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L e f t p a g e: n o t e f r o m B e e t h o v e n t o D i a b e l l i ( J u n e 1823) “Fü r S e i n e / w o h l g e b o h r n / H. v. D i a b e l l i – a u f ’m / G r a b e n” 2

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Wa s u n s Or i g i n a l h a nd s c h r i f t , I n s t r u me nt a r iu m u nd I nt er pre t z u s a g e n h a b e n Die vorl ie g e nd e E i n s pie lu n g u m f a s s t g a t t u n g s b e z o g e n d r e i O p e r a u lt i m a B e e t hove n s: ­s e i ne le t z t e K l a v i e r s o n a t e op.  1 1 1, s e i n le t z t e s g r oß e s K l a v ie r w e r k , d ie 33 Ve r ä n d e r u n g e n ü b e r e i n e n Wa l z e r v o n A n t o n D i a b e l l i o p.  1 2 0, d ie i m Z e n­t r u m d ie s e r E i n s pie lu n g s t e he n, s ow ie d ie s p ä t e n B a ga t e l l e n o p.  1 2 6 a u s d e m Ja h r e 182 4 . Je d e s d ie s e r We r k e z e i g t B e e t­ hove n a u f d e m Höhe pu n k t s e i ne r g e i s t i g e n K r a f t u nd s e i ne r k omp o s it or i s c he n K u n s t­ f e r t i g k e it . Die D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n s i nd n ic ht nu r s e i n u m f a n g r e ic h s t e r Va r i a t ione nZy k lu s . Sie s i nd a u c h – v ie l le ic ht me h r a l s je d e s a nd e r e s e i ne r We r k e – e i n Spie g e lbi ld s e i ne r k omple x e n Pe r s ön l ic h k e it . D e r a l s T he m a vor g e g e b e ne Wa l z e r s t a m mt von d e m z u s e i ne r Z e it hö c h s t e r f ol g r e ic he n Ve rle g e r u nd K omp on i s t e n A nt on Di a b e l l i . E r h a t t e i m Ja h re 1819 g leic h f ü n f z i g ö s ter reic h i sc he , vor w ie g end W iener A utoren – u m ei ne repr ä­ s e nt a t i ve A u s w a h l z u h a b e n, s pr a c h e r K om­p o­n i s t e n, V i r t uo s e n u nd a d e l i g e A m a t e u r e a n – e i n g e l a d e n, s ic h m it e i ne r e i n z i g e n Va r i a t ion a n e i ne m S a m me l w e r k z u b e t e i l i g e n . D a f ü r s a ndt e e r je d e m A ut or e i n B l a t t m it d e m e i g e n s d a f ü r k omp on ie r t e n T he m a , d a s v ie r Fü n f t e l d e r Vord e r s e it e e i n n a h m . A u f d e m R e s t d e s B l a t t e s s ol lt e d ie Va r i a t ion not ie r t u nd d a s G a n z e d a n n a n i h n z u r ü c k g e g e b e n w e rd e n . Z u d e n A n g e s pr o c he ne n z ä h lt e n C a rl u nd Jo s e ph C z e r ny (d e r e r s t e r e B e e t hove n s S c hü le r u nd s p ä t e r d e r K l a v ie r­ p ä d a g o g e s c h le c ht h i n, b e id e z e it w e i s e von i h m a l s K l a v ie rle h r e r s e i ne s Ne f f e n a u s g e­ w ä h lt), Fr a n z S c hu b e r t u nd d e r K n a b e Fr a n z L i s z t . M it Joh a n n Ne p omu k Hu m me l u nd Fr ie d r ic h K a l k br e n ne r g e hör t e n z w e i d e r f ü h r e nd e n K l a v ie r v i r t uo s e n z u m K on s or t iu m w ie m it Si mon S e c ht e r u nd E m a nu e l A loi s För s t e r d ie f ü h r e nd e n Mu s i k t he or e t i k e r. Die St r e ic he r w a r e n du rc h d e n G e i g e nv i r t uo s e n Jo s e ph M ay s e d e r u nd d e n Br a t s c h i s t e n d e s B e e t ­h ove n e n g ve r bu nd e ne n S c hupp a n z i g h_ Q u a r t e t t s , Fr a n z We i ß , ve r t r e t e n . Von d e n d ie Mu s i k f örd e r nd e n u nd s e lb s t pr a k t i z ie r e nd e n A d e l i g e n w a r B e e t hove n s S c hü le r u nd G ön ne r E r z he r z o g R u d olph s ow ie d e r Gr ü nd e r d e r Mu s i k s a m m lu n g d e r Ö s t e r r e ic h i­

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s c he n Na t ion a lbibl iot he k , Mor it z Gr a f von Die t r ic h s t e i n, b e t e i l i g t . E r g e bn i s s ol lt e e i n K a le id o s k op d e r i n W ie n b z w. i n d e r Mon a rc h ie ve r s a m me lt e n k omp o s itor i s c he n b z w. pi a n i s t i s c he n K omp e t e n z s e i n . Ta t s ä c h l ic h bie t e n d ie Va r i a t ione n d ie s e s A utor e n k ol le k­ t i v s e i ne n r e pr ä s e nt a t i ve n Q u e r s c h n it t e t w a z w i s c he n d e r Vor f ü h r u n g e i g e ne r pi a n i s t i­ s c he r Br i l l a n z , me h r o d e r m i nd e r a u s g e pr ä g t e m „K le b e n∑ a m T he m a u nd g ä n z l ic he r G e lö s t heit i n K ombi n at ion m it g en i a ler E i n f a c h heit , w ie sie nu r ei ne m S c hub er t g e l i n g en k on nt e . Die s e Vor g e s c h ic ht e mu s s m a n k e n ne n, u m ve r s t e he n z u k ön ne n, w a r u m B e e t hove n von d e m T he m a A nton Di a b e l l i s (obwoh l e i n f r e md e s T he m a f ü r i h n s e it d e n „a u f e i ne g a n z ne u e A r t∑ e nt wor f e ne n Va r i a t ione n op. 3 4 u nd 35 ja e i g e nt l ic h e i n R ü c k s c h r it t w a r) u nd d e r „K on k u r r e n z s it u a t ion∑ s o e le k t r i s ie r t w a r, d a s s e r u m g e he nd m it d e r A r b e it b e ­ g a n n u nd s ie n a c h e i ne r l ä n g e r e n Unt e r br e c hu n g z u g u n s t e n d e r Mi s s a s ol e m n i s u nd d e r le t z t e n d r e i K l a v ie r ­s on a t e n i m Fr ü hja h r 1823 b e e nd e t e . W ie w i r w i s s e n, wol lt e B e e t hove n s ic h a b e r n ic ht e i nord ne n, e r wol lt e s ic h b e we i s e n . D a f ü r b e nöt i g t e e r n ic ht g ut e i ne , s ond e r n 89 M a nu s k r ipt s e it e n . E s i s t b e z e ic h ne nd , d a s s d e r t a u b e , w e it g e he nd von d e n E i n m a l honor a r e n s e i ne r Ve rle g e r le b e nd e , vor ü b e r g e he nd auc h no c h von ei nem b e d roh l ic hen A u g en leiden hei m g e suc hte K omp on i s t n a c h der Missa s ol e m n i s ne u e r l ic h e i n We rk k omp on ie r t e , d a s s e i ne r Z e it we it vor a u s w a r, d a s s o n ic ht b e s t e l lt s ow ie f ü r d e n Ve rle g e r u nd i n d e r Fol g e f ü r i h n p e r s e me rk a nt i l k e i ne s ic he r e B a n k w a r. Ta t s ä c h l ic h we i ß m a n ja n ic ht e i n m a l, w a n n d a s We rk u r a u f g e f ü h r t w u rd e . Die s g e s c h a h m it z ie m l ic he r Sic he rhe it je d e n f a l l s n ic ht z u B e e t hove n s L e b z e it e n . H a n s von B ü low dü r f t e d e r E r s t e g e we s e n s e i n, d e r s ic h d e m We rk – e i ne G e ne r a t ion s p ä t e r – öf f e nt l ic h w id me t e . S e lb s t e i n V i r t uo s e u nd B e e t hove n_ Ve r e h r e r w ie Fr a n z L i s z t h a t t e e s n ic ht i n s e i ne m R e p e r toi r e .

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Die D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n d a r f m a n a u c h he ut e no c h g e t r o s t a l s le t z t e s , e r s t no c h r­ ic ht i g z u e nt d e c k e nd e s Me i s t e r w e rk B e e t hove n s b e z e ic h ne n . Nic ht z u le t z t d a n k d e r ­B e ­­t e i ­­l ig u n g von A nd r á s S c h i f f i s t e s 2 0 0 9 g e lu n g e n, d ie bi s he r u n z u g ä n g l ic he f a s z i n ie r e nd e Or i g i n a l h a nd s c h r i f t d e s We rk e s f ü r d ie S a m m lu n g d e s B on ne r B e e t hove n_ H a u s e s u nd d a m it f ü r d ie mu si k a l i s c he Ö f fent l ic h k eit z u sic her n . I n der Zw i s c hen z eit i s t sie üb er ei ne Fa k s i m i le a u s g a b e b z w. ü b e r d a s Di g it a le A rc h i v d e s B e e t hove n_ H a u s e s je d e r m a n n z u­ g ä n g l ic h . A u f i h r e m m i nut iö s e n St u d iu m f u ßt A nd r á s S c h i f f s E i n s pie lu n g. Und a u c h a l s Z u hör e r s ol lt e m a n d ie s e C h a nc e nut z e n, e i ne n B l ic k i n B e e t hove n s We r k s t a t t z u ­w e r f e n . A n h a nd d e r a u c h g r a ph i s c h a t t r a k t i ve n H a nd s c h r i f t k a n n m a n n ä m l ic h a n s c h a u l ic h d ie A r b e it s we i s e d e s K omp on i s t e n u nd s e i n u ne r mü d l ic he s Fe i le n a n e i ne r Fa s s u n g le t z ­ t e r H a nd s t u d ie r e n, d ie s e i ne r s t r e n g e n S e lb s t k r it i k s t a nd h ie lt , u nd s ic h d a s We r k (u nd d ie I nt e r pr e t a t ion) n a c h u nd n a c h e r s c h l ie ß e n . Z u d e m g e b e n S c h r i f t du k t u s u nd S c h r i f t­ d y n a m i k s u bt i le H i nwe i s e a u f Sp a n nu n g s b ö g e n, w ie e t w a nu r a n d e r H a nd s c h r i f t a ble s­ b a r e c r e s c e nd i, d ie m it Te mp o _ R e du k t ione n e i n he r g e he n k ön ne n . A l l d ie s z e i g t , d a s s e s s ic h b e i d e n D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n u m e i n hö c h s t d i f f e r e n z ie r t e s mu s i k a l i s c he s G e bi ld e h a nd e lt . A u c h d e r B a upl a n d e s i n z w e i Ph a s e n e nt s t a nd e ne n Zy k lu s z e u g t von hohe r R e f le x ion: d e n 23 i m Ja h r e 1819 e nt wor f e ne n Va r i a t ione n ve r le ibt d e r K omp on i s t E nd e 1822 / A n f a n g 1823 z e h n w e it e r e e i n, wob e i n ic ht s d e m Z u f a l l ü b e r l a s s e n ble ibt , h ä r t e s t e r K ont r a s t u nd d a s Z u s a m me nbi nd e n me h r e r e r Va r i a t ione n ne b e ne i n a nd e r b e s tehen. E r sc höpf te d a s Potent ia l de s T hem a s sc h l ie ßl ic h n ic ht nu r au s , sonder n spren g te e s . B e e t ho ­ ve n nut z t a l le nu r d e n k b a r e n Z u g a n g s w e i s e n z u m T he m a – vom d a s B a n a le Ü b e r s t e i­ g e r nd e ( Va r i a t ion 1 ), hö c h s t e V i r t uo s it ä t i n d e n Vord e r g r u nd R ü c k e nd e ( Va r i a t ione n 10 , 16 , 23 , 27), vom E rh a b e ne n, He r oi s c he n u nd S c he i n_ He r oi s c he n, K om i s c he n, Gr ot e s k e n, ve r s c h m it z t e n Hu mor ü b e r d a s e rd e nt r ü c k t e My s t e r iu m d e r 2 0 . Va r i a t ion bi s h i n z u r 2 4 . Va r i a t ion (d e r Fu g he t t a) a l s I n k a r n a t ion von K l a rhe it u nd R e i n he it u nd d e r 31. Va r i a t ion .

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Die b e id e n le t z t e r e n s i nd e i ne Hom m a g e a n Joh a n n S e b a s t i a n B a c h (wob e i le t z t e r e a u f d ie 25 . G ol d b e r g_ Va r i a t i o n ve r we i s t). S e i ne m g r oß e n Vor bi ld Wol f g a n g A m a d e u s Mo z a r t hu ld i g t er g a n z of fen i n der D on_ G i o va nn i_ Va r i a t i on ( Nr. 22), b ei a nderen b e l ä s s t er e s b ei A nspielu ngen. Beet hoven mobi lisier te in tei ls ex t rem verd ichteter Form a l le i h m zu Gebote s t e he nd e n k omp o s itor i s c he n Mö g l ic h k e it e n, d ie e r i n d e r G a t t u n g d e r K l a v ie r s on a t e n b e i d e n a l s Tr i a s k omp on ie r t e n We rk e n (op.  2 , 10 , 31 u nd 10 9 – 1 11, i n e t w a s lo s e r e r For m a u c h op. 27 Nr.  1 u nd 2 /2 8 b z w. 78 /79 /81 a) e he r a u f d ie E i n z e l we rk e a u f z ut e i le n pf le g t e . B e z e ic h ne nd e r w e i s e e nd e t d e r Zy k lu s n ic ht – w ie e i g e nt l ic h z u e r w a r t e n – m it d e r monu­ me nt a le n Fu g e , s ond e r n m it e i ne m Me nu e t t (we n n a u c h n ic ht d e r For m n a c h) m it C o d a , d a s e r d e m Zy k lu s 1823 h i n z u f ü g t e . B e e t hove n ve r we i s t d a m it g e z ie lt a u f d ie e nor me Sp a n nw e it e s e i ne r e i g e ne n k omp o s itor i s c he n E nt w ic k lu n g. D a s Me nu e t t , d a s d e r ju n g e B on ne r Hof mu s i k e r v ie r z i g Ja h r e z u vor d ie n s t b e f l i s s e n s pie lt e u nd i n d e n f r ü he n W ie ne r Ja h r e n a l s G e br a u c h s mu s i k k omp on ie r t e , i s t nu n g ä n z l ic h t r a n s f or m ie r t . ( D e r du rc h a u s u n k onve nt ione l le e r s t e S a t z d e r F _ D u r_ S on a t e op.  54 i s t le d i g l ic h e i n Zw i s c he n s c h r it t . ) A u s e i ne m höf i s c he n Ta n z i s t e i n St ü c k g e word e n, d a s m it s e i ne m A u s f lu g i n d a s R e ic h d e r A r ie t t a a u s d e r le t z t e n K l a v ie r s on a t e Di me n s ione n a u f z e i g t , d ie nu r d e m r e i f e n B e e t­ hove n (u nd S c hu b e r t) z u G e b ot e s t a nd e n . E r s t e l lt s ic h a u f d ie s e We i s e i n e i ne R e i he m it d e n von i h m i n d e n vor a n g e g a n g e ne n Va r i a t ione n he r a u s g e hob e ne n K omp on i s t e n B a c h u nd Mo z a r t . Die g e i s t i g e Br ü c k e z w i s c he n d e r 33 . Va r i a t ion u nd d e m e i n Ja h r z u vor g e s e t z t e n S c h lu s s s t e i n i n s e i ne m S on a t e n s c h a f f e n le g t e e s n a he , d ie s e S on a t e i n d e r vor­ l ie g e nd e n A u f n a h me d e m Va r i a t ione n z y k lu s a n d ie S e it e z u s t e l le n . A nd r á s S c h i f f h a t s ic h l a n g e Z e it g e l a s s e n, e he e r s ic h r e i f f ü h lt e , B e e t ­h ove n s K l a v ie r­ s on a t e n z y k l i s c h u nd d ie D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n öf f e nt l ic h a u f z u f ü h r e n . S e i n Z u g a n g f u ßt a u f d r e i S ä u le n: a u f e i ne r e i n z i g a r t i g e n Ve r i n ne rl ic hu n g d e r We rk e Joh a n n S e b a s t i a n Bachs, d ie in Beet hovens Werken in z a h l losen kont rapu n kt ischen Verläu fen subkut a n i hren

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Nie d e r s c h l a g g e f u nd e n h a b e n u nd e b e n n ic ht nu r i n e i n i g e n Fu g e n s ä t z e n . Zw e it e n s i n seiner Vertief ung in die Origina lha ndschrif ten, deren Informationsgeha lt wie er wä hnt über e i ne g e d r u c k t e A u s g a b e w e it h i n a u s g e ht u nd d e r e n St u d iu m d ie b e s t e Br ü c k e z u B e e t­ hove n s I nt e nt ione n bie t e t . Und s c h l ie ß l ic h h a t s ic h A nd r á s S c h i f f i n d e n le t z t e n Ja h r e n i nt e n s i v m it H a m me rk l a v ie r e n a u s e i n a nd e r g e s e t z t u nd s ic h d ie K l a n g w e lt B e e t hove n s i nt u it i v e r s c h lo s s e n – a u c h d ie s e i n G e bie t , d a s i m a k t u e l le n Mu s i k le b e n m it s e i ne r w e it­ g e he nd e n B e s c h r ä n k u n g a u f d e n mo d e r ne n „St a nd a rd f lü g e l∑ s t r ä f l ic h ve r n a c h l ä s s i g t w i rd . D e r H a m me r ­f lü g e l bie t e t e i ne völ l i g a nd e r e A u s g a n g s b a s i s w ie d e r „mo d e r ne∑ F lü­ g e l, s e lb s t we n n e s s ic h u m e i n s o k l a n g vol le s I n s t r u me nt w ie je ne s von B e c h s t e i n a u s d e m Ja h r e 1921 h a nd e lt . S e i ne mu s i k a l i s c he Ne u g ie r u nd I nt u it ion h a t A nd r á s S c h i f f u nve r m it t e lt e rk e n ne n l a s s e n, w a s s e i n e i g e ne r H a m me r f lü g e l a u s d e r E nt s t e hu n g s z e it d e r h ie r e i n g e s pie lt e n We rk e vor g ibt . E i ne r s e it s w ü rd e e r s ic h g e g e n e i n z u f orc ie r t e s For t e we h r e n, a nd e r e r s e it s bie t e n s e i ne z w e i z u s ä t z l ic he n Pe d a le ( Mo d e r a t or u nd Fa g ot tZ u g ), d e r a nd e r e W i rk u n g s g r a d d e s Ve r s c h ie bu n g s p e d a l s , d ie s t a r k a u s d i f f e r e n z ie r t e n „R e g i s t e r∑ i m B a s s b z w. i n d e r M it t e l l a g e u nd i m Di s k a nt (d ie d e m a u f E i n he it l ic h k e it g e t r i m mt e n mo d e r ne n F lü g e l s c h l ic ht f e h le n) s ow ie d ie pr i n z ipie l l k ü r z e r e Tond a u e r d ie Mö g l ic h k e it e i ne r e nor me n k l a n g l ic he n Di f f e r e n z ie r u n g u nd e i ne r D u rc h s ic ht i g k e it g e ­ r a d e i m B a s s . A nd r á s S c h i f f h a t nu n a l l d ie s e E nt d e c k u n g e n u nd E r k e n nt n i s s e i n s e i ne I nt e r pr e t a t ion a u f d e m jü n g e r e n I n s t r u me nt , d a s e i ne g a n z a nd e r e Pl a t t f or m bie t e t , m it­ genom men u nd zu s ät z l ic h de s s en i nd iv iduel le Mög l ic h keiten „au sge spielt∑ . E s kom mt zu e i ne m K l a n g f a r b e nt r a n s f e r. Unt e r s c h ie d e ble ib e n: d ie Ve r s c h ie bu n g e r g ibt b e i m B e c h­ s t e i n_ F lü g e l e i ne n ob e r t on ä r me r e n K l a n g ä h n l ic h je ne m, d e n d a s Mo d e r a t or_ Pe d a l a u f d e m H a m me r f lü g e l e r z e u g t . D u rc h d ie s e me h r f a c he A n n ä he r u n g f i nd e t A nd r á s S c h i f f z u m g e i s t i g e n K e r n d e r We r k e , s c h l ie ß l ic h z u I nt e r pr e t a t ione n, d ie d ie K omp o s it ione n n ic ht g ut e i n s t u d ie r t ,

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s­ ond e r n w ie e b e n ne u e r s c h a f f e n e r töne n l a s s e n . E r f ü h r t d e n Z u hör e r a u f e i ne E nt­ deckungsreise. No c h s i nd d ie D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n e i n we it h i n u nb e k a n nt e s u nd f a l s c h e i n g e s c h ä t z ­ te s Mei s ter werk , auc h wen n sie von ei nem b er ü h mten K omp on i s ten s t a m men . Gr u nd i s t d a s n a c h w ie vor b e s t e he nd e Di k t u m, e s h a nd e le s ic h u m e i n du rc h u nd du rc h e r n s t e s , s p e r r i g e s , u nve r s t ä nd l ic he s We rk , d a s nu r von e i ne m t a u b e n, we lt a b g e w a ndt e n, vom S c h ic k s a l g e z e ic h ne t e n f r u s t r ie r t e n E i g e nbr öt le r s o (a b s c h r e c k e nd) e r f u nd e n we rd e n k on nt e . H i nt e r d ie s e r E i n s c h ä t z u n g ve r bi r g t s ic h a b e r e i ne Ve r we i g e r u n g s h a lt u n g : B e e t­ hove n s Va r i a t ione n l a s s e n s ic h n ic ht „e i n g r e n z e n∑ , ve rh a r m lo s e n . Je d e r K onve nt ion a b ­ hold s i nd s ie a u c h he ut e no c h e i ne u ne rhör t e He r a u s f ord e r u n g – f ü r d e n I nt e r pr e t e n w ie f ü r d ie Z u hör e r, m it d e ne n d e r K omp on i s t K a t z u nd M a u s s pie lt , s ie n ie z u r R u he k om­ me n l ä s s t u nd i h ne n ob e r f l ä c h l ic he n Mu s i k g e nu s s vor e nt h ä lt . B e i m a nc he m Pi a n i s t e n f ü h r t d ie s d a z u , d a s We rk e nt we d e r g a n z z u me id e n o d e r e s a l s v i r t uo s e s Br a vou r s t ü c k ü b e r w ie g e nd i m D a u e r_ For t e / For t i s s i mo m i s s z u ve r s t e he n (e r s t e r e s i s t d a n n e i nd e ut i g vor z u z ie he n). I n s of e r n i s t a b e r a u c h d e r R e i z , d ie s e s We rk du rc h e i ne d opp e lt e E i n s pie ­ lu n g a u s z w e i Pe r s p e k t i ve n z u b e t r a c ht e n, b e s ond e r s g r oß u nd d a s E r g e bn i s b e s on­d e r s a n s pr e c he nd . M a n mu s s s ic h a u f d ie s e He r a u s f ord e r u n g e i n l a s s e n . E s loh nt s ic h! M ic h a e l L a d e nbu r g e r

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D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s , e n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e Fu g u e ( Va r. 32)

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33  × 2 = ∞ S o, L e n a , n o w y o u s e e, h o w w e h a v e o u r p o ck e t s f u l l , f u l l o f d ol l s a n d t o y s . ( Nu n L e n a , s ie h s t du je t z t , w ie w i r d ie Ta s c he n vol l h a b e n, vol l P upp e n u nd Spie l z e u g. ) G e or g B ü c h n e r : L e o n c e u n d L e n a

T he wond e r of t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s i s t he wond e r of s up e rl a t i ve a b s u rd it y. A lto g e t he r le s s wond e r f u l a r e t he s tor ie s i nve nt e d to e x pl a i n t h i s , or to e x pl a i n it a w ay : how B e e t­ hove n t hou g ht s o l it t le of t he t he me A nton Di a b e l l i s u bm it t e d to h i m (a nd to e ve r y ot he r c omp o s e r i n V ie n n a) t h a t he t h r e w h i m s e l f i nt o a p a r ox y s m of i nve nt ion, or how, not w a nt i n g t o b e he rd e d i nto a volu me w it h t he r e s t , he put to g e t he r a c omp e nd iu m a l l h i s ow n, or how he c h a n g e d h i s m i nd a b out t he pr oje c t w he n he k ne w t he f e e i nvol ve d . A l mo s t f r om t he t i me t he work a pp e a r e d , t he r e w a s t h i s r e lu c t a nc e to a c c e pt t h a t t he g r e a t c omp o s e r, w it h t he Mi s s a s ol e m n i s on h i s d e s k , c ou ld h a ve r e l i s he d d e vot i n g h i m s e l f a l s o t o monu me nt a l c ome d y. One of t he g r e a t t h i n g s a b out c ome d y i s t h a t we a r e w it ne s s to it s work i n g s . W he r e t he t r a g ic a c t or h a s to f u s e s e l f a nd r ole , s o t h a t no g a p c a n b e s e e n, t ho s e pl ay i n g c ome d y c a n s t a nd a s id e a l it t le , s how u s w h a t t he y a r e up to. I n t h i s c a s e , t he r e a r e c om ic a c tor s on t wo pl a ne s . Fi r s t , t ho s e e x e c ut i n g t he not e s a r e t he not e s t he m s e l ve s , w h ic h d i s c lo s e t he i r c om ic c h a r a c t e r i n m a k i n g s o mu c h of a n e x h ibit ion of t he i r s u d d e n a c c e nt s , t he i r b ou nd s f or e x t r e me r e g i s t e r s , t he i r mome nt s of s e p a r a t ion w he r e t he le f t h a nd s e e m s not t o k now w h a t t he r i g ht i s d oi n g , t he i r s u d d e n e v a p or a t ion s , t he i r lu d ic r ou s s i mpl ic it ie s , t he i r e x a g g e r a t ion s , t he i r p a r o d ie s . T he n, a l l t he w h i le , t he r e i s t h a t ot he r c om ic m a s t e r s e a t e d on t he pi a no b e nc h, A nd r á s S c h i f f, m a k i n g s u r e , w it h e x t r a ord i n a r y s u bt le t y of r hy t h m a nd t ou c h, t h a t a l l t he s e t r ic k s work , a nd t h a t t he y a r e d i s c r e e t l y r e ve a le d w h i le a l s o f u nc t ion i n g w it h i n a m a g n i f ic e nt l y i nt e g r a t e d p e r f or m a nc e . S c h i f f d o e s not ju s t p e r f or m t he mu s ic ; he p e r f or m s t he mu s ic p e r f or m i n g it s e l f. 13


T he c ome d y b e g i n s e ve n b e f or e B e e t hove n h a s c ont r ibut e d a not e , f or, by e m br a c i n g t he of f e r e d w a lt z , i n e le me nt a r y C m ajor, he m a k e s it h i s ow n . Di a b e l l i s e e m s t o h a ve e mploy e d t he s a me e n g r a ve d pl a t e t o r e pr o du c e h i s t he me i n t he t wo pu bl ic a t ion s he w a s a ble to put out – t he B e e t hove n s e t a nd a c ol le c t ion of v a r i a t ion s by f i f t y ot he r c om­ p o s e r s – but s t i l l t he mu s ic c h a n g e s w it h it s c ont e x t . T he f u s s y t w id d le s , t he r e p e t it ion s , t he p a t ph r a s i n g , t he bu mpt iou s s f or z a t o s – w he n B e e t hove n t a k e s t he m ove r, t he y a l l s l id e g r a c e f u l l y up w a rd s f r om b a n a l it y t o hu mou r. T h i s i s s t i l l s i l l y mu s ic . Now, t hou g h, s ome b o d y i s i n on t he a c t . I f we h a d a ny dou bt s , t he mo c k e r y m a rc h t h a t f ol low s wou ld a l l ay t he m . T h i s w a s not B e e t hove n’s i n it i a l c hoic e f or Va r i a t ion I – t he nu m b e r he e ve nt u a l l y pl a c e d t h i rd w a s h i s f i r s t id e a f or a n op e ne r – but t he r e t h i n k i n g w a s i n s pi r e d , i nt r o du c i n g t he r id ic u lou s i n c omple t e a w a r e ne s s . Eve n s o, w e a r e i n t he r e a l m he r e of c ome d y, not t r a ve s t y, a nd ju s t a s i n a Sh a k e s p e a r e c ome d y t he r e w i l l b e t ho s e w ho pl ay t he i r p a r t s f or r e a l ( V iol a i n Tw e l f t h Ni g h t, s ay), s o he r e w e f i nd v a r i a t ion s t h a t d i s c ove r t r u e m a r ve l s , b e g i n n i n g w it h t he s e c ond a nd it s t wo h a nd s i nt e r w e a v i n g s o t h a t t he b e a t s hove r. Fr om now on t he v a r i a t ion s r e g u l a rl y c om bi ne pl ay a nd p o e t r y – a s , r i g ht a w ay, i n w h a t w a s t he s e t’s or i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p oi nt: a n e le g a nt p a s t or a l t h a t bi z a r r e l y s t a l l s i n it s s e c ond p a r t . T he f i ne a r t of c a non b e c ome s a c a u s e of f r u s t r a t ion ( Va r i a t ion I V ); a not he r m a rc h, t hou g h i n 3 /4 t i me , t u r n s t o f i nd it s t r u mp e t s blow i n g a c r o s s a n e mpt y f ie ld ( Va r i at ion V ); c a sc a d i n g a r p e g g io s s t a mp on e a c h ot her’s to e s ( Va r i at ion V I ). T he se vent h a nd e i g ht h v a r i a t ion s h a ve t he h a nd s i n d i f f e r e nt d i me n s ion s of t i me , f a s t a g a i n s t s low, f ol lowe d by s low a g a i n s t f a s t . T he n, a g a i n a s i n a S h a k e s p e a r e c ome d y, c ome s t he c low n, a l s o t he f i r s t v a r i a t ion i n t he m i nor. E x h i l a r a t ion ( Va r i a t ion X ) i s f ol low e d by l a z i l y a m bl i n g t r iple t s ( Va r i ­a ­t ion X I ), b ot h k i nd s of mot ion h a v i n g t he i r c om ic a s p e c t s , a s d o e s t he a c c ord ion v a r i a t ion t h a t c ome s

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ne x t . It i s t i me f or a not he r t r iple _ t i me m a rc h to o ple a s e d w it h it s e l f, one w ho s e d ot t e d r hy t h m s w i l l h a ve nu me r ou s r e p e rc u s s ion s – not le a s t i n t he s t u d y t h a t f ol low s . A r e w e g e t t i n g to o s e r iou s? A hu nt i n g s c e ne w i l l pu l l u s b a c k ( Va r i a t ion X V, w it h it s b a s s l i ne g oi n g of f g r u m bl i n g ). T he ne x t v a r i a t ion, i n c om mon t i me , i s c onv i nc e d it mu s t b e t he f i n a le , a nd i n it s c on f id e nc e t a k e s c om m a nd of t he one a f t e r. A f t e r t h i s c ome s a pie c e , t he e i g ht e e nt h v a r i a t ion, i n w h ic h t he a f f e c t i n g a nd t he a r t i f ic i a l a r e p a r t ic u l a rl y c lo s e – a pie c e , t o o, t h a t i n it s l a t t e r h a l f m a r ve l lou s l y move s f r om s i m i l a r mot ion to c on­ t ra r y. T hen a not her c a non goe s dow n, t hen up, a nd f ina l ly ex t ric ate s it self f rom mu rmu rs. Now, h a v i n g c l i m b e d t he mou nt a i n of h i s m i nd , B e e t hove n t a k e s out t he t e le s c op e of h i s i m a g i n a t ion to s c a n, i n t he e x t r a ord i n a r y Va r i a t ion X X , a s f a r a he a d a s Ol i v ie r Me s s i a e n, a nd p e r h a p s b e yond . Did y ou t h i n k t h a t not h i n g c ou ld b e t he s a me a f t e r t h i s? We l l, B e e t hove n h a s ne w s f or y ou: it i s . A f i n ic k y r i g ht h a nd le a pf r o g s ove r t he c hord_ t hu mpi n g le f t , a nd t he n t he y c h a n g e p o s it ion s , b e f or e t he s how i s joi ne d by L e p or e l lo, w it h h i s “ Not t e e g ior no f a t ic a r ” . It i s u nd e r s t a nd a ble t h a t Va r i a t ion X X I I I s hou ld b e s o ove r_ e xc it e d , a nd ne c e s s a r y f or a mome nt of c a l m t o e n s u e: t he f u g he t t a , w h ic h a l s o, f ol low i n g t he r e i g n of c om mon t i me s i nc e t he a l mo s t mot ion le s s t we nt ie t h v a r i a t ion, r e s tor e s 3 /4 – t hou g h we a r e a world a w ay f r om w a lt z i n g. T he ne x t v a r i a t ion i s on hor s e b a c k a g a i n, a nd , l i k e m a ny p e ople s o e n s c onc e d , k e e p s s ay i n g t he s a me t h i n g over a nd over. S o do e s t he va r i at ion a f ter, w it h t he d i f ferenc e t h at it s t h i n g – a t h re e _note pat ter n t h at m ay b e a r p e g g io or sc a le , t he pat ter n s c om i n g i n pa i r s – i s so beaut if u l. T he sa me pat tern is, howe ver, g leef u l ly sent up in t he succ eed ing va riat ion, t he t we nt y_ s e ve nt h . Va r i a t ion X X V I I I i s a not he r du m b r id e r, i n i nc e s s a nt 2 /4 e i g ht h not e s . He r e w e t a k e a p a u s e . T he t h r e e v a r i a t ion s t h a t f ol low a r e a l l i n t he m i nor, a nd t he y a r e not jok i n g. Fi r s t c ome s a s a d s on g , a s on g s o s a d it c a n not s i n g it s e l f a g a i n, t he n a

15


c ont r a pu nt a l s t u d y t h a t b e c ome s a h a r mon ic voy a g e , a nd t he n a n e s s ay i n b e l c a nt o, voic e d by a s opr a no w ho t ou c h i n g l y r e me m b e r s a n old hy m n i n t he s e c ond p a r t of he r a r i a , b e f or e s he c l i m b s s p e c t a c u l a rl y t o h i g h E f l a t , t r i l le d . I n t he k e y of E f l a t a f u g u e t a k e s ove r, but t h i s c a n not b e t he e nd . M a g ic a l l y t he f u g u e d i s s ol ve s , a nd t he r e on t he s t a g e i s a s ol it a r y f i g u r e: t he w a lt z , t r a n s f i g u r e d i nt o t he m i nu e t it a l w ay s w a nt e d t o b e . It t a k e s a t u r n, r a i s e s a h a nd i n f a r e w e l l, a nd b ow s . C u r t a i n . B ut w a it – To m o r r o w w e’ l l c a l m l y a n d c h e e r f u l l y g o t h r o u g h t h e w h ol e fa r c e a ga in . ( Mor g e n f a n g e n w i r i n a l le r R u he u nd G e müt h l ic h k e it d e n Sp a ß no c h e i n m a l von vor n a n . ) G e or g B ü c h n e r : L e o n c e u n d L e n a

Ye s , e ve n t h i s i s not t he e nd , b e c a u s e S c h i f f a l low s u s t wo g o e s , ve r y d i f f e r e nt , on h i s t wo i n st r u ment s . A s i f t he 1921 B e c h s tei n d id not h ave it s ow n wonder f u l n at u r a l ne s s , voic e d f rom a not her a ge , t he V ien ne s e i n s t r u ment of a w hole c ent u r y e a rl ier, by Fr a n z Bro d ­m a n n, r e t u r n s u s to t he s ou nd world of B e e t hove n’s ow n t i me , w he n h i s mu s ic w a s r e a c h i n g t o t he pi a no’s ve r y l i m it s . Mor e ove r, t he r e i s y e t f u r t he r mu s ic , i n w h ic h t he i n s t r u me nt s s h a r e t he honou r s . H a v i n g c omp o s e d t we nt y_ t h r e e of h i s t h i r t y_ t h r e e D i a b e l l i Va r i a ­t i o n s i n 1819, B e e t hove n r e t u r ne d to t he Mi s s a s o l e m n i s, but i nt e r r upt e d t h a t u nd e r t a k i n g a g a i n t o w r it e t h r e e pi a no s on a t a s b e t we e n 182 0 a nd 1822 , t he one i n c m i nor b e i n g t he l a s t , a s w e l l a s t he l a s t of h i s tot a l of t h i r t y_ t wo s olo s on a t a s . ( T he ne a r c oi nc id e nc e of t he s e nu m b e r s – t h i r t y_ t wo s on a t a s a nd t h i r t y_ t h r e e v a r i a t ion s – i s i nt r i g u i n g , but pr ob a bl y no mor e t h a n t h a t . B e e t hove n h a d no r e a s on to k e e p c ou nt of h i s s on a t a s , w h ic h w e r e pu bl i s he d w it h­ out nu m b e r i n g , a nd w he n c omp o s i n g t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s he m ay h a ve b e e n t h i n k i n g

16


muc h more of B a c h ’s G oldb er g s , t h i r t y i n nu mb er, or p os sibly h i s ow n c m i nor s e t , nu m­ b e r ­i n g t h i r t y_ t wo. ) W he r e Va r i a t ion s X X I X – X X X I of t he Di a b e l l i work s how t he p oi g n a nc y B e e t ­­h ove n f i nd s i n c m i nor, t he f i r s t move me nt of t h i s f i n a l s on a t a r e ve a l s t he p owe r – a nd t he v a r iou s p ow e r s , t o o, of t he a l mo s t c e nt e n a r i a n B e c h s t e i n, f r om d e c i s i ve f i r m ne s s a t t he b e g i n n i n g t o a ve i le d qu a l it y a t t he s t a r t of t he d e ve lopme nt . A not he r s t r i k i n g p a s s a g e , a s S c h i f f pl ay s it , i s t he ve r y e nd of t h i s a l le g r o, w he r e , i n r e a c h i n g home but i n t he m ajor mo d e , t he mu s ic s e e m s r e a d y to s e t out f or a not he r d e s t i n a t ion . It du l y h a s t he opp or t u n it y. T he i m me n s e f i n a le , t w ic e a s lon g a s t he f i r s t move me nt , i s a s e t of v a r i a t ion s i n C m ajor t h a t w a s w r it t e n, a s t h i s r e c ord i n g r e m i nd s u s , w h i le a not he r i n t he s a me k e y w a s i n t r a i n . T h i s t i me , t hou g h, B e e t hove n i s t r a ve l l i n g t h r ou g h t he d om a i n of h i s ow n a r ie t t a , a nd t he r e i s no qu e s t ion of Di a b e l l i a n i r ony. E a c h v a r i a­ t ion, i n s t e a d of t r y i n g out a ne w d i s g u i s e , pr o c e e d s f r om, le a r n s f r om, t he l a s t . We h a ve hor s e b a c k r id i n g a g a i n, but now f lu n g w it h joy. A nd we h a ve s t a s i s , but lu m i nou s . H a v i n g c omple t e d t he s on a t a i n 1822 a nd t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s i n t he s u m me r of t he f ol low i n g y e a r, B e e t hove n w r ot e on l y one mor e work f or pi a no: t he S i x B a ga t e l l e s, op.  126 , of A pr i l –  Ju ne 182 4 . T h i s a lbu m t hu s pr e s e nt s t he t h r e e work s – s o c lo s e , s o d i ve r s e – i n c h r onolo g ic a l ord e r, b e s id e s of f e r i n g a n ic e s y m me t r y. B e e t hove n’s d e s c r ipt ion of op.  126 a s a ‘c yc le of l it t le pie c e s’ i nv it e s u s to u nd e r s t a nd t he c ont e nt s a s no le s s c ohe r e nt t h a n m i s c e l l a ne ou s – v a r i a t ion s , qu i rk y a nd e n i g m a t ic , le t lo o s e f r om a ny t he me . T he ve ne r a ble Fr a n z Br o d ­m a n n pi a no he lp s he r e . T h i s i s not a c onc e r t g r a nd but a d ome s t ic i n s t r u me nt . It s p e a k s home t r ut h s , w h ic h m ay b e s t u bb or n a nd u nc om f or t a ble , a s we l l a s s u r e a nd love _ f i l le d . It s s ou nd s a r e t ho s e of t he u n i ve r s a l a d d r e s s i n g u s w it h i nt i m a c y. Pa u l Gr i f f it h s

17


I

S o n a t e Nr.  32 i n c _ M o l l o p.  111

(182 1 / 2 2)

R ud o l p h Er z he r zo g vo n Ö s te rre i c h g e wi d m e t

1 2

M a e s to s o – A l l e g r o c o n b r i o e d a p p a s s i o n a to A r i e t t a. Ad a g i o m o l to e c a nt a b i l e

8  : 5 4 17  : 20

D i a b e l l i _Va r i a t i o n e n o p.  120

3 3 Ve r än d e r u n g e n ü b e r e in e n Wa lze r vo n A nto n D i a b e l l i

A nto n i e B re nt a n o g e wi d m e t

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

18

(18 19 / 23)

T h e m a. V i v a c e Va r. I A l l a m a r c i a m a e s to s o Va r. II Po c o a l l e g r o Va r. III L’ i s t e s s o t e m p o Va r. I V Un p o c o p iù v i v a c e Va r. V A l l e g r o v i v a c e Va r. V I A l l e g r o m a n o n t r o p p o e s e r i o s o Va r. V II Un p o c o p iù a l l e g r o Va r. V III Po c o v i v a c e Va r. I X A l l e g r o p e s a nt e e r i s o l u to Va r. X P r e s to Va r. X I A l l e g r e t to Va r. X II Un p o c o p iù m oto Va r. X III V i v a c e

0  : 4 5 1  :  3 8 0  : 4 8 1  :  20 0  : 5 9 0  : 5 8 1  :  3 5 1  :  0 8 1  :  28 1  :  52 0  :  4 1 1  : 0 9 1  : 0 0 1  :  1 1


P i a n o S o n a t a o p. 111, o p e n i n g b a r s

19


17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Va r. X I V Gr ave e m a e s to s o Va r. X V P r e s to s c h e r z a n d o Va r. X V I A l l e g r o Va r. X V II Va r. X V III Po c o m o d e r a to Va r. X I X P r e s to Va r. X X A n d a nt e Va r. X X I A l l e g r o c o n b r i o Va r. X X II A l l e g r o m o l to (a l l a „ N ot t e e g i o r n o f a t i c a r ∑ d i M oz a r t) Va r. X X III A l l e g r o a s s a i Va r. X X I V Fu g h e t t a. A n d a nt e Va r. X X V A l l e g r o Va r. X X V I Va r. X X V II V i v a c e Va r. X X V III A l l e g r o Va r. X X I X Ad a g i o m a n o n t r o p p o Va r. X X X A n d a nt e, s e m p r e c a nt a b i l e Va r. X X X I L a r g o m o l to, e s p r e s s i vo Va r. X X X II Fu g a. A l l e g r o – Po c o a d a g i o Va r. X X X III Te m p o d i M e nu e t to m o d e r a to

B e c h s t e i n p i a n o (1921)

20

3  : 3 4 0  : 37 1  : 02 1  : 0 3 1  : 3 5 0  : 5 8 1  : 4 3 1  : 0 9 0  : 3 8 0  : 5 5 2  : 32 0  : 52 1  :  28 1  :   0 1 1  :  0 5 1  :  0 9 1  : 4 6 4  :  3 1 2  : 5 3 4  :  1 2


D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s , b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Fu g h e t t a ( Va r. 24)

21


II

D i a b e l l i _Va r i a t i o n e n o p.  120

(18 19 / 23)

3 3 Ve r än d e r u n g e n ü b e r e in e n Wa lze r vo n A nto n D i a b e l l i

A nto n i e B re nt a n o g e wi d m e t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

22

T h e m a. V i v a c e Va r. I A l l a m a r c i a m a e s to s o Va r. II Po c o a l l e g r o Va r. III L’ i s t e s s o t e m p o Va r. I V Un p o c o p iù v i v a c e Va r. V A l l e g r o v i v a c e Va r. V I A l l e g r o m a n o n t r o p p o e s e r i o s o Va r. V II Un p o c o p iù a l l e g r o Va r. V III Po c o v i v a c e Va r. I X A l l e g r o p e s a nt e e r i s o l u to Va r. X P r e s to Va r. X I A l l e g r e t to Va r. X II Un p o c o p iù m oto Va r. X III V i v a c e Va r. X I V Gr ave e m a e s to s o Va r. X V P r e s to s c h e r z a n d o Va r. X V I A l l e g r o Va r. X V II Va r. X V III Po c o m o d e r a to Va r. X I X P r e s to Va r. X X A n d a nt e Va r. X X I A l l e g r o c o n b r i o

0  : 4 8 1  :  3 9 0  : 5 4 1  :  25 1  :   0 1 0  : 5 9 1  :  4 0 1  :   1 3 1  :   3 1 1  :  5 6 0  : 4 4 1  : 0 7 1  : 0 5 1  :  1 2 3  :  3 1 0  : 3 9 1  : 02 1  : 0 9 1  : 4 0 0  : 5 9 1  : 4 9 1  :  1 0


D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s , e xc e r p t o f Va r. 28

23


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Va r. X X II A l l e g r o m o l to (a l l a „ N ot t e e g i o r n o f a t i c a r ∑ d i M oz a r t) Va r. X X III A l l e g r o a s s a i Va r. X X I V Fu g h e t t a. A n d a nt e Va r. X X V A l l e g r o Va r. X X V I Va r. X X V II V i v a c e Va r. X X V III A l l e g r o Va r. X X I X Ad a g i o m a n o n t r o p p o Va r. X X X A n d a nt e, s e m p r e c a nt a b i l e Va r. X X X I L a r g o m o l to, e s p r e s s i vo Va r. X X X II Fu g a. A l l e g r o – Po c o a d a g i o Va r. X X X III Te m p o d i M e nu e t to m o d e r a to

S e c h s B a g a t e l l e n o p.  126

A n d a nt e c o n m oto c a nt a b i l e e c o m p i a c evo l e A l l e g r o A n d a nt e c a nt a b i l e e g r a z i o s o P r e s to Q u a s i A l l e g r e t to P r e s to – A n d a nt e a m a b i l e e c o n m oto

35 36 37 38 39 40

24

0  : 4 3 0  : 5 8 2  : 3 4 0  : 5 3 1  : 2 9 1  : 0 4 1  :  1 2 1  :  1 1 1  : 5 7 4  : 3 0 3  :  0 1 4  :  1 2

(1823 / 24)

Fr a nz B r o d m a n n fo r t e p i a n o (c .  1820)

2  : 5 4 2  : 5 6 2  : 23 3  : 4 4 2  :  1 6 4  :  0 1


S i x B a g a t e l l e s o p. 126, b e g i n n i n g o f t h e P r e s t o

25


Nu r au s re i ner Q ue l le  – Fr a g e n u nd A nt wor t e n Wa r u m h a b e n S i e d i e s e We r k e a u s ge w ä h l t? Z u n ä c h s t , we i l ic h s ie he i ß u nd i n n i g l ie b e . Die D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n s i nd e i ne s d e r H a upt we rk e von B e e t hove n u nd s ic he rl ic h s e i n O pu s m a g nu m f ü r K l a v ie r. I n i h ne n f a s s t e r a l l d ie u nt e r s c h ie d l ic he n C h a r a k t e r e s e i ne r 32 K l a v ie r s on a t e n z u s a m me n . Und d ie B a ga t e l l e n op.  126 s i nd s e i ne le t z t e A u s e i n a nd e r s e t z u n g m it s e i ne m b e vor z u g t e n ­I n s t r u me nt: p o e t i s c he u nd t ie f s i n n i g e A phor i s me n i n e i ne m . Hör e n Sie s ic h b e i s pie l s­ w e i s e d ie v ie r t e B a ga t e l l e a n – w a h r s c he i n l ic h s e i n e i n z i g e r Ve r s u c h i n h_ Mol l – e i ne g e r a d e z u d ä mon i s c he Mu s i k von e r s t a u n l ic he r Mo d e r n it ä t . Die A r ie t t a a u s op.  111 u nd d e r Wa l z e r von Di a b e l l i s i nd s e h r e n g m it e i n a nd e r ve r w a ndt . G e me i n s a m i s t i h ne n d ie Ton a r t C _ D u r, d ie A u f t a k t i g k e it u nd d a s Dr e ie r­ me t r u m . No c h w ic ht i g e r i s t a l le rd i n g s , d a s s d ie g le ic he n I nt e r v a l le , f a l le nd e Q u a r t e (C  – G ) u nd f a l le nd e Q u i nt e ( D –  G ), b e id e T he me n b e s t i m me n . D e s h a lb wol lt e ic h d ie D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n i n Z u s a m me n h a n g br i n g e n m it d e n vor a n g e he nd e n u nd n a c h f ol g e nd e n We rk e n . Wa r u m s pi e l e n S i e a n z w e i In s t r u m e n t e n? Wa r u m n ic ht? Z u m e i ne n i s t e s s c h l ic ht e i ne Fr e u d e , a n ve r s c h ie d e ne n w u nd e r s c höne n I n s t r u me nt e n s pie le n z u dü r f e n . Z u m a nd e r e n s i nd d ie Hör g e woh n he it e n b e i m P u b­­l i­ k u m (u nd b e i d e r Mu s i k k r it i k ) n a c h w ie vor z ie m l ic h e i n s e it i g. Vor u r t e i le d om i n ie r e n . Ne u g ie rd e f e h lt . M a n h a t s ic h d a r a n g e wöh nt u nd g ibt s ic h d a m it r e s t lo s z u f r ie d e n, d ie g e s a mt e K l a v ie rl it e r a t u r z w i s c he n W i l l i a m By rd u nd Pie r r e B ou le z i m me r a u f ­S t e i nw ay_ F lü g e l n g e b ot e n z u b e k om me n . D a du rc h w i rd e i ne r u n g lü c k s e l i g e n „G lob a­ l i s ie r u n g∑ d e r K l a v ie r mu s i k Vor s c hu b g e le i s t e t . Te nd e n z ie l l k l i n g e n a l le K omp o s it ione n u nd I­ nt e r pr e t a t ione n e r s c h r e c k e nd ä h n l ic h . Die A u f f ü h r u n g s t r a d it ione n e r s c h l a g e n d ie ­I nd i v idu a l it ä t d e r We rk e u nd ve rh i nd e r n, d a s s I nt e r pr e t e n We r k e g a n z ne u d e n k e n u nd

26


ve r le b e nd i g e n . E i n g ut e r St e i nw ay – i n d e n r ic ht i g e n H ä nd e n – i s t z w a r e i n e x z e l le nt e s I n s t r u me nt , a b e r du rc h a u s n ic ht f ü r a l le s . Mo z a r t , B e e t hove n u nd S c hu b e r t ve rl a n g e n v ie l m e h r a l s K r a f t , G l a n z u nd k ü h le O bj e k t i v it ä t . D e r B e c h s t e i n_ F lü g e l von 1921 r e pr ä­

s e nt ie r t e i ne l ä n g s t ve r g e s s e ne We lt . W i l he l m B a c k h a u s h a t i h n of t g e s pie lt u nd m it i h m A u f n a h me n g e m a c ht . Und e s s e i d a r a n e r i n ne r t , d a s s B e c h s t e i n A r t hu r S c h n a b e l s ­b e vor z u g t e M a r k e g e we s e n i s t . S c h n a b e l s K l a v ie r ton – g e r a d e b e i B e e t hove n u nd ­S c hu b e r t – w a r i m me r me i n Vor bi ld . D e r B e c h s t e i n_ F lü g e l h i l f t m i r, d ie s e m Id e a l­ ­ n ä he r z u k om me n . M it d e m H a m me rk l a v ie r s i nd w i r d i r e k t a n d e r Q u e l le . W ie n i m Ja h r 182 0: D a s s i nd Or t u nd Z e it d e r K omp o s it ion . Die s e s I n s t r u me nt h ie r i s t e i n Or i g i n a l, k e i ne mo d e r ne K opie , u nd e s i s t i n p e r f e k t e m Z u s t a nd . A n i h m k l i n g t d ie Mu s i k f r i s c he r, k ü h ne r u nd u ne nd l ic h v ie l z a r t e r. V ie le von I h ne n, ve r e h r t e Z u hör e r, we rd e n me i ne n E nt hu s i a s mu s t e i le n u nd d e n K l a n g d e s H a m me rk l a v ie r s b e z a u b e r nd f i nd e n, a nd e r e n w i rd e r (z u n ä c h s t) f r e md u nd u n g e wöh n l ic h vork om me n, u nd s ie we rd e n d e n B e c h s t e i n vor z ie he n . S c h l ie ß l ic h w e rd e n u nve r b e s s e rl ic he St e i nw ay_ E nt hu s i a s t e n b e id e a ble h ne n u nd s ic h n a c h e i ne m a nd e r e n Pi a n i s t e n s e h ne n – a u f e i ne m St e i nw ay. S o w ie i m me r. Is t d i e In t e r p r e t a t i o n a u f e in e m Ha m m e r k l a v i e r a n d e r s a l s a u f e in e m m o d e r n e n F l ü g e l? Die I nt e r pr e t a t ion u nt e r s c he id e t s ic h n ic ht g r u nd s ä t z l ic h . D e n no c h e r öf f ne t d a s H a m­ me r k l a v ie r e i ne g a n z ne u e We lt . Mo d e r ne K l a v ie r e k l i n g e n von ob e n bi s i n d ie t ie f e L a g e a u s g e g l ic he n . D a s w i rd he ut e a l s Tu g e nd a n g e s e he n . D a s i s t a b e r ü b e rh a upt n ic ht , w a s B e e t hove n vor s c hwe bt e . D a s H a m me rk l a v ie r mu s s g a r n ic ht e b e n m ä ßi g k l i n g e n . E s b e s it z t u nt e r s c h ie d l ic he ob e r e , m it t le r e u nd u nt e r e R e g i s t e r. Die hohe n Töne s i nd f e i n z i s e l ie r t u nd k l a r, d ie m it t le r e n k l i n g e n n a t ü rl ic h vol ltöne nd , w ä h r e nd d ie B ä s s e

27


e he r s c h l a n k u nd t r a n s p a r e nt w i rk e n . Die t ie f e r e St i m mu n g ( A = 430  H z , a u f mo d e r ne n I n s t r u me nt e n h i n g e g e n 4 4 2  H z o d e r höhe r) k l i n g t f ü r d ie Oh r e n v ie l a n g e ne h me r u nd ob e r ton r e ic he r. Die D y n a m i k w i rk t d i f f e r e n z ie r t e r : w ä h r e nd d ie L a ut s t ä r k e w e s e nt l ic h z u r ü c k g e nom me n w i rd , g e l i n g e n d ie le i s e n u nd le i s e s t e n Pa s s a g e n m it H i l f e d e r Ve r s c h ie bu n g u nd d e s Mo d e r a t or s m a g i s c h u nd g e he i m n i s vol l . E s ve r s t e ht s ic h von s e lb s t , d a s s d ie Q u a l it ä t e n d e s H a m me rk l a v ie r s nu r u nt e r opt i m a le n B e d i n g u n g e n z u r G e lt u n g k om me n k ön ne n, d a s he i ßt b e i a u s g e z e ic h ne t e r A k u s t i k u nd e i ne m n ic ht a l l z u g r oß e n R a u m, w ie d e m K a m me r mu s i k s a a l H .  J. A b s d e s B on ne r B e e t hove n_ H a u s e s . V ie le Pi a n i s t e n i r r e n s ic h of t b e i d e r Wa h l i h r e r Te mpi . Die le bh a f t e n S ä t z e g e r a t e n v ie l z u s c h ne l l, d ie r u h i g e n v ie l z u l a n g s a m . D a s H a m me rk l a v ie r k or r i g ie r t d ie s e Fe h lu r t e i le s of or t . E s g ibt d ie r ic ht i g e n Te mpi vor. M a n mu s s a l s o d ie s e Fr a g e u m g e k e h r t b e a nt­ wor t e n: D u rc h E r f a h r u n g e n m it a lt e n I n s t r u me nt e n pr of it ie r t i n hohe m M a ß e a u c h u n s e r Spie l a u f mo d e r ne n K l a v ie r e n . W i e ge h e n S i e m i t B e e t h o v e n s P e d a l v o r s c h r i f t e n u m? I n H ayd n s C _ D u r_ S on a t e ( Hob.  X V I :  50) f i nd e n w i r z w e i Pa s s a g e n m it d e r A nw e i s u n g „of f e ne s Pe d a l∑ . S on s t k om mt d ie A n me rk u n g b e i i h m n ic ht vor. A u c h i m g a n z e n K l a v ie r we rk von Mo z a r t w i rd d a s Pe d a l n i r g e nd s e r w ä h nt . D e r e r s t e g r oß e K omp on i s t , d e r d a s Pe d a l b e w u ßt u nd k r e a t i v b e nut z t h a t , w a r B e e t hove n . S e i n Pe d a l g e br a u c h i s t völ l i g u n k onve nt ione l l u nd r e volut ion ä r. K l a v ie rle h r e r e rk l ä r e n u n s , d a s s w i r d a s Pe d a l b e i je d e m H a r mon ie we c h s e l w e c h s e l n mü s s e n . D a s i s t n ic ht B e e t hove n s A n s c h a uu n g. O f t w i l l e r s ond e r b a r e u nd g a n z f r e md e H a r mon ie n z u s a m me n k l i n g e n l a s s e n . S e i n ­e r s t e s K l a v ie rk on z e r t , op.  15 , u nd d ie S on a t e n op.  27/2 , op. 31 /2 u nd op. 53 s i nd vol l d ie s e r E f f e k t e . E s i s t k a u m z u f a s s e n, d a s s d ie me i s t e n Pi a n i s t e n B e e t hove n s A n­­w e i ­s u n­ gen völ l i g i g nor ieren. Sie b e h aupten, B e e t hoven s Pe d a l i sier u n g sei nu r au f dem H a m ­m er­

28


k l a v ie r r e a l i s ie r b a r, a u f d e m mo d e r ne n F lü g e l mü s s e m a n z u m K onve nt io­n e l le n z u r ü c k k e h r e n . Wa s f ü r e i n Un s i n n! Die me i s t e n von d e ne n, d ie d a s b e h a upt e n, h a b e n n ie m a l s e i n H a m me rk l a v ie r z u G e s ic ht b e k om me n u nd wol le n s c h l a u e r s e i n a l s d e r K omp on i s t . ( Und d a s s i nd g e n a u je ne L e ut e , d ie B a c h s pie le n, i nd e m s ie m it e i ne m Fu ß s t ä nd i g a u f d e m „G a s p e d a l∑ s t e he n . ) Um e s no c h e i n m a l z u s a m me n z u f a s s e n: B e e t hove n s Pe d a l i s ie r u n g e n s i nd w ic ht i g e B e s t a ndt e i le s e i ne s k r e a t i ve n G e i s t e s . Sie mü s s e n g e n a u b e f ol g t we rd e n, a u f je d e m I n s t r u me nt . Sie z u i g nor ie r e n, i s t A u s d r u c k hö c h s t e r A r r o g a n z , e i ne Ve r f ä l s c hu n g d e r Mu si k . A u f dem mo der nen Flü g el mü s s en w i r d a s Pe d a l n ic ht vol l s t ä nd i g du rc hd r üc ken, d ie H ä l f t e o d e r g a r e i n Dr it t e l g e nü g e n . Unt e r d e m S c h lu s s a k k ord d e r D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n s t e ht d a s Z e ic he n „p e d .∑ . E i n A u f he bu n g s z e ic he n g ibt e s n i r g e nd s . D a s he i ßt , e r wol lt e d ie s e n C _ D u r_ Dr e i k l a n g s o l a n g e w ie mö g l ic h e rk l i n g e n l a s s e n . D a s K l a v ie r i s t ja e i n „Di m i nu e nd o _ I n s t r u me nt∑ , e i n a n g e s c h l a g e ne r Ton w i rd i m me r s c hw ä c he r, bi s e r ve rk l i n g t . A u f d e m H a m me r­ k l a v ie r d a u e r t d a s e t w a z e h n S e k u nd e n, a u f d e m B e c h s t e i n d opp e lt s o l a n g e . S ol lt e d ie s e r Unt e r s c h ie d b e s e it i g t we rd e n? Ic h g l a u b e n ic ht . „E s mu s s s e i n!∑ G l a u b e n S i e, d a s s B e e t h o v e n m i t e in e m n e u e n S t e in w a y gl ü ck l i c h g e w e s e n w ä r e? Nie m a l s . S e i ne e r s t e Fr a g e w ä r e g e we s e n: „Wa r u m i s t d a s Di n g s o s c hw a r z? E s s ie ht ja a u s w ie e i n S a r g!∑ Und f e r ne r : „Wa r u m i s t d ie T ie f e s o plu mp u nd s c hwe r, w a r u m g ibt e s k e i ne Unt e r s c h ie d e z w i s c he n d e n R e g i s t e r n? Wa r u m i s t d ie St i m mu n g s o ho c h?∑ S c h l ie ß l ic h: „Wa r u m k l i n g t a l le s s o l a ut? Ic h bi n z w a r t a u b, a b e r d ie Z u hör e r s i nd e s hof f e nt l ic h n ic ht .∑ D a r a u f w ü rd e m a n he ut e woh l a nt wor t e n: „Ve r e h r t e r Me i s t e r, he ut z ut a g e s pie le n w i r I h r e Mu s i k i n g r oß e n S ä le n m it z we it a u s e nd u nd me h r Pl ä t z e n . D e s h a lb mu ss der Flügel bri l la nt u nd k ra f t vol l k lingen.∑ Da rau f w ü rde Beet hoven w ütend

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werden: „I h r Na r r e n! G l a u bt i h r w i rk l ic h, ic h h ä t t e me i ne K l a v ie r mu s i k f ü r s olc h g i g a nt i s c he H a l le n k omp on ie r t? E i ne K l a v ie r s on a t e i s t k e i ne S c h l a c ht e n s y mphon ie!∑ K a n n t e B e e t h o v e n B a c h s G old b e r g _ Va r i a t ione n ? Ja , m it z ie m l ic he r Sic he rhe it , obwoh l B a c h s Mu s i k i m d a m a l i g e n W ie n k a u m b e k a n nt w a r u nd k a u m g e s pie lt w u rd e . B e e t hove n – w ie Mo z a r t a u c h – g e hör t e z u m e n g e r e n Fr e u nd e s k r e i s von B a r on G ot t f r ie d v a n Sw ie t e n, d e s s e n b e r ü h mt e Bibl iot he k v ie le H a nd s c h r i f t e n u nd A u s g a b e n von B a c h u nd H ä nd e l b e w a h r t e . B a c h h a t we n i g e K omp o s it ione n i n For m von „T he m a u nd Va r i a t ione n∑ g e s c h r ie ­ b e n . Die A r i a m i t 3 0 Ve r ä n d e r u n ge n i s t d ie w ic ht i g s t e von i h ne n . B e e t hoven wa r ste t s ei n Mei s ter d ie s e s G en re s , n ic ht z u le t z t du rc h d a s St ud iu m b ei Joseph Hayd n. S ei ne Va r i at ion s s ät z e i n den S on aten u nd d ie ver sc h ie denen Va r i at ion s­ z y k le n s i nd g l ä n z e nd e Z e u g n i s s e s e i ne r I mpr ov i s a t ion s k u n s t . D o c h m it d e n D i a b e l l iVa r i a t i o n e n i s t i h m e i n Q u a nt e n s pr u n g g e lu n g e n . S e i n Vor bi ld w a r B a c h, s e i ne He r a u s­ f ord e r u n g d ie G o l d b e r g_ Va r i a t i o n e n. Di a b e l l i s Wa l z e r u nd B a c h s A r i a s i nd L ic ht ja h r e vone i n a nd e r e nt f e r nt . A b e r i h r e St r u k t u r e n s i nd id e nt i s c h, z w e i m a l s e c h z e h n Ta k t e , b e id e Te i le m it W ie d e r holu n g e n u nd b e id e i m Dr e i v ie r t e lt a k t . B a c h s We rk h a t v ie l m it d e r Z a h l d r e i z u t u n . E s g ibt d r e i ßi g Va r i a t ione n, von d e ne n je d e d r it t e e i n K a non i s t , d a du rc h h a b e n w i r z e h n A b s c h n it t e m it je we i l s d r e i St ü c k e n . I n d e r e r s t e n Ph a s e d e r K omp o s it ion i m Ja h r 1819 h a t B e e t hove n 23 Va r i a t ione n vol le nd e t . A l s e r d a n n d ie A r b e it i m Ja h r 1823 f or t s e t z t e u nd a b s c h lo s s , w u rd e d ie A n z a h l d e r Va r i a t ione n b e w u s s t a u f 33 a u s g e d e h nt . B e id e We rk e s i nd d r e it e i l i g a n g e le g t . D e r e r s t e Te i l e nd e t b e id e M a le m it d e r z e h n­ t e n Va r i a t ion . B e i B a c h e nd e t d e r z w e it e E i n s c h n it t n a c h Va r i a t ion 22 , b e i B e e t hove n

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n a c h Va r i a t ion 2 0 . D e r d r it t e Te i l f ü h r t b e id e We rk e z u m S c h lu s s u nd z u r Vol le ndu n g. B a c h m a r k ie r t d ie M it t e d e s Zy k lu s n a c h Va r i a t ion 15 m it e i ne r d a r a u f f ol g e nd e n O u ve r t u r e , d ie ne u e K r ä f t e f r e i s e t z t . B e e t hove n e r r e ic ht d ie s e n P u n k t m it d e r g r a nd io s e x t r ove r t ie r t e n D opp e l v a r i a t ion 16 /17. Die s u bl i me Fu g he t t a ( Va r.  2 4) i s t e i ne r e i ne Hom m a g e a n B a c h . Die d iony s i s c he Fu g e ( Va r.  32) e r i n ne r t u n s e he r a n H ä nd e l s Or a­ t or ie n . S c h l ie ß l ic h k or r e s p ond ie r e n d ie w u nd e r b a r e n Mol l_ Va r i a t ione n ( Nr. 29  – 3 1) m it d e n d r e i B a c h s c he n Me i s t e r we rk e n ( Nr.  15 , 21, 25), wob e i B a c h s Nr.  25 u nd B e e t hove n s Nr. 31 b e s ond e r s e n g m it e i n a nd e r ve r w a ndt s i nd . W i e s p i e g e l t s i c h B e e t h o v e n s B e z i e h u n g z u Mo z a r t in d e n Di a b e l l i_ Va r i a t ione n ? Mo z a r t s t a r b 1791 i n W ie n u nd B e e t hove n k a m e r s t i m d a r a u f f ol g e nd e n Ja h r i n d ie St a dt . S o ent g i n g i h m e t w a s , w a s z u r w ic ht i g s ten B e g e g nu n g s ei ne s L eb en s h ät te werden k ön ne n . Mo z a r t bl ie b f ü r i h n s e i n u ne r r e ic h b a r e s Vor bi ld , w ie e s s p ä t e r B e e t hove n f ü r d e n ju n g e n Fr a n z S c hu b e r t w u rd e . Die D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n e nt h a lt e n z we i R e f e r e n z e n a u f Mo z a r t: D a s L e p or e l lo _Z it a t i n Va r i a t ion 22 i s t e i ne h i n r e i ß e nd e Pa r o d ie , w ä h r e nd d a s a b s c h l ie ß e nd e Me nu e t t ( Va r. 33) d ie s u bl i m s t e B e s c hwör u n g d e s Mo z a r t s c he n G e i s t e s d a r s t e l lt u nd d ie s e m We rk e i ne n ve rk l ä r e nd e n A b s c h lu s s g ibt . Wa r u m g e l t e n d i e D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t ione n a l s e in s o p r ob l e m a t i s c h e s , s c h w i e r i g e s We r k? Gr oß e K u n s t i s t n ie le ic ht . A l le We lt a c ht e t u nd ve r e h r t B e e t hove n, b e s ond e r s s e i ne b e k a n nt e s t e n We r k e . M a n hör t i m me r w ie d e r g e r ne d ie S on a t e n m it B e i n a me n ( Mo n d s c h e i n, Wa l d s t e in, A pp a s s i o n a t a), d ie E r o i c a, d ie f ü n f t e u nd d ie ne u nt e Sy mphon ie ( b e s ond e r s d e r e n le t z t e n S a t z). Sie ve r f e s t i g e n a m d e ut l ic h s t e n d a s K l i s c he e vom he r o ­ i s c he n K ä mpf e r B e e t hove n . V ie le Me n s c he n a b e r h a b e n Pr oble me m it je ne n We rk e n B e e t hove n s , d ie n ic ht i n d ie s e S c hu bl a d e p a s s e n .

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Die Ha m m e r k l a v i e r _ S o n a t e, d ie Mi s s a s o l e m n i s, d ie s p ä t e n St r e ic hqu a r t e t t e g e hör e n z u d e n hö c h s t e n Gipf e l n d e r Mu s i k g e s c h ic ht e . Tr ot z d e m s i nd s ie no c h i m me r n ic ht s o b e ­ l ie bt b e i m a l l g e me i ne n P u bl i k u m . R e s p e k t ja , a b e r k e i ne L ie b e . K e i n Wu nd e r b e i ­d ie s e n ho c h k omple x e n We rk e n, d ie k e i ne le ic ht e Unt e rh a lt u n g g a r a nt ie r e n . Unt e r i h ne n s i nd d ie D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n e i ne b e s ond e r s h a r t e Nu s s . W ie k a n n m a n s ie c h a r a k t e r i s ie r e n? M a nc he s i nd d r a m a t i s c h, a nd e r e he r oi s c h, m aje s t ä t i s c h, l y r i s c h, z ä r t l ic h, w it z i g , s c h a l k h a f t , ph i lo s oph i s c h, my s t e r iö s . E s g ibt k e i n z w e it e s We rk B e e t hove n s , w e lc he s s o v ie le Fa c e t t e n s e i ne s G e n ie s a u f w e i s t . S olc h e i n Me i s t e r we rk mu s s w ie d e r u nd w ie d e r g e hör t w e rd e n . W i r I nt e r pr e t e n a b e r mü s s e n u n s e r L e b e n d a m it z u br i n g e n, s e i ne G e he i m n i s s e z u e r g r ü nd e n . W i e w i c h t i g i s t f ü r S i e d a s S t u d i u m v o n B e e t h o v e n s Ha n d s c h r i f t e n u n d S k i z z e n? S o w ic ht i g , d a s s ic h e s m it Wor t e n g a r n ic ht b e s c h r e ib e n k a n n . Gut e Ur t e x t_ A u s g a b e n si nd z wei fel los w ic ht i g , a b er sie kön nen d ie H a nd sc h r i f t le d i g l ic h erg ä n z en, n ie er se t z e n . Nu r d a s M a nu s k r i p t z e i g t u n s d e n K o m p o s i t i o n s p r o z e s s u n d d i e i n n e r e B e d e u t u n g . V ie le H a nd s c h r i f t e n s i nd he ut e g lü c k l ic he r w e i s e i n g ut e n Fa k s i m i le _ A u s g a b e n e r h ä lt l ic h . Die A uto g r a phe n d e r D i a b e l l i_ Va r i a t i o n e n u nd d e r B a ga t e l l e n op.  126 s ow ie d e s e r s t e n S a t z e s von op. 111 b e f i nd e n s ic h i n d e r S a m m lu n g d e s B e e t hove n_ H a u s e s B on n . D a s i s t e i ne w a h r e Fu nd g r u b e , u nd ic h bi n e w i g d a n k b a r f ü r d a s Pr i v i le g , d ie s e S c h ä t z e e i n s e he n z u k ön ne n . Die s e Mu s i k i m B e e t hove n_ H a u s , i n u n m it t e lb a r e r Nä he z u d e n Or i g i n a l h a nd s c h r i f t e n, s pie le n z u dü r f e n, i s t e i n G e s c he n k u nd e i ne g r oß e E h r e . W ie B é l a B a r tók e s s a g t e: Nu r a u s r e i ne r Q u e l le . A nd r á s S c h i f f F lor e n z , Ju n i 2 013

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On ly f rom t he pu re s ou rc e – que s t ion s a nd a n s wer s W h y h a v e y o u c h o s e n t h e s e w o r k s? Fi r s t l y, b e c a u s e I do love t he m d e a rl y. T he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s a r e one of B e e t hove n’s m a i n c r e a t ion s , c e r t a i n l y h i s o p u s m a g n u m f or t he pi a no. I n t he m he s u m m a r i z e s a l l t he d i f f e r e nt c h a r a c t e r s of h i s 32 s on a t a s . T he op.  126 B a ga t e l l e s a r e h i s l a s t t hou g ht s f or h i s f a vou r it e i n s t r u me nt , p o e t ic a nd pr of ou nd a phor i s m s . L i s t e n t o t he f ou r t h B a g a t e l le – pr ob a bl y h i s on l y ve nt u r e i nt o b m i nor – d a e mon ic mu s ic of a s t on i s h i n g mo d e r n it y. T he A r ie t t a of op. 111 a nd Di a b e l l i ’s Wa lt z a r e c lo s e l y r e l a t e d . T he y s h a r e t he s a me ton a l it y (C m ajor). B ot h s t a r t w it h a n upb e a t a nd b ot h a r e i n t r iple t i me . Mor e i mp or­ t a nt l y, t he s a me t wo i nt e r v a l s , t he f a l l i n g f ou r t h (C –  G) a nd t he f a l l i n g f i f t h ( D – G), dom i n a t e b ot h t he me s . T hu s I w a nt e d to s u r r ou nd t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s b ot h w it h it s pr e d e c e s s or a nd it s s u c c e s s or. W h y a r e y o u u s i n g t w o in s t r u m e n t s? W hy not? It’s a l w ay s a joy t o pl ay on wond e r f u l i n s t r u me nt s , s u c h a s t he one s he a rd on t he s e r e c ord i n g s . T he r e h a s b e e n a t e nd e nc y f or t he h a bit s of l i s t e ne r s a nd c r it ic s t o b e c ome s ome ­ w h a t one _ s id e d a nd pr eju d ic e d . M a ny p e ople h a ve b e e n l i s t e n i n g t o t he e nt i r e k e y b o a rd r e p e r toi r e f r om W i l l i a m By rd t o Pie r r e B ou le z , a l w ay s pl ay e d on St e i nw ay pi a no s a nd h a ve b e e n d e l i g ht e d w it h t he r e s u lt s , qu it e u nc r it ic a l l y. T h i s t e nd e nc y u n f or t u n a t e l y e nc ou r a g e s a g lob a l i z a t ion of pi a no mu s ic , w he r e by a l l c omp o s e r s a nd pi a n i s t s w i l l s ou nd f r i g ht e n i n g l y s i m i l a r. No t a b e n e, a g o o d St e i nw ay i n t he r i g ht h a nd s i s a m a r ve l lou s pi a no, but not f or e ve r y t h i n g. H ayd n, Mo z a r t , B e e t hove n a nd S c hu b e r t r e qu i r e mor e t h a n p ow e r, br i l­ l i a nc e a nd c o ol obje c t i v it y.

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T he B e c h s t e i n f r om 1921 r e pr e s e nt s a lon g f or g ot t e n world . W i l he l m B a c k h a u s pl ay e d a nd r e c ord e d on t h i s ve r y pi a no a nd le t’s r e me m b e r t h a t B e c h s t e i n w a s A r t hu r S c h n a­ b e l ’s pr e f e r r e d c hoic e . S c h n a b e l ’s tone i n B e e t hove n a nd S c hu b e r t h a s a l w ay s b e e n my id e a l . T h i s i n s t r u me nt he lp s me to g e t c lo s e r to it . W it h t he f or t e pi a no we a r e r i g ht a t t he s ou rc e . V ie n n a , 182 0: t he pl a c e a nd t i me of t he c omp o s it ion . T h i s i n s t r u me nt i s a n or i g i n a l, not a mo d e r n c op y, a nd it’s i n p e r f e c t c ond it ion . On it t he mu s ic s ou nd s f r e s he r, b old e r a nd i n f i n it e l y mor e s u bt le . M a ny l i s t e ne r s w i l l s h a r e my e nt hu s i a s m a nd b e d e l i g ht e d w it h t he s onor it ie s of t he f or t e pi a no. T he r e w i l l b e ot he r s w ho m ay f i nd it s s ou nd u nu s u a l a nd s t r a n g e a nd t he y w i l l pr e f e r t he B e c h s t e i n . Fi n a l l y, t ho s e i nc u r a ble St e i nw ay e nt hu s i a s t s m ay d i s l i k e b ot h ve r s ion s a nd w i s h f or a not he r pi a n i s t – on a St e i nw ay, a s a l w ay s . W i l l t h e in t e r p r e t a t i o n b e d if f e r e n t o n t h e f o r t e pi a n o? T he c onc e pt of i nt e r pr e t a t ion w i l l not c h a n g e f u nd a me nt a l l y. Ne ve r t he le s s t he f or t e ­ pi a no op en s up a w hole ne w world . Mo der n pi a nos a re p er fe c t ly e ven f rom top to b ot tom a nd t h i s i s c on s id e r e d to b e t he i r v i r t u e . Howe ve r, t h i s i s not w h a t B e e t hove n h a d i n m i nd . T he f or t e pi a no d o e s n’t ne e d to b e s mo ot h l y e ve n; it h a s d i s t i nc t upp e r, m id d le a nd low e r r e g i s t e r s . T he h i g h not e s a r e f i ne a nd c le a r, t he m id d le one s a r e n a t u r a l l y r e ­ s on a nt , w h i le t he b a s s e s a r e le a n a nd t r a n s p a r e nt . T he lowe r t u n i n g ( A =  430  H z , to d ay 4 4 2  H z or h i g he r) i s mu c h mor e ple a s a nt to l i s t e n to a nd t he h a r mon ie s a r e r ic h i n ove r t one s . D y n a m ic s a r e mu c h s u bt le r : lou d ne s s (volu me) i s r e du c e d , but t he s of t a nd s of t e s t p a s s a g e s , w it h t he he lp of t he s of t_ p e d a l a nd t he mo d e r a tor, a r e e ve n mor e m a g i­ c a l a nd my s t e r iou s . Ne e d le s s to s ay, t he qu a l it ie s of t he f or t e pi a no c a n b e f u l l y a ppr e c i­ a t e d on l y u nd e r id e a l c i rc u m s t a nc e s , t h a t i s , w it h e xc e l le nt a c ou s t ic s a nd a ve nu e t h a t i s not t o o l a r g e , l i k e t he K a m me r mu s i k s a a l H . J. A b s a t t he B e e t hove n_ H a u s i n B on n .

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Pi a n i s t s f r e qu e nt l y e r r i n t he i r c hoic e of t e m pi; t he y t e nd t o e x a g g e r a t e s p e e d a s w e l l a s s low ne s s . T he f or t e pi a no i m me d i a t e l y c or r e c t s t he s e m i s t a k e s a nd s e t s t he c or r e c t s p e e d l i m it s . S o t h i s qu e s t ion d e s e r ve s a r e ve r s e d a n s w e r ; t h r ou g h ou r e x p e r ie nc e s w it h old k e y­ b o a rd i n s t r u me nt s ou r pl ay i n g on mo d e r n pi a no s w i l l b e ne f it g r e a t l y. Ho w d o y o u i n t e r p r e t B e e t h o v e n’ s p e d a l m a r k i n g s? T he r e a r e t wo p a s s a g e s i n H ayd n’s C _ m ajor S on a t a ( Hob.  X V I :  50) w it h t he i n s t r u c t ion “op e n p e d a l ” , h i s on l y m a rk i n g of t he k i nd . I n a l l of Mo z a r t’s pi a no œ u v r e it’s ne ve r e ve n me nt ione d . B e e t hove n i s t he f i r s t of t he g r e a t c omp o s e r s w ho u s e s t he s u s t a i n i n g p e d a l c on s c iou s l y a nd c r e a t i ve l y. H i s u s a g e i s mo s t u nu s u a l a nd u nc onve nt ion a l . Pi a no t e a c he r s t e l l u s to a lt e r t he p e d a l a t e ve r y s i n g le c h a n g e of h a r mony. T h a t i s not B e e t­hove n’s w ay ; he of t e n w a nt s s t r a n g e a nd a l ie n h a r mon ie s t o b e joi ne d  t o g e t he r. H i s f i r s t Pi a no C onc e r to op.  15 a nd t he S on a t a s op.  27/2 , op. 31 /2 a nd op.  53 a r e f u l l of s u c h e f f e c t s . I nc r e d ibl y, mo s t pi a n i s t s t ot a l l y i g nor e B e e t hove n’s i n s t r u c t ion s . T he y a r g u e t h a t h i s u s e of p e d a l m a k e s s e n s e on l y on t he f or t e pi a no, t h a t on mo d e r n i n s t r u me nt s w e mu s t r e ve r t to  c onve nt ion a l u s a g e . W h a t ut t e r non s e n s e! Mo s t of t he s e p e ople h a ve ne ve r e ve n s e e n a f or t e pi a no y e t t he y w a nt t o b e c le ve r e r t h a n t he c omp o s e r. ( A nd t he y a r e a l s o t he one s w ho pl ay B a c h w it h one f o ot p e r m a ne nt l y on t he ‘a c c e le r a t or’. ) To s u m it up: B e e t hove n’s p e d a l m a rk i n g s a r e i mp or t a nt i n g r e d ie nt s of h i s c r e a t i ve g e n iu s . T he y mu s t b e s t r ic t l y ob s e r ve d , on a ny i n s t r u me nt . To i g nor e t he m i s t he he i g ht of a r r o g a nc e , a f a l s i f ic a t ion of t he mu s ic . On t he mo d e r n pi a no w e d on’t h a ve t o pr e s s it to t he b ot tom, we c a n ju s t u s e h a l f or a t h i rd of t he p e d a l . Und e r t he f i n a l c hord of t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s t he s i g n “p e d .” c a n b e s e e n . T he r e i s no r e le a s e s i g n a ny w he r e . It me a n s t h a t he w a nt s t h i s C _ m ajor t r i a d t o l i n g e r on a s lon g

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a s p o s s ible . T he pi a no i s a ‘ d i m i nu e nd o _i n s t r u me nt’, a not e b e i n g s t r u c k w i l l g r a du a l l y d i m i n i s h u nt i l it v a n i s he s . On t he f or t e pi a no t h i s c hord l a s t s f or a b out t e n s e c ond s , on t he B e c h s t e i n t w ic e a s lon g. Shou ld t h i s d i f f e r e nc e b e e l i m i n a t e d? I d on’t t h i n k s o. “E s mu ß s e i n! ” B e e t h o v e n w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e l i g h t e d w i t h a n e w S t e in w a y. D o y o u a g r e e? No, I d on’t . Ne ve r. H i s f i r s t qu e s t ion wou ld b e t h i s: “ W hy i s t h i s t h i n g s o bl a c k ? It lo ok s l i k e a c of f i n! ” Fu r t he r mor e , “ W hy i s t he b a s s s o plu mp a nd p ond e r ou s? W hy i s t he r e no d i f f e r e nc e b e t we e n t he r e g i s t e r s? W hy i s t he pit c h s o s h a r p? ” A nd t he n, “ W hy i s e ve r y t h i n g s o lou d , I m ay b e d e a f, but a r e you a l l h a rd of he a r i n g to o? ” To t h i s one m i g ht r e pl y : “E s t e e me d M a e s t r o, now a d ay s you r mu s ic i s p e r f or me d i n hu g e a u d it or iu m s w it h t wo t hou s a nd s e a t s a nd mor e , a c c ord i n g l y t he pi a no mu s t b e br i l l i a nt a nd p ow e r f u l .” He r e B e e t hove n wou ld g e t f u r iou s: “ You f o ol s! D o you r e a l l y me a n t h a t I’ve w r it t e n my pi a no mu s ic f or s u c h g i g a nt ic ve nu e s? A pi a no s on a t a i s not t he B a t t l e S y m p h o n y! ” D i d B e e t h o v e n k n o w B a c h’ s G old b e r g Va r i a t ion s ? He mo s t c e r t a i n l y d id , a lt hou g h B a c h ’s mu s ic w a s v i r t u a l l y u n k now n a nd u npl ay e d i n B e e t hove n’s V ie n n a . B e e t hove n, l i k e Mo z a r t , b e lon g e d to t he c i rc le of f r ie nd s of B a r on G ot t f r ie d von Sw ie t e n w ho s e f a mou s l ibr a r y c ont a i ne d m a ny m a nu s c r ipt s a nd e a rl y e d it ion s of B a c h a nd H ä nd e l . B a c h h a d w r it t e n on l y ve r y f e w c omp o s it ion s i n t he f or m of t he me a nd v a r i a t ion s . T he A r i a m i t 3 0 Ve r ä n d e r u n g e n i s h i s m ajor a c h ie ve me nt i n t h i s f ie ld . B e e t hove n w a s a l w ay s a m a s t e r of g e n r e , not le a s t a s a r e s u lt of h i s s t u d ie s u nd e r ­J o s e ph H ayd n . H i s v a r i a t ion move me nt s i n t he s on a t a s a nd h i s v a r iou s i nd i v idu a l s e t s

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a r e g lor iou s m a n i f e s t a t ion s of h i s i mpr ov i s a t or y a r t . Eve n s o, w it h t he D i a b e l l i Va r i at i o n s he h a s r e a c he d h it he r t o u n i m a g i n a ble he i g ht s . H i s mo d e l w a s B a c h, h i s c h a l le n g e t he G ol d b e r g Va r i a t i o n s. Di a b e l l i ’s Wa lt z a nd B a c h ’s A r i a a r e l i g ht_y e a r s a p a r t but t he i r s t r u c t u r e i s id e nt ic a l, t w ic e 16 b a r s w it h b ot h h a l ve s r e p e a t e d , a nd t he y a r e b ot h i n t r iple t i me ( 3 /4). B a c h ’s wor k i s b a s e d on t he nu m b e r 3 a nd it s p e r mut a t ion s . T he r e a r e 30 v a r i a t ion s of w h ic h e ve r y t h i rd one i s a c a non, t hu s w e h a ve t e n g r oup s of t h r e e pie c e s e a c h . B e e t hove n i n h i s f i r s t ph a s e of c omp o s it ion i n 1819 f i n i s he d 23 v a r i a t ion s . I n 1823 , w hen he c ont i nue d a nd c omple te d h i s work, t h i s nu mb er w a s del ib er ately e x tende d to 33 . B ot h work s a r e d i v id e d i nt o t h r e e s e c t ion s . T he f i r s t s e c t ion e nd s a f t e r Va r.  10 i n e a c h work . T he s e c ond s e c t ion e nd s a f t e r Va r.  22 i n B a c h a nd a f t e r Va r. 2 0 i n B e e t­ hove n . Fr om he r e t he t h i rd p a r t le a d s u s t o t he f i n a l c onc lu s ion s . B a c h a l s o m a r k s t he d i v i s ion of t he t wo h a l ve s a f t e r Va r. 15 w it h t he s u b s e qu e nt O u v e r t u r e a w a k i n g ne w e ne r g ie s . B e e t hove n r e a c he s m id w ay p oi nt w it h t he br i l l i a nt l y e x t r ove r t e d d ou ble _­ v a r i a t ion s 16/17. T he s u bl i me Fu g he t t a ( Va r. 2 4) i s a pu r e h o m m a g e à B a c h. T he Diony s i a n f u g u e ( Va r.  32) i s a c t u a l l y mor e r e m i n i s c e nt of H a nd e l ’s or a t or io s . Fi n a l l y, t he wond e r f u l m i nor_ k e y v a r i a t ion s (29  –  31) c or r e s p ond w it h t ho s e t h r e e i n B a c h ’s m a s t e r pie c e ( No s .  15 , 21 a nd 25) i n s u c h a w ay t h a t B a c h ’s No. 25 a nd B e e t hove n’s No. 31 a r e e s p e c i a l l y c lo s e l y r e l a t e d . Ho w d o y o u s e e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n Mo z a r t a n d B e e t h o v e n? Mo z a r t d ie d i n V ie n n a i n 1791 a nd B e e t hove n a r r i ve d t he r e one y e a r l a t e r. T hu s he m i s s e d w h a t c ou ld h a ve b e e n t he mo s t i mp or t a nt e nc ou nt e r of h i s l i f e . Mo z a r t wou ld r e m a i n h i s u n a ppr o a c h a ble idol – ju s t a s B e e t hove n h i m s e l f w a s f or t he y ou n g Fr a n z S c hu b e r t . T he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s c ont a i n t wo Mo z a r t e a n r e f e r e nc e s: t he L e p or e l lo

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quot a t ion i n Va r. 22 i s a h i l a r iou s p a r o d y, w h i le t he f i n a l M i nu e t ( Va r. 33) i s t he mo s t s u bl i me e vo c a t ion of Mo z a r t’s s pi r it t h a t br i n g s t h i s work to it s t r a n s f i g u r e d c lo s e . D o y o u s e e t h e Di a b e l l i Va r i a t ion s a s a p r ob l e m a t i c, d if f i c u l t w o r k? Gr e a t a r t i s ne ve r e a s y. T he world r e ve r e s a nd ve ne r a t e s B e e t hove n, e s p e c i a l l y h i s ­ b e s t_ k now n c omp o s it ion s . T he S on a t a s w it h n ic k n a me s ( Mo o n l i g h t, Wa l d s t e in, A pp a s s i o n a t a), t he E r o i c a, t he Fi f t h a nd Ni nt h Sy mphon ie s (e s p e c i a l l y it s f i n a l move­m e nt) a r e u nd e r s t a nd a bl y p opu l a r. T he y r e a d i l y c ont r ibut e to t he g e ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d c l ic hé of B e e t hove n a s he r oic r e volut ion a r y. A lot of p e ople h a ve s e r iou s pr oble m s w it h t he ot he r B e e t hove n work s t h a t d o not f it i nto t h i s pi g e on hole . T he Ha m m e r k l a v i e r _ S o n a t a, t he Mi s s a s ol e m n i s, t he l a t e s t r i n g qu a r t e t s a r e a mon g t he h i g he s t p e a k s i n t he h i s tor y of mu s ic , y e t t he y h a ve not r e c e i ve d t he i r du e a f f e c t ion f r om t he g e ne r a l pu bl ic . R e s p e c t y e s , love no. L it t le wond e r, f or t he s e a r e h i g h l y c omple x c r e a t ion s t h a t h a ve not h i n g to d o w it h l i g ht e nt e r t a i n me nt . A mon g t he m t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s i s a p a r t ic u l a rl y h a rd nut to c r a c k . How c a n w e c h a r a c t e r i z e t he m? S ome a r e d r a m a t ic , m aje s t ic , l y r ic a l, t e nd e r w h i le ot he r s a r e f u n ny, i n s ole nt , ph i lo s oph ic a l, my s t e r iou s . T he r e i s no ot he r work t h a t c on­ t a i n s s o m a ny d i f f e r e nt f e a t u r e s of h i s g e n iu s . Su c h a m a s t e r pie c e ne e d s to b e l i s t e ne d t o ove r a nd ove r a g a i n . A s f or u s p e r f or me r s , we mu s t s p e nd a l i f e t i me t r y i n g to c ompr e ­ he nd it s s e c r e t s . Ho w i m p o r t a n t i s t h e s t u d y o f B e e t h o v e n’ s m a n u s c r i pt s a n d s k e t c h e s f o r y o u? To me , t he i r i mp or t a nc e i s i nd e s c r ib a ble i n word s . G o o d u r t e x t e d it ion s a r e c e r t a i n l y i nv a lu a ble but t he y c a n ne ve r r e pl a c e t he a uto g r a ph; t he y c a n, a t b e s t , c omple me nt it . On l y t he m a nu s c r ipt c a n r e ve a l t he i n ne r me a n i n g a nd t he pr o c e s s of t he c omp o s it ion .

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L u c k i l y, s e ve r a l m a nu s c r ipt s a r e now a v a i l a ble i n f a c s i m i le e d it ion s . T he a ut o g r a ph s of t he D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s a nd t he B a ga t e l l e s a s w e l l a s t h a t of t he f i r s t move me nt of O p.  111 a r e k e pt i n t he a rc h i ve s of t he B e e t hove n_ H a u s i n B on n . T h i s i s a r e a l t r e a s u r e t rove a nd I’m e ter n a l ly g r ate f u l for t he pr iv i le g e of h av i n g s e en a nd s t ud ie d it s t re a s u re s . To b e a ble to pl ay t h i s mu s ic i n t he hou s e w he r e he w a s b or n, i n t he i m me d i a t e v ic i n it y of t he m a nu s c r ipt s , i s a g i f t , a g r e a t honou r. I n B é l a B a r tók ’s word s: On l y f r om t he pu r e s ou rc e . A nd r á s S c h i f f F lor e nc e , Ju ne 2 013

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D i a b e l l i Va r i a t i o n s , f i n a l b a r s ( Va r. 3 3)

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Z u d e n In s t r u m e n t e n D e r H a m me r f lü g e l von Fr a n z Br o d m a n n ( W ie n, u m 182 0) h a t e i ne n Um f a n g von s e c h s Ok t a ve n ( K ont r a _ F bi s f '''' ) u nd v ie r Pe d a le (von l i n k s n a c h r e c ht s: Ve r s c h ie bu n g , Fa g ot t , Mo d e r a tor u nd D ä mpf u n g ), woh i n g e g e n d e r mo d e r ne F lü g e l nu r d ie Ve r s c h ie bu n g (a l le r­ d i n g s m it e i ne r v ie l g e r i n g e r e n A u s w i rk u n g a u f d e n K l a n g ) u nd d ie D ä mpf u n g k e n nt . Die Ve r s c h ie bu n g e r ­g ibt a u f d e m H a m me r f lü g e l n ic ht nu r e i ne n le i s e r e n, s ond e r n e i ne n s t a r k a u s g e dü n nt e n K l a n g , d e r d e m e i ne r H a r f e n a he k om me n k a n n . B e i m Fa g ot t z u g w i rd i m B a s s ­ b e r e ic h e i n a u f e i ne r L e i s t e mont ie r t e r, z u e i ne m H a lbk r e i s g e b o g e ne r St r e i f e n a u s Pe r g a me nt u nd S e id e a u f d ie S a it e n g e d r ü c k t . Die s e r g ibt e i ne n d e m K l a n g e i ne s Fa g ot t s ä h n l ic he n s c h n a r r e nd e n Ton . B e i m Mo d e r a t or w i rd e i n St ü c k Tu c h z w i s c he n d e n H a m me r u nd d ie d r e i S a it e n g e ­s c hob e n, wo du rc h A n s c h l a g u nd K l a n g a b g e d ä mpf t w e rd e n . Oh ne d ie s e s Pe d a l l a s s e n s ic h b e i s pie l s we i s e v ie le K l a v ie r w e rk e von Fr a n z S c hu b e r t k l a n g l ic h n ic ht a n g e me s s e n r e a l i s ie r e n . Die D ä mpf u n g k a n n a u s g ie bi g e r g e nut z t w e rd e n, d a d ie i m Ve r g le ic h z u m mo d e r­ ne n I n s t r u me nt v ie l dü n ne r e n S a it e n e i ne s H a m me rk l a v ie r s e i ne d e ut l ic h k ü r z e r e Tond a u­ e r e r g e b e n . S o k a n n m a n e t w a B e e t hove n s s o h ä u f i g i g nor ie r t e r A nw e i s u n g , i m e r s t e n S a t z d e r c i s _ Mol l_ S on a t e op. 27 Nr. 2 d a s D ä mpf e r a u f he bu n g s _ Pe d a l s t ä nd i g g e d r ü c k t z u h a lt e n, ­p r oble m lo s f ol g e n . Fü r d ie d a m a l i g e Z e it r e volut ion ä r e „Sf u m a t o _ E f f e k t e∑ h a t B e e t hove n me h r f a c h vor g e s c h r ie b e n . Fr a n z Br o d m a n n i s t bi s he r u nt e r d e n w e it ü b e r hu nd e r t W ie ne r K l a v ie r b a u e r n d e r B e e t­ hove n_Z e it n ic ht a k t e n k u nd i g g e word e n . S e i n Br u d e r Jo s e ph w a r e i ne r d e r b e s t e n W ie ne r K l a v ie r b a u e r. E r w a r d e r L e h rhe r r von I g n a z B ö s e nd or f e r, d e r 182 8 , i m To d e sja h r S c hu b e r t s , s e i ne We rk s t a t t ü b e r n a h m . D a s a u c h möb e l m ä ßi g pr a c ht vol l a u s g e s t a t t e t e I n s t r u me nt m it Nu s s b a u m _ Fu r n ie r w a r i m B e s it z d e s ö s t e r r e ic h i s c h_ u n g a r i s c he n K a i s e rh a u s e s . D e r le t z t e ö s t e r r e ic h i s c he K a i s e r u nd u n g a r i s c he K ön i g K a rl I . n a h m e s 1919 i n s e i n S c hw e i z e r E x i l m it . 19 65 w u rd e e s von M a r t i n S c hol z i n B a s e l f ü r d ie d a m a l i g e Z e it u n g e wöh n l ic h s or g f ä lt i g r e s t a u r ie r t . L a n g e Ja h r e w a r e s

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i m B e s it z von Jör g Ew a ld D ä h le r. I m Ja h r e 2 010 e r w a r b e s A nd r á s S c h i f f u nd ü b e r g a b e s d e m B on ne r B e e t hove n_ H a u s – d e s s e n E h r e n m it g l ie d e r i s t – a l s L e i h g a b e . R u nd hu nd e r t Ja h r e s p ä t e r, 1921, w u rd e d e r F lü g e l d e r Fa . B e c h s t e i n e r b a ut . Vor d e m Zw e it e n We lt k r ie g w u rd e e r me h r f a c h e x k lu s i v W i l he l m B a c k h a u s f ü r K on z e r t e u nd A u f­ n a h me n z u r Ve r f ü g u n g g e s t e l lt . D a s I n s t r u me nt h a t i n B e rl i n d e n Zwe it e n We lt k r ie g ü b e r­ s t a nden. E nde der 1970 er Ja h re w u rde e s dem We t z i koner K l av ierh ä nd ler Ur s B a c h m a n n üb er­ g e b e n . D e m I n s t r u me nt bl ie b e n e r f r e u l ic he r we i s e g r öß e r e R e tou c he n e r s p a r t . E s h a t no c h d e n t y pi s c he n B e c h s t e i n_ K l a n g : w a r m, we ic h u nd r u nd . M ic h a e l L a d e nbu r g e r

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Th e In s t r u m e n t s T he Fr a n z Bro d m a n n H a m mer f lü g e l ( V ien n a , c . 1820) h a s a si x_ o c t ave c om­p a s s f r om F 1 t o f 4 a nd f ou r p e d a l s , i nc lu d i n g (f r om le f t t o r i g ht u n a c ord a , b a s s o on, mo d e r a t or a nd d a mp e r). I n c ont r a s t , mo d e r n g r a nd pi a no s g e ne r a l l y h a ve on l y t wo p e d a l s: u n a c ord a (w it h mu c h le s s i m­ p a c t on t he s ou nd) a nd d a mp e r. T he s ou nd pr o du c e d by t he H a m me r f lü g e l ’s s h i f t i n g p e d a l i s not on l y s of t e r but mu c h t h i n ne r, p ot e nt i a l l y c lo s e t o t h a t of a h a r p. T he b a s s o on s t op c a u s e s a s t r ip of p a rc h me nt a nd s i l k mou nt e d on a s t r ip of wo o d a nd c u r ve d i nt o a s e m ic i rc le t o b e pr e s s e d a g a i n s t t he s t r i n g s of t he b a s s r e g i s t e r, pr o du c i n g a bu z z i n g qu a l it y r e m i n i s c e nt of a b a s s o on . T he mo d e r a tor s t op c a u s e s a pie c e of c lot h t o b e i n s e r t e d b e t w e e n t he h a m me r a nd t he t h r e e s t r i n g s , t he r e by s of t e n i n g t he a t t a c k a nd t he s ou nd . W it hout t h i s p e d a l m a ny pi a no pie c e s by Fr a n z S c hu b e r t , f or e x a mple , c a n not s ou nd a s t he y s hou ld . T he d a mp e r p e d a l c a n b e u s e d mor e e x t e n s i ve l y t h a n on mo d e r n i n s t r u me nt s , f or t he h a m me r f lü g e l ’s f a r t h i n ne r s ou nd r e s u lt s i n a mu c h mor e r a pid d e c ay. T hu s , B e e t hove n’s i n s t r u c t ion t o k e e p t he d a mp e r p e d a l d e pr e s s e d t h r ou g hout t he op e n i n g move me nt of t he S on a t a op.  27, no.  2 , t hou g h f r e qu e nt l y i g nor e d , c a n b e f ol lowe d w it hout qu a l m s . B e e t hove n c a l le d f or s u c h r e volut ion a r y ‘s f u m a t o e f f e c t s’ on a nu m b e r of o c c a s ion s . To t he pr e s e nt d ay Fr a n z Br o d m a n n h a s not b e e n id e nt i f ie d a mon g t he w e l l ove r hu nd r e d V ie n ne s e pi a no m a k e r s of B e e t hove n’s e r a . H i s br ot he r Jo s e ph w a s one of t he b e s t pi a no m a k­ e r s i n V ie n n a a nd t he t e a c he r of I g n a z B ö s e ndor f e r, w ho t o ok ove r h i s wor k s hop i n 182 8 , t he y e a r of S c hu b e r t’s d e a t h . T he i n s t r u me nt , a m a g n i f ic e nt pie c e of c a bi ne t_ m a k i n g w it h w a l nut ve ne e r, w a s a mon g t he p o s s e s s ion s of t he A u s t r o _ Hu n g a r i a n i mp e r i a l f a m i l y. T he l a s t e mp e r or of A u s t r i a a nd k i n g of Hu n g a r y, C h a rle s I, t o ok it w it h h i m w he n he e nt e r e d h i s Sw i s s e x i le i n 1919 . I n 19 65 it w a s r e s tor e d by M a r t i n S c hol z i n B a s e l, w it h u nu s u a l c a r e by t he s t a nd a rd s of t he d ay. For m a ny y e a r s it w a s ow ne d by Jör g Ew a ld D ä h le r. I n 2 010 it w a s pu rc h a s e d by A nd r á s S c h i f f a nd g i ve n on lo a n to t he B e e t ­h ove n_ H a u s i n B on n .

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T he ot her i n st r u ment u s e d on t h i s a lbu m w a s bu i lt by t he B e c h s tei n c ompa ny s ome hu nd r e d y e a r s l a t e r i n 1921. B e f or e t he S e c ond World Wa r it w a s pl a c e d a t t he e xc lu s i ve d i s p o s a l of W i l he l m B a c k h a u s on a nu m b e r of o c c a s ion s f or r e c it a l s a nd r e c ord i n g s . T he i n s t r u me nt s u r v i ve d t he w a r i n B e rl i n a nd w a s g i ve n to t he pi a no d e a le r Ur s B a c h m a n n of We t z i k on i n t he l a t e 1970 s . L u c k i l y it w a s not s u bje c t e d to a ny m ajor r e s tor a t ion s a nd s t i l l h a s t he t y pic a l B e c h s t e i n s ou nd: w a r m, s of t a nd r ou nd . M ic h a e l L a d e nbu r g e r Tr a n s l a t ion: J. B r a d f or d R o bi n s on

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Re c o r d e d Ju l y 2012 a n d D e c e m b e r 2012 a t K a m m e r mu s i k s a a l H.  J. A b s, B e e t h ove n _ H au s, B o n n (Br o d m a n n fo r t e p i a n o) a n d Au d i to r i o R a d i ot e l ev i s i o n e s v i z ze r a, Lu g a n o (B e c h s t e i n) Tu n i n g a n d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e: G e o r g F.  S e n n (Br o d m a n n), Ur s B a c h m a n n (B e c h s t e i n) To n m e i s t e r : St e p h a n S c h e l l m a n n P h oto g r a p hy : Pé t e r N á d a s Mu s i c i a n p h oto s: N a d i a F. Ro m a n i n i D e s i g n: S a s c h a K l e i s P r o du c e d by M a nf r e d Ei c h e r A n E CM P r o du c t i o n

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András Schiff - Beethoven Diabelli-Variationen, Op. 120_Booklet  

Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations are considered a magnum opus of the piano repertoire, a towering contribution to the genre and an entire enc...

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