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QUICK RESEARCH

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RELATED PRODUCTS

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COLOUR PALETTE

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ISSUE The controversy surrounding cell phone radiation is now widespread across the globe and raises serious health concerns for the general public. Cell phone manufacturers set distance requirements to minimize consumer’s radiation exposure; a fact that many cell phone users are unaware of. As a result, consumers are using cell phones improperly which, according to research findings, substantially increases their exposure rate. Research conducted by cellular industry refutes a link to adverse health effects, while independent research studies confirm a link. Currently, US and Canada regulatory agencies are getting the brunt of backlash as damaging information about the devices’ testing practices, radiation exposure limit, and manufacturer usage suggestions come to the forefront. Hidden Hazard contains series of print pieces that explores the impact of cell phone radiation on the general public. The reasoning for this physical application is to unveil potential health hazards through a mean that does not encourage cellular use. The goal of Hidden Hazard is not to frighten consumers, rather inform and provide possible solutions.

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Technology [tek-nol-uh-jee] Noun, Plural The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science. The application of this knowledge for practical ends.

Cell Phone [sel-fohn] Noun A wireless telephone using a system of low-powered radio transmitters, with each transmitter covering a distinct geographical area (cell) and computer equipment to switch a call from one area to another, thus enabling broad-scale portable phone service.

Radiation [rey-dee-ey-shuh n] Noun 1. Physics. The process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves. The complete process in which energy is emitted by one body, transmitted through an intervening medium or space, and absorbed by another body.

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Definition

•Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy (radio waves), a form of non-ionizing radiation, from their antennas. Tissues nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy. •Over time, the number of cell phone calls per day, the length of each call, and the amount of time people use cell phones have increased •Radiofrequency energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation can be categorized into two types: ionizing (e.g., x-rays, radon, and cosmic rays) and non-ionizing (e.g., radiofrequency and extremely low frequency, or power frequency).

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Quick Research

HOW ARE PEOPLE EXPOSED? The RF waves from cell phones come from the antenna, which is part of the body of a hand-held phone. The waves are strongest at the antenna and lose energy quickly as they travel away from the phone. The phone is typically held against the side of the head when in use. The closer the antenna is to the head, the greater a person’s expected exposure to RF energy. The body tissues closest to the phone absorb more energy than tissues farther away. Many factors can affect the amount of RF energy to which a person is exposed, including: •The amount of time the person is on the phone. •Whether or not the person is using the speaker mode on the phone or a hands-free device. Using one of these allows the phone to be held away from the head. •The distance and path to the nearest cell phone tower. Cell phones adjust their power to use the minimum amount for a good signal. Being farther away from the tower requires more energy to get a good signal, as does being inside a building. •The amount of cell phone traffic in the area at the time. Higher traffic may require more energy to get a good signal. •The model of phone being used. Different phones give off different amounts of energy.

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LARGE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

Interphone This is the largest health-related case-control study of cell phone use and the risk of head and neck tumors. It was conducted by a consortium of researchers from 13 countries. Danish Study How the study was done: This cohort study, conducted in Denmark, linked billing information from more than 358,000 cell phone subscribers with brain tumor incidence data from the Danish Cancer Registry.

Million Women Study How the study was done: This prospective cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom used data obtained from questionnaires that were completed by study participants.

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RELATED PRODUCTS

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Quanta Monitor is a free Android app that measures the SAR output, power density, and cumulative exposure to radiofrequency emissions from your phone. The Quanta Guard app is designed so that it automatically cuts your data connection if the SAR level of 1.6w/kg is exceeded.

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Tawkon is an app that analyzes all the data by a patent-pending algorithm and offers up a real-time calculation of the phone’s radiation emission, and the rate of radiation absorption a user is facing. If the app determines radiation levels are high, it issues suggestions on how to talk more safely.

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Related Products

“What if you could see Wi-Fi” by artist-researcher Nickolay Lamm. He imagined what cell phone radiation would look like if emitted as waves of light. For his project, Lamm worked with eight academics and engineers to verify that the images we’re looking at are accurate representations of cell phone radiation. Like radio, cell phones rely on radio frequency waves, which emit low-energy radiation.

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CORE TEXT

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Overpowered: The Dangers of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMF) and What You Can Do about It (2015) By Martin Blank Phd

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Disconnect: The Truth About Cell Phone Radiation, What the Industry Has Done to Hide It, and How to Protect Your Family (2011) By Devra Davis

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Core Text

The Force: living safely in a world of electromagnetic pollution (2011) By Lyn McLean

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Analysis of SAR levels in human head tissues for four types of antennas with portable telephones. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. (2011) By Faruque, M. R. I., Islam, M. T., & Misran, N.

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Core Text

Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case– control study International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 39, Issue 3, 1 June 2010, Pages 675–694 By The INTERPHONE Study Group

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Research and regulatory efforts on mobile phone health issues (2001) United States Government Accountability Office

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Core Text

Telecommunications: Exposure and testing for mobile phones should be reassessed (2012) United States Government Accountability Office

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Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada - Certification and Engineering Bureau (2018) Government Website

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U.S. Federal Communications Commission (2018) Government Website

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BOOK SIZE

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The book size is reduced down according to the dimensions of a phone/tablet.

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Apple iPhone 6s Physical size: 4.7 inches Dimensions: 5.44 x 2.64 x 0.28 inches

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Book Size

Apple iPhone 8 plus Physical size: 5.5 inches Dimensions: 6.24 x 3.07 x 0.30 inches

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Apple iPad mini 4 Physical size: 7.9 inches Dimensions: 8 x 5.3 x 0.24 inches

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Book Size

Apple iPad Pro 10.5-inch Physical size:10.5 inches Dimensions: 9.87 x 6.85 x 0.24 inches

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Samsung Galaxy S8 Physical size: 5.8 inches Dimensions: 5.86 x 2.68 x 0.31 inches

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Book Size

Samsung Galaxy Note 8 Physical size: 6.3 inches Dimensions: 6.40 x 2.94 x 0.34 inches

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TYPE EXPLORATION

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Adobe Caslon Pro Regular 10pt ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQRST UVWXYZ abcdef ghijklmnopqrstuvwxy z 1234567890

Chaparral Pro Regular 10pt ABC DEFGHIJK LMNOPQR S TU VWXYZ a bcde fg hi jk lmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

Gilroy Regular 10pt ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO PQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 123 4567890

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Avenir Book 10pt ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

DINPro Book 10pt ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

Gotham Book 10pt ABCDEFGHIJKL MNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcd efghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

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Type Exploration

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Futura Medium 10pt ABCDEFGHIJKLMN OPQRS TUVWXYZ abcdefghi jklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

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Univers 55 Roman 9pt ABCDE FG HI JK LM N OP QR ST UV W X YZ abcde f g h i j k l m n o p qr s tu v wx y z 12 34567890

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Univers 55 Roman 12pt A B C D E FGH IJK L MN O P QRSTUVWXYZ a b c d efg h ijklmn o p q r stu v w xyz 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Univers 65 Bold 12pt A B C D E FGH IJK L MN O P QRSTUVWXYZ a b c d efg h ijklmn o p q rstu vwxyz 1234567890

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One of the challenging aspects was choosing the colour palette. According to research findings, “Radio waves exhibit similar properties to that of light waves but exist at a frequency that our eyes are not sensitive to” (Altunian, 2017). Therefore, we cannot associate any colours to radio waves. However, I started researching thermal effects on the human head from cell phone radiation. By looking at thermographic images of a head with no exposure and head after 15-minute phone calls, the result of the report “showed that there is an increase in temperature from forehead to the parotid gland. The high-temperature increase was noted across the ear region especially on the concha which is above the earlobe” (Karthik et al, 2015). Thus, the colour scheme revolves around the thermal effects, more specifically the colour red. The colour red is associated with heat, danger, and radiance (Bourn, 2016), but using too much red in my layouts meant “stop using cell phones immediately” to my audience. In today’s world, it’s impractical to stop using your cell phones. The intent of my project is to inform and educate the consumers and provide solutions. Therefore, I settled on the colour yellow, which is associated with warning, caution, and safety.

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Colour Palette

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EXHIBITION NAMES

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RADIATION RF RADIATION RF EXPOSURE MOBILE RADIATION INVISIBLE INVISIBLE HAZARD HEALTH HAZARD UNSEEN UNSEEN HAZARD HIDDEN HIDDEN HAZARD FINE PRINT BIOLOGICAL HAZARD RADIO FREQUENCY HAZARDOUS WIRELESS RADIATION

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BOOK SPREADS: PROCESS

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MONTHLY BOOK DESIGN

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DECEMBER BOOK ONE

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Monthly Book Design-December

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JANUARY BOOK TWO

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PROOFREADING AND EDITING

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Proofreading And Editing

Hidden Hazard Cellphones are now woven into the fabric of society as we know it. Currently, out of the more than seven billion people living on this planet, it is estimated that six billion of those people have cellphone subscriptions (Whitney, 2012). Such ubiquitous use of a product is important to consider because of its rapid growth and development. In the space of 30 years, cellphones have advanced from merely making telephone calls to checking and sending email, surfing the internet and more. The trend in recent research suggests that no conclusive evidence proves that cellphone radiation has adverse health effects on humans. However, no evidence conclusively proves that cellphone radiation is harmless – an important distinction that advocates on both sides of the issue need to recognize (German, 2011). The controversy surrounding cellphone radiation is now widespread across continents and raises serious health concerns for the general public. Both policymakers and public health organizations worldwide are focused on a resolution for this matter. Cellphone manufacturers set a minimum distance between a phone and the user’s body, in order to minimize consumers’ radiation exposure, but many cellphone users are unaware of these distances. As a result, most consumers are using cellphones improperly, which, according to research findings, substantially increases their exposure to radiation. The Main Issue The main issue triggering concern is whether radio frequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation from cellphones carries enough energy to damage biological tissue (Dillow, 2011). By definition, RF-EMF radiation alone cannot cause damage, however, it can heat human tissue in the same way a microwave oven heats food. Overexposed biological tissue may burn, or its structure and function can potentially be altered or damaged (Dillow, 2011). Currently, there is no consensus among experts proving or disproving a link between RF-EMF radiation from cellphones and adverse effects on human health. According to reports from the United States Government Accountability Office (U.S. GAO), cellphone manufacturers explicitly state cellphones should never be held closer than the minimum safe distance of one inch away from the body (U.S. GAO, 2012). Dr. Sanjay Gupta (2011) mentions that these distance requirements also vary, depending on the manufacturer of the phone. Radiation Types Electromagnetic Radiation

protect sensitive areas of the body from exposure. If the body is exposed to ionizing radiation, serious damage to biological tissue will occur. Carlton explains non-ionizing radiation as radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to strip electrons away. Therefore, ionization does not occur. The vibrating reaction typically only causes a heat sensation. MRI exams use non-ionizing radiation, which typically does not cause biological damage. However, if incorrect settings are used to calculate the intensity of radiation needed for the exam, overexposure can occur and severe burns will result (Carlton, 2001). Cellphone Radiation Cellphone radiation refers to the heat produced by cellphones. This heat can cause a cellphone to warm the skin on the side of the face where the phone is held. The heat is actually a form of electromagnetic radiation, considered to be non-ionizing. Non-ionizing radiation emitted by cellphones enters the body of the user as radio frequency (RF) waves. RF waves are two-way signals that allow cellphones to communicate with base stations, more commonly known as cellphone towers. To make a cellphone operable, RF waves act as signals that are received and transmitted between cell towers and cellphones via an antenna built into the phone. The RF waves produce an electromagnetic field (EMF) around the cellphone. The field is an invisible pulsating energy, manifesting as heat emanating from the device. Because RF waves produce EMF, both contribute to the production of non-ionizing radiation from cellphones. Cellphone users are exposed to RF-EMF radiation emitted by cellphones when the phone is placed directly against the ear to talk, or when any part of the body is within approximately one inch of the field surrounding the phone. Cellphone users are continually exposed to RF-EMF radiation while the device is turned on, whether the device is in use or not (U.S. GAO, 2012). The American agency responsible for oversight of radiation exposure contends cellphones only emit RF energy when the device is in use (U.S. Federal Communications Commission (2017). However, in an interview, scientist Devra Lee Davis (Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 2011), explained that because the antenna is built directly into cellphones, the device will always emit a signal while the power is on because it is in constant communication with surrounding cell towers. To eliminate RF-EMF radiation exposure from a cellphone, the device must be completely turned off (Christian, 2017). Cellphone Antennas

Commented [L1]: Consider adding a descriptive subtitle that explains what the text is about to readers – something like “The Unknown Effects of Cellphone Radiation” or something involving cellphone radiation Deleted: Title: Commented [L2]: APA Style says not to use introduction as your first heading, as this is assumed by readers Deleted: Introduction¶ Deleted: phones are now woven into the fabric of society ... [1] Commented [L3]: I don’t think something as widely known as world population requires a reference Deleted: 6 billion of those people have cell …hone ... [2] Commented [L4]: Consider adding some other key tasks like taking photos, banking, etc. Deleted: exists proves that ing …ell …hone radiation ... has[3] Deleted: phone radiation is now widespread across ... [4]

Radio Waves Radio waves transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles. The best-known use of radio waves is for communication; television, WiFi, cellphones and radios all receive radio waves and convert them to mechanical vibrations in the speaker to create sound waves that can be heard. Electromagnetic waves are all around us everywhere in different frequencies. Radio waves exhibit similar properties to that of light waves but exist at a frequency that our eyes are not sensitive to. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellphones operate at frequencies between 890 and 915 million hertz (MHz), third-generation cellphones at around 1800 MHz, and microwave ovens at 2450 MHz (McLean, 2011). Looking at the figure on the next page, you can see that EMR ranges from extra-low frequency, through the radio frequency band that our telecommunications system, microwave ovens, radios, and televisions operate within, and up to high-frequency infrared and visible light.

Commented [L5]: move up Commented [L6]: What about “Primary Concerns” or “Central Concerns” or a more specific header like “The Issues with Radiation”? Moved (insertion) [1]

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Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is transmitted in waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies. This broad range of wavelengths is known as the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The spectrum is generally divided into seven regions from the lowest to the highest frequency. Radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR) and visible light operate at a low frequency, while ultraviolet (UV), X-rays and gamma rays operate at a higher frequency.

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This part of the spectrum is known as non-ionizing radiation because the energy here is insufficient to break covalent chemical bonds directly. However, that does not mean that this energy is inert — there are other types of chemical bonds and other ways that energy can interact with them (McLean, 2011). The energy in each part of the non-ionizing spectrum is known by a particular name: extra-low frequency (ELF), generated at low levels; electromagnetic fields (EMF), generated by the power system; and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) or microwave radiation (MR), generated by mobile communications technology.

Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation There are two types of radiation: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Carlton (2001) explains ionizing radiation as having energy levels high enough to strip electrons away from atoms in a molecule. This reaction is called ionization. Because ionizing radiation is used during diagnostic x-rays, lead shielding that is impenetrable to scatter radiation is placed on a patient to

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Deleted: Non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones enters the body of the user as radio frequency (RF) waves. RF waves are two-way signals that allow cell phones to communicate with base stations or what is commonly known as cell phone towers. To make a cell phone operable, RF waves act as signals that are received and transmitted between cell towers and cell phones via an antenna built into the phone (Hantula, 2010). The RF waves produce an electromagnetic field (EMF) around the cell phone. The field is an invisible pulsating energy that manifests as heat emanating from the device. Because RF waves produce EMF and both contribute to the production of non-ionizing radiation from cell phones (McLean, 2011).¶ Cell phone users are exposed to RF-EMF radiation emitted by cell phones when the phone is placed directly against the ear to talk, or any part of the body within approximately one inch of the field surrounding the phone. Cell phone users are continually exposed to RF-EMF radiation while the device is turned on, whether the device is in use or not (GAO, 2012). The agency responsible for oversight of radiation exposure contends cell phones only emit RF energy when the device is in use (Federal Communications Commission (2017). However, another source, Cell Phone Use (2011), explained that because the antenna is built directly into cell phones, while the power is on, the device will always emit a signal because it is in constant communication with surrounding cell towers. To eliminate RF-EMF radiation exposure from a cell phone the device must be completely turned off (Christian, 2017). Moved (insertion) [3]

Deleted: Cell Phone Deleted: Cell phone Deleted: is Deleted: cell phones Deleted: cell phone Deleted: In actuality, Deleted: t Deleted: of which there are two types; ionizing radiation and non- ionizing radiation. Cell phone radiation is Deleted: ¶ Carlton (2001) explains ionizing radiation as having energy levels high enough to strip electrons away from atoms in a molecule, this reaction is called ionization. During diagnostic x-rays exams lead shielding, impenetrable to scatter radiation, is placed on a patient to protect radiation sensitive areas of the body from exposure because ionizing radiation is used. If exposed to ionizing radiation, serious damage to biological tissue will occur. He explains non- ionizing radiation as having enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to strip electrons away. Therefore, ionization does not occur. The vibrating reaction ... [7] Commented [L12]: This section would benefit from a sentence explaining how it relates to radiation Deleted: Cell phone Deleted: towers

Commented [L8]: common knowledge – doesn’t need a reference Deleted: (Lucas, 2015) Deleted: , Deleted: Commented [L9]: Again, much of this scientific info is common knowledge and doesn’t require references, so I’ve removed some of them – if you feel your professors will insist on it, just reject my changes Deleted: mobile Commented [L10]: Can you explain the relationship between GSM and third-generation phones? Deleted: mobile Deleted: in which Commented [L11]: This part is very technical for readers here and more about chemistry vs. the other sections that are more physics-based – can you reword to explain how it affects human users of these technologies? I.e. does this mean it doesn't directly affect human tissue, but can affect it in other ways? Deleted: ¶ ¶ Radio Waves¶ “Radio waves" transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles (Brain, 1). The best-known use of radio waves is for communication; television, WI-FI, cellphones and radios all receive radio waves and convert them to mechanical vibrations in the speaker to create sound waves that can be heard (Lucas, 2015). ¶ ¶ Electromagnetic waves are all around us everywhere in different frequencies. Radio waves exhibit similar properties to that of light waves but exist at a frequency that our eyes are not sensitive to (Altunian, 2017). ¶ Moved down [3]: Cell Phone Radiation¶ Cell phone radiation is heat produced by cell phones. This heat can cause a cell phone to warm the skin on the side of the face where the phone is held. In actuality, the heat is a form of electromagnetic radiation of which there are two types; ionizing radiation and non- ionizing radiation. Cell phone radiation is considered to be non-ionizing.¶ ¶ Carlton (2001) explains ionizing radiation as having energy levels high enough to strip electrons away from atoms in a molecule, this reaction is called ionization. During diagnostic x-rays exams lead shielding, impenetrable to scatter radiation, is placed on a patient to protect radiation sensitive areas of the body from exposure because ionizing radiation is used. If exposed to ionizing radiation, serious damage to biological

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A cellphone connects to a network of base stations or cellphone towers, transfering the link when the user moves from one tower’s area to another and automatically switching to a new site with a stronger signal to maintain the communication link. Cellphones contain at least one radio antenna in order to transmit or receive radio signals. An antenna converts an electric signal to the radio wave (transmitter) and vice versa (receiver) (Wang 2015). Some cellphones use one antenna as the transmitter and receiver while others, such as the iPhone 6, have multiple transmitting or receiving antennas (Wang, 2015). The transmitting and receiving functions make the antenna the main source of radiation consumers are exposed to when handling the device. The amount of radiation consumers are exposed to is regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) in the United States and Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) in Canada. These organizations regulate wireless telecommunications in both countries, and ISED also oversees the licensing and placement of cellphone towers in Canada. They have the final say as to whether a cellphone is safe for consumer use. An investigation into antennas commonly used in cellphones revealed that when held very close to the head, the standard RF exposure limit regulated by the FCC was exceeded (Faruque et al, 2011). The RF exposure limit is used to determine a safe amount of radiation allowed to be absorbed into the body. Faruque et al (2011) conducted a study on cellphone antennas using a simulated human head that tested different tissue types found in the head, i.e. skin, muscle, fat, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, brain matter (grey and white), blood, cartilage, vitreous humour, lens, and eye sclera. The types of antenna tested in the study include the monopole, helix, patch, and planar inverted-F (PIFA). The study found the monopole antenna exhibited the highest temperature levels in all the tissues tested, while the patch antenna was the most likely to meet the FCC RF radiation exposure limit.

Deleted: mobile phone is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications over Deleted: cellular Deleted: specialized Deleted: known Formatted: Space After: 0 pt

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Deleted: sites. A cell phone offers full Duplex Communication and Deleted: cell Deleted: (Mohankumar, 2018). As the phone user moves from one cell area to another, the system Deleted: commands the mobile phone and a cell Deleted: , to switch on to a new frequency in order Deleted: keep Deleted: (Mohankumar, 2018) Deleted: ¶ ¶ Cell phones Deleted: cell phones Deleted: Source of Radiation ¶ Antennas, which are housed inside a cell phone receive and transmit RF signals. Deleted: is Deleted: s Deleted: Federal Communication Commission (FCC) is the main regulatory agency for wireless telecommunications in the US, and Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) is the main department that manages wireless telecommunications and oversees the licensing and placement of cell phone towers in Canada.

Although the amount of radiation absorbed in head tissue is regulated, when used close to the head, the antenna still exceeded the FCC exposure limit. The antenna also exceeded the international exposure limit established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNRP), which is slightly different from the American and Canadian limits.

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Health Canada’s Exposure Guidelines Health Canada’s guideline of limits for safe exposure to RF electromagnetic energy is called Safety Code 6. These limits have large safety margins, giving high levels of protection for Canadians, including people who work around RF sources.

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Deleted: cell phones Deleted: , Deleted: . Deleted: , Deleted: . Commented [L13]: Is this the Faruque study? Add a source here Deleted: Deleted: US Commented [L14]: Is it higher or lower? Deleted: ¶

Moved up [1]: The Main Issue¶

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including at each side of the head. A robotic probe “takes a series of measurements of the electric field at specific pinpoint locations in a very precise, grid-like pattern within the dummy head and torso.” (U.S. FCC, 2017). Data for each phone placement location is submitted as a part of the equipment approval test report for final authorization for a cellphone model.

Studying and Understanding the Effects The U.S. GAO (2012) explained that there are two types of tests performed to understand the implications of adverse effects from RF-EMF radiation from cellphones on human health: epidemiological tests and laboratory tests. Epidemiological tests are conducted to determine associative links between health effects and the characteristics of people. The length of time people spend on their phones and the placement of the phone while in use is one characteristic studied by epidemiological testing. Laboratory tests determine causal links between risk factors and adverse health effects and how they occur. These tests are conducted on subjects like laboratory animals, tissue samples, and human volunteers. Currently, epidemiological testing has not demonstrated conclusive evidence linking RF-EMF radiation exposure from cellphones to adverse effects on human health. The largest epidemiological study to date, the INTERPHONE study – conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization – had perplexing findings. Researchers working with the multinational study collected information on tumours that developed in the human tissues most commonly exposed to cellphone radiation (U.S. FDA, 2011). Several nations working with the study announced a possible link, but those findings were later denounced. INTERPHONE study officials cited selection bias and other biases, in addition to recall errors, as the reason for denouncing these findings. The INTERPHONE Study The INTERPHONE Study Group (International Journal of Epidemiology, 2010) initiated the epidemiological control study to investigate whether cellphone radiation increased the risk of four types of tumours in humans: acoustic neuromas, meningiomas, gliomas, and parotid gland tumours. More specifically, the study's focus was to determine if RF-EMF radiation from cellphones contributed to the formation of those tumours. Cardis et al (2007) reported that thirteen countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) participated in the decade-long study. At the completion of the study, the countries compiled their findings, creating one final INTERPHONE study report.

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Commented [L21]: Is this while being held at the minimum distance? Deleted: to

Deleted: “To test cell phones for SAR compliance, the phone is precisely placed in various common positions next to the head and body, and a robotic probe “takes a series of measurements of the electric field at specific pinpoint locations in a very precise, grid-like pattern within the dummy head and torso.” (U.S. FCC, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) For Cell Phones: What It Means For You”, 2017). …All d…ta for each phone placement location... isare [17] Commented [L22]: I added another header to break up this text more clearly; this could be worded another way Formatted: Font: Bold, Underline

Deleted: cell phonescellphones on human health:; (One) epidemiological tests , …nd (Two) …aboratory tests. Epidemiological tests are conducted to determine associative links between health effects and the characteristics of people. The length of time people spend on their phones and the placement of the phone while in use is an example of a…ne characteristic studied by epidemiological testing. Laboratory tests determine causal links between risk factors and adverse health effects and how they occur. These tests are done... [18] Deleted: cell phones Deleted: , conducted by the International Agency ¶ for Research on Cancer (IARC), a specialized cancer agency agency of the World Health Organization – (Cardis et al., 2007),¶ documentedhad perplexing findings. Researchers working with the multinational study collected ¶ information that concentrated …n tumours that developed in in the human tissues most commonly exposed to cell phonecellphone ¶ radiation (U.S. FDA, 2011). Several nations working with the the study announced a possible link, but thosee…¶ findings were later denounced. INTERPHONE study officials officials cited selection bias and other biases, in ¶ addition to recall errors, as the reason for denouncing these findingscause ... [19] Formatted: Font:

Commented [L23]: Can the medical definitions section be a sidebar here? Formatted: English (CAN), Not Highlight

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Commented [L24]: When was this study done? You have references saying 2010 and 2007, with the 2007 reference appearing to point to more conclusive information than the newer source Formatted: Font: Not Italic, Font color: Auto, English (CAN)

Deleted: retrospective case control ¶ study to investigate whether cell phone…ellphone radiation increased the risk of four types of ¶ ... [20]


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The researchers included 2,765 cases of glioma, 2,425 cases of meningioma, 1,121 cases of acoustic neuroma, 109 cases of malignant parotid gland tumors and 7,658 controls. Results from five of the 13 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Israel and New Zealand) revealed an increased risk of glioma in heavy long-term cellphone use, but smaller increases of risk for meningioma (Cardis et al., 2011). The study also revealed people with heavy cellphone usage for an average of 30 minutes per day over 10 years have a 40% increased risk of developing a brain tumour (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011). Cardis et al. (2011) stated that the uncertainty of the results requires they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made. This means it could be another 10 years or more before solid evidence either confirms or definitively denies that a link exists. Despite conflicting views of the information reported by the INTERPHONE study, the International Agency for Research on Cancer deemed it plausible to recommend the World Health Organization (WHO) increase the threat level of cellphone radiation, which they did. The WHO decision was based largely on data from the INTERPHONE study (WHO, 2011). It is important to note that according to information from the WHO, the upgraded category of cellphone radiation, Group 2B, means that a causal association is considered credible, but bias cannot be ruled out with reasonable confidence. It should also be noted that while epidemiological studies are practical to use for determining the cause of diseases, inherent limitations exist with the studies (U.S. GAO, 2012). The limitations make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions for three reasons: • It is difficult to measure all variables that may affect the results. • Chosen participants already have the disease, which makes it is impossible to detect the incidence of disease. • The number of participants are decided beforehand, so the prevalence of disease can not determined. In addition to these testing flaws, INTERPHONE study researchers relied on participants’ memory of their phone use through query by questionnaire, instead of direct observation (INTERPHONE Study Group, 2010). Further evidence alluding to a link between cellphone radiation and adverse effects on human health exists in other studies. Kreisberg (2010) lists the following four study results as supporting evidence. 1. The Danish National Birth Cohort study’s aim was to investigate prenatal and postnatal exposure to cellphones and behavioral problems in young children. The study findings showed that children who had prenatal and postnatal exposure to cellphone radiation through indirect and direct use of cellphones have an 80% increased risk of emotional and hyperactivity issues (Divan, Kheifets, Obel & Olsen, 2008).

Meningiomas: A meningioma is a type of tumour that develops from the meninges, the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Most meningiomas (90 percent) are categorized as benign tumours, with the remaining 10 percent being atypical or malignant. Gliomas: Glioblastoma is the most common type of high grade cancerous brain tumour in adults. The group of brain tumours known as gliomas grow from a type of brain cell called a glial cell. Parotid Gland Tumours: The parotid gland is responsible for making saliva. Parotid tumours are abnormal growths within the glands. Most are benign, but occasionally they can be cancerous.

Deleted: Glioma, 2,425 cases of mM…ningioma, 1,121 cases of aA…oustic nN…uroma, 109 cases of malignant pP…rotid gG…and tumors and 7,658 controls. Results from five5…of the 13 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Israel and New Zealand) revealed an increased risk of gG…ioma in heavy long-term cell phone…ellphone use, but smaller increases of risk for mM…ningioma (Cardis et al., 2011). The study also revealed people with heavy cell phone…ellphone usage for an average of 30 minutes per day over 10 years have a 40 … increased risk of developing a brain tumour (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011). Cardis et al. (2011) stated that the uncertainty of the results requires they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made. This means iI ... [21]

Deleted: RResearch on A…ancer deemed it plausible to recommend the World Health Organization (WHO) increase the threat level of cell phone…ellphone ¶ radiation, which and ... [22]

Commented [L25]: What year?

Deleted: at decision was based largely on data from the INTERPHONE study ¶ (WHO, 2011). It is important to note that according to information from the WHO, the upgraded ¶ category of cell phone…ellphone radiation, Group 2B, means means that classifies something when … causal association is considered is¶ considered credible, but …bias cannot be ruled out cannot be ruled out ... [23]

Commented [L26]: I suggest making this a bulleted list: I think it would be clearer for readers in the context of your booklet Deleted: . Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.63 cm + Indent at: 1.27 cm

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The Canadian federal government and several U.S. states have been developing precautionary legislation and have asked that warning labels and specific language be placed on cellphone packaging. The warning labels would indicate the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF radiation from cellphones. U.S. states with proposed legislation include Maine, California, New Mexico, and Oregon, as well as a congressional bill from Ohio congressman Dennis Kucinich and the California city of Berkeley’s “Right to Know” ordinance proposed by council member Max Anderson. Steps Towards Warning Label Legislation Canada: Bill C-648 Canada’s Bill C-648, “An Act Respecting the Prevention of Potential Health Risks from Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation,” was a private member’s bill sponsored by Conservative Member of Parliament Terence Young in 2014. The bill would have required manufacturers to place warnings on cellphones, baby monitors, Wi-Fi routers and any other wireless device sold in Canada. However, it only received 15 MPs publicly committing to support the bill, including former NDP health critic Libby Davis, who requested to second the bill (Rowan, 2015). The bill went only through its first reading in the House of Commons and did not pass.

3. The Danish Retrospective Cohort study’s goal was to investigate a possible link between cellphone use and the risks for developing diseases of the central nervous system. Study findings illustrated long-term cellphone users were 10% to 20% more likely to be hospitalized for migraines and vertigo (Schuz, Waldemar, Olsen & Johansen, 2009). 4. The Israeli component of the INTERPHONE study aimed to assess the association between cellular phone use and the development of parotid gland tumors. Findings suggested an association between long-term heavy cellphone use and parotid gland tumors, and an increased risk for consumers who repetitively used their cellphone on one side of the head, supporting the idea of an association between tumour development and cellphone radiation exposure. In addition, an association between cellphone use and adverse health effects in rural areas was found, which was not shown in urban areas (Sadetzki et al, 2008). The Israeli study that reported adverse health effects in rural areas coincides with a precaution given by CNET cellphone technology expert Marguerite Reardon (2011). She reported that the weaker the signal, the more a cellphone must boost its power to connect, increasing the amount of radiation emitted. The Israeli segment of the INTERPHONE study reported that the decreased presence of cellphone towers in rural areas equated to weak RF signals. This means the RF-EMF radiation dose to a cellphone user in rural areas can be significantly increased. An increased dose of radiation increases the risk of developing adverse health effects. Experts at CNET warn consumers of increased exposure when cellphone signal strength is weak and advise them to avoid using a cellphone in places where you get a poor signal. __

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Deleted: More Further evidence alluding to a link between cell phone ... [28] Commented [L27]: Is this being displayed visually in a different way than the previous text? Again, a list might be easier for readers to follow, or else rewording this sentence to ... [29]

Deleted: (One)1. The Danish National Birth Cohort study’s aim was to investigate prenatal and postnatal ... [30] Commented [L28]: this is missing from your reference list

Deleted: that surroundings…the brain and spinal cord. (Dunn, 2018). Most meningiomas (90 percent) are categorized as benign tumours, with the remaining 10 percent being atypical or malignant. In many cases, benign meningiomas grow slowly (Dunn, 2018). ¶ ... [38] Deleted: (cancerous)…primary …rain tumour in adults. Glioblastoma belongs to a…he group of brain tumours known as gliomas as it …rows…from a type of brain cell called a glial cell. (“thebraintumourcharity”, 2013). ... [39] Deleted: tumours: The parotid gland is a salivary gland, responsible for making saliva. Parotid tumours are abnormal growths within the glands. Most of these growths …re benign (non-cancerous), but occasionally they can be malignant (cancerous.) (“Parotid Gland”, 2014) ... [40] Deleted: __

Government Actions: Canadian and American governments have proposed legislation to promote awareness of potential adverse health effects associated with cellphone radiation. This awareness would come in the form of warning labels for cellphone packaging. A majority of cellphone radiation research studies have advised caution, warning governments across the world to adopt precautionary measures.

2. A Swedish compilation study combined findings of two studies. The first study investigated the association between the use of cellphones and/or cordless phones and the risk of brain tumours in various urban and rural areas in central Sweden (Hardell, Carlberg & Mild, 2005), while the other paper compiled the research of several cohort studies evaluating the risk of brain tumours in long-term cellphone users. These compiled findings demonstrated a consistent pattern of increased risk of acoustic neuroma and glioma for people using cellphones for more than 10 years (Hardell, Carlberg, Soderqvist, Mild & Morgan, 2007).

Commented [L31]: new section

Deleted: a and American US…governments have proposed proposed legislation to promote awareness of potential adverse health effects associated with cell phone…ellphone radiation. This awareness would coa…e in the form of warning labels for cell phone…ellphone packaging. A majority of cell phone…ellphone radiation research studies offer words ohave advisedf ... [41] Deleted: a and several U.S. states have been taking part in the developmen…ngt of…precautionary legislation and have have asked that warning labels and specific language be placed on cell phone…ellphone packaging. The warning labels would indicate the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF radiation from cell phones…ellphones. U.S. states with proposed legislation include Maine, California, New Mexico, and Oregon (German, 2011)… as well as a congressional bill from Ohio congressman Dennis Kucinich (Tam, 2012) …nd the California city of Berkeley’s “Right to Know” oO…dinance proposed byfrom…cC…uncil member Max Anderson (Elle, 2016)… ¶ ... [42] Formatted: Adjust space between Latin and Asian text, Adjust space between Asian text and numbers

Commented [L32]: Added some text to this header to clarify – something different would work too. Also added the locations to the bill names/numbers to clarify for readers – bill names usually aren’t very meaningful on their own in other locations or after they move through parliament Deleted: s Deleted: a's…Bb…ll C-648, “"…n Act Rr…specting the Pp…evention of Pp…tential Hh…alth Rr…sks from Rr…diofrequency Ee…ectromagnetic Rr…diation,” was",…a private member’s bill sponsored by Conservative Member of ParliamentP…Terence Young in Ottawa. It was introduced in 2014 as a private bill… A private bill is proposed legislation that affects a small segment of the public. If passed by the Legislative Assembly, allow a particular person or group of persons an exemption from the general law, or provide for something that cannot be obtained under the general law. A private bill can only be introduced by a Senator or a Member who is not a member of the ... [43]

Definitions: Acoustic Neuromas: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour that affects the nerves running from the inner ear to the brain. The nerves responsible for hearing and balance are prevented from functioning properly, leading to hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

Maine: Bill LD1706 In 2010, Maine's Democratic Representative Andrea Boland introduced Bill LD1706 in the 124th Legislature of the House of Representatives. The bill was co-sponsored by Democratic senators Lisa Tessier Marraché, John Nutting, Lawrence Bliss, Philip Bartlett, and Democratic state representatives Seth Berry, Cynthia Dill, Stacy Dostie, Mark Eves, Teresea Hayes, Edward Legg, Peggy Pendleton, Hannah Pingree, Diane Russell, James Schatz, Peter Stuckey, Charles Theriault, Pamela Trinward and John Tuttle. The legislation would have required large non-removable warning labels be placed on all cellphones and cellphone packaging for all phones sold in Maine, stating “Warning, this device emits electromagnetic radiation, exposure to which may cause brain cancer. Users, especially children and pregnant women should keep this device away from the head and body.” (Maine Legislature, 2010, p. 1). This bill was referred to the Health and Human Services committee of the House. From there, it was sent to the Senate, where it was amended and referred back to the Health and Human Services committee. After being released to the House, the bill failed 83-62, and was sent for concurrence in the Senate, where it also failed. California: Bill SB1212 California’s Bill SB1212 (2010), sponsored by Democratic Senator Mark Leno, was introduced in the regular session of the 2009-2010 U.S. Senate. The bill required a warning label stating that the device emitted radiation and detailing each device’s SAR to be included on the packaging and in the instruction manuals for all cellphones sold in the California. After several amendments to the bill, it made it to a third reading on the Senate floor, where it failed 16-14 with eight abstentions. However, it received 36 votes in favor of being reconsidered, but at the request of Senator Leno, the bill was designated dead and inactive. New Mexico: Legislative Memorial New Mexico's Democratic Senator Brian F. Egolf introduced House Memorial HM32 to the state’s House of Representatives in 2011. A legislative memorial, unlike a legislative bill, does not have the force of the law behind it; it expresses legislative intent or requests that Congress create a law pertaining to its subject matter. Sponsored by Senator Egolf, HM32 directed New Mexico’s state government to study literature and report the effects of cellphone radiation on human health. In addition, the Department of Health and the Department of the Environment were to prepare reports recommending remedies for the effects of any adverse health effects caused by cellphone radiation exposure. The memorial passed 43-24. It is currently operative in the state. Oregon: Bill SB679 Oregon's Bill SB679 was introduced in the Senate in 2011 by Democratic Senator Chip Shields, co-sponsored by Democratic senators Alan Bates, Laurie Monnes Anderson, Rod Monroe and representatives Democrat Ben Cannon and Republican Jim Thompson. The bipartisan-sponsored

Deleted: (Two) A Swedish compilation study combined study findings of two studies. The that included (1) a…irst study investigatin…dg…the association between the use of cell phonescellphones and/or cordless phones and the risk of brain tumours in different …arious urban and rural areas in central Sweden (Hardell, Carlberg &, &…Mild, 2005), while theand…(2) a…ther paper that complied…ompiled the research of several cohort studies evaluating the risk of brain tumours in long-term cell phone…ellphone users. These compiled findings demonstrated a consistent pattern of increased risk of acoustic neuroma and glioma for people using cell phones…ellphones for more than 10 years (Hardell, Carlberg, Soderqvist, Mild &, & ... [31] Deleted: (Three)3. The Danish Retrospective Cohort study’s goal was to investigate a possible link between cell phonecellphone use and the risks for developing diseases of the central nervous system. Study findings illustrated longterm cell phone…ellphone users were 10% to 20% more likely to be hospitalized for migraines and vertigo (Schuz, Waldemar, Olsen &, & ... [32] Deleted: (Four)4. The Israeli component of the INTERPHONE study aimed to assess the association between cellular phone use and the development of parotid gland tumors. Study …f…ndings suggested an association between long-term heavy cell phone…ellphone use and parotid gland tumors, and an increased risk for consumers who repetitively used their cell phone…ellphone on the same…ne side of the head,;…which …upportings…a dose-response…he idea of an association between tumour development and cell phonecellphone radiation exposure. In addition, an association between for cell phone ... [33] Deleted: . Deleted: fourth Israeli study that reporteding Commented [L29]: missing from sources

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Deleted: ¶ signal, the more aa…cell phone…ellphone must boost its power to connect, which …ncreasinges…the amount of radiation ¶ emitted. The Sadetzki et al. (2008)…sraeli segment of the INTERPHONE study reported that the ¶ decreased presence of cell phone…ellphone towers in rural areas equated to weak RF signals. When the¶ ... [35] Deleted: ¶ Moved (insertion) [2]

Deleted: Safety Code 6 ¶ Health Canada has a guideline, known as Safety Code 6, which recommends limits for safe human exposure to RF electromagnetic energy. The limits established in Safety ... [36]

Commented [L30]: Can this go at the end or be a sidebar?

Deleted: that are responsible for hearing and balance are prevented from functioning properly, leading to hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears) (Kraft, 2017) ... [37]

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Deleted: , Pamela Trinward,…and John Tuttle. Democratic Democratic only backedThe ¶ legislation would have LD1706 (2010) …equired large …onnon-removable warning labels be placed on all cell phonescellphones and cell phone…ellphone ¶ packaging for all phones sold in Maine, stating. …In addition, addition, the label was to be non-removable, free from¶ other writing, take up at least 30% of the back of the cell phone surface in writing different from¶ all other fonts and be in a color different from the phone with a color graphic symbol. The¶ warning label stated “Warning, this device emits electromagnetic radiation, exposure to which ¶ may cause brain cancer. Users, especially children and pregnant women should keep this device ¶ away from the head and body.” (Maine LegislatureLD1706 ... [45] Commented [L33]: missing from references

Deleted: ¶ Human Services committee of the House. From there, it was sent to the Senate, for concurrence¶ where it was amended and referred back to the Health and Human Services committee. After ¶ being released to the HH…use, a vote of ought not to pass (ONTP) as amended vote was entered¶ and accepted. Thethe bill failed 83-62 with 6 absences… and was.…sS…nt for concurrence in the Senate, where itthe bill ¶ also failed there while in committee 20-14 with 1 abstention and 0 absences ... [46] Commented [L34]: Edited to remove some of the specific political terminology that’s not important to your ... [47] Deleted: bill SB1212 (2010), solely …ponsored by Democratic Senator Mark Leno, ¶ ... [48]

Formatted ... [49] Deleted: and 0 absences. However, it received 36 votes in in favor of being reconsidered,.…bB…t , …t ¶ ... [50]

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Deleted: (2011) to the state’s 50th Legislature …ouse of Representatives in 2011. A legislative mM ... [51]

Formatted ... [52] Deleted: (New Mexico Legislature, 2013). Solely¶ ... [53] Formatted ... [54] Deleted: bill SB679 (2011) …as introduced in the Senate in in 2011 by primary sponsor¶ ... [55]

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PORTRAITS We are increasingly surrounded by technologies that emit radiation in the same radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: WiFi routers, Bluetooth transmitters, etc. The radiation emitted in this region is nonionizing: it may heat molecules in the body but does not ionize them. These portraits visualize the heat radiation emitting from our cellular devices.

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Front View

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Hidden Hazard-Process  
Hidden Hazard-Process  
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