faithful,

to remind that those scandals would not be happen if we

visionary, and creative young leaders for better future.

are still holding tight to our religion. We’ve been too far

We have excellent natural and human resources for

away from our God, Allah.swt. We cannot wait until 2014

transforming into a developed and charismatic country in

to change. Let us repent together and work harder in a

the Earth, but we have lost our ideology and morality.

solid and powerful unity for the amazing Indonesia!

Where is our Pancasila? Our founding fathers will be

Wallahu a’lam..

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

125


ACFTA:

A BIG FORTUNE OR NEW GRIM REAPER?

Guntur Adisurya | 16711307 | 08179205475| 2059 words

T

here are many people in this world right

ASEAN’s members and China will not be disturbed with

now. They are all live in different place.

taxes that have to be paid. At the surface, it seems to be

Many of them are separated with a gap

a very good agreement. But, is it also good for Indonesia?

that called a country. Country is an organization that has its own territory which is occupied by people as the

This ACFTA will greatly encourage Indonesia to

citizen and led by the leader. The leader of the country

produce more quality product so they can challenge with

has responsibility to the citizen of the country. Leader

product from the other countries. It will encourage us to

has to make sure that country can fulfill the need of

think more creative to product some unique and

citizen. Since every country has its own territory, country

innovative product. But, let’s see the reality here. Many

cannot fulfill its need just from the resources of that

factories in Indonesia have to be closed because of the

country itself. Country has to do some interaction with

big loss. This will give us a brief conclusion: domestic

another country to fulfill their need that cannot be gotten

products can’t challenge product from another country

from its territory. A country will buy what their need

right now. Our technology is very out of date. Even if our

from another country. Because another country also

technology is up to date, the people can’t operate it. They

needs something that can’t be gotten from its territory,

prefer to do it manually than by machine because they

the first country can sell what they have to the other

don’t understand the machine. Take example, the

country. This makes trading between countries become

production of batik. Our batik mostly made manually.

important. Countries that sell something to another

Several people say that is what makes batik become a

country have to pay the tax based on the rules of that

very beautiful product, and it is normal if batik cost very

other country. From the willingness to get more profit

high because it is hard to make. But, in the other hand,

from the trading, some countries get an idea to make an

many people don’t think so. They think that prices are the

agreement to make the tax that have to be paid between

number one, comfort is number two, and quality can be

them become free. This agreement nowadays usually

obeyed. This make batik becomes a royal thing, and only

called “Free Trade”. Our country, Indonesia, also join this

rich people can buy it. This is very bad for batik itself, as

free trade. The new one is ACFTA (ASEAN-China Free

if it continuously happens, batik will be extinct because

Trade Agreement), which is legally accepted in January,

the workers lost their job due to the little demand of

st

1 2011. This agreement makes the trade between

batik that will causing a big loss to them. Another product

126


will be end up the same if this still happen. Ironically, our

Island, we can see many apples from China imported to

product also cannot become the king in our own country.

Indonesia. Actually, Malang’s apple can compete with

They are all wiped by cheaper imported product. Although

China’s apple. Apple from Malang is sweet, rather a little

the quality was bad, people of Indonesia will prefer

sour, but still gives us fresh taste when bit, and just a

imported product. They think imported product will make

little smaller than the China’s one. We can see the reality

them become more elegant. It’s totally wrong, of course.

by ourselves. China’s apple can be found more common

But, it is the reality.

than Malang’s. Our government thinks that China has

This free trade agreement between Indonesia,

anything so they can prepare it as backing. This will open

ASEAN member and China also seems to be a big win. We

up our mind: we are very dependant to China, and this

can sell any product from our country without have to pay

must be stopped.

the tax for it. Many Indonesia’s products have great

ACFTA will be seen as a great chance to

export history. They are mostly farm product. But, how

produce something. To produce something, we need

about the other products? Based on research from Ikatan

someone who willing to do it. That’s why ACFTA seems to

Sarjana Ekonomi Indonesia (ISEI), Indonesia will suffer

make our chance to get job becomes wider. It is may be

from a loss about Rp 35 Billion every year, just from 7

true if the agreement is just about erasing the tax

manufacture sectors. They are petrochemical industry,

between ASEAN and China. Unfortunately, the agreement

textile, footwear and skin-made product, electronic,

is not only about that. Products that are free to trade is

ceramic, food and drink, and iron and metal. Indonesia

not only usual product such as materials, food, etc. but

also will suffer another loss from tax. People from tax

also human. Human here means that everybody can work

directory suggest that Indonesia is going to suffer about

in every country if they have the agreement from the

Rp 15 Billion loss because of the ACFTA. It is true that our

government of their country. Since our country’s

farm products are still become our main source for

education is still develop in steady place, people from

exporting. Unfortunately, it is feared that it won’t last so

Indonesia will hardly compete another country’s people.

long since most of the farmers in Indonesia haven’t left

Indonesia will be full with people from another country

their traditional method that makes them lose to another

that work in factory in Indonesia. Ironically, many of

country. Moreover, Indonesia, based on a research did in

them get a great place in factory. How about our people?

2009, do very little raise in their export to China (13,4%).

They still have to work hard as worker. Indonesia’s

Compare it with import’s raise (16%). This means that

people have to be a maid in their home, and the master is

our country will be flooded with more and more products

people from another country. They are still can be

from China. It will make our market scale become deficit,

conclude in the lucky group, which still can compete with

which means a loss for Indonesia. This condition will also

people from another country. In fact, many people in

make us very dependent to China. For example,

Indonesia just school in elementary school, which makes

Indonesia has many fruits that can be produced in

them cannot be depend on academically and will hardly

Indonesia. One of them is apple, which can be found

get job. This condition causing unemployed people will be

abundant in Malang, East Java. Even though it can be

increasing, and will be indirectly increasing the number

found rather easily in Indonesia, especially in Java

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

127


128

of crime in Indonesia. If this continues to happens,

usual. But, when they received a short text message

Indonesia will be hardly developed.

(SMS), they went to leader of the village’s home and ask

ACFTA will be probably making Indonesia

either the village’s elder himself or his wife to read the

become more modern. It is because more products will be

message for them. From this story, we can conclude that

imported from another country. Since most of the

they actually haven’t needed that hand phone since they

countries have better technology than Indonesia, much

can hardly read the message for themselves. But, that

modern stuff will be flooding Indonesia. For example the

people themselves said that they have to follow the

hand phones in Indonesia. In this several years, many

development of the world. It is true we have to follow the

hand phones from China sold in Indonesia. These hand

development. But, we have to develop ourselves first so

phones even can compete with famous hand phones

that we can keep up with the development of the world.

Nokia or Ericson and many other names. Despite this

If we can’t develop ourselves before the world does, we

good effect, this modernization is causing some new

will be easily fooled by the world to follow them without

problems. First problem is the increases of waste number

think whether it will be a waste for them or not.

in Indonesia. Based on data, in Indonesia, about hundreds

Indonesia was known with its reputation as a

ton of electronic waste have to be destroyed. These

country with polite citizen. The citizens are using the

electronic wastes are mostly old hand phones which are

eastern culture, which make Indonesia well known with

not used anymore. Even without the electronic wastes

its politeness. The polite culture is shown not only by

addition, our country already has some serious problem

their behavior but also with their way of dressing and

with waste. Much garbage can’t be recycled and left

talking. Now, this polite culture is hardly found in many

behind untouchable. Our country will be dirtier and not

young generations in Indonesia. Indonesia can be hardly

healthy to live because of that much waste. The next

called as a country with its own uniqueness. A friend of

problem is the indirect taken over country by the willing

writer ever said something that very open up my eyes.

of the world. As a country that is the part of world, it is

He said, “Indonesia now is very much the same as

natural for our country to interact with another country

Tokyo.” At first, writer guest that it is a great thing to

and try to follow the development of the world without

hear. But, then he continues, “It’s true because we can

has to dispose our own character and idea. In the reality,

see Toyota and Honda everywhere in our way. We also

many people indirectly taken over by the world. Let’s

can see Sony everywhere in the hand of our citizen.

take an example. Hand phone nowadays has become a

Seems like as Tokyo, right?” Writer eventually

common thing to have for us. A people ever told writer a

understand about what he meant. We can see that our

story when he was going to a village to taught people

country has lost its big name as a great country.

there to read, write, and simple mathematics. Although

Indonesia well known as an importing country, and we

most of the people in that village can’t read, they all

have to hardly admit it. Now, when ACFTA has been

have a hand phone. When writer ask him how they can

approved, we will be flooded from even more stuff from

communicate with another people using that hand phone,

another country, especially China. We don’t have any

he said something that is funny. He said that the people

chance to show what Indonesia has because we already

have no problem answering the phone and can talk as

indirectly “drugged” by imported stuff. Now, what can we

ACFTA: A Big fortune or New Grim Reaper?


show to world? Even our ideology, Pancasila, which is

support our product, so our product can be the king in our

known as a perfect ideology, has lost its power as an

own country. We also have to pay attention to our

item to unite all of citizen in Indonesia. Our people prefer

lifestyle, so we can show our world how Indonesia is.

to live with western culture and constantly leave our real

Last, we have to care about what our government will do.

eastern culture. With these much imported items come in

There are some new ideas about new agreement that are

to Indonesia, the citizen will be life in hedonism and

going to be agreed. They are agreement with pacific

materialistic life.

countries and agreement with Chile about free trading.

Based on these arguments above, we can say

We have to maintenance our country first before agree

that ACFTA is causing more burdens rather than the

with these agreement, so we can take advantage from

advantage itself. Since this ACFTA is already on the way,

these agreement and don’t have to just feeling loss

we have to do our best to support this agreement but still

because of these agreements.

keep Indonesia in the number one in priority. We have to

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

129


KALIMANTAN, RESERVE AFTER JAKARTA

Iftikar Izzaturrahman | 16711310 | 08997921829 | 1901 words

A

ccording to Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS),

be more monitored because the location of Kalimantan

in 2010 the number of citizen in

that in the center of Indonesia.

Jakarta is 9,607,786. Ten years

It cannot be denied that Jakarta is the most

before, the number that was obtained by BPS is only

populous city in Indonesia. Actually Jakarta city was not

8,389,443. From data’s above, we can conclude that the

designed by the Dutch government as a national capital

number of Jakarta citizens is increase more than a million

city but only trade city. When this city has to

in ten years. It means that thousand of people come to

accommodate large-scale government center, the main

Jakarta every year to speculate their life. Most of them

function and role of this city become unclear. At the end,

think that it will be easier get a job in metropolitan city.

every sector like industrial and entertainment assumes

This makes Jakarta, as the capital city of Indonesia,

Jakarta as the center. This problem becomes the main

become crowded. There is a lot of negative impact if a

factor of the density in Jakarta.

number of people in one area is increasing every year.

Traffic jam accompanied by unfriendly weather

Traffic jam, uncontrolled inhabitant, dumped area are the

is become the main menu in Jakarta every day. Even that

examples of the negatives effect. Seeing this problem

Jakarta has a big area for a city, but the number of

many of experts argue that as capital city of Indonesia,

people live there is exceed the limit of the residence

Jakarta will be unfeasible in the future. Believing that,

area. This population issue coupled by the number of

they argues that the only solution that the capital city of

private vehicle like motorcycles and cars. Enhancement

Indonesia should be relocated to the new location in

the number of people will also increase the number of

Kalimantan island or used to be called Borneo. Much

private vehicles that makes traffic jam in almost every

debate among experts prior to the end Borneo suggested

day. This traffic jam becomes the trigger of capital city

as the most strategic location. Although it will be costly

replacement plan. It will not be feasible as a capital city,

to relocate the capital city of Indonesia to Kalimantan and

Jakarta has improper traffic. Continuity of government

there are still many doubts about the succeed of this

will not be maximal if the government employees waste

relocation plan, but by doing it many progress towards

a lot of time because of traffic jam. In the other side,

better nation that will be felt by Indonesian citizen likes

overcrowded has a lot of negative impact. It will increase

Jakarta density will reduce, infrastructure in Kalimantan

the inequality of social class, high crime, and the

will be better, and the entire territory of Indonesia will

standard of public health will weaken.

130


According to Yayat Supriyatna, one of the

supermarket, school, and etcetera. It means the

Trisakti University urban and regional planner, the ideal

unemployment in the area will be reduced that makes

size of resident in Jakarta is around 4 to 5 million people,

locals welfare will increase.

half size from now. There is a lot of green area that

Beside that, many other reasons that trigger

eroded by residential building that makes many

the relocation of Indonesia capital city, for example the

disadvantages like lack of clean water, floods, and

condition of Indonesia. Everybody knows that Indonesia

greenhouse effect. By seeing these problems, relocation

is the biggest islands nation in the world. Because of the

the title of capital city of Jakarta and moving the state

strategic location, long time ago many immigrants came

government office is the best way out from population

to Indonesia to find a new place to live. This makes the

issues.

diversity of tribes in Indonesia. Each region has different Today, Kalimantan has not yet suitable

culture. Indeed two near regions, which separated by

becoming new capital city. A lot of things must be

only few kilometers, can have a vastly different culture.

refurbished and arranged to sustain governance.

It needs a great struggle from Indonesian indigenous to

Infrastructure as the major constraint must be prepared

unite Indonesia in colonial era.

as soon as possible before the relocation. Although

Today condition also was not having much

previously government had a plan to develop entire area

different from the past. Great struggle to unite the

of Indonesia equally, by having this relocation issues the

country still needed today. Different with the past that

development in Kalimantan was greatly accelerate. Entire

struggling by fighting against invaders, the struggle that

infrastructures and facilities all over the Borneo would be

we need today is fighting against the tide of

better than before. Beside that, this relocation policy will

globalization. But this doesn’t mean that we reject all the

strengthen the regional autonomy to reduce regional

current globalization. The meaning of fighting here is that

disparities. Technology and information systems became

we should filter out the effects of globalization that can

another major focus for building the ideal capital city. If

threaten the security and stability of the country. Still

the area cannot handle this basic problem, it will leads to

there are also people that intend to destroy the unity.

difficulties in communicate with each other especially

Something like this would be difficult if the government

reaching remote areas on the island. Government would

cannot control the entire territory of Indonesia well. To

not have this problem happen in the area of new capital

do this controlling was not as easy as it is sound.

city by extending the communication area and strengthen the communication signal.

At this time when Jakarta still the national capital city, the national stability can be maintained good

When making a new infrastructure and develop

enough. But the area that remote from the central

the area in Kalimantan, automatically it requires many

government such as Aceh and Papua are still in critical

workers. Thus indirectly, this capital city relocation will

zone. For example in Papua, there is still an attempt to

open up a lot of job opportunities for locals. Furthermore,

separating from Indonesia until today. They tried to fly

when the capital city has already moved, it would create

they independence flag that usually called ‘Bintang

a lot of job opportunities because of there will be new

Kejora’. Government has been trying to stop this kind of

facilities that needs a lot of workers likes bank, hospital,

action since the first action because of national security.

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

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132

Many people arrested because they are trying to provoke

having a strategic location in the center of Indonesia, the

people to separating themselves from Indonesia. There

distribution of goods and public service would be easier

are many reasons why this few of people remain firm to

and wouldn’t waste a lot of times.

separating from Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia

But, in every decision making there must be

especially about people welfare. Similar thing has also

some negative effects include the decision of capital city

happened in eastern Indonesia region, precisely in Aceh.

relocation. One of the main problems is the cost.

This movement called ‘Gerakan Aceh Merdeka’ or usually

Everybody knew that moving central governance to other

known as GAM. The same charges filed by this illegal

areas will need very expensive cost. Start from making

organization which is separate Aceh from Indonesian

road construction, government building, public facilities,

government.

and even national palace. With current economic

From the example above, we can conclude that

condition, if Indonesia enforces this relocation, certainly

the government wasn’t good enough controlling this kind

it will increase the national debt while there are still

of problem. Even that they have tried the best but

many sectors that still much more needed funds help.

unconsciously central government still remaining near

Education and health is one of major sectors that still lack

areas. This makes the areas that located far enough from

of fund. If the government is too concerned the

central government doesn’t get same treatment quality

relocation, some of experts afraid of the other important

as near areas. This is happen due to the location of the

sector would be neglected. Moreover this problem could

national central government. It is not located in the

be if the allocations of funds are preferred for

central of the country but more to the west. Eastern area

government facilities only without considering people

like Papua definitely is not going to get enough attention

needs as happened in Jakarta recently. If this is happen,

in all sectors. If the government does not consider this as

instead of the better progress that will be felt but very

a serious problem, it will be sure that sooner or later

severe setback.

Papua will separate from Negara Kesatuan Republik

We have also already known the moral quality

Indonesia. By relocate the capital city of Indonesia to

of some of our leaders. With a high funding for this

Kalimantan, this kind of thing won’t be happened.

project, people afraid if it will be an embezzlement of

Kalimantan is located in the central of Indonesia. It will

funds which we often heard before. It would be very

provide advantages for the government by making

detrimental for our country if this very large fund is

controlling job easier. The population will be more

corrupted by unreliable person. Besides that, if this

equitable, and as a result there will be stable national

relocation happened, many Jakarta infrastructures will

security from the west end to the east end of Indonesia.

not be used again. Maybe some of the buildings function

Besides, by having our capital city in

can be replaced by other sectors. But it still will be a

Kalimantan, people welfare will be more equitable

redundant by didn’t use the facilities well. There are still

especially residents who live in the eastern area. Health

also a possibility that will be a failure of this plan

services, availability of food, education, even

because of all sides still haven’t ready or other reasons

entertainment expected wouldn’t be a rare commodity

which makes this plan doesn’t work well.

anymore by moved the capital city. This is because by

Kalimantan, Reserve after Jakarta


The conclusion, indeed there are a lot of

citizen welfare and urban planning without interfering

thought about the negative effects, this relocation still

central government issues. Besides that about national

have to be implemented. About the success or failure

security issues, will be easier to controll all areas in

about this plan will greatly depend on the entire

Indonesia from west to the east.

Indonesian society. Although at first there will be a lot of

At the end, the final decision is in the hands of the

difficulties likes cost issues, we have to support this

government. Although there are some people who

program because government must have been thinking

disagree with the final decision, this shouldn’t lead to

ahead for the betterment of our country in the future. By

disunity and lack of togetherness both among citizen with

this capital city relocation, there will be a lot of

the government and with other people. Because, all of

improvement in many sectors although it takes a long

this decision intended for Indonesian people welfare and

times. Furthermore, Jakarta city won’t be overcrowded

for a better change of Negara Kesatuan Republik

anymore, and the governor of Jakarta can focus on

Indonesia.

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

133


RAISING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN INDONESIA BY INVOLVING

TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

Rahmatia Ramadhani | 16711320 | 081386400246 | 2144 words

E

conomic growth is a process where there

exception, Indonesia also has a lot of great experts and

is an increasing output per capita for a

scientists who have gave huge innovations. Some people

long-term condition. Economic growth is

think that to make a useful technology need a big cost

one of the indicators that support the development of a

and the impact just for minority because it do not affect

country. It can also be a measurement of how far a

the currency values in Indonesia. This way of thinking

country can control its economic problems and the level

needs to be clarified. One of the real examples, Retno

of its public welfare. In Indonesia, the economic growth in

Supriyanti, a lecture from Electro Engineering in Jendral

2004 and 2006 has passed the boundary for about 5%

Soedirman University found an early method for the

which means it is good enough. But, even though it has

detection of cataracts with digital camera. Her innovation

reached a stable value, it didn’t cover all of the people in

in health has been appreciated by many countries like

Indonesia to have a decent living. Statistics shows that

Japan and also has been exported to other foreign

the rate of unemployment people in Indonesia in 2004 is

countries. This mean science and technology also play a

about 9,75%, 17,5% people live under the poverty lines

big role in helping the economic growth in Indonesia. It is

and 40,9% people living on less that AS$ 2 per day and it

not impossible to involve science and technology and

will increase as time goes on. This is a problem that

combine them with social issues. Even though most ways

needs to be highlighted. Indonesia has a lot of natural

to raise the economic growth in Indonesia are about

and human resources but the people live in bad

social knowledge and not about technology and science

prosperity. Educated people like experts and government

because the cost to make technology is expensive, it is

should take appropriate steps to increase Indonesia’s

hard to export technology to other country and will not

economic growth. Actually, social issues like economics,

give any impact to the currency values of Indonesia,

accounting and management are not the only knowledge

technology and science are important because of four

that plays a big role in here. There are many ways to

reason: technology and science play a big role in

help increasing Indonesia’s economic growth. One of

economics, technology can be made from cheaper

them is involving science and technology.

ingredients, technology can add more sale value of a commodity and actually can help in increasing Indonesia

As we know, the development of science and

currency values.

technology in the world has gave a big impact in increasing the level of prosperity in human life. No

134


First, technology and science play important

capital city like Jakarta and Bandung can make a

roles in economics. Some people think that the only way

breakthrough in their fields like using new machines to

to increase the economic growth is by studying and

produce more interesting products like handmade crafts

analyzing the economic problems. Yes, the economics

or food innovations. So, there is no doubt that technology

shows ways of what are the best ways for people to

and science has an important role in economics,

fulfill their needs. Of course, by analyzing the earlier

furthermore, it supports the economic in Indonesia.

economic cases we can predict what will happen next in a

People can make simple innovations that can also help

country economic life. But, it is not enough. Indonesia

them to have a better economic future. When the people

needs a new formula to increase its economic growth by

have increased their profits, it means that the economic

combining two knowledges so it will produce an efficient

growth has increase too.

result. For example, if we confronted by a problem of

Second, technology and science can be made

foods. What will the people do if their foods have run

from simple ingredients that cost cheaper. Usually, the

out? What will they do to keep them alive while they do

technology that published in the media is sophisticated

not have money to buy foods? Do they just sit and lie

and expensive. Expensive goods can be bought only by

down and think about economic laws all day long of how

rich people. The example are iMac, Galaxy Tabs, Non

to fill their stomach without any solutions?

Caffeine Coffee and many more. How those expensive

The answer to their problem can be solved with

goods, which only certain people can buy it, can help

the techonology and science. With technology and science,

increasing the economic growth in Indonesia? Instead of

they can plant vegetables and fruits and breed cows and

buy it, people can make it. Technology can be made from

goats. The technology and science in here play the role

simple ingredients that cost cheaper. For example, a

for the tools that they use and the biological knowledge

plasma cluster, a useful technology that helps reduce

of how to grow a good plant or livestock.

After

pollution, can be made from coppers and a small

harvesting them, people can sell it to others and instead

transformator that only cost about Rp 30.000,- per unit. A

of spending money, they are getting money and

sophisticated plasma cluster can cost to one billion

indirectly, increasing their profits and led them to have a

rupiahs but the result is not far from a simple plasma

better economic life. Imagine if all of the people in

cluster. Another example, in Indonesia, especially in rice

Indonesia use the benefit of technology and science in

field, there must be a store for unhulled rice. Indonesia

their life, the people will get more prosper. Government

has more than a thousand area has rice fields since their

should promote and give counseling about the importance

job are farming, so it must be ascertained that there’s a

of technology and science in people economic lives,

lot stock of unhulled rice. According to science, unhulled

especially for people whose homes are still isolated and

rice can be processed into Silica, the basic materials of

their way of living are still primitives like Irian Jaya,

solar cell. When the Silica was burned, it formed SiO 2

Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, and Sulawesi inland and so on.

(Oxides Silica). SiO2 be formed into solar cell fragments

Farmers in Java and Sumatera for examples can use new

and it can transfer heat from the sun into electricity. The

tractors with more efficient concept than just by using

electricity from solar cell can support the activity of

buffalos to produce rice faster. Entrepreneurs in the

family who lives there. This simple solar cell will cost

CHAPTER 3 : General Welfare and Social Issues

135


136

cheaper than other sophisticated solar cell. So, there is no

Indonesia, cost cheaper and can be found in any location

reason that technology can only be enjoyed for certain

in Tasikmalaya. With the assets that already slight,

people. Average people can make technology from simple

people can add more sale value by adding technology to

things that can be found anywhere. They can sell it and

their products. Simple technology can be applied, like

get money from that. According to the theory of economic

using plastics to cover the bags so the bags will not get

growth, if the income per capita rises, the economic

wet when the rain comes. They can also modify the bag’s

growth will follow, or in another words, the economic

shape by adding more pockets so it will keep things more

growth directly proportional with per capita incoming. If

than usual.

Indonesia can export this useful technology with low

Actually, there’s a lot of technology and science

asset but higher price, Indonesia will get more profit and

that can combined with the products that will high up the

indirectly increasing the economic growth.

sale value, both in terms of economic and esthetics.

Third, involving technologies and science can

Another example, Indonesia has a lot of traditional drugs,

add more sale value of a commodity. Developed countries

such as betel, ginger and honey. Indonesia should utilize

like America, England, Japan, Germany, Korea and many

its superiority by exporting them to other foreign

more have discovered more than a thousand innovations

countries. Technology and science play a big role in here

in science and technology. The examples are Plasma TV

like the packaging of the drugs, the shape of the drugs

from Japan and Black Berry from Canada. Let see to their

and even more, the combination of one drug with another

economic growth. Canada took place as the fourth biggest

drug. Indonesian people should convince them self that

total foreign trades. In th