Fundamentals of DRAWING
“That which fills my head and heart must be expressed in drawing.” Vincent van Gogh
“God gave Solomon wisdom and very great insight, and a breadth of understanding I Kings 4:29 as measureless as the sand on the seashore.”
Lesson #1: Ellipses & Lines: In How Great ART I we practiced drawing lines and ellipses. Let’s review this as such exercises are essential for improving. The key to drawing nice lines is control. A line should be drawn with one steady, fluid movement. On the next page, practice drawing lines using control. In the boxes at the top of the page do a series of diagonal lines as shown below (A); a series of horizontal lines (B); a series of vertical lines (C); and crosshatching (D). Directly below these exercises do a series of long, parallel lines (E). For ellipses, use a somewhat circular motion with your pencil - going around and around - lowering your pencil to the paper and lightly drawing each ellipse with four or five rotations (F). Your hand, wrist, and arm are locked into one. On the bottom of the next page, practice a series of ellipses in the figure box, making some larger, some thinner, some wider. Use your “2B” pencil for these exercises. A. Diagonal Lines B. Horizontal Lines C. Vertical Lines D. Crosshatching
E. Parallel Lines
Note: Lines and ellipses should be practiced over and over again. 6
Draw long, parallel lines in the space below
Draw a series of ellipses in the figure box below
“.....thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.”
Lesson #2: Cups, Cups, Cups For this assignment create a drawing of cups that seem to be descending from the sky. You can do this by turning your paper at different angles to draw the cups or you can place the cups above and below your eye level to have different angles, such as on a shelf or a low coffee table. Make some of the cups larger and darker than others. This will make them look like they are closer to you and also create an illusion of depth. Use an axis line for drawing each cup. An axis line is a straight line drawn with a ruler and allows the artist to balance the objects correctly on each side of the line. Don’t forget your ellipses. Ellipses are important in drawing objects such as these to show form, that the cup is round. Also, shade the inside of each cup with line (as shown below). This will add another value to your drawing. Finally, when drawing the handles on the cups, draw the negative space inside the handle as much as the handle itself (A). Collect an assortment of cups, place them in front of you and see if you can create the illusion of depth and space as if they are falling from the sky. Do your cup study on the next page. Start with an “HB” pencil and finish with your “2B” pencil. A. Negative Space
Note: It is the best to draw a cup with the handle directly to either side as this is the easiest angle to draw. 8
Lesson #2: Fill the page with cups, having different angles and points of view. Check List: _____ Axis Lines? _____ Ellipses? _____ Line used for shading? 9
“Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.”
Lesson #3: Lamps & Ellipses Let’s do a lamp study. Have you ever noticed how many ellipses make up a lamp? Remember, ellipses show form, so draw with as many ellipses as possible. Finally, ellipses are darker as they come forward and lighter as they go into the distance. Don’t forget to use an axis line. Without an axis line as a guideline, your lamps may “wobble” and could also be out of proportion. Draw this line lightly with a ruler but everything else freehand, meaning without the use of mechanical devices such as a ruler or compass. Use a light source on your objects to show a light side and a shaded side. Shade with diagonal lines but use crosshatching in the darker areas (A). Use your “HB” & “4B” pencils.
On the following page, do a study of three lamps. Use ellipses and an axis line to construct each. Have a light source and shade with diagonal lines and crosshatching. Arrange the three lamps to create a pleasing composition on your paper. 10
Ellipses? Axis lines? __ Diagonal lines for shading? 11
Light source? 3 Lamps completed?
“A picture is an unusual combination of lines and Edgar Degas colors that set one another off.”
Lesson #4: Pencils, Pens & Lines Let’s draw a cup or glass filled with pens and pencils. This is a good assignment for applying what we have learned so far about ellipses and lines as it is a simple still life composition. Arrange your pencils, pens, and container in a pleasing composition. Do your drawing below using an “HB” and “2B” pencil.
“A picture is an unusual combination of lines and color that set one another off.” Edgar Degas
Lesson #5: Scissors Still Life
A still life is a composition of inanimate objects. Objects such as fruit, lamps, or cups do not move, making them convenient for drawing studies. Let’s do a study of scissors. This exercise will be good for studying both line and composition. Compose three pair of scissors so that one pair is in the foreground, one in the middle ground, and one in the background. Draw your scissors still life below using your “HB” & “4B” pencils.