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Instructor’s Manual and Complete Answer Key to accompany

Essential Reading Skills Third Edition

Susan Pongratz Thomas Nelson Community College

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Instructor’s Manual and Complete Answer Key to accompany McWhorter, Essential Reading Skills, Third Edition Copyright ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Instructors may reproduce portions of this book for classroom use only. All other reproductions are strictly prohibited without prior permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials. ISBN: 0-321-44579-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10–OPM–09 08 07 06

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Contents Part One: Guide for Instructors Basic Features of the Text General Suggestions for Teaching the Course

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Part Two: Teaching Suggestions for Individual Chapters Chapter 1: Reading Actively Chapter 2: Using Your Dictionary Chapter 3: Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues Chapter 4: Building Vocabulary: Using Word Parts Chapter 5: Locating Main Ideas Chapter 6: Identifying Supporting Details and Transitions Chapter 7: Understanding Implied Main Ideas Chapter 8: Keeping Track of Information Chapter 9: Recognizing the Basic Patterns of Organization Chapter 10: Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns Chapter 11: Reading and Thinking Critically Student Resource Guide A: Introduction to College Textbook Reading Student Resource Guide B: A Guide for ESL (ELL) Readers

13 23 40 50 64 77 91 101 107 118 131 144 161

Part Three: Activities Accompanying Multicultural Reader The Most Hateful Words Seoul Searching Coming into My Own Living Life to the Fullest American Indian Mascots Should Go Hispanic, USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace

166 167 169 173 176 179 184 188

Part Three: Useful Teaching Materials Online Student Resource Guide: Test-Taking Strategies Student Data Sheet Sample Syllabus Reading Analyses I (in order of appearance) Reading Analyses II (in order of difficulty) Introduction Bingo Reading Survey (Pre-Course Personal Assessment) KWL Chart Suggested Reading List for Nontraditional Students Book Review Project

195 196 200 201 204 205 206 207 209 210 211

Part Four: Complete Answer Key

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Part One

Guide for Instructors Chapter 1 Basic Features of the Text The text was written in response to the need for developing efficient reading skills in college students. In addition to the strategies presented, it provides ample opportunities for practice. Its unique features are described in the following section. Emphasis on Essential Reading Skills William Faulkner wrote, “Read, read, read. . . . Just like a carpenter who works as an apprentice and studies the master. Read!” Reading is, of course, the single most important requirement for success in a college course. It is also the one activity that many nontraditional students avoid. While your students vary in ability and interest, they will have an understanding of the gap they need to bridge in order to succeed academically. However, they may not have a specific appreciation of the essential reading skills they need to develop. That is your job. Emphasis on Academic Reading College students encounter a great deal of reading—most of which they are required to comprehend and process independently. To become more independent and academically successful, they need to develop some essential reading skills to apply to the disciplines. Although general reading skills, such as literal comprehension, vocabulary development, and critical reading skills are taught, each is presented within an academic context. Reading selections were chosen from a variety of areas, including selections from an array of college textbooks. Reading as Thinking Reading is a thinking process, and many students who say they can read the words still find reading a challenge because they skip steps in the process. The activities in this manual reinforce pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading strategies to help the students identify the steps they need for academic success. Metacognitive Strategies Metacognition, a learner’s awareness of his or her own cognitive process, is a current topic of interest in verbal learning and reading comprehension research. There is strong evidence that mature and proficient readers exert a great deal of cognitive control over their own reading and learning processes by analyzing tasks, selecting appropriate learning strategies, and monitoring their effectiveness. Less proficient students tend to make fewer decisions about the task and have little awareness of their reading processes and outcomes. Throughout this text, students are encouraged to develop metacognitive strategies, focusing on task analysis, selecting appropriate strategies, and evaluation. 1


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Writing as Learning A recent focus within many academic disciplines is the use of writing as a learning and discovery process. Many campuses have instituted a writing-across-the-curriculum approach in response to this trend. While students accept writing as a vehicle of communication, few are proficient in its use as a means of organizing thought, focusing ideas, recognizing relationships, or generating new ideas. Chapter 8 examines ways to keep track of information: (1) highlighting, (2) marking, (3) outlining, (4) mapping, and (5) summarizing. Also, at the end of each chapter is a mastery test that concludes with discussion and writing activities connected with the reading. Awareness of Text Structure Research evidence has established that awareness of text structure and text frames facilitates comprehension and recall. Several chapters in the text focus on structure. Chapters 9 and 10 discuss the patterns of organization: example, definition, definition/example, chronological order and process, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect. Student Resource Guide A, “Introduction to College Textbook Reading,� emphasizes the structure and organization of textbooks. Also, in Student Resource Guide A, there are three longer reading selections. Vocabulary Development A basic knowledge of word meanings is at the root of essential reading skills. To be academically successful, a student must have working knowledge and control of vocabulary. Fluency, rate, and comprehension are diminished as a student encounters unknown words. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 employ a practical approach to vocabulary development because few students have the time or desire to undertake an extensive program of study. Learning to use context clues and word analysis to unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words, however, will provide the students with the tools to obtain meaning. Critical Reading Skills An active, mature reader needs to develop the ability to interpret, evaluate, and apply what one reads to real-life situations. A vital aspect in this development is the acquisition of critical reading skills. Too often students and content area instructors alike assume that literal comprehension and recall are all that are needed. Both often fail to recognize the need to interpret, assess, evaluate, and criticize written materials. Chapter 11 is devoted to developing several essential critical reading skills, including understanding inferences, discerning fact and opinion, identifying the writer’s purpose, tone, and intended audience. Interchangeable Instructional Units Many instructors have developed preferred instructional sequences that are particularly effective for the type of course they teach and well suited to the needs of their students. Because of this preference, the chapters in this book are interchangeable rather than sequentially dependent. Instructors, then, are not limited to teaching skills in the order in which they are presented.

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Reading Selections Each chapter contains practice exercises and mastery tests based on selected college readings. In addition, a separate section of multicultural reading selections appears at the end of the textbook. Practice Exercises Many students need help in applying and transferring skills. Often the mere presentation of a technique is not sufficient. Students require a number of situations with which they can experiment, practice, and apply skills that have been presented. To help meet this need, two types of practice exercises are included in the text: 1. in-chapter exercises based on content 2. exercises based on college reading selections included for practice and mastery The in-chapter exercises are constructed to provide immediate practice and allow the students to test a skill as it is being taught. They also give the students immediate feedback on the various techniques and skills. The exercises based on reading selections encourage students to integrate the skills taught in the chapter. In these exercises, students are given the opportunity to apply the techniques to materials specifically chosen to be appropriate for the skills to be applied. Self-Evaluation At the end of each chapter is a checklist for students to evaluate their progress and determine if they have mastered the content or if more practice is needed. Test Bank This three-part assessment package is designed to accompany Essential Reading Skills, third edition. Part One contains two sets of chapter review quizzes, each consisting of 10 multiplechoice questions per chapter. The quizzes are intended to assess students' knowledge and comprehension of chapter content. Part Two contains two sets of mastery tests, each consisting of short excerpts from college-level textbooks, followed by objective questions about vocabulary, comprehension, and the specific skills covered in the chapter. The mastery tests are intended to measure students' ability to apply the skills learned in each chapter. Part Three contains two sets of questions based on the Student Resource Guides at the end of Essential Reading Skills. Each set consists of 10 objective questions, including some questions based on short excerpts from college-level textbooks. Answer keys are provided for all of the items in the package.

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Chapter 2 General Suggestions for Teaching the Course Structuring the Course Classroom Arrangement A comfortable, non-threatening classroom environment is most suitable for instruction. The arrangement, however, should have enough structure to encourage students to approach the class seriously and attentively. It is useful to arrange the seating so that the instructor can readily observe each student as he or she reads. Class Scheduling Because regular practice, frequent repetition, and reinforcement of skills are needed, frequent class meetings are necessary. At least two class sessions per week are needed; three or four sessions per week are desirable. Student Conferences At the beginning of the semester, scheduling individual conferences is an effective way to become acquainted with each student and his or her individual needs. During the conference, you can make sure that the course is appropriate for the student and begin to identify the student’s individual strengths and weaknesses. The conference is also a good opportunity to review the results of any reading or achievement tests that may have been used in placing the student in or recommending him or her for the course. Students respond extremely favorably to the opportunity to meet with the instructor individually. Students with reading problems are eager to discuss their problems with someone, and students who want to further develop their reading skills welcome the occasion to discuss their particular profile of skills. Many instructors use the initial conference to get a verbal commitment from the student; an acknowledgment that he or she is interested in the course and plans to approach it seriously. A student who is committed to the course feels obligated to attend, participate in class, and apply the skills learned to other courses. Periodic progress-check conferences are useful throughout the semester to help motivate the student, provide feedback on his or her progress, check whether he or she is applying the skills taught to other materials, and encourage him or her to do so. An end-of-the-course evaluation conference can be scheduled to review the student’s work, discuss any end-of-semester test results, and suggest areas of further study.

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Attendance Policy Regular class attendance should be emphasized. If college policy permits, an attendance requirement or maximum number of allowable absences should be established at the beginning of the course. Students can seldom develop the skills presented and discussed in class on their own. Also, many students need direction and structure that an attendance policy provides. While discussing your attendance policy with the students, you might suggest that if they could develop essential reading skills on their own, they would have done so already and would not need to attend class. If college policy does not allow you to establish an attendance policy, an alternative is to structure the grading system so that regular class attendance is necessary to complete in-class assignments or take weekly quizzes or mastery tests. Credit/Noncredit Always an important issue in regards to any type of reading-study course is the awarding of degree credit for course completion. Although many colleges grant credit for such a course, some do not; several others award credit but do not accept it toward the fulfilling of degree requirements. When a particular institution does not give degree credit for the course, the reason usually given is that remedial work does not deserve college credit. Students, of course, argue vehemently that they do as much work and learn as much in a reading-study course as in other courses they take. Often, the issue of credit can influence student motivation and performance. If your institution will not award credit, a strategy to change this policy is to offer the course as noncredit first. Then, as the course is taught, document new skills learning that occurs and show that students are learning techniques that they were never taught previously. Also, retain records of the number of hours of student work required and the assignments given. These materials will be useful if the department decides at some point to submit the course for credit.

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Grading Policy A grading system is difficult to establish for a reading-study course. As for any other college course, there are advantages and disadvantages to most grading systems. A number of options and their pros and cons are summarized below. 1. Traditional quizzes and exams. These are easy to prepare and provide a fairly objective evaluation of the student’s progress, and they measure the student’s ability to recall fact, principles, and techniques taught. They do not, however, measure whether or not the students can use the techniques to read or study better. In most courses in which skill learning is the focus, the evaluation process involves performance of the skill. (In a typing class, for instance, the student is not often evaluated on what he or she knows about typing, but rather on how fast and accurately he or she types.) 2. Skill application quizzes and exams. Exams that are constructed to measure how effectively a student can perform a skill are a workable alternative to traditional quizzes. Test situations that approximate practical use situations, requiring the student to demonstrate that he or she has learned the particular skill or technique, can be devised for many skills. The skill of identifying the main idea, for instance, can be tested by asking the student to underline the main idea. Textbook underlining can be evaluated by asking the student to underline a sample textbook page. 3. The contract system. A contract system is frequently used in skill courses in which the amount of application and practice is crucial to learning. Contracts can be established with a class as a whole or with students individually. A class contract details the amount of work and the assignments a student must complete in order to earn a grade of A, B, or C. Generally, a class contract would cover most of the skills taught in the course. An individual student contract focuses on areas in which the student needs further work and additional practice can be written. A student who has difficulty identifying main ideas, for instance, will also have difficulty underlining effectively. A contract could be devised in which the student completes additional practice in identifying main ideas and further work in underlining and marking. The individual student contact is workable if a reading laboratory or library reference area that houses additional and supplementary instructional materials is available.

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Student Records Many instructors find it useful to keep a file folder for each student. They keep all the student’s work: assignments, tests, and grading contracts, as well as any additional handouts or worksheets distributed in class, in the folder. The folders should be brought to each class session and distributed at the beginning of class. Instructors who use this system find that it is convenient to have all materials readily available to be used for reference, follow-up, or examples. If the organization of course materials is left completely to the students, instructors find that many of them come to class without the materials the instructor wishes to use. In addition, some instructors record the date and the student’s class average in the folder, so the student is always aware of his or her progress. Bringing Textbook and Content Textbook to Class At the beginning of the semester, you will avoid much frustration if you insist that each student always bring the text to class. In addition, you may want to require that students bring in other texts or nonfiction paperbacks to class for use in skill applications. Organizing the Course Content The text is structured into self-contained sections, or parts, to permit flexibility in organizing course content. Depending on the type of student, the priority of the individual instructors place on particular skills, and the time during the semester that the course is offered, many instructors have strong preferences about what skills should be taught first and how skills should be sequenced. Instructors are encouraged to use the text as best suits their individual needs. Specific suggestions for organizing and structuring course content are offered below. Skill Orientation It is important to establish the course as skill-oriented and to emphasize that performance, not acquisition of knowledge, is the criterion for success. The overall goal of the course is to enable the student to gain essential reading skills. Tightly Structuring the Course Many students enrolled in a reading course require organization and structure in order to feel comfortable. They are often confused by a loosely structured or flexible course organization in which course objectives are unclear. The following suggestions may be useful in helping students understand the organization and structure of the course. 1. Distribute a skill agenda. Before classes begin, instructors usually plan out what they will teach each week throughout the semester. Students respond well if the instructor shares the semester’s plan with them. They like to know what to expect and what the course will include. A skill agenda, listing the skill(s) to be covered each week, with corresponding dates, can easily be prepared from your own plans. A sample syllabus is included in Part 3 of this manual. 2. Distribute course requirements and a statement of the grading system. Despite clear verbal explanations, some students do not understand or do not remember 11


information they are given about course requirements. Students are able to organize themselves more effectively if they are given a list of assignments, due dates, and test dates, in addition to a statement of how these will be used to determine grades. 3. Relate and connect class sessions to one another. Although a skill agenda clearly defines how the course is organized and shows how skills relate to one another, it is useful to reinforce this organization almost daily by tying together the previous class session with the current one and, at the end of a session, by giving a brief preview of the next class. Collecting Student Data It is useful to collect some basic information from each student during one of the first class sessions. In addition to such information as name, address, phone, and e-mail address, you might want to request the following: 1. curriculum and faculty advisor 2. year in college 3. current grade point average, if any 4. whether he or she has taken a reading course before and, if so, where and when 5. other courses in which he or she is currently enrolled 6. areas of interest A sample information/interest inventory is provided (p. 200).

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Chapter 1: Reading Actively I always imagined Paradise to be a sort of library.—Jorge Luis Borges • •

Introduction To reinforce “Read Me First” of the textbook, show the students a set of photographs and ask them to label each as showing active or passive subjects. On the board, write the words “active” and “passive” in two columns. Ask the students to take three minutes and list at least ten synonyms that they can think of for the two words. (Encourage them to use a dictionary or thesaurus.) After the threeminute allotted time, solicit examples in round-robin fashion and write these under the appropriate heading. For example: Active 1. lively 2. vigorous 3. energetic 4. dynamic 5. spirited 6. brisk 7. vital 8. forceful 9. hearty 10. proactive 11. animated 12. vivacious 13. bubbly 14. full of life 15. exuberant

• • •

Passive 1. inert 2. inactive 3. unreceptive 4. submissive 5. obsequious 6. reflexive 7. reactive 8. flaccid 9. motionless 10. stationary 11. immobile 12. dormant 13. sedentary 14. lethargic 15. apathetic

Tell the students to imagine that they are the CEOs of corporations and ask them to consider the attributes of an ideal employee. What traits, for example, would Donald Trump want the people he hires to possess? Would the characteristics be listed in the “Active” or in the “Passive” column? Which attributes would they prefer for a national leader? Which would they prefer for a physician? A nurse? A lawyer? A law enforcement officer? Finally, how would they describe themselves? Remind them of the last line in “Read Me First,” which says: “This chapter will give you some tips on how to become an active, successful reader.” 13


Follow-Up • Ask the students to read pages 1-3 and tell them you are going to have them recall what they can remember. When they have had time to read the pages, ask them to close their books and encourage each student to offer ideas that correspond to the categories in the map below. Use this as an opportunity to explain the purpose of a conceptual map—a strategy they may choose to use following a textbook reading to get a view of the “big picture.” • Use the guided note-taking activity, “How to Preview” (p.16), and lead students through the steps of the previewing process, having them insert missing answers as you explain each step. Note that a copy for duplication is provided on p.17 of this manual. • Using the exercises in the text, ask the students to practice previewing and creating guided questions. • As the students read the assigned text, instruct them to use Post-it notes to write comments, predictions, questions, and new words as active college students do when annotating. • Have the students visit the VARK site to determine their learning style preference: www.vark-learn.com • While at the VARK site, instruct the students to click on study tips for their learning style and list some strategies that will help them become active learners. • If you have time, write the categories (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Read-Write) on the board and ask the students to offer applicable study strategies they use or have discovered during the week’s activities.

Tips to Help You Become a Successful College Student

Positive Attitude

Surroundings

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Attention


How To Preview When you preview . . . 1. Find only the most important ideas in the material, and 2. Note how they are organized. To preview an article or textbook chapter, look at the following parts • Title and Subtitle: The title is a label that explains what the chapter is about. The subtitle suggests additional perspectives on the subject. • First paragraph: Often an introduction of a reading, this provides an overview and offers clues about how a chapter or article is organized. • Section Headings: Like titles, these identify and separate important topics and ideas. • Typographical Aids: Those features that help to highlight and organize information. They include italics, bold-faced type, marginal notes, colored ink, underlining, and numbering. • Final paragraph or summary: This may review the main points of the reading.

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How To Preview When you preview . . . 1. Find only the ______________ in the material, and 2. Note how they are _____________________. To preview an article or textbook chapter, look at the following parts • _______________: The title is a label that explains what the chapter is about. The subtitle suggests additional perspectives on the subject. • ________________: Often an introduction of a reading, this provides an _____________ and offers clues about how a chapter or article is ________________. • _______________: Like titles, these identify and separate important topics and ideas. • ____________________: Those features that help to highlight and organize information. They include italics, bold-faced type, marginal notes, colored ink, underlining, and numbering. • ________________________: This may review the main points of the reading.

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Mastery Test 1-1 Changing Your Habits to Reduce Stress •

Write the title of the selection on the board and ask the students to brainstorm ways the author might present to reduce stress.

Give the students time to read the selection silently.

Use the process diagram below and have the students fill in the blanks to check their comprehension of the article. One answer is given for them, but be sure to delete the smaller answers, which is what they are to complete.

Give the students a copy of the table (p.19). Then ask them to fill in the column on the right with details they recall from the selection as well as personal ways they can “connect” the information to their own lives.

Finally, ask the students to create a mnemonic device using the following key words from the list: Time Break Help Exercise For example, TBHE could be “Time becomes his excellence.”

Changing Your Habits to Reduce Stress

1. Control Your Own Time. 2. Give Yourself a Break. 3. Help Someone Out. 4. Get Some Exercise

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Changing Your Habits to Reduce Stress Steps

One-Sentence Explanation

1. Control your own time.

2. Give yourself a break.

3. Help someone out.

4. Get some exercise.

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Things I Can Do


Mastery Test 1-2 Active Listening Use the following outline as a guided note taking activity to help students assess their comprehension and focus on the organization as well as important information. Note the items in the smaller font should be left blank for the students to complete, so be sure to delete those answers on the student copy, or make a transparency of the outline, and use Post-it notes to cover the answers. As you discuss each entry, uncover the answers for the students to check their work. Outlining is mentioned in Chapter 8, “Keeping Track of Information.”

Active Listening I. Functions of Active Listening A. Aids in understanding of speaker’s intent B. Facilitates acceptance of the speaker’s feelings • Acknowledges recognition of speaker’s feelings • Show that those feelings are valued C. Encourages speaker’s exploration and expression D. Sets stage for dialogue • Allows opportunity for speaker to deal with feelings. II. Techniques for Active Listening A. Paraphrase • State understanding of message in own words • Allow speaker to expand and/or clarify B. Express Understanding • Echo what you think you hear • Encourage speaker to view feelings objectively C. Question • Ensure understanding of speaker’s thoughts and feelings • Seek additional information

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Mastery Test 1-3 To Love and to Cherish Reading Level: 10.0 Introduction Begin by reading aloud “Marriage” from The Prophet by Kahlil Gibran, which is located at http://www.columbia.edu/~gm84/gibran3.html Next, write a KWL chart on the board labeled “Marriage Traditions.” In the K column, which is a list of things the students know, write the religions mentioned in the text selection: Sikhism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam. Note that under the category of Christianity, Catholicism, Greek Orthodox, and African Methodist Episcopal churches are mentioned. Next ask the students what they want to learn about the traditions. Encourage any students to share some traditions they have experienced in the their own marriage ceremonies or ones they have attended. Then give the students time to read the selection silently and explain. They will then fill in the last column, which indicates what they have learned. For an overview, display a copy of the concept map (p.22) and discuss the supporting details for each tradition. Follow-Up Locate a copy of Houston Smith’s The World’s Religions and read aloud excerpts about the religions mentioned in the selection. Assign students a number 1-5. Then show them the following: 1. chocolate 2. shoes 3. sports car 4. a rose garden 5. basketball game Finally, ask the students to write a paragraph explaining how marriage is like _____ (insert the item selected). Encourage them to refer to the selection and incorporate details from the various religions. When they are finished, ask for volunteers to read their paragraphs. Or ask them to write an internal monologue from the viewpoint of a bride or groom in one of the ceremonies described in the selection--without revealing the religion. Then ask for volunteers to share their monologue and allow the students to guess the religion. If you use an online discussion board, the students could post their monologues for their classmates to guess the religious tradition presented.

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“To Love and to Cherish”

Wedding rituals vary from religion to religion but are all steeped in rich, cultural traditions.

Sikh Ceremony

Christian Ceremony

Jewish Ceremony

Bride wears red—the color of happiness.

Marriage is a sacrament and a covenant.

Signing of the ktuba, a marriage contract.

Marriage is considered a sacred duty.

Couples exchange carnation garlands.

Unity candles are sometimes used.

Couple is married under the chupah.

Couple must meet preconditions.

Couple makes four trips around the holy book.

African tradition includes “jumping the broom.”

Breaking of the wine glass is also symbolic.

Leader reads a special verse from the Koran.

Couple is showered in flower petals.

Hellenic Orthodox couples wear symbolic crowns.

The bride and groom share food in room alone to break the fast.

The bride is given a dowry and a prayer is said.

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Muslim Ceremony


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Chapter 2: Using Your Dictionary Language exerts hidden power, like a moon on the tides. –Rita Mae Brown Introduction • Ask the students to brainstorm information they can find in a dictionary and write their answers on the board. Point out that they can consider online dictionaries as well. • If you have some dictionaries available, ask the students to look up the following words: mouse potato, polyamory, and ringtone. Next, tell them to go to http://www.m-w.com/info/new_words.htm to find the definitions of those and other words recently selected by linguists to be included in the dictionary. Explain that English is a language that continues to evolve. Some words are archaic, no longer in use, and other words are being added as they frequent speech and print. • Distribute copies of the guided note taking activity (p. 25) and ask the students to fill in the blanks as you discuss the chapter. • When discussing the etymology of the word, locate some Greek myths and tell the stories connected to the words. For example, in this manual (p.27), you will find the explanation of narcissistic and a drawing for duplication. • After you have taught the students the rules for syllabication, ask them to break the following into syllables: o Floccinaucinihiliplilification (floc/ci/nau/ci/ni/hil/i/pil/i/fi/ca/tion)-- This is a long word that means nonsense, as in, the senator finally says, “Enough of this floccinaucinihilipilifiaction, I call for a vote.” o Honorificabilitudinity (hon/o/rif/i/ca/bil/i/tu/din/i/ty)-- The longest word Shakespeare used, it means honor. When teaching word maps, show the students ways to create vocabulary cards by making transparencies of the word maps, word pyramids, KIM card, visual vocabulary card, or a Frayer model card (pp. 28-30). Follow-Up Divide the class into teams of four and ask them to solve the dictionary puzzle, “Wheel of Fortune” (p. 31). Give the winning team members a prize such as oversized money. Ask the students to look up robust and compare information available at the following sites: http://www.m-w.com http://yourdictionary.com/index.shtml http://www.etymonline.com http://www.wiktionary.org

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Etymology Refer to the following Web site for some excellent explanations about the etymology of some of our words. http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/vocabulary.htm

• Tell the stories the origins of some of the following: tantalize: to tease; torment narcissistic: conceited; self-absorbed odyssey: a journey laconic: using few words draconian: extremely severe; excessively harsh lethargy: exhaustion; lacking energy bedlam: chaos; disorder labyrinth: puzzle; maze Restrictive Meanings and Multiple Meanings • • • •

Explain that many college courses have specialized vocabulary, and it is important to be able to recognize the correct meaning of words. You will probably want to discuss this in relation to the section that presents multiple meanings. With multiple meanings, you may want to refer to the children’s series of Amelia Bedelia books with which many students are familiar. Create enough index cards to form groups of 3’s in the your class. On an index card write a word with multiple meanings and have the groups use dictionaries to determine the meanings with a sentence for each. (Allow 12 minutes, and assign a chair, recorder, and reporter. The chair can be the person who ate pasta last night or someone who lives the farthest away or the person who most recently celebrated a birthday.)

wax run

draw roll

vent hand

collect shell

level drive

Spelling • For another example of alternative spelling, point out the British choice for color is colour and gray is grey. Usage Notes • Have students look up the usage notes for disinterested, different (from), toward and towards, and flammable and inflammable.

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Dictionary Usage Term _________________

_________________

_________________

Explanation All dictionaries provide a key to abbreviations such as v.t. for _____________, Fr for ____________, and pl. for ___________. Different symbols are used to indicate certain sounds. Refer to the pronunciation key in the dictionary to determine the sounds represented as well as the two accent marks () _________ stress and () _____________ stress. This is the origin and development of a word’s ___________dating back to its earliest use, often in another language.

________ _________

Many dictionaries include specialized vocabulary used only in the context of a certain topic or field.

_________ ________

To determine which definition is appropriately applied, use context clues in the original text and examples in the dictionary entries.

_________________

Dictionaries provide the correct spelling as well as spelling changes that occur when a word is made ______ or ________are added.

________ _________

College dictionaries often provide a usage note or synonym section to explain how a word differs from those that are similar.

_________ ________

Many college dictionaries include information such as tables of weights and measures, periodic elements, biographical and geographical information. Study your dictionary and write additional aids not included in this list. _________________ _________________________________________________

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Dictionary Usage Term Abbreviation

Pronunciation

Etymology

Explanation All dictionaries provide a key to abbreviations such as v.t. for transitive verb, Fr for France; French, and pl. for plural. Different symbols are used to indicate certain sounds. Refer to the pronunciation key in the dictionary to determine the sounds represented as well as the two accent marks () primary stress and () secondary stress. This is the origin and development of a word’s history dating back to its earliest use, often in another language.

Restrictive Meaning

Many dictionaries include specialized vocabulary used only in the context of a certain topic or field.

Multiple Meanings

To determine which definition is appropriately applied, use context clues in the original text and examples in the dictionary entries.

Spelling

Dictionaries provide the correct spelling as well as spelling changes that occur when a word is made plural or suffixes are added.

Usage Notes

College dictionaries often provide a usage note or synonym section to explain how a word differs from those that are similar.

Other Aids

Many college dictionaries include information such as tables of weights and measures, periodic elements, biographical and geographical information. Study your dictionary and write additional aids not included in this list. _________________ _________________________________________________

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Narcissus Narcissus was one of the most handsome mortals, and he knew it. In spite of her frequent attempts to get his attention, a young nymph, Echo, was heartbroken because Narcissus did not return her affection or even acknowledge her existence. (Echo was already being punished for a previous crime and could only repeat the last words someone said, so this certainly could have prevented the development of a relationship.) When Hera, Zeus’s wife, heard of Narcissus’s lack of compassion for Echo, however, she decided he would have to be punished for his hubris, or excessive pride. Therefore, while Narcissus was walking through the woods, he encountered a beautiful reflecting pool and in the water he discovered the most beautiful face he had ever seen. He immediately fell in love. Despite his own attempts, however, the face in the water did not return his affection, and Narcissus died at the edge of the pool of a broken heart. (According to other versions, he fell in the pool and drowned when he attempted to get closer to the “person.”) In his place beside the reflecting pool, little white, fragrant flowers grew as a sign of pity from the gods of Mt. Olympus. Today, we refer to a person who is conceited and self-absorbed as narcissistic.

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Narcissistic (adj.) conceited and self-absorbed Mellificent was so narcissistic that she only thought about herself and spent many hours in front of the mirror.

Word Map Meaning:

Part of Speech

Word

Other meanings

Synonyms

Word Parts

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Word Pyramid 1. Word 2. Synonyms 3. Word Parts 4. Antonyms 5. Sentence incessant constant; continual; nonstop L.: in- (not); cessare (to stop); -ant (related to) rare; infrequent; intermittent; occasional; sporadic The child’s incessant chatter exhausted the tired mother. KIM Key Term

Information

Mental Image

(adj.) affluent Synonyms: rich, wealthy, well off, prosperous Antonyms: poor, indigent, humble

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Visual Vocabulary Tenacious (adj.): stubborn, obstinate, firm The tenacious donkey would not let go of the the rope.

halcyon (adj.) synonyms: calm, peaceful, quiet antonyms: turbulent, chaotic, upsetting We longed for the halcyon days of summer when we had few worries.

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Wheel of Fortune Jack sighed as he sipped his coffee and stared despondently at the storm raging outside the cabin he had recently purchased. How ironic, he thought, as he remembered his boss’s parting words, “I’m sorry to have to lay you off, Jack, but work is scarce and you were the last one hired.” How would he make the mortgage payments on this handyman special? It needed work, and he would have the time but no money. Last one hired, indeed. He was beginning to see a pattern. If only he had the money to go back to school and finish college. Ten years in the workforce, and he knew a lot about construction—just enough to know how it could break your heart and your savings account when work was scarce and weather was unforgiving. What he really wanted to do, though, was be an architect. Jack turned and studied the paintings that had come with the house as well as the other furnishings. That’s when he noticed something awry—a yellowed envelope corner that had slipped down form the back of a framed picture. Curious, he slid it out and opened it to find the following letter. It takes talent and luck to succeed in life. If you have found this letter, you have luck. Let’s see if you have talent. I was a ruthless, savvy businessman—a paradox of a person who has had a soft spot in my heart for the people of this town, even though I made my fortune elsewhere. But I have worked hard and was known to wheel and deal with the best and worst of them. I was often the only one who understood the vision and possibilities of the railroad as part of the wheels of progress. While some businessmen were content to move gracefully and happily like the seagulls that wheel in the sky, I wanted to move in a rapid and flashy way— like the Catherine wheels I watched bursting in the night sky on the Fourth of July. To some, the railroad was a means of travel, but I saw those iron wheels as a road to wealth, transporting people and coal as well as the hardware for the miners of the California gold rush. I know I was as hard as the wheel used to inflict pain in the 1500s, but I was also always aware of my responsibility to the people, the companies, and even the towns that relied on me for their livelihood. Life is like a roulette wheel. It involves chance. But it also involves education and talent and vigilance, much like the skill a ship’s captain develops from his experience at the wheel guiding the crew through uncharted waters. And now, my last gesture of random altruism is to the reader of this letter. Solve the puzzle, follow your dream, and pass the luck on. Regards, Collis P. Huntington Jack’s heart raced. Either he was delusional, or the repetition of the word wheel in the letter was significant. He turned around and stared at the train wheel on the wall behind him. He cocked his head and walked across the room for a better look. The wheel seemed to control a mechanism—a combination to a safe perhaps? He looked at the letter again, then gasped, “I’ve got it! The wheels are turning and so has my fortune!” 31


To determine the combination, Jack reached for the dictionary and studied the number of the entries that corresponded to the context of each use of wheel in the letter. Wheel: n. 1. a disk with spokes connected to a hub 2. any circular shape that revolves while burning as in fireworks 3. an instrument of torture in the Middle Ages 4. an instrument with handles for controlling a ship’s rudder 5. a rotating disk used for gambling 6. controlling forces (wheels of progress) 7. an important person 8. Archaic—the refrain of a song 9. v.t. to behave in an aggressive way in business or politics 10. to swoop in a circular fashion as in describing frolicsome birds _____ _____ _____-____ ____-____ ____ ____

Jack quickly worked the combination and shouted, “Eureka!” Inside the vault, he found a pile of solid gold coins—the stuff that makes dreams come true. He could make the mortgage payments and go to college. No longer did he have to fold away dreams. You be the detective. Underline each time the word wheel appears in the letter. Next, using the dictionary excerpt, decide which number correspond to the context used. Write the number on the lines provided to determine the combination of the safe.

Solution: 9 6 10 - 2 1 - 3 5 4

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Mastery Test 2-1 Dictionary Skills A. Directions: Each numbered sentence below is followed by a dictionary entry for the boldfaced word. Use this entry to select the choice that best fits the meaning of the word as it is used in the sentence. a 1. The football coach has a talent for being able to divine the opponents’ next plays and therefore always successfully guides his team to victory.

divine (d vn’) adj. 1. of or like a god or God 2. given or inspired by God; holy; sacred 3. religious vt. 1. to prophesy 2. to guess. a. b. c. d.

guess prophesy like a god holy

c 2. Although he is suffering from a degenerative disc, the quarterback expects to play well on Saturday—a testament to his diligence. testament (ts’ t mnt) n. 1. covenant between man and God 2. either of two parts of the Christian bible 3. a statement identifying a fact, possible truth, or value of something 4. a will a. b. c. d.

covenant between man and God either of two parts of the bible statement identifying a fact, possible truth, or value of something a will

d 3. Because we missed the days when talented speakers could charm an audience and channel different voices, keeping everyone in suspense, we decided to attend the Storytelling Festival in a nearby town. channel (chan’l) n. 1. the bed of a running stream 2. deeper part of a river 3. tubelike passage for liquids 5. any means of passage 6. proper course of communication vt. 1. To put grooves in fluting 2. to communicate a. b. c. d.

the bed of a running stream deeper part of a river a means of passage to communicate 33


B. Directions Use the dictionary to complete the word map for the word in boldfaced print. As many employees had speculated, the plant manager announced they would be closing many months earlier than first announced. speculate (spkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; y ltâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;) [L. speculatus, to view < specula, watchtower< specere to see, look, watch) vi. 1. To think about the aspects; mediate; ponder ; conjecture; esp. to guess 2. to buy or sell stock and take a risk to make a profit 4-8 4. meaning 5. part of speech 6. other meanings 7. word part 8. synonyms 9.-10. two original sentences using speculate

speculate

4.

6.

5.

7.

8.

9.__________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. ________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 34


Mastery Test 2-2 Dictionary Skills Directions Go to www.dictionary.reference.com to answer the following questions. Select the best answer. b 1. The definition of robust is a. weak; frail; delicate b. strong; hardy; vigorous c. ailing d. powerless c 2. The most accurate phonetic spelling for the word mischievous is a. mz’-ch-vs b. ms’-ch-vs c. ms’-ch-vs d. ms-ch’-v-s a

3. What part of speech is savor?

a. verb b. noun c. adjective d. adverb d 4. What is the origin of laconic? a. The word Greek word for lazy b. A location on the French Rivera known for very affluent, self-indulgent visitors c. A mushroom that suddenly appears overnight d. The Laconians (also Spartans) from the region of Greece that was known for brevity of speech a

5. What is the noun for of benevolent?

a. benevolence b. benevolenthood c. benevolenward d. benevolention d 6. What is the correct syllabication for the word anthropologist? a. an/thro/po/lo/gist b. an/th/rop/o/lo/gist c. anthrop/o/lo/gist d. an/thro/pol/o/gist 35


7.-10. Use the dictionary entry below to create a vocabulary study card for the word altruism. The affluent businessman was honored for his altruism after he established an organization to provide health services to people in third world countries.

altruism ( l tr - z m) n. (unselfishness, opposite of egoism, from Fr. altruisme, coined or popularized 1830 by Fr. philosopher Auguste Comte) , 1. The practice of unselfish concern for others 2. Animal Behavior. The action of one animal that may endanger itself for the benefit of others in the group. Syn. philanthropic; benevolent; kind Ant. Mercenary, selfish, self-promoting, narcissistic

Meaning:

Part of Speech

Synonyms draconian

Other meanings

Word Parts

36


Mastery Test 2-3 “We Don’t Have AIDS, but We Suffer, too” Reading Level: 5.8 Introduction Activate the students’ background knowledge by asking them to complete the anticipation guide (p. 38). After they have checked the statements they agree with, assign the students to groups and ask them to discuss their choices. Remind them that there are no wrong answers, but they should be able to support their choices. After five minutes, discuss the choices with the entire class. Again, remind the students that there are no incorrect answers, but they should have support for their choices. Explain that this discussion process helps in preparing the content for an argumentative/persuasive essay because “Good talk precedes good writing.” (Ben Brunwin.) Follow-Up Give each student a 4 x 6 index card. On the board, write who, what, when, where, why, how and ask them to fill in the appropriate information from the article for each question. Allot 5 minutes. Next, discuss the students’ answers and decide as a class what information best applies to each question. Then ask the students to write a summary based on the outline. Finally, write one of the summaries on the chalkboard as the student dictates it to you. As a class, condense the summary so that it is succinct and concise. Try to do this in 50 words or less. Students who are interested in a book connection to this story may want to read What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day by Pearl Cleage. This is a fictional account of a woman who has been diagnosed as HIV-positive and first tries to contact former boyfriends to encourage them to be tested. Next, she moves back to Idlewild, Michigan, to live with her sister and struggle with what she considers her inevitable fate. While there, she meets a man who gives her another chance at happiness. The story has raw language, some violence, and adult situations. It was, however, an Oprah Book Club selection because of the themes of hope, redemption, and love.

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Anticipation Guide “We Don’t Have AIDS, but We Suffer, too” Directions • Read the following statements concerning the problem of dealing with patients who have AIDS or are HIV positive. • Put a check next to each statement you agree with. • Be prepared to support your views about each statement by thinking about prior knowledge you have about AIDS and its effects on a family and a community. You will be sharing this information with other members of your group when you discuss the six statements.

_____ 1. AIDS is mainly a problem in undeveloped countries and no longer a concern in the United States. _____ 2. Once diagnosed as HIV positive, a person is no longer able to live normal life. _____ 3. Education is a key to helping a community deal with HIV. _____ 4. Millions of children worldwide have had to face losing a parent to AIDS. _____ 5. HIV/AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease. _____ 6. Families do not feel free to talk about a loved one with AIDS.

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Chapter 3: Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues The finest words in the world are only vain sounds if you cannot understand them. Anatole France Introduction Begin with “Read Me First.” Point out that something is missing and we need to consider what should be there. •

Write the following on the board and tell the students to remember these numbers: 5600

34,000

60,000

120,000

140,000

Then explain that when they were four-years old, they knew about 5600 words. By age 10, they had learned about 34,000. As an entering college freshman, they now know about 60,000 and that number could double within the next few years. By the time a college graduate has earned a B.A or B.S, he or she will know about 140,000 words. • Next, write the word tantamount on the board and ask for the definition. If students cannot answer, then write the following sentence: “To say ‘I love you’ is tantamount to saying, ‘You shall live forever.’”—Father Anthony, a Russian Orthodox priest. • Make the following laminated, magnetized cards to put on the board and ask students to imagine they are applying for a job, and they must choose the nouns and adjectives they would use to describe themselves. Or give them the list and ask them to check the words they would use to describe themselves. (The PI—Personality Indicator—that interviewers frequently use has a similar design.) dilettante gauche skeptic diligent tyro virago cynic meticulous optimist adroit adept loquacious pessimist pragmatic persevering gregarious After giving the students time to consider their answers, discuss the definitions and how context clues assist in determining the definitions of unfamiliar words. Follow-Up • To accompany the explanations in the text, use the guided note-taking activity (p.41). • Provide a learning activity designed to appeal to all learning styles using the words (p. 42). If you use colorful magnetized cards and give the students an opportunity to move to the board to match their definition to the displayed word, you will accommodate visual and kinesthetic learners. Be sure to read aloud each sentence and corresponding answer in order to keep the attention of the auditory learners.

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Types of Context Clues Clue 1. Definition Clues

Description 1. The authors give a definition of specialized vocabulary. Sometimes they use synonyms: words that mean the same thing, or clue words such as means, is,

Example 1. An amiable person is cordial and congenial, someone who generates friendly relationships. (Amiable means friendly.)

refers to, are called.

2. Example Clues

2. Writers use examples to explain or clarify a word and use clue words such as like, such as, for example, including.

2. A teratogen is an outside agent such as a disease or drug that can often have a detrimental effect on a fetus. (Teratogen means an outside agent such as a drug or disease.)

3. Contrast Clues

3. Writers sometimes use words or phrases that mean the oppositeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as a clue. Additional clue words include but, though, antonyms:

whereas, however, on the other hand.

4. Inference Clues

4. Writers sometimes require readers to determine the meaning of an unknown word through inferenceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process that uses logic and reasoning skills.

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3. Josh was gregarious; however, his brother Alan was shy, introverted, and preferred solitude. (Gregarious means sociable and outgoing.) 4. In a laissez faire economy, businesses are encouraged to be autonomous, since they receive no help or restrictions from the government and are, therefore, considered selfsufficient. (Autonomous means independent.)


Types of Context Clues Clue 1. Definition Clues

Description 1. The authors give a definition of specialized vocabulary. Sometimes they use ______________: words that mean the same thing, or clue words such as

Example 1. An amiable person is cordial and congenial, someone who generates friendly relationships. (Amiable means ___________.)

____________, ___________, ___________________, ______________________.

2. Example Clues

2. Writers use examples to explain or clarify a word and use clue words such as ____________, ____________, _____________, ___________.

2. A teratogen is an outside agent such as a disease or drug that can often have a detrimental effect on a fetus. (Teratogen means ______________________________ ____________________________.)

3. Contrast Clues

3. Writers sometimes use _____________________:

words or phrases that mean the oppositeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as a clue. Additional clue words include _____, ______, ______________, _________, __________________.

4. Inference Clues

4. Writers sometimes require readers to determine the meaning of an unknown word through inferenceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process that uses __________ and _________________.

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3. Josh was gregarious; however, his brother Alan was shy, introverted, and preferred solitude. (Gregarious means _________________________.)

4. In a laissez faire economy, businesses are encouraged to be autonomous, since they receive no help or restrictions from the government and are, therefore, considered selfsufficient. (Autonomous means _________________.)


â&#x20AC;˘

Use the list of words and definitions below to create an activity to practice using context clues. Put the words on one color of paper and the definitions on white paper. Laminate the words and put magnetic strips on the back of each. Give each student a word and put the definition on the board. Then have the students refer to the sentencesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;either as a handout or as a transparency you have prepared. Students will deduce the meanings of each using context clues and will match their word to the definition. If you work on this as a group with each sentence, you can have students underline the context clues that helped them discover the meaning. (You may want to have a set printed to share with adjunct instructors.)

1. acknowledge 2. anecdote 3. antidote 4. apathy 5. avert 6. candid 7. comply 8. concise 9. dialog 10. erratic 11. fortify 12. hypocrite 13. illuminate 14. novice 15. obstacle 16. ominous 17. relevant 18. reminisce 19. ruthless 20. status

to admit to be real; recognize a short narrative a cure having no feelings to avoid very honest to give in to or obey brief and clear a conversation unpredictable to strengthen a person who pretends to be what he is not to brighten a beginner a hindrance threatening important to remember fondly cruel position

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Context Clues Directions: Read each sentence and underline the context clue that helps you identify the definition of the italicized word. Write the definition on the blank. 1. The actor acknowledged all of the people who helped him achieve international acclaim for his performance in the blockbuster film by calling their names and asking each person to stand. __________ 2. The guest speaker opened his remarks with a humorous anecdote about the childhood memories he shared with the CEO of our company. __________ 3. The antidote for the snake venom was rushed to the victim in order to prevent further complications from the snakebite. __________ 4. Disappointed and demoralized by the low grade, the student lacked his previous enthusiasm for chemistry, and instead exhibited only apathy during the lectures and the lab. __________ 5. In order to avert disaster, the motorist swerved off the road, barely missing the startled deer standing up ahead. __________ 6. Although Eric usually appreciated honesty, he was hurt by his daughter’s candid remark, “You’re not going to wear that tie, are you?” __________ 7. It never fails. Whenever I comply with a small request, someone ends up asking for a bigger favor later. __________ 8. The writing instructor reminded students to be concise, rather than creating elaborate, flowery, long-winded passages. __________ 9. The diplomats hoped to encourage a positive, creative dialog in order to talk through their differences to reach a compromise. __________ 10. His friends grew increasingly concerned when Charles exhibited erratic, unpredictable behavior. It seemed his alcohol consumption made him talkative and pleasant on some occasions, then unpredictably aggressive and violent on others. __________ 11. Alan’s new resolutions included eating healthful foods, exercising regularly, and fortifying his diet with vitamins. __________ 12. Some psychologists believe parents are hypocrites if they spank their child for fighting while saying, “It’s not right to hit people.” __________ 13. Because we lost power during the storm, we used candles to illuminate the room and then decided to keep the candlelight after the electricity was restored. __________ 43


14. Although it is humbling to admit we may not be experts at everything, we should recognize that when we first learned to ride a bike, read a book, cook a meal, or even drive a car, we were novices. __________ 15. Ben Carson tells his story of overcoming obstacles, such as living in such dire poverty that the cockroaches made the walls seem to move, and growing up in a single-parent home, as well as dealing with racial prejudice, and ultimately becoming Chief of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. __________ 16. The ominous sky suddenly turned a sinister yellow, forewarning of an approaching tornado. __________ 17. The judge cautioned the attorney to avoid misleading the witness and to adhere to details that were relevant to the case, rather than sharing unnecessary, unimportant facts. __________ 18. One of my favorite pastimes is to sit on the front porch swing with my grandfather and listen to him reminisce about his days as a major league baseball player. __________ 19. The ruthless escaped prisoner wreaked havoc, impassively hurting anyone in his path, as he continued to elude the police. __________ 20. Even with a promotion and obvious change in status, Elaine remained close friends with everyone she encountered. __________

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Mastery Test 3-1 Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues Instruct the students to insert the appropriate words in the sentences below by using context clues. altered brig

demonstrated evaluated

flare hues

hypothesis influence

institutions skeptical

1. The sunset was a canvas of several hues including rose, violet, purple, and twilight blue. 2. The instructor seemed skeptical that the student could pass the class since he had already missed more than half the lectures. 3. After the sailor was arrested for insubordination and inciting a riot, the captain ordered him to be put in the brig . 4. The firefighters remained several hours after extinguishing the blaze because they needed to ensure the fire would not flare up later. 5. While peer influence was strong, he remained faithful to his own ideals and worked hard each night to prepare for his challenging courses. 6. Before asking us to dissect the pig, the lab instructor first demonstrated the technique he wanted us to perform. 7. After the lecture, the trainer gave us an assessment test and evaluated our understanding of the procedures. 8. After only one semester, Anna seemed altered by her college experience, seeking new knowledge rather than focusing on only getting a good grade. 9. Some people who are mistrustful of the government have carried their fear to such an extreme that they believe the hypothesis that astronauts did not really land on the moon. 10. Some minimum security prisons have such pleasant surroundings that they do not really look like institutions but seem to have the look and feel of a secure country club.

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Mastery Test 3-2 Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues Ask the students to insert the appropriate words in the sentences below using context clues. abandoned counterparts

deprivation dwellings

handful intermittent

stable virtually

visible undoubtedly

1. Although the defects of the house were not visible, the home inspection team discovered severe damage to the foundation and recommended extensive repair. 2. We had nearly abandoned all hope of recovering our loss when the stock market suddenly took an upward move. 3. The architect received international praise for his designs of dwellings that were attractive and enduring. 4. Although he had suffered a great deal of deprivation in his homeland at the hand of the government, he harbored no ill will. 5. The rain was not constant; instead, it was intermittent all day, preventing any plans for a picnic. 6. The new supervisor was talented, knowledgeable, and one of the most stable of the candidates, demonstrating his loyalty and dependability in every project he undertook. 7. With only a handful of volunteers, the group was able to raise a great deal of money in the car wash. 8. Though the coal mine was producing virtually no product, the new CEO negotiated his contract so that he would receive a dollar a ton that was mined. By the end of the year, the company was excavating 30,000 tons a day! 9. We established an e-mail relationship with our counterparts in Russia and were able to share information and determine solutions through the association of people in similar situations. 10. Meeting the governor was undoubtedly one of the turning points in his life, especially when the politician encouraged him to consider a career in public service.

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Mastery Test 3-3 Online Dating Sites Aren’t Holding People’s Hearts Reading Level: 11.8 Introduction Begin with a double-entry journal assignment and ask students to write 150-200 words about their thoughts of online dating services—whether it is something they have experienced or simply heard about. Next, activate the students’ prior knowledge by creating a KWL chart on the chalkboard or on chart paper. Give the students Post-it notes and ask them to write statements they believe to be true and questions they have about online dating sites. Point out that this article begins with an anecdote, which is frequently a technique writers use to introduce a thesis and one they may want to try. Follow-Up Ask students to use their Post-it notes to write comments they learned from the article. Finally, as the second part of the double-entry journal, ask the students to write their thoughts in 150-200 words about online dating.

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K-W-L What You Know About Online Dating Services

What You Want to Know About Online Dating Services

48

What You Have Learned About Online Dating Services


Chapter 4: Building Vocabulary: Using Word Parts Words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with shades of deeper meaning.—Maya Angelou Introduction • Segue from “Read Me First” and the explanation on ingredients to the following, which includes some ingredients for successfully studying courses in natural sciences. Make a transparency of the memo (p.52) is from Jacqueline Spencer (Assistant Professor of Biology at Thomas Nelson Community College) who explains the importance of learning the vocabulary, especially word analysis, when studying biology. As you discuss the content, ask students if they have previously studied word analysis in other courses. Assess students’ prior knowledge of word analysis by giving them the bubble sheet (p. 51) and asking them to color in the dots with a highlighter if they can define the word part. Write the following words on the board: craniopagus twins; hypothermic cardiac arrest; hemostasis; prognosis; symbiotic Explain that in his book, The Big Picture, Benjamin Carson describes a procedure he was “inspired” to try to separate craniopagus twins. (cranio=helmet and pagus=fixed) Because the brain is an intricate network of blood vessels, many patients hemorrhage and their chances of survival are slim. However, to achieve hemostasis (hemo=blood; stasis= stable) he decided to put the twins into hypothermic cardiac arrest (hypo=under and therm=heat) (cardiac=heart). By lowering their body temperature and slowing their heart, he was able to prevent them from bleeding as much, since their circulation was slower. Then, following the grueling hours of surgery, the medical team waited to determine the prognosis (pro=forward and gnosis=to know). The surgery in Africa was not successful, however, and the team was devastated until they discovered the twins were symbiotic (sym=same; bio=life) and shared a liver. Nevertheless, it was a turning point in Carson’s personal life. At first glance, the words may seem impossible to discern. However, knowledge of Greek and Latin roots can unlock the meanings of many words. Ask if there are any bibliophiles in the room. How about videophiles? Have them determine the words using an inductive approach: Write phil on the board and ask students for examples of words that have that root.

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Phil Philadelphia philosophy philharmonic philanthropist philanderer

Ask students what the “nickname” of Philadelphia is and someone will say, “The city of brotherly love.” From that you can lead into the meanings of the other words. Mention that soph means wisdom; harmon means music; anthrop means humankind. Next, ask students what biblio means. Eventually, they will discern book. Again, ask for a show of hands of those who consider themselves bibliophiles. Then ask for a show of hands of the videophiles. Anglophiles? Francophiles? Another option is to tell the students that learning word analysis can save them money: For example, you want to buy some colorful flowers for your yard, and you notice that annuals are $2.99 apiece. You also notice that perennials are $2.99 apiece. Ask the students which is the better buy? Explain that annuals last one season in the year, while perennials will come back again. Explain that per means through, so the plants will last through many years. Another example may occur when you want to buy a magazine. One is $12.00 a year for a bi-monthly magazine. The other is $12.00 for a semi-monthly magazine. Which is the better buy? Explain that bi-monthly is every two months and semi-monthly would be twice a month, so while one is 6 issues a year, the other is 24 issues a year. Follow-Up Use the guided note-taking activity (p. 53) to accompany your lecture on prefixes. Also, point out that learning these prefixes can help those students who consider themselves bad spellers. For example, ask them to write the following in their notebooks. Circulate around the room while they spell the words. Then write the words on the board and explain the reasons for the spellings, particularly the rationale for the double consonants: misspell; dissect; illegal; millennium. Ask the students to do the same for the tables on roots and suffixes. Refer students to the bubble sheet they highlighted at the beginning of the lesson and ask them to highlight additional word parts they have learned. Then assign them to pair/share partners and test each other on the highlighted word parts.

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Word Analysis Bubble Sheet Directions Highlight the word parts you can define. -ship

-ist

quint-

aster

tele

graph

chron

-ant

voc

contra-

corp

bene

non -

poly-

thermo-

com-

port

cred

-hood

retro-

pre-

pseudo

51

anti-

theo

-ive


Each step leads to the next in understanding and subject mastery. Basically, I tell my students at the beginning of the year that Biology 101 is like a foreign language. Many of the terms are from the Greek or Latin. They need to be able to break apart words and learn from the prefix, root term, and suffix in order to understand the terms. I also tell them that learning each concept will be the building blocks for the future. For example, whales are mammals, but they are made of Eukaryote cells. Eukaryote means â&#x20AC;&#x153;true nucleusâ&#x20AC;? and is a type of cell with certain properties. Mammals are members of the Class Mammalia of the Kingdom Animalia. They are also members of the subphylum Vertebrata, meaning they have a backbone. Mammals are classified as having dentition, mammary glands (modified sweat glands for feeding the young) and hair or fur. Some species of whales have vestigial pelvic girdles, because they once had feet when they lived on land. Long, long ago they returned to a marine habitat as it offered a better ecological niche. As you can see, vocabulary is critical in biology!â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Jackie Spencer

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Common Prefixes Prefix Prefixes Referring to Amount or Number mono/uni bi/di/du tri quint/quad/pent deci centi milli micro multi/poly semi equi Prefixes Meaning â&#x20AC;&#x153;Notâ&#x20AC;? (Negative) a anti contra dis in/il/ir/im mis non un pseudo Prefixes Giving Direction, Location, or Placement ab ad ante/pre circum/peri com/col/con de dia ex/extra hyper inter intro/intra post re retro sub super tele trans

Meaning

Sample Word

monocle/unicycle bimonthly/divorce/duet triangle quintet/pentagon decimal/decade centigrade/century milligram microscopic multipurpose/polygon semicircle equidistant asymmetrical antiwar contradict disagree incorrect/illogical/irreversible/impossible misunderstand nonfiction unpopular pseudoscientific

absent adhesive antecedent/premarital circumference/perimeter compile/collide/convene depart diameter ex-wife/extramarital hyperactive interpersonal introduction posttest review retrospect submarine supercharge telescope transcontinental

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Use the guided note-taking activity (p. 55) to accompany your lecture on roots.

To encourage critical thinking, ask the students to explain the following: What did Galileo realize when he said ours was not a geocentric universe? What might a graphologist study? What is meant by trying to circumvent the rules? Where is a subterranean cave? What would a person be like if he has apathy? What would be a mortifying experience? What is a benediction? When Mercutio says “A plague on both your houses” in Romeo and Juliet, he is using a malediction, which is a kind of what? If a vocation is your career, then what is an avocation? What is a malefactor, and would you choose to spend time with him or her? What is a benefactor? How would you feel about spending time with one?

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Common Roots Common Root aud/audit aster/astro bene bio cap chron(o) corp cred dict/dic duc/duct fact/fac graph geo log/logo/logy mit/miss mort/mor path phono port scop scrib/script sen/sent spec/spic/spect tend/tent/tens terr/terre theo ven/vent vert/vers vis/vid voc

Meaning

55

Sample Word audible/auditory asteroid/astronaut benefit biology captive chronology corpse incredible dictate/predict introduce/conduct factory/factor telegraph geophysics logic/psychology permit/dismiss immortal/mortician sympathy telephone transport microscope scribe/inscription sensitive/sentiment retrospect/spectacle tendon/tension terrain/territory theology convention/venture invert/inverse invisible/video vocation


Common Suffixes Suffix Suffixes Referring to a State, Condition, or Quality able ance ation ence ible ion ity ive ment ness ous ty y Suffixes Meaning “One Who” an ant ee eer ent er ist or Suffixes Meaning “Pertaining to or Referring to” al ship hood ward

Sample Word

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Point out to students that they can frequently determine the part of speech of a word by the suffix: confront=verb confrontation=noun confrontational=adjective confrontationally=adverb amaze=verb amazement=noun amazing=adjective amazingly=adverb

Use the activity (p. 58) for a follow-up review. Make a transparency and cover all of the questions with Post-It notes. Go around the room in round robin fashion. If students do not know an answer, encourage them to collaborate. While they are playing the game, pass out Smarties and Dum Dums to students, so everyone wins. For the bonus question, offer “big money,” such as the oversized play money available at most dollar stores.

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Word Analysis Trivia Prefix

Prefix

Root

Root

Define anti

Define tele

Define aster

Define vis

If you A misanthrope circumvent is someone a problem, you… who does good or bad?

A graphologist probably analyzes…

Someone who has apathy is without…

Root Define voc A subterranean cave is located here.

Suffix Define or A suffix changes the meaning of a word and the _______.

The anterior of the pig you dissect in biology is in the...

If you contradict your thesis, you…

Literally, if you mortify someone, you embarrass them to

A benefactor Define A -ence chronometer is someone measures. . . who…

If you intervene in negotiations, you come where?

A polytheistic religion worships…

If you are suffering from photophobia, you…

At one time people believed in a geocentric universe, which meant…

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Define If we incorporate -ship our ideas, we put them into one…


Mastery Test 4-1 Building Vocabulary: Using Word Parts Using context clues and your knowledge of word parts, determine the definitions of the following: In the seventeenth century, Galileo Galilei, an astronomer and physicist, confirmed the speculations of Nicolaus Copernicus from the previous century, who said the universe was not a geocentric one. Since this theory was contrary to church theology, Copernicus did not pursue the hypothesis, and since his proofs were somewhat inaccurate, he was not persecuted by the church. Conversely, Galileo was more observant and more accurate. In a speech in 1610, he announced at the University of Florence that the earth moved around the sun and was not the center of the universe. Immediately Pope Paul V demanded that he renounce his findings. Galileo tried to adhere to the truth, but facing excommunication and possibly death, he complied with the Popeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demands. According to legend, when Galileo was forced to recount his theory, he crossed his fingers and whispered, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Yet it does move.â&#x20AC;? He spent his final days under house arrest, disavowed by the church, forbidden to write his ideas. 1. astronomer:

someone who studies the stars and planets

2. speculation:

assumption or guesswork or theory

3. previous:

earlier; before

4. contrary:

opposing; in opposition

5. theology:

religious studies

6. inaccurate:

incorrect; erroneous

7. conversely:

in opposition; on the other hand

8. renounce:

give up; abandon

9. adhere:

stick to

10. excommunication:

exclusion

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Mastery Test 4-2 Building Vocabulary: Using Word Parts

Using your knowledge of word parts, select the word from the box below that best completes each of the following sentences. Each word should be used only once.

annual antechamber benevolent biennium

circumvented duplicitous polychromatic precede

proactive reminisce

Candace dreamed of being elected president of our organization for the biennium. A benevolent person, she frequently made kind gestures to help other members with their annual projects. In addition, she exhibited a proactive mentality, looking for answers rather than focusing on the problems. On the day of the election, she arrived in a modest outfit, smiling with humility. Standing in the antechamber of the meeting hall, she shook hands with each arriving member, impressing everyone with her grace and poise. Her opponentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s arrival, on the contrary, was the exact opposite. Dressed in polychromatic attire, Clarissa flamboyantly wormed her way through the crowd, announcing her candidacy, and touting her own qualities. However, since her reputation as a duplicitous member who notoriously circumvented the rules had preceded her, we realized there would be no contest. After the election, we were jubilant to share in Candaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s victory, and happy to know we would have good leadership. It would be a good meeting on which to reminisce.

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Mastery Test 4-3 Saved by the Kindness of a Virtual Stranger Reading Level: 11.0 Introduction Distribute a copy of the story impression handout (p. 62) and ask the students to write their prediction of the content of the essay based on their impression from the words presented. Allot 6.2 minutes. Pair each student with a partner and ask them to share their answers. Then allow time to discuss their prediction as a class, reminding students that this in the first step in the reading process. Follow-Up Ask the students to arrange the following details in the correct sequence. 1. The author rode home on the train with Carolyn Hodges, a friend of his from work. 2. The author’s wife’s condition was no longer controlled by medication. 3. The author was ruled out because his blood type did not match his wife’s. 4. A tremendous bond between the two couples forms. 5. The operation was a success. 6. John volunteered to be a donor.

Give each student a 4 x 6 index card. On the board, write who, what, when, where, why, how and ask them to fill in the appropriate information from the article for each question. Allot 5 minutes. Next, discuss the students’ answers and decide as a class what information best applies to each question. Then ask the students to write a summary based on the outline. Finally, write one of the summaries on the chalkboard as the student dictates it to you. As a class, condense the summary so that it is succinct and concise. Try to do this in 50 words or less.

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Story Impression “Saved by the Kindness of a Virtual Stranger”

Study the 10 words from the story. 1. miracles 2. laws of nature 3. kidney 4. nephrologist 5. donate 6. dialysis 7. bone-marrow registry 8. rewards 9. risks 10. bond

In the space below, write your prediction of the essay’s content. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 5: Locating Main Ideas Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary makers, but it is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground.-- Noah Webster Introduction • This chapter is a critical one for many students, and you should allot extra time to ensure mastery of each concept before moving to the next. In fact, some instructors contend it takes five weeks for students to understand main idea concepts adequately. •

Begin with students considering the photograph in “Read Me First.” Point out that frequently a general idea is the first inspiration for a movie or book. For example, Tom Clancy got the idea for Without Remorse from the line, “It’s only murder if innocent people are killed.” (It is the story of a former Navy SEAL, who becomes a one-man vigilante team obsessed with eliminating evil.)

Begin this chapter by explaining to students about the difference in the terms general or broad and specific or narrow. This will help when you are moving students from the concept of thesis to supporting details. Some visuals may be helpful. For instance, nesting cups or nesting dolls show how items in a paragraph move from general (as in the all-encompassing outer cup), which would represent the thesis to the most specific (the tiny inner cup), which would represent the minor, supporting detail.

Another visual that helps is a drawing of concentric circles on the board. Label the outer one as the thesis, the next as topic sentence, the next as major detail, and the last one as minor detail (p. 64).

A third way of introducing the concept is to create a ladder on the board. Demonstrate one example, and then have the students offer suggestions for a second and/or third one (p. 65).

Make a transparency of the diagram (p. 66) to use as a lecture guide, which gives the students a view of the role of general and specific items.

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Topic

Topic Sentence Major Detail Minor Detail

64


Artist Painter

19th Century French Impressionist Claude Monet

Athlete Baseball Player Yankee Shortstop Derek Jeter

Vehicle Automobile Ford Saleen Mustang

Literature Nonfiction Autobiography Autobiography of Malcolm X

Career Educator Teacher Kindergarten Teacher

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Determining General and Specific Ideas

General

Specific

 Thesis (or Topic)

 Major Details

 Topic Sentence

 Minor Details

 Thesis Statement

 Bring the General into Focus

 Broad

 Narrow

 Encompass much

 Clarify

 Conclude

 Explain

 Act as a Springboard

 Convince

 Expand Meaning

 Support

 May Be Misinterpreted

 Restrict Interpretations

 Distill

 Crystallize

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Main Idea Introduce the terms in Chapter 5 with the guided note-taking handout (p. 69). One of the most difficult things is for the students to move from a topic to a topic sentence. Frequently, students are not able to discern a fragment from a complete sentence. The Student Resource Guide B: A Guide for ESL (ELL) will be an important addition to this chapter. Also, the following activity is designed to give the students practice in writing topic sentences. On index cards, write the following topics. Pair the students and allow each group to select one of the following: The special privileges college athletes receive Things to look for when buying a used car The ways men and women differ in their communication styles Attributes of an active learner Steps to previewing a reading assignment Characteristics of a good film Traits of my favorite restaurant Effective advertisements on TV Four functions of eye contact Factors that influence shoppers The attributes of a good leader Traits of a good teacher The three most important inventions of the last 100 years Difficulties professional athletes face The three best fast food restaurants Acts of courage Unusual attributes of dolphins •

After giving each pair a card, model the activity by writing a map on the board and ask the students to create a topic sentence before you show the one you have. Explain how you took the general topic and expanded it into a complete sentence to create what could serve as a topic sentence in a paragraph. The steps raying out from the topic sentence would serve as supporting details that could clarify, expand, and explain. Remind students that the topic sentence contains the topic and the author’s primary point about the topic, and it is general enough to cover all of the details that support it in the paragraph.

Next, pair each student with a classmate who has the same topic and ask him or her to collaborate to create a logical topic sentence, an expansion of the topic. Again, point out that the thesis (topic) could sound like a title, but it will not be the topic sentence. After you have circulated the room to check on their wording and accuracy of the topic sentence, allow them to establish the supporting details. Explain that writers like to do things in threes, so they must have at least three supporting details. However, some (such as “Steps to Previewing”) will obviously have more. Again, circulate 67


around the room and check on the logic of the supporting details. (Point out that only the topic sentence needs to be a complete sentence.) Finally, have the students go to the board and share their conceptual maps. (If some students are in a developmental writing course, this exercise will be beneficial and you may suggest that they consider some of these topics for subsequent writing assignments.) Photograph students in their collaborative groups and group presentations, you will find they work more diligently and stay on task. •

To facilitate students’ ability to recognize topic sentences, explain the possible locations of topic sentences discussed in the chapter (first, middle, last, as well as first and last). Next, introduce some of the operative words that writers of college texts may use as a “springboard” to discuss supporting details. Try to provide a visual for anchoring in their minds the words that will help them identify the topic sentence. For example, draw a diving board or a key or an umbrella (or make a transparency of the handout below) and list a variety of words that may indicate a topic sentence. Point out that while writers are not limited to these words, these are frequently the kinds of words the students will encounter in textbook reading. Use the process diagram (p.70) of the manual to help students follow a sequence for determining the main idea, which is explained in the text.

Key Detail

Minor Detail

Key Detail

Minor Detail

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Key Detail

Minor Detail


Term

Definition

Questions To Ask

Topic

The general subject of a paragraph

What is a frequently repeated key word the author discusses throughout the paragraph?

Main Idea

The most important point a whole paragraph makes

What is the author’s main point about the subject of a paragraph?

Topic Sentence

The sentence that states the main idea in a paragraph

What is the most general sentence that states the subject and the author’s point about the subject but also covers all of the details?

Details that prove or explain the main idea

What specific words or phrases support the main idea?

Words or phrases that lead the reader from one idea to another

What words signal a switch from one idea to another?

A main idea that is not directly stated

What is the subject? What is the author’s primary point about that subject?

Key Details

Transitions

Implied Main Idea

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Key Words for Locating and Writing Topic Sentences: Results; Consequences; Ways; Reasons; Methods; Kinds; Causes; Outcomes; Steps; Levels; Factors; Types; Traits; Categories; Examples; Attributes;

Tips forCharacteristics; Finding the Main Idea Conclusions; Features; Stages; Instances Advantages; Benefits

1. Identify the topic.

2. Locate the most general sentence (the topic sentence).

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3. Study the rest of the paragraph.


Patterns for Identifying the Topic Sentence Topic Sentence First:

Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence Last:

Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence Middle: Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence First and Last: Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence

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Many people believe that a studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s freshman year is carefree and without stress. However, most first-year college students must learn to cope with many new difficulties. First, freshmen must adjust to the routine of academia. Learning to seek help from advisors is as important as learning what prerequisites are necessary for their courses. In addition, the added financial stress can be daunting. Tuition and books often pose an additional fiscal burden on families. Finally, students must learn the self-discipline and time management skills required of an active learner in order to be academically successful. Adopting new study strategies is often a necessity for survival in the collegiate venue.

Key Detail

Minor Detail

Key Detail

Minor Detail 72

Key Detail

Minor Detail


Mastery Test 5-1 Locating Main Ideas

Provide the following outline to help students identify the topic sentences and details. Have the students fill in the blanks. While the answers are provided here, be sure to delete them on the student copy.

Spam I.

The most common form of Internet abuse is spam. A. Unsolicited impersonal e-mail B. From unknown party or group without your consent C. Can be from a variety of sources 1. 2. 3.

II.

political religious incoherent ravings

If youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re worried and want to avoid spam, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll need to learn more about the various ways that spammers obtain e-mail addresses. A. Data resellers B. E-mail offers for free services often provide consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s profiles for advertisers, marketing organizations, and scam artists.

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Mastery Test 5-2 Locating Main Ideas

â&#x20AC;˘

Provide the following conceptual map to help students identify the topic sentence for each paragraph. Have the students fill in the blanks. Note that one major detail is provided.

Loneliness

Loneliness and being alone are not synonymous.

Loneliness is a painful state of isolation. Being alone can be desirable. Loneliness is not a matter of choice. Solitude is a matter of choice.

Lonely people tend to spend a lot of time by themselves, eat dinner alone, spend weekends alone, and participate in few social activities.

Unlikely to date. May have shallow friendships. Unlikely to share confidences. Peaks during adolescence .

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Loneliness is even reported among some married couples. Lonely wives feel less love and liking for spouse and less satisfaction. Lonely husbands feel less love and liking for spouse and less intimacy.


Mastery Test 5-3 Don’t Ask Reading Level: 10 Introduction •

Write the first sentence on the board: “Men and women differ in many ways.” Point out that the word “ways” is one of those key words that helps to identify a topic sentence. Ask students to list what they anticipate the author will reveal about different ways men and women communicate.

Use the opportunity to revisit word analysis with the “Vocabulary Preview.” para=beyond dox=belief, opinion (paradox) meta=along with, beyond, among, behind (metamessages) arch=leader, first (hierarchical) a=without, not (asymmetry)

Follow-Up • • • •

After students have read the article, have them brainstorm in round-robin fashion what they can recall without looking at the article. Write their comments on the board without editing. Next, have them check what you have written and allow them to suggest additions, clarifications, or corrections. Next, have them arrange items in categories. Finally have them summarize Tannen’s article in 50 words or less using the following outline:

Who: Men and women What: Differ in how they communicate When: Currently Where: In personal and professional situations Why: Because of how they think about relationships How: Metamessages; perceptions of hierarchy; potential for asymmetry Currently, in personal and professional situations, men and women differ in how they communicate because their varying views of relationships unwittingly cause them to consider metamessages, perceptions of hierarchy, and the potential for asymmetry. (34 words)

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Chapter 6: Identifying Supporting Details and Transitions They can conquer who believe they can.-- Ralph Waldo Emerson Introduction • Begin with “Read Me First” and ask if anyone is good at planning parties. What is required? Have you ever attended a party or a wedding that was a fiasco as a result of poor planning and no one attending to details? Ask the students what a car detailing shop would provide. •

Remind students of the difference in general and specific terms mentioned in Chapter 4. Again, show them the nesting cups or the concentric circles to help them visualize the difference in a main idea and a detail.

Make a transparency of the map and outline (p.77) that correspond to the one in the textbook. Explain that writing is about organization and making choices. Reading is about recognizing the organization an author has selected. Learning to outline or map the details will help the students comprehend, memorize, and write more effectively.

Display transparencies of the phrases and sentences (pp. 78-79), which are taken from the readings in the textbook, and ask the students to determine the topic, main idea, and three supporting details. Then demonstrate how each set can be mapped.

Recognizing transition words is critical for recognizing details. Use the guided notetaking activity (p. 80) to discuss these. Note the smaller font indicates the notes the students will insert as you lecture so be sure to delete these answers on the student copy.

Follow Up • • •

Refer to the transparency (p. 72) you used to demonstrate main idea and ask the students to locate the transitions used to introduce the details. Then ask the students to map the main idea and details. Distribute copies of the photograph of Pisa (p. 81) and ask the students to write three details in the bottom three boxes. In the top box, students will write a one-sentence main idea caption. Visit http://education.wichita.edu/caduceus/examples/essay_student/game_two.htm and show students the role transition words play in organizing an essay.

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Main Idea/Topic Sentence

Key Detail

Minor Detail

Key Detail

Minor Detail

Minor Detail

Main Idea/Topic Sentence I.

Key Detail A. Minor Detail B. Minor Detail

II.

Key Detail A. Minor Detail B. Minor Detail

77

Minor Detail


Example 1:

1. Two dimensions, arousal and pleasure,

determine if a shopper will react positively to a store environment. 2. Factors that influence shoppers. 3. Disney World maintains a balance of pleasant stimulation for consumers. 4. The Harley-Davidson CafĂŠ features auditory and visual stimuli to appeal to patrons. 5. Planet Hollywood, which uses props and costumes for visual appeal, grosses over $200 million a year. Example 2:

1. A second function of eye contact is to regulate the conversation and to pass the speaking turn from one person to another. 2. The functions of eye communication. 3. Researches have observed four major functions of eye communication. 4. One function of eye contact is to seek feedback from others. 5. Eye contact is used to signal the nature of a relationship. 6. Eye movements can make up for increased physical distance. 78


Example 3:

1. Your ability to do the job is important to an interviewer. 2. Your motivation should be evident. 3. Things employers look for in interviewees. 4. You need to exhibit compatibility with the rest of the organization. 5. Recognize that when you interview for a job, employers are looking for evidence of four things. 6. Be sure to exude self-confidence.

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Common Transitions Type of Transition

Example

Timeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Sequence

first, later, next, finally

Example

for example, for instance, to illustrate, such as

Enumeration

Continuation

first, second, third, last, another, next

also, in addition, and, further, another, as well

Contrast

on the other hand, in contrast, however

Comparison

like, likewise, similarly

Cause-Effect

because, thus, therefore, since, consequently

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What They Tell the Reader The author is arranging the ideas in the order in which they happened. An example will follow. The author is marking or identifying each major point. (Sometimes these may be used to suggest order of importance.) The author is continuing with the same idea and is going to provide additional information. The author is switching to a different, opposite, or contrasting idea than previously discussed. The writer will show how the previous idea is similar to what follows. The writer will show a connection between two or more things, how one thing caused another, or how something happened as a result of something else.


Study the photograph and complete the concept map below by filling in details you notice in the picture. In the top box, write a one-sentence caption summarizing the photograph.

81


Mastery Test 6-1 Identifying Supporting Details •

Present the topic sentence: “Several types of experiences influence how people feel about being touched” and underline the word types, which is one of the key words mentioned earlier that may indicate a topic sentence. In addition, ask the students to circle some transition words: one thing, for example, as a result, as well, and even. Ask them what kinds of transitions are indicated. Then have them fill in the following map:

Main Idea: Several types of experiences influence how people feel about being touched.

Childhood

Little girls like to be hugged and kissed more than boys.

Women often like touching more than men.

Cultural Background

Latin American and southern Europeans touch casually.

82

Northern Europeans and most Americans touch less often.

Social Context

Men who usually are not comfortable with casual physical contact may hug at sporting events.


Mastery Test 6-2 Identifying Supporting Details

â&#x20AC;˘

To help students identify the topic sentences and supporting details of the paragraphs, make a transparency of the outline (p.84). Give students a copy of the same outline as a handout and guide them as they fill in the blanks.

â&#x20AC;˘

Ask students to highlight the topic sentences in their text and circle the transition words. Discuss with students the function of some of the transition words such as for example: example on the other hand: contrast moreover: continuation

â&#x20AC;˘

Present the outlined information in map form and discuss which, if either, is more effective for the students to recall information.

Main Idea: ____________________________________________________

Corporations may be either public or private.

Corporations have several advantages.

Stocks available for purchase by public

Limited liability

Private stocks not available to public

Continuity

Stocks begin privately, then extend to public

Easier to raise money and secure loans

83


Corporations I.

Corporations may be either public or private.

A. Stocks of public corporations are available for purchase by the public. 1. Caterpillar 2. Digital 3. Time Warner B.

Stocks of private corporations have fewer shareholders and are not open to the public.

1. Family-held

2. Management groups 3. Open to firmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; employees 4. Examples include Gallo, Levi Straus, and UPS B. Some corporations, such as NetScape, begin privately and then expand with increasing public confidence. II. Corporations have several advantages. A. Limited liability B. Continuity C. Raising money and securing loans is easier.

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Mastery Test 6-3 Why Go Veg? Reading Level: 16 Introduction As the students enter class, give each one a 3 x 5 index card and tell them it is their admission ticket to class. When everyone has arrived, ask them to list their thoughts when they hear the word vegetarian. Next, give the students Post-it notes to write comments for the K-W-L chart (p. 209) that you can create on the chalkboard or on chart paper. After students have completed comments about what they know and what to know about becoming vegetarian, ask them to read the article. Follow Up After the students have read the selection, arrange students in groups of four and ask them to create either a concept map or an outline of the information in the text. Allot 10 minutes for the students to complete their assignment. Then, ask the students to select a spokesperson to present the informationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;offering their rationale for the organization. Note that there are several options so the maps and outlines may vary and still be accurate (pp.86-88). Finally, teach the students to write a pyramid summary according to the format (p.89) you show on a transparency. Using the prompts below, ask them to write their summary on the back of their admission ticket they received at the beginning of class. You can then assess how well the students understood the reading assignment. Line 1: The topic Line 2: What the author wants you to know about the topic Line 3: Ethical reasons Line 4: Environmental reasons Line 5: Health reasons

85


Reasons to Become a Vegetarian Health

Reduces risk of diseases

Live Longer; Feel Better

Prevents some chronic diseases Prevents some heart disease

Ethical

Environmental

Moral treatment of animals

Less run-off of pollutants

Aids in fighting illness Energizes

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Get Healthier

Reduces pollution from unhealthy runoff

Feel Younger; Live Longer

Six Reasons to Become Vegetarian

Spares animals

Aids in weight loss

Alleviates digestive problems

87


Topic: Reasons to Become Vegetarian I.

Health Reasons A. Reduces risk of diseases such as diabetes B. Reduces risk of heart disease C. Makes you less susceptible to illness D. Energizes E. Aids in weight loss F. Alleviates digestive problems II. Ethical Reasons A. Protects animals from slaughter B. Eliminates need for â&#x20AC;&#x153;factory farmingâ&#x20AC;? III. Environmental Reasons A. Reduces chemical runoff B. Reduces animal waste runoff

88


Pyramid Summary ____________________ _____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 7: Understanding Implied Main Ideas Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heart. --Carl Jung Introduction • Implied main idea is difficult for students to grasp because it requires a higher level of thinking. Be sure they have mastered locating topic sentences before introducing this chapter. • Begin with an oral review, asking students to answer the following: 1. The general subject of a paragraph or an essay is the topic. 2. True or False? A paragraph always has a topic. true 3. The stated main idea of a paragraph is the topic sentence. 4. The stated main idea of an essay is the thesis statement. 5. True or false? A paragraph will always have a main idea? True 6. True or false? A paragraph will always have a stated main idea? False 7. If a paragraph does not have a stated main idea, then it is implied. •

Use this review as a transition to Chapter 7 of the text. Be sure to point out the definitions of the following words: Imply=to suggest Infer=to conclude Implication=a suggestion Inference=a conclusion

Explain to the students that in the movie Air Force One, the president of the United States is in his airplane when it is hijacked. From a concealed location on the plane, the president makes contact with his vice-president. The VP wants to negotiate with the terrorists. The President refuses. When the VP presses him for a reason, since the situation is such a dire and unusual one, he replies, “If you give a mouse a cookie.” Ask students what the implied meaning is in this message. The children’s book If You Give a Mouse a Cookie is a good readaloud, concrete example to accompany this situation. •

Point out that when we look for the implied main idea, we must look for the topic as well as the supporting details provided. In fact, we must focus on the supporting details to “back into” the implied main idea. Remind students that their knowledge of the transition words will be helpful in identifying the implied main idea. Have students consider the examples (pp. 91-92) the students to use inductive reasoning to determine the implied main idea indicated by the details listed. To use this activity, make transparencies of each of the following conceptual maps. Using a Post-It note, cover the center with the answer. Show students the details and ask them to use inductive reasoning to determine a possible statement that would indicate the implied main idea.

Make transparencies or copies of the sets of sentences (pp. 93-96). Ask the students determine the implied main idea through inductive reasoning.

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Example 1:

An empty GAP bag on the floor

Wrinkled jeans and crumpled towels by the dresser

Candy wrappers under the bed

My daughterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s room is themessy. bed

Unmade bed

Open dictionary on the floor

Dirty socks in muddy cleats next to a field hockey stick

Example 2:

Gets nervous when he sees a black cat.

Carries a rabbitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foot on his key chain.

Frequently knocks on wood.

My friend is a very superstitious person.

Throws salt over his shoulder.

Avoids walking under ladders.

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Example 3:

His lectures are well organized.

He wastes no time.

My U.S. history professor is an excellent teacher.

His transparencies are creative and helpful.

He’s an excellent storyteller, sharing anecdotes about American history.

His tests are challenging but fair.

He provides activities for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners.

Some students sit on the floor because the course is in such demand and there aren’t enough seats.

Example 4:

Breathe deeply.

Exercise.

Use meditation.

People who want to reduce stress should adopt several strategies.

Listen to soothing music, such as New Age.

Develop “learned optimism.”

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Example 1:

1. He highlights and marks his textbooks whenever he studies for classes. 2. He creates a study schedule and adheres to it. 3. He recognizes his professors as experts and seeks help when he encounters a scholastic problem. 4. He makes connections with what he is learning and what he already knows. 5. He asks a question and/or answers a question during each class. The implied main idea is ________________. a. b. c. d.

He tries to make a good impression with his teachers. He pretends to be a good student. He exhibits the attributes of an active learner. He works too hard and should enjoy the social aspects of college. The answer is C.

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Example 2:

1. He goes to practice every morning at 4 A.M., and from there he goes to classes. 2. He is presently ranked #2 in the country in the butterfly. 3. He has traveled to the U.S Nationals every year since he was ten years old. 4. He participated in the World Games in Australia last January. 5. He is presently on a scholarship at the state university.

The implied main idea is _____________. a. He works diligently and is recognized as a world-class swimmer. b. He spends too much time on sports and not enough time on academics. c. He will qualify for the next U.S. Olympics. d. Swimming takes all of his time, so there is no opportunity for a social life. The answer is A.

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Example 3:

1. He flies the American flag every day. 2. He arranges the annual neighborhood Fourth of July parade. 3. On weekends he plays in a brass band that is locally recognized for its patriotic performances. 4. Of the three cars in his driveway, one is red, one is white, and one is blue. 5. His son recently graduated from Ranger School with the 101st Airborne.

The implied main idea is _____________. a. My neighbor is one of the oddest people I have ever known. b. My neighborâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s odd behavior generates a great deal of gossip in our community. c. My neighbor is very patriotic and encourages similar feelings in those he encounters. d. My neighbor is a good neighbor. The answer is C.

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Example 4:

1. Mary Ann Evans adopted the name George Eliot when she realized women would not be recognized as talented writers. 2. Samuel Clemens chose Mark Twain as his pseudonym from his experiences as a riverboat captain on the Mississippi River. 3. When he resurrected some previously rejected novels from his slush pile, Stephen King chose the nom de plume of Richard Bachman.

The implied main idea is _____________. a. Stephen King is richer than most people realize because he has published more novels than the public has considered. b. Stephen King is a fan of Mark Twainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s writing. c. Writers use pseudonyms because of unfair treatment of women in the publishing world. d. Writers use pseudonyms, or false names, for a variety of reasons. The answer is D.

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Mastery Test 7-1 Understanding Implied Main Ideas

Provide students with the following details from the article to have them inductively determine the implied main idea of Paragraph A: Gross Domestic Product includes cost of babysitting, cooking, housecleaning, tutoring services.

Problem 1: How to account for varying quality of services.

Problem 2: How to account for varying time spent on services.

Implied Main Idea: It is difficult to place a dollar value on a homemaker’s services.

Use the timeline to help students determine the implied main idea for Paragraph B:

1970: Controlled Substance Act imposed upper bounds for fines and prison terms.

1984: CSA amended to impose fixed penalties, especially for dealers. (In some cases penalty changed from ten years to life.)

1988: CSA amended to include death penalty for “drug kingpins.”

Implied Main Idea: Drug laws are becoming increasingly more severe.

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Mastery Test 7-2 Understanding Implied Main Ideas To help students determine which statements are reasonable, write each on the board. Then have them list arguments that support each.

The behavior of the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grandmother changed as a result of living in a nursing home: 1. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enough to be 89, without the added burden of packing the last fragments of your existence into a space big enough to accommodate only the minutest of treasure. 2. Becoming a bag lady was not something that happened to her overnight. 3. My grandmother had been in a nursing home these last several years; at first going back to her own home for short visits, then less frequently as she became older and less mobile.

The grandmotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bag may contain items she valued, such as jewelry, photographs, or family mementoes: 1. No matter how short these visits were, her greatest pleasure came from walking slowly around her home, touching every item lovingly and spending hours browsing through drawers and closets. 2. She began to hide her possessions under the mattress, in her closet, under the cushion of her chair, in every conceivable, reachable space.

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Mastery Test 7-3 Primary Colors Reading Level: 7 Introduction •

Begin by asking, “What is the color of water?”

Next, share the following from James McBride’s book, The Color of Water, which is the story of a black man who unravels the story of his white mother, who was the daughter of Jewish immigrants from Poland. First, when he asked his mother if he was black or white, she said, “You are a human being. . . Educate yourself or you’ll be a nobody!” Next, when he asked his mother what color God was, she said, “God is the color of water.”

Another story to familiarize students with is Clover by Dori Sanders. Told from the viewpoint of ten-year-old Clover, the story takes place in South Carolina. Sara Kate is a white woman who promises her betrothed, a black man, that she will love her new step-daughter Clover, who is also black, as her own. A few hours after the wedding, however, her new husband is killed in an automobile accident. Although Clover and her extended family try to dissuade the bride from staying in South Carolina, Sara Kate intends to keep her promise to her husband. Her obstacle lies in persuading the black relatives to accept her as a suitable step-mother for young Clover and to see her as a person, albeit someone of another color.

Ask the students if it is possible to make an inaccurate inference. Show a photograph of Andrew Wyeth’s Christina’s World and ask the students what they think the woman in the painting looked like.

Finally, have students read “Primary Colors.”

Follow-Up • • • • •

After students have read the article, show them a photograph of Christina, the woman whom Wyeth used as the subject of his painting, and point out that we sometimes make inaccurate inferences, as do some of the people in “Primary Colors.” Do you agree with the author’s comments? What evidence can you give that we are not “color blind?” Do you think the author is being too harsh? Students may have some personal stories they want to share. Point out that when they make connections to their reading and their personal lives or things they already know, they are practicing metacognition—thinking about thinking—and that is an attribute of an active learner.

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Chapter 8: Keeping Track of Information And always remember that your own resolution to succeed is more important than anything else.-- Abraham Lincoln Introduction •

Begin with an overview of the strategies:

Strategies for Keeping Track of Information

Highlighting

Marking

Outlining

Mapping

Summarizing

Explain that the strategies will help students: o o o o

Focus on important information. Recall information for tests. Recognize the author’s organization. Save time.

Follow-Up Use the guided note-taking activity (p. 101) for the lecture. Make a copy with the answers omitted for each student and a transparency to use for the lecture. As you discuss each strategy, have the students write in the missing portions.

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Keeping Track of Information Strategy

___________________

Purpose

Helps you focus on important information; recall for a test; save time.

_____________ Helps you identify questions you have; recall for a test; focus on important information; indicate items that need clarification; label ___________________________; save time.

_____________

_____________________

____________________

Helps you keep track of what you have read; organize material; recall; differentiate between major and minor details; save time

Visual method of organizing information. It may include diagrams and timelines.

Brief statement that pulls together most important ideas. Contains less detailed information than an outline.

Process 1.Read paragraph and section first. 2._______________________________. 3.Be accurate and highlight content. 4.Highlight right amount (usually no more than _________).

1.Circle words you do not know. 2.Mark definitions with “def.” 3.Notes to yourself such as “good example,” “test question,” “reread,” “ask instructions,” “ ?” next to confusing passages. 1.Focus on organization, rather than formal format. 2 ____________________. 3. _____________________________. 4.Don’t write too much. 1.__________________________________. 2.Identify the overall topic or subject. 3.Identify major details that relate to the topic. 4.Connect supporting details with lines to main ideas.

1. Underline each ______________.. 2. Write a sentence that states a writer’s most important idea. 3. _____________________________. 4.Focus on writer’s major ideas. 5. Keep ideas in summary. in _________________________________.

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Keeping Track of Information Strategy

Highlighting

Marking

Outlining

Mapping

Summarizing

Purpose

Helps you focus on important information; recall for a test; save time.

Process 1.Read paragraph and section first. 2.Go back and highlight information. 3.Be accurate and highlight content. 4.Highlight right amount (usually no more than 20-30%).

Helps you identify questions you have; recall for a test; focus on important information; indicate items that need clarification; label possible test questions; save time.

1.Circle words you do not know. 2.Mark definitions with “def.” 3.Notes to yourself such as “good example,” “test question,” “reread,” “ask instructions,” “ ?” next to confusing passages.

Helps you keep track of what you have read; organize material; recall; differentiate between major and minor details; save time

1.Focus on organization, rather than formal format. 2.Use words or phrases. rather than

Visual method of organizing information. It may include diagrams and timelines.

Brief statement that pulls together most important ideas. Contains less detailed information than an outline.

complete sentences.

3. Use your own words. 4.Don’t write too much. 1.Think of the organization in terms of a picture. 2.Identify the overall topic or subject. 3.Identify major details that relate to the topic. 4.Connect supporting details with lines to main ideas.

1. Underline each major detail.. 2. Write a sentence that states a writer’s most important idea. 3. Use your own words. 4.Focus on writer’s major ideas. 5. Keep ideas in summary. in the same order.

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Mastery Test 8-1 Keeping Track of Information

â&#x20AC;˘

Have students complete the outline that corresponds to the map in the textbook.

This Thing Called Love I. Definition A. Difficult to define B. No single definition C. Means different things to different people II. Two types of love A. Companionate 1.Secure, trusting attachment

2.Similar to feelings for family or close friends B. Passionate

1.Arousal and ecstasy 2.Three conditions a. Concept must be acceptable b. c.

Suitable partner Physiological arousal

III. Three ingredients A. Intimacy B. Passion

C. Decision/Commitment

â&#x20AC;˘ Who: What: When: Where: Why: How:

Remind the students that they can assess their understanding of a subject by summarizing: Love Difficult to define, but categorized as companionate and passionate Currently Universally People cannot always agree on the definition, but study it to try to create personal relationships Categorize and determine features of lasting, healthy, positive relationships.

Although it is difficult to define, love currently generates interest, especially among psychologists who hope to categorize the features of companionate and passionate love in order to help people generate lasting, healthy, positive relationships. (34 words) 103


Mastery Test 8-2 Keeping Track of Information

â&#x20AC;˘

To provide a visual alternative to the outline, ask the students to fill in the map below:

Active and Passive Listening

Active Listening

Purpose: Participate in communication process.

Passive Listening

Characteristics: Eye contact Focused on speaker Active facial expressions Ask questions Signal understanding Express agreement or disagreement

Purpose: Listening without controlling the communication.

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Characteristics: No direct talking or directing speaker Suspend judgment Allow speaker to develop ideas Provide supportive environment (May evolve into active listening)


Mastery Test 8-3 Body Piercing and Tattooing Reading Level: 14.0 After the students have completed the questions, show them a copy of the following and ask them to complete the outline by filling the blanks with the items from the box. • • • • • • • •

Be sure the artists use packaged, sterilized needles and not a piercing gun Common Health Risks Contact a physician if symptoms if signs of infection appear Important Advice Leftover tattoo ink should be discarded Mark of royalty and elitism Means of “dressing up” Watch the tattoo artist at work

Main Idea: Tattooing and body piercing have become more popular in spite of health risks. I.

History of Body Art A. B.

Means of “dressing up” Mark of royalty and elitism

II.

Popularity of Body Art A. Form of self-expression B. Tattooing and piercing artistry is a booming business

III.

Common Health Risks

A. Skin reactions, infections, and scarring B. Transmission of dangerous pathogens IV.

Important Advice

A. Scrutinize the place of business for sterilization procedures B. Watch the tattoo artist at work. C. Confirm that the artists wear latex gloves and touch nothing else while working. D. Be sure the artists use packaged, sterilized needles and not a piercing gun. E. Be sure noncorrosive metal is used for the jewelry in new piercings. F. Leftover tattoo ink should be discarded. G. Contact a physician if symptoms if signs of infection appear.

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Chapter 9: Recognizing the Basic Patterns of Organization Stretch. Anyone can be good, but only those who stretch can be brilliant. --Frank Bellatti, soccer coach Introduction •

• •

Begin by using “Read Me First” and the introduction as a springboard for introducing patterns of organization. Tell the students that reading is about organization and writing is about organization and making choices. The activity in “Read Me First” demonstrates how recognizing patterns of organization not only facilitates comprehension, but it can also help students remember information. Identifying patterns of organization can also help students make predictions about what they are reading. Finally, it can make them better writers. Show enlarged panels of a comic strip and ask the students to arrange them in the correct order. Use the guided note-taking activity (p.108) to discuss the contents of Chapter 9 and Chapter 10. Note that items five and six are in Chapter 10. You may want to provide an overview of the two chapters.

Follow-Up •

After the students have an overview of the different kinds of patterns, give them the opportunity to participate in some inductive, hands-on activities. For example, type the kinds of patterns of organization in one color of ink and font style, make enough copies for everyone in the class, laminate them, and cut them in strips. Next, do the same in a different color of ink for the function/characteristics. Finally, make a set in a third color and font style for the signal and transition words. You should have three strips per pattern. Scramble these and put them in an envelope. Have the students match pattern, characteristic, and transition/signal words. This is best done in pairs. If you laminate the strips, you will be able to use them for subsequent classes and semesters. Also, consider using all six patterns that are discussed in chapters 9 and 10, so students have an overview of both and see the connection.

In order to assist the students in applying this new information, offer them a second inductive activity. Type the following simple paragraphs and print each on a different color of paper. Laminate each set and cut the sentences. Scramble each set and secure with a paper clip. Put all of the sets in an envelope. Make enough of these for all students to work independently. For a more challenging activity, consider pairing the sets in Chapter 9 and a Chapter 10.Show a transparency of the patterns (p. 107) to stress the importance of noticing transitions and signal words. Ask the students to identify each pattern and justify his or her answer by indicating the words that served as clues. Use the table (p. 111) as a follow-up review. Show the pictures and ask the students to identify the corresponding organizational pattern. 106


Pattern 1: ~~~~~~~~~~~~? ~~~~~~~~~~~~ is defined as ~~~~~~~~~~. For instance, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Another example is ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. The refers to ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.

Answer: Definition and Example

Pattern 2: When ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. During that time, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. First, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Second, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Later, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Meanwhile, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Last, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.

Answer: Process/Time Order

Pattern 3: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. First, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. In addition, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Also, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. And ~~~~~~~~~~~~. Finally, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Answer: List

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Patterns of Organization Pattern

Function

(1) Example

Examples support the main idea.

(2) Definition

Defines a term (often in combination with examples).

(3) Chronological and Process

(4) Listing

Transition and Signal Words for example, for instance, such as

is defined as, means

Describes steps or sequence of events and is used when writers want to put items in a particular order.

first, second, later, next, another, soon, as soon as, before, after, then, in addition, also, finally, following, last, during, when, until, meanwhile

Used when a particular order is not important.

first, second, third, next, finally

(5) Comparison/Contrast Used to show differences and similarities.

(6) Cause/Effect Used to explain why an event causes another event or action.

108

alike, same, likewise, similar, similarity, like, likewise, both, just as, each, in common; unlike, different, difference, on the other hand, instead, in contrast, despite, nevertheless, however, but

cause, because, because of, since, due to, reasons, effect, consequently, as a result, one result is, therefore, thus


Pattern 1: Chronological Order and Process/Cause and Effect

• The reasons for the Cuban missile crisis of the early 60s can best be understood by studying the sequence of events. • First, once Castro took over the Cuban government, he began aligning with Russia, which supplied the country with arms. • Meanwhile, in an attempt to thwart this alignment, the United States trained nationalists in Guatemala who were to take over the Cuban government, but they were defeated. • After their defeat, U.S. U2 planes discovered Russians putting in missiles with a range anywhere in the United States, east of the Mississippi River. • This discovery led to a blockade against Cuba, which then caused the Russian ships to divert their route. • Consequently, Russia agreed to remove their missiles in Cuba if the United States would take out their missiles in Turkey. • Since the United States now had submarines with more accurate missiles, they complied with the Russian demand, which resulted in an end to the crisis. Pattern 2: Listing

Employers frequently look for four attributes in an employee. First, they consider the ability of the employee. Often, their talent and ability are evident in a job résumé. Next, they look for motivation. A third trait they seek in an employee is compatibility. Whether an employee will fit in with other colleagues is an important consideration. • Finally, employers seek candidates with self-confidence. • For this reason, prospective employees are coached to rehearse their answers to predictable questions, so they will feel more relaxed.

• • • • • •

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Pattern 3: Definition and Example

• An entrepreneur, which is defined as “a person who organizes, manages, and assumes responsibility for a business or other enterprise,” often has one or more of the following attributes. • First, he or she may have been a child of immigrants. • Another trait includes the lack of a strong father figure. • Yet another example of an entrepreneurial feature is that he or she was more than likely first born in the family birth order. • Finally, he or she may have been the child of an entrepreneur. Pattern 4: Process

• Did you know there is a specific method for retiring an American flag by fire? • According to the American Legion the process includes several steps. • First, cut out the field of blue with the stars intact, and then cut each stripe horizontally. • Next, burn each stripe one at a time, alternating red and white. • Finally, after all of the stripes are in the fire, lay the field of blue flat on the fire.

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Patterns of Organization Is known as, is called, is defined as

Definition First, second, third, next, finally

Listing

For instance, such as, illustrated by

Example First, second, third, next, finally, meanwhile, as soon as, during, while

Chronological Order and Process Like, alike, similarly, just as; on the other hand, nevertheless, however

Comparison/Co ntrast

Cause/Effect

Cause, because, because of, since, due to, reasons, effect, consequently, thus

111


Mastery Test 9-1 Recognizing Basic Patterns of Organization

â&#x20AC;˘

Use the maps (pp. 112-113) to help students recognize the main idea, supporting details, and pattern of organization (example) of the passage. Make transparencies of each page to guide students through the lecture as you discuss their answers. Indicate that they are looking for predominant paragraph patterns.

â&#x20AC;˘

Or arrange the students in three groups and assign each one of the reading selections. Then ask the group to create a map of the details to show the organization. Also, ask the students to indicate what transitions helped them determine how to organize the map.

A.

The action and reaction forces make up a pair of forces; forces always occur in pairs.

Walking

We push against the floor.

The floor pushes against us.

Driving Tires push against the pavement.

Pavement pushes against the tires.

112

Swimming

We push the water backward.

The water pushes us forward.


B.

Ornamental and Landscape Horticulture: using grasses, plants, and shrubs in landscaping.

Pomology: the science and practice of growing and handling fruit trees.

The Four Practices of Horticulture

Floriculture: the science of growing, storing, and designing flowering plants.

Olericulture: the science of the growing and storing of vegetables.

C. Grows in warm, tropical lands

Grows along the Rio Grande

Similar to the Acacia

Feather-like leaves

Mimosa

Small flowers of pink, white, lavender, purple

113

Many U.S states: WV, VA, AL, KY, LA, IN

Throughout Asia, Africa, Mexico, Australia


Mastery Test 9-2 Recognizing the Basic Patterns of Organization â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Write the following map on the chalkboard for students to visualize the process organization of paragraph one. Give the students the outline (p. 115) with the answers eliminated and ask the students to fill in the blanks.

How We Develop Service Expectations

Word of Mouth Communication

Past Experience

Personal Needs

114

Marketing Communication


Five Factors that Shape Our Judgments About Service Quality I.

Tangibles

A. Refers to the physical aspects of the service that we can see and with which we interact. 1.

2.

Appearance and uniforms of employees Signs or other communication materials that are provided.

B. An example would include the brochure provided by a water park in which information includes a map and customer service details. II.

Reliability A. Refers to the ability of service personnel to perform the promised service.

B. An example would include the ability of the instructors at the water park to teach snorkeling. III.

Responsiveness

A. Involves service employees’ willingness to help customers and their promptness in providing service. B. An example would include how quickly the snack bar personnel can provide your food. IV.

Assurance

A. Refers to the catch-all quality that involves the faith we have in service personnel. B. An example would include the training and knowledge of lifeguards at the water park. V.

Empathy

A. Refers to the “warm, fuzzy” aspect of service quality and is the element that shows service personnel care about you. 1.Involves convenient operating hours.

2.Includes waiting line times and fairness. B. An example would include waiting lines at the water park and amenities provided to make standing in line more pleasant.

115


Mastery Test 9-3 Right Place, Wrong Face Reading Level: 7. 0 Introduction On the board, write “Wrong place, wrong time” and ask the students to explain the quote. Then ask the students to predict what the title “Right Place, Wrong Face” means. Introduce the vocabulary by presenting the synonyms below for the students to match with the words presented at the beginning of the selection. ovation: great reception; acclaim; approval overt: recognizable; blatant; open splurge: pamper; luxuriate; overdo vestibule: hallway; anteroom; foyer residue: remains; remnant; excess violation: abuse; harm; encroachment Follow-Up This is a good selection to introduce situational irony. After you have explained that this is when the opposite occurs from what is expected, ask the students to locate some example of situational irony. For example, the character White plays in Ragtime is a victim of injustice as is the author. Also, the author’s last name presents situational irony. The comment at the end about being at the wrong place when he was home is ironic. Finally, it is ironic that the author does everything right, according to how he has been taught, and the wrong thing happens. Fill in the boxes with the letter of the correct choices to indicate the sequence of the story. a. He received a standing ovation for his role in Ragtime. b. He grew up as the youngest of seven children in Cincinnati believing hard work and truth would lead to a good, safe life. c. Experiences a five-hour ordeal that is like a horrible dream d. He lands the role of Coalhouse Walker Jr. e. He is searched, stripped of his backpack, put on his knees, handcuffed, and quieted. f. Decides to slow down his pace and splurge by making strawberry pancakes. g. He is released with a weak apology. The lessons White learned growing up had been shattered and life would never be the same. b

d

a

f

e

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c

g


Chapter 10: Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns If you wish to know the mind of a man, listen to his words. –Chinese Proverb Introduction Comparison/Contrast •

• •

After introducing the chapter with “Read Me First,” show two products for which students could list similarities and differences. (A health cereal and a sugar-coated, multi-colored cereal, for instance. Or a high-protein, energy bar and a junk food snack. Or a health drink and a soda.) Or after introducing that information, show photographs of two kinds of vehicles and ask students to list similarities and differences in a Venn diagram (a visual of overlapping circles) with the similarities in the center where the lines overlap and the differences in corresponding areas outside the overlapping. Use the guided note-taking activity that the students began in Chapter 9 and finish the blanks for patterns 5 and 6. Have students list similarities and differences of their two favorite restaurants in the comparison/contrast format.

Follow-Up o Divide the class into two groups. One will explore similarities and one will explore differences. Within the two large groups, divide the students into groups of three students each. Give each group an index card. Have one member of the group serve as the chair, one as the recorder, and one as the reporter. When they have completed their assignment, have them explain their choices and rationale. Allot the students six minutes. (Point out that writers like to do things in threes, and they should have at least three similarities.) o Have the second half of the class divide into groups of threes and list the differences by contrasting their two favorite films using the same format. After the allotted time of six minutes, give them an opportunity to share what they have written. o Once everyone has had a chance to share their map of either similarities or differences, explain how the transition words can provide fluency in their writing. In fact, tell them if they are writing without using transition words, then they are not really writing yet. o Next, have them study the list of “Common Words in Comparison and Contrast” in the text. Tell them you will give them three minutes to study the words and you will then ask them to list as many as they can remember without looking.

117


o While they are studying the words intensely for the three-minute time period, write the box on the board. When time is called, ask the students to list as many as they can remember on their own paper. Give them 90 seconds. Next, ask who could remember all 20. Ask the person who listed the most to recall the words as you write them. This person deserves “Big Money,” so be sure to have a 100 Grand candy bar or some large paper money on hand for a “prize.” o Next, on the chalkboard, draw the diagram (p. 119) of the manual, and ask the whole class to suggest the details they would include about the similarities and differences of their favorite film. Obviously, the class will have to come to a consensus concerning which film you will all discuss. o A current cult fascination is with the similarities of Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon synchronization with the classic film The Wizard of Oz. If you can locate a copy of each, start the CD when the lion roars for the third time at the beginning of the film. Show about 15 minutes of the film while students take notes on the similarities. o Ask the students to consider the similarities and differences between John Coffey in The Green Mile and a Christ figure. o Or consider a comparison and contrast of names and events in The Matrix to events in the Bible. o Study state or national politics and ask the students to compare and contrast political candidates, pros and cons about current referenda or budget issues. However, in all cases, ask them to organize the details, then discuss how they can write a coherent, well-organized paper following that structure. Subject:_____________________________________________________ Items A and B: _______________________________________________ Similarities 1. ____________________________

Differences 1. __________________________

2. ____________________________

2. __________________________

3. ____________________________

3. __________________________

4. ____________________________

4. __________________________

5. ____________________________

5. __________________________

118


A Comparison of My Two Favorite Movies Film A

Film B

Similarity 1

Similarity 2

Similarity 3 The Differences between My Two Favorite Films Film A

Film B

Difference 1

Difference 2

Difference 3 The Similarities and Differences of My Two Favorite Films A Comparison and Contrast of My Favorite Films

119


Cause/Effect Introduction • When you feel students are familiar with the comparison/contrast pattern and can adequately recognize the organization and use the transition words, you are ready to introduce the next pattern: cause/effect. • Mention that a cause/effect pattern is frequently used in history, sociology, psychology, economics, natural sciences, philosophy and ethics. This is an important pattern the students will observe in many textbooks in subsequent courses. • Using the diagram in the text, have the students study how the visual indicates results as well as what prompted that result. • Show the students the following sentences on the board and ask them to arrange them in a conceptual map indicating cause and effect. Discuss their answers. They should have something similar to the following: o When he announced his theory, he was excommunicated. o According to legend, he whispered as he was dying, “Yet it does move.” o Using a new telescope, Galileo saw the universe differently and confirmed the theory of Copernicus that the earth moved around the sun. o He was forced to recant his theory when he was threatened with death. o He spent the remainder of his days under house arrest and was not allowed to write. When he announced his theory, he was excommunicated.

Using a new telescope, Galileo saw the universe differently and confirmed the theory of Copernicus that the earth moved around the sun.

He was forced to recant his theory when he was threatened with death. He spent the remainder of his days under house arrest and was not allowed to write.

According to legend, he whispered as he was dying, “Yet it does move.” Follow-Up Make enough laminated copies of the paragraphs (pp. 121-123). Copy each paragraph on a different color of paper, so each group will be easier to differentiate. Cut the sentences, so the students must arrange them in the correct order according to the transition words. Then have them identify the kind of pattern they find. Locate research on the effects of watching too much TV. Next, assign students to turn off the television for a week and keep a log of the experience. At the end of the week, ask them to write an essay reporting the results. This is an enlightening experience for everyone. 120


Paragraph 1: Cause/Effect

• Microbiologists are checking our ocean waters for viruses. • Some viruses, which have been detected in recreational waters off the coasts of California and Florida, have been known to cause gastrointestinal discomfort. • Some of the most severe cases can even result in death. • As a result, scientists are passionate about discovering the reasons for the appearance of the viruses. • Some speculate that they may be due to runoff from storm drains, septic tanks, or wash-offs from thunderstorms. Paragraph #2 Cause/Effect

• The cause for the sinking of the Titanic has always posed an enigma for historians. • Recently, a theory emerged from Robert Baboian, who is the retired director of Texas Instruments’ corrosion lab. • According to Baboian, since the ship was built with three million rivets that were of a different type of iron from the hull plates, and since the ship sat in seawater for over a year before sailing, it may have resulted in rust corroding the rivets. • Such corrosion could have resulted in weakening the rivets. • As a result, extra strain put on the hull could have caused a slight opening. • Therefore, the subsequent popping of the rivets could have caused a widening of the hole and caused the ship to sink.

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Paragraph #3 Comparison/Contrast

• Before television, people had a rich interaction with family members and neighbors. • Often in the evening, people would sit on their front porches, visit with each other, slow down and talk of the day’s events, and savor a starry night sky. • Likewise, people had more time to read. • Frequently, they would read the classics such as Shakespeare, Faulkner, and Dickens. • However, with the advent of television, people have become less communicative. • Now they often sit in front of the news program rather than around the dining room table, and they find less time to read, which has caused their vocabularies to diminish. • Unfortunately many people also now report that they don’t always know their neighbors’ names. Pattern 4: Comparison/Contrast

• Some historians have ironically noted similarities in the American Revolution and the Vietnam War. • First, the American Revolution introduced the use of guerilla warfare, which was predominant in the Vietnam War as well. • Also, while the colonists were fighting for independence, the Vietnamese were also seeking autonomy. • Finally, both the colonists and the Vietnamese faced foreign enemies on home soil.

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Paragraph 5: Comparison/Contrast

• My son’s first car, a 1989 LX Ford Mustang, 25th Anniversary model, was a purchase from the wholesale lot, and at the time, it hardly resembled his fantasy car. • For example, the front seat on the driver’s side was supported by a thick, yellow telephone book. • In addition, the faded blue paint revealed years of wear, as well as some stains from a previous shaving cream prank. • However, after hours of work, adjusting, tweaking, replacing, and refurbishing, the car no longer resembles the faded, dented cast-off it once was. • My son has fixed the seat, replaced the dented fender, and has had the car painted a bold blue. • Now, it is a magnificent vehicle, completely unrecognizable from the original purchase.

Use the following “Jeopardy” game for a review. Make a transparency of the game board. Cover each question with a small Post It note. Give each student an opportunity to answer a question or call on a lifeline for help. (As you can see, this is a very loose, modified version of Jeopardy; however, your intent is to make the review memorable, albeit a bit outrageous.) To add to the experience, provide the incentive for everyone with the idea that everyone is a winner—or will be after each has studied. (Smarties and Dum Dums are good rewards, and pass them around for everyone to have while they are playing the game.)

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Jeopardy Test Review Main Idea

Transitions

Patterns

Patterns

What two questions would you use with the definition pattern? Name three Name the six The ___ is the college courses patterns of stated main idea organization studied that might have of a paragraph. the definition in Chapters 8-9. pattern in their texts. When organizing a Words such as True or False: A The ____ is the writer usually only paragraph, a writer therefore, thus, stated main idea as a result, often states the needs transition of an essay. consequently words to indicate ____ first and then follows with one or indicate what major details? pattern? more examples. List five A popular pattern _____ are words True or False: transition words writers use to Supporting details or phrases that that indicate explain something lead the reader will always be similarities. is _______. from one idea to introduced by transition words? another. List eight The phrase _____ Name three True or False: A transition words transitions that tells you that the paragraph will that indicate writer is switching indicate the always have a contrast. stated main idea? to a different idea. example pattern. The ___ is the general subject of a paragraph of essay.

Words such as during, meanwhile, as soon as, indicate what? Words such as first, second, third, as well as, and could be used to show _________

_____ are the different ways that writers present their ideas.

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Mastery Test -1 Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns Introduction

Ask if anyone knows of any methods of alternative medicine (Using herbs, meditation, rolfing, massage therapy, aromatherapy, etc.)

Ask if anyone has experienced acupuncture or known someone who successfully received treatment.

What connotation do you associate with the word acupuncture?

Ask students to read the passage and highlight details and transition words that might indicate the predominant paragraph pattern. (The author uses the opportunity to list reasons for the popularity of acupuncture.)

Instruct the students to complete the map (p. 126) by filling in the blanks.

Follow Up Ask the students to go to http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/ and explore the links that include information about what it feels like, safety and efficacy of the procedure, cost.

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Reasons for the Popularity of Acupuncture

Safety

Doctorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; referrals

Mounting evidence in favor of the procedure

Used for 5,000 years

Health is achieved by realigning qi

One study: short-term relief for 50-80 percent with acute or chronic pain

Billions of satisfied users

Of the 9,000 practicing acupuncturists, onethird are M.D.s

Controlled trial of six months, 6 out of 10 patients with low back pain showed improvement

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Mastery Test 10-2 Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns â&#x20AC;˘

Ask students to read the selection and notice the pattern of organization, which is showing the contrasts. Point out that the one similarity is in the first box, and the connected boxes show the differences, or contrasts. Though Asian and American children have similar intellectual abilities, Asian children must overcome more obstacles, yet they outperform Americans in mathematical ability.

Asian Children

American Children

Asian children have fewer educational resources than American children. Families of Asian children are worse off financially than families of American children.

Families of Asian children are less educated than families of American children.

Of the Asian children studied, 85% were fond of math, as opposed to 75% of the American children.

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Mastery Test 10-3: When Mommy Goes off to Fight a War Reading Level: 4.7 Introduction Distribute a copy of the story impression handout (p. 129) and ask the students to write their prediction of the content of the essay. Allot 6.2 minutes. Pair each student with a partner and ask them to share their answers. Then allow time to discuss their prediction as a class, reminding students that this in the first step in the reading process. Follow-Up Ask the students to arrange the story’s details in the correct sequence and insert the number of each statement in the order in which they occurred leading up to the mother’s return. Note that they are not listing the order in which they appear in the story but the order in which they actually occurred. Arrange the students in three groups. Ask the students to visit the following web site and assign each group a woman’s military contribution to summarize. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/womensmemorial/six18.htm Group 1: Mary Edwards Walker and Frieda Hardin Group 2: Charity Adams Earley and Mary Therese Burley Group 3: Catherin Kocourek Genovese and Melissa Coleman Use the jigsaw method and have a member of Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 meet and share their information so everyone will have a summary of each woman honored at the site.

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Story Impression â&#x20AC;&#x153;When Mommy Goes off to Warâ&#x20AC;? Study the words from the story, and then write your prediction of its content in the space below. 1. parent 2. lesson 3. girls 4. desert 5. war 6. barbershop 7. relationship 8. appointment 9. highlights 10. crying ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 129


Chapter 11: Reading and Thinking Critically The storyteller is a storyteller because the storyteller cares about truth, searching for truth, expressing truth, sharing truth. —Madeleine L’Engle Introduction Inferences 1. Begin with the following brain teaser. Draw the design of three columns of three dots each on the board, then ask the students to connect the dots using only four lines without lifting their pencil off their paper. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

After you have revealed the solution, explain that some psychologists use this experiment to reveal those who think creatively, “outside the box.” When doing this, the researchers are making inferences, conclusions about the evidence.

Likewise, when we draw conclusions about people according to the body language we observe, we are making inferences.

S.I. Hayakawa once said, “Inferences are conclusions about the unknown, based on the known.” Making inferences requires us to use inductive reasoning. That is, we form a conclusion based on the details we discover.

Next, explain the differences in the following terms: Infer = to conclude (This requires us to receive information.) Inference = a conclusion Imply = to hint or suggest (This requires us to send information.) Implication = a suggestion

Follow-Up • On the board, create the map below and “walk” the students through the steps that are discussed in the text.

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Share the quotations (pp. 132-133) and ask the students to determine characteristics of the speaker. For instance, ask if they can infer the gender, nationality, and politics of the speaker. Is the speaker someone they would want to meet? Is the speaker someone they could respect? Who do you think the speaker is?

Ask students to explore the following Web site, which identifies the seven basic propaganda devices. Some examples are actual samples from history. http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda Also, present the following Web pages to review: http://www.dhmo.org/press.html and http://www.dhmo.org/facts.html (This information is a hoax since dihydrogen monoxide is actually H2O; however, allow the students time to investigate and determine the validity of the claim.)

1. Be sure you understand the literal meaning.

2. Notice details.

3. Add up the facts.

How to Make Inferences

4. Look at the writer’s choice of words.

5. Understand the writer’s purpose.

6. Be sure your inference is supportable.

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Details to Consider When Making Inferences

Action

Descriptive

Conversation

Word Choice

Example 1

“ Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, ‘Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and fabulous?’ Actually, who are you NOT TO BE? . . .Your playing small doesn’t serve the world. There’s nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won’t feel insecure around you. . . As we let our light shine, we unconsciously give others permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.” (Marianne Williamson, author of meditation books)

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Example 2

“The function of propaganda does not lie in the scientific training of the individual, but in calling the masses’ attention to certain facts, processes, necessities, etc. whose significance is thus for the first time placed within their field of vision. The whole art consists in doing this so skillfully that everyone will be convinced that the fact is real, the process necessary, the necessity correct, etc. . . . Its effect for the most part must be aimed at the emotions and only to a very limited degree at the so-called intellect. The fact that our bright boys do not understand this merely shows how mentally lazy and conceited they are. The receptivity of the masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous.” (Adolph Hitler, from Mein Kampf,, which he wrote in prison, before his rise to power when few considered him a threat.) Example 3

The Seven Roots of Violence • Wealth without work. • Pleasure without conscience. • Knowledge without character. • Commerce without morality. • Science without humanity. • Worship without sacrifice. • Politics without principles. (Mahatma Gandhi, Hindu religious leader, known for his social reform and philosophy of passive resistance)

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Writerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Purpose: Give students a view of the big picture by writing the following on the board. Ask them to invent a mnemonic device to remember the four purposes. For example, IPAI = I Pay All Instructors. Four Purposes of a Writer

Inform

Persuade

Amuse

Instruct

Style and Intended Audience Show a page from Gentlemenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Quarterly, Sports Illustrated, O (the Oprah magazine), and TV Guide. Do you notice anything different about these publications? How does their style differ? What determines the different styles? (The students will probably decide the intended audience is a critical factor.) Show an advertisement and ask students to name the intended audience. (Time magazine runs some good advertisements promoting reading with celebrities.) If you visit a local furrier, ask for a brochure that touts the fur industry as one that stresses quality, time-honored traditions, a product that is environmentally nonpolluting. The brochure may also mention that it is promoting a family business. If you can locate information from PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), you can show how the language and style there are very different, though the purpose of both is to persuade. Tape a brief portion of a presidential speech and point out characteristics that come through about the speechwriter. Do they like to do things in 3s? Are they using persuasive language? Is the vocabulary simple enough for the masses to comprehend? Is propaganda evident? Some organizations have films endorsing political candidates. Locate one of these videos to show, then contrast the information to an editorial by someone who endorses the opponent. Which is more effective?

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Tone Cover the board with adjectives such as persuasive, instructive, sympathetic, angry, flippant, insensitive, ambivalent, and humorous. Use the opportunity to teach some vocabulary. Next, ask students to use inductive reasoning to determine that these words can indicate tone. Finally, have some volunteers demonstrate the words with body language and facial expressions. Also, you can demonstrate “tone” by dramatizing the different ways to inflect your voice while saying, “I love you.” A good newspaper column to explain tone is the syndicated column “Tell Me About It” by psychologist Carolyn Hax, who offers advice with chutzpah. Prepare a CD with five songs, each depicting a different tone. Refer the students to the list “Words Frequently Used to Describe Tone.” Ask the students to write the word that indicates the tone of each song you play. For example, “Fanfare for the Modern Man” would be awestruck; “The Long Way Home” by Norah Jones is nostalgic; “Cheeseburger in Paradise” by Jimmy Buffett is playful; “At Last” by Emma James is relieved; “We Will Rock You” by Queen is confident; “Should I Stay or Should I Go?” by The Clash is ambivalent. Language: Denotation and Connotation Remind students of the definitions of the two words: Denotation—dictionary definition (Tell them they can remember this because everything begins with the letter “d.”) Connotation—implied meaning Write the following on the board:

home

house

pre-owned car

used car

student

pupil

freedom fighter

terrorist

Ask the students which they would rather buy, a house or a home? They will probably say you can only buy a house, but you can point out that real estate agents often use the word home because it implies—suggests or anchors in the mind of the buyer—a product that makes them feel safe and loved. Likewise, a pre-owned car implies something cared for, rather than a used car, which suggests something worn. Finally, some educators use the word student to suggest someone who studies actively, but they use pupil for surveys, as in someone who takes up space. And in 135


some school districts, those trailers in the back of schools that house classrooms because of overcrowding are now being called learning cottages. And instead of saying failed, some teachers are told to say offered another year. Use this opportunity to explain that some words with positive connotations are called euphemisms. For example, one journalist will report on the activities of the freedom fighters while another journalist, favoring the opposition, will call them terrorists. Other examples include, powder room for bathroom, and passed for died. •

Point out that our language is constantly evolving. And the linguists are constantly studying the power of that language. In addition, at one time hearing impaired was substituted for deaf. However, those in the deaf community now prefer the latter term. What we learn from this is that as our language changes, we must adapt and be vigilant as well as sensitive. Use the guided note-taking activity in the manual (p. 138) to accompany your lecture.

Discuss the handout “Distinguishing Fact from Opinion” (p. 139) with the class.

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Understanding Inference and the Writer’s Purpose Term

Definition

Explanation “Reading between the lines” when reading dialog requires making an inference. Clues include ____________________ ________________________

_____________

A thinking process that requires the person to draw a logical conclusion about the unknown based on the evidence provided, his or her experience, and logic.

________________

A writer’s reason for writing.

The purpose affects the style, language, and details a writer uses.

The characteristics that make a writer unique.

A writer can change his style to achieve a particular effect or reach a particular audience.

The people for whom the writer directs his or her message.

Determine the author’s purpose. Then consider whom the words were focused toward.

_______________

_______________

_______________

A feeling that is conveyed through the writing. ________________

The dictionary definition of a word.

Instructive, humorous, serious, ambivalent, arrogant, humble, sympathetic, persuasive, etc. The literal meaning.

May be positive or negative or even neutral.

_______________

The implied meaning.

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Understanding Inference and the Writer’s Purpose Term Inference

Writer’s Purpose

Style

Intended Audience

Definition

Explanation

A thinking process that requires the person to draw a logical conclusion about the unknown based on the evidence provided, his or her experience, and logic.

word choice.

A writer’s reason for writing.

The purpose affects the style, language, and details a writer uses.

The characteristics that make a writer unique.

A writer can change his style to achieve a particular effect or reach a particular audience.

The people for whom the writer directs his or her message.

Determine the author’s purpose. Then consider whom the words were focused toward.

Tone

A feeling that is conveyed through the writing. Denotation

“Reading between the lines” when reading dialog requires making an inference. Clues include descriptive details, action details, conversation details, and

The dictionary definition of a word.

Instructive, humorous, serious, ambivalent, arrogant, humble, sympathetic, persuasive, etc. The literal meaning.

May be positive or negative or even neutral.

Connotation

The implied meaning.

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Distinguishing Fact from Opinion Study the following statements. Indicate whether each is a fact or an opinion. If it is an opinion, underline the judgment word(s).

________1. All college professors are Democrats, so there is no chance of the Young Republicans getting their support on campus. (opinion) ________2. The crepe myrtle, also known as crape myrtle, is indigenous to China, but is now successfully grown in many parts of the United States and many species are named by the U.S. National Arboretum for Native American Tribes. (fact) ________3. The dreaded SATs have created fear among most high school students, and the anxiety has now spread because of a revamping, which includes the writing portion. (opinion) ________4. Students should study word analysis in order to enhance their vocabulary through a knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes. (opinion) ________5. Many words from English have been derived from Greek roots. (fact) ________6. Phil Jenkins, former coach of the Chicago Bulls, required his players to attend yoga sessions to improve their ability to focus and encourage positive thinking. (fact) ________7. Perennials such as daylilies are better plants to purchase than annuals such as pansies since they will return each year. (opinion) ________8. Turning off the TV and pursuing other interests as a family would be a worthwhile goal. (opinion) ________ 9. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises no TV viewing for children under the age of 2. (fact) _________10. College officials should admit that the National Football League is

fortunate to have its training camps on NCAA college campuses from which professional football players are usually recruited before they actually graduate. (opinion)

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Mastery Test 10-1 Reading and Thinking Critically

• • •

Ask students what they anticipate they will learn about Native Americans that they do not already know. Remind students to highlight and underline after they read the selection “What You Don’t Know About Native Americans.” Point out the source of the article, and ask the students why they think the article appeared in something titled The Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology and the Rise of Indian Nations. What does the title imply to them? (Since this is speculation, be very accepting of their answers.) Have students brainstorm the positive words and negative words in the passage. Write their suggestions. After you have had a chance to discuss their choices, ask how they feel about the topic. Is it persuasive? What do they feel after reading the passage? Does the persuasiveness of the passage depend on their experience and background knowledge? Point out that the word “propriety” is related to the concept of being “politically correct.” Also, point out that the author uses the terms “Native Americans” as well as “Indians.” You may also need to point out that the term “romantic,” though sometimes positive, is actually used in a negative fashion, since the connotation, or implied meaning, is that they are impractical people.

Positive

Negative

Deeply concerned Issues of justice Propriety

• •

Tragedies of the distant past Anti-Indian campaign Assaults Devastating “legalistic” manipulations

Locate a copy of Chief Seattle’s speech and read aloud a portion to the class. Summarize the selection in 50 words or less. Then condense it to 30 words or less.

Who: What: When: Where: Why: How:

Indians Are recipients of injustice Currently America Discrimination “Legalistic manipulation” in which laws diminish the power and property of the Indians

Sample:

Currently, the American Indians are still discriminated against because of “legalistic manipulation” in which our laws diminish their power and property. (21 words)

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Mastery Test 11-2 Reading and Thinking Critically Introduction •

Ask if anyone in the class works in a nursing home or has made visits to one. What was it like there? What are the people like? Was there ever a memorable person in the facility you visited, someone whose personality made him or her stand out?

Ask the students to read the selection silently. Then ask them to highlight and mark what they consider significant or difficult. Ask for questions. If no one mentions “Parkinson’s,” ask what the students know about the disease. (You may need to remind them about Michael J. Fox’s infirmity to help them make a connection.)

Give students time to answer the questions in the text. Then discuss their answers. Especially focus on question 2, “Which word best describes the tone of this passage.” Be sure to have them define “tone.” Next, ask for their rationale for their answer to question 2. For question 5, have students consider their answer and defend their choice. Again, be sure to discuss the definition of “writer’s purpose.”

Follow-Up •

Give the students a sheet of paper and ask them to fold it so they have six “windowpanes” as shown below. Then ask them to fill in the appropriate details from the story for each box. Allot 6.3 minutes. Since the answers will vary, ask the students to offer suggestions. Finally, ask them to use the information from the boxes to create a one-sentence.

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

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Mastery Test 10-3 The Beautiful Laughing Sisters Reading Level: 7.0 Introduction On the board, write the quotation: “It was hard, but we got used to hard.” Ask the students for predictions about the content. Then read aloud a selection from Zoya’s Story: An Afghan Woman’s Struggle for Freedom by John Follain and Rita Cristofari. Finally, research the term Kurdish at the Kurdish Information Network on the Internet to prepare for questions. Present the following words: immigrate, immigrant, immigration, émigré, emigrate, and emigration. Ask the students to determine the difference in each word by searching their dictionaries or at on online dictionary such as www.dictionary.com Follow-Up Complete the time line of the sisters’ story by inserting the letters of the items listed. a. They arrive in Lincoln, Nebraska, at night. b. They live in a relief camp in Quetta, Pakistan, for ten years, and the men leave them. c. They are robbed at gunpoint while living in a hut. d. They go on a hunger strike. e. They live in Baghdad and enjoyed movies, reading foreign newspapers, and embassy cocktail parties. f. They walk through Kurdistan at night, sleeping under bushes in the day. g. The whole family lives in a makeshift camp in Iran for one very bad year. e

f

g

b

c

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d

a


Student Resource Guide A Introduction to College Textbook Reading Introduction •

Give students a copy of the Textbook Features Assessment (p. 145).

The “Sound Off!” handout (p. 145) is to assist auditory learners to remember the steps in the SQ3R process. Make a copy for everyone. Then ask for a volunteer to lead the class. Usually a former cheerleader is amenable. The words are to be chanted in same way a cadence would be performed during a boot camp run, so often veterans in the course are also willing to lead.

Distribute copies of the activity (p. 146) so the students can insert ways they can apply the learning strategies. This is also an example of metacognition when the students recognize ways they have already used the strategies.

The textbook excerpts in this chapter are the most difficult the students will encounter. Because of the specialized vocabulary, the students will need more guidance and preparation for these selections. Also, emphasize that the level of difficulty is similar to the text selections they will encounter in subsequent courses, so mastering the learning strategies will shape them into the competition.

Follow-Up • Jigsaw Research: Assign the four to six students to a group and ask the students in each group to research one of the sites below. (Note that each student will complete a handout on one of the sites.) Next, ask the students to convene with their group to share information about their assigned site and add to their portion of the handout (p.148 ) giving a summary, rating, and rationale for their evaluation of the site and the strategies provided. Then reassign students to a group containing at least one person from the other groups. Students will then share what they learned about their assigned site as group members take notes on their handout and ask questions. Finally, ask the students to return to their original groups to share information they have gathered and, again, compare notes. 1. http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/organization.html 2. http://www.stthomas.edu/academicsupport/helpful_study_skills_links.htm 3. http://www.richland.edu/staff/sblahnik/studyskills.html

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Textbook Features Assessment Features

Value

 Chapter Objectives: ______________________________________  Chapter Outline:______________________________________________________  Marginal Definitions of Key Vocabulary: ____________________________________________________

 Problems or Exercises: ________________________________________________  Discussion Questions: _________________________________________________  List of Key Terminology: ______________________________________________  Chapter Summary:____________________________________________________  Suggested Readings:___________________________________________________  Glossary:__________________________________________________________________  Appendix:___________________________________________________________

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SQ3R Sound Off! Survey, Question, then 3Rs Using these will take you far. Comprehend to understand, With all these you’re in command. First, you’ll survey all the text. Skim one part and then the next. Look it over for some clues-Italics, bold print, other views. Sound Off: SQ Sound Off: 3R SQ--3R! Next, form questions that you need. Do all this before you read. What’s the subject? What do I know? Are two questions to help you go. Now you’re ready to really read, But be active, we all agree. Still ask questions, monitor, and fix. See and say with mental pix. Sound Off: SQ Sound Off: 3R SQ--3R! While you read, you’ll record. Since you’re active, you won’t be bored. Write out answers to questions you made, Then give yourself some accolades. The final step you need to do Review it all, and then you’re through. In your words you’ll summarize. With these steps you’re energized. Sound Off: SQ Sound Off: 3R SQ--3R!

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Strategy

Learning Strategies Explanation

Immediate Review

Take 5-10 minutes to review what you have read before ending a study session.

Periodic Review

Establish a schedule to look over material every three weeks.

Mnemonic Devices

Create memory tricks to help you remember information.

Sensory Channels

Create ways to use other senses to recall information.

Organization

Look for ways to chunk, connect, and organize material into meaningful sets.

Connections

Link learning to things you already know.

Visualization

Create a mental picture.

Retrieval Clues

Picture information in â&#x20AC;&#x153;memory slotsâ&#x20AC;? and develop ways to recall information.

Test Yourself

Simulate testing conditions.

Overlearn

Achieve thorough learning with a few more reviews. 146

Application


Study Skills Websites URL

Summary

147

Rating Rationale


Textbook Excerpt 1: Political Science/History Civil Liberties and the Right to Privacy

Reading Level: 15.0 Introduction To prepare for this lesson, visit the sites below. Make a copy of a cartoon from the second site and present that to the students and ask, “What are civil liberties?” http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/timeline.html http://cagle.slate.msn.com/news/CivilLiberties/main.asp http://www.npr.org/features/feature.php?wfId=1433156 The students may need some background about the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, so research those. Then present a KWL chart and ask students to brainstorm what they know about the documents and what rights are guaranteed. Finally, ask them what the phrase, “The right to privacy” means to them. Introduce the actual reading by asking what strategies they would anticipate as helpful in studying a history/political science textbook. Follow Up Select paragraphs for the students to highlight the main idea and any unfamiliar vocabulary. Circle transitions and label some paragraphs according to the predominant pattern. After the students have finished the reading, help them organize the material they have read with one of the maps (p.149). Give the students the opportunity to discuss the two examples presented as a loss of civil rights: right to die; databases to catch “deadbeat dads.” Review the vocabulary (p.150) with the appropriate synonyms. Summarize in 60 words or less: The Bill of Rights, which was added to the Constitution to protect critical freedoms, has been amended as interpretations evolve, especially with the right to privacy, which is never actually mentioned; however, some critics believe a current trend is to deny that right and thus deny a basic civil liberty. (50 words)

148


Timeline for the evolution of our civil liberties: 1789 Bill of Rights passed by 1st Congress

1791 Bill of Rights ratified by required number of states

1965

1997

Griswold v. v. Connecticut

Vacco v. Quill

Map of critical freedoms first recognized: Freedoms too crucial to be left unmentioned or protected by the Constitution.

Writ of habeas corpus

Bills of attainder

Ex post facto laws

Scaffold for an argument for the right to privacy: Claim: The right to privacy is inherent in the Bill of Rights.

Support 1

No illegal search or seizure

Support 2

No quartering of troops in our homes

149

Support 3

Griswold v. Conn. which defeated laws against birth control.


Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

advocate

supporter

backer

activist

embody

exemplify

symbolize

represent

enumeration

listing

details

inventory

evolve

develop

change

progress

fragment

break

divide

disintegrate

inherent

natural

inborn

innate

partisan

follower

supporter

fan

prohibition

ban

exclusion

prevention

quarter

house

lodge

accommodate

ratify

approve

sanction

endorse

sovereignty

rule

power

control

specify

identify

spell out

indicate

150


Quiz â&#x20AC;&#x153;Civil Liberties and the Right to Privacyâ&#x20AC;? True or False ____ 1. The Bill of Rights was written and ratified the same year as the Constitution. ____ 2. Civil liberties are freedoms protected by constitutional provisions, laws, and practices from certain types of government interference. ____ 3. The Bill of Rights contains an amendment assuring the right of privacy. Multiple Choice ____ 4. Passage of the Bill of Rights made the constitution a. more democratic. b. less specific of the protections of political liberty. c. unable to guarantee a context of free political expression. d. unable to make popular sovereignty possible.

____5.

Which amendment is presented in the selection as evidence that the framers believed in the existence of liberties not specifically mentioned in the Bill of Rights? a. Second b. Fourth c. Ninth d. All of the above.

151


Textbook Excerpt 2: Health Food Safety: A Growing Concern Reading Level: 13.0 Introduction Prepare for the lesson by visiting the following site: http://www.nal.usda.gov/foodborne/index.html Write the title on the board and ask the students to make predictions about the content of the selection. After the students read the first paragraph, ask for any connections they can make to the information presented. Present a transparency of the words and synonyms (p. 153).

Follow Up Ask the students to investigate stories about the tainted spinach that resulted in deaths and illness during the fall of 2006. Select paragraphs for the students to highlight the main idea and any unfamiliar vocabulary. Circle transitions and label some paragraphs according to the predominant pattern. After the students have finished the reading, help them organize the material they have read using the cause-effect map and outline (pp. 154-155). Review the vocabulary (p. 153) with the appropriate synonyms. Summarize the article in 50 words or less: Who or what is this about? Food-borne illnesses What does the author want the reader to know? They are the result of several factors and are increasing When? Currently Where? The article focuses on numbers in the United States, but it can be applied worldwide. Why is this happening and why is it a concern? Cause flu-like symptoms or even death How can they be avoided? Several precautions such as proper food handling, irradiation, and food additives can lower the number of food poisoning cases

Currently, the number of food-borne illnesses, which can cause flu-like symptoms or even death to infants and the chronically ill, has increased in the United States; however, the number of food-poisoning cases can be reduced through proper food handling, irradiation, and certain food additives. (44 words)

152


Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

taint

infect

pollute

deadly

lethal

terminal

fortification

strengthening

building up

reinforcement

inadvertently

unintentionally

accidentally

involuntarily

microbe

germ

bug

bacteria

opaque

solid

dense

thick

pathogen

germ

microorganism

bacteria

perishable

unpreserved

spoiled

expiring

replicate

copy

duplicate

reproduce

virulence

dangerous

power

potency

contaminate fatal

153


Effects of Food-Borne Illnesses

diarrhea

E. Coli nausea

Listeria cramping

Salmonella

vomiting

Sometimes death

154


Several measures can prevent the number of food-borne illnesses each year. I.

II.

Proper Food Handling Techniques A.

Pick up packaged and canned foods first during shopping trips.

B.

Check for cleanliness at salad bar and meat and fish counters.

C.

When shopping for fish, buy from markets using state-approved sources.

D.

Most meats, fish, and poultry should be kept in the refrigerator no more than one or two days

E.

Eat leftovers with three days.

F.

Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.

G.

Use meat thermometers. 1.

Beef and lamb: 140 degrees F.

2.

Pork: 150 degrees F.

3.

Poultry 165 degrees F.

H.

Fish is done when flaking and thickest part is opaque.

I.

Never leave cooked food standing on the stove or table for more than two hours.

J.

Never thaw frozen foods at room temperature.

K.

Wash hands and countertop thoroughly with soap and water.

Food Irradiation A.

Gamma radiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, and other sources of x-rays.

B.

Breaks chemical bonds in DNA of harmful bacteria, destroys pathogens and prevents their replication.

C.

No radioactive residue is left in the food.

D.

Increases shelf life of products.

E.

Reduces the need for chemical.

F.

Environmentalists and some consumer groups express concerns, but current research support its use.

III.

Food Additives A.

B.

Advantages 1.

Reduced risk of food-borne illness.

2.

Prevent spoilage.

3.

Enhance foods' appearance and taste.

4.

Can add nutrients.

Disadvantages 1.

Indirect additives can have harmful effects.

2.

Some additives affect medications.

155


Quiz â&#x20AC;&#x153;Food Safety: A Growing Concernâ&#x20AC;? True or False ____ 1. About 30 percent of food poisoning cases result from improper food handling. ____ 2. Leftovers should be eaten within 7 days. ____ 3. Never thaw frozen food at room temperature. Multiple Choice ____ 4. Which sentence should be highlighted while studying the text? 1

Each year, thousands of people get sick from largely preventable diseases such as that caused by E.coli as well as other bacteria such as Salmonella and Listeria. 2In response to these illnesses, in February 2000 the USDA approved large-scale irradiation of beef, lamb, poultry, pork, and other raw animal foods. 3Food irradiation is a process that involves treating foods with gamma radiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other sources of x-ray. 4When foods are irradiated, they are exposed to low doses of radiation, or ionizing energy, which breaks chemical bonds in the DNA of harmful bacteria, destroying the pathogens and keeping them from replicating. 5The rays essentially pass through the food without leaving any radioactive residue. a. b. c. d.

Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Sentence 4

____ 5. The advantages of food additives include a. spoilage prevention. b. appearance enhancement. c. taste enhancement. d. nutrient enhancement. e. all of the above.

156


Textbook Excerpt 3: Communication Legible Clothing

Reading Level: 10 Introduction • • • • • •

Begin by asking the definition of legible. Then have students consider what the title means. Read aloud the first paragraph. Ask students to identify the topic sentence. Ask if you can tell something about a person by the clothing he or she wears. What about the message he or she chooses to wear? At what age were you most label conscious? Is it a sign of maturity? Good taste? Individuality? Is it odd to wear legible clothing? Point out that the desire might be more universal than the students expect. For example, in some tribes in Africa, the jewelry men and women wear sends specific messages. What messages do we receive about the clothing people wear?

Follow-Up • • • • •

Ask the students to create a pro and con column discussing the truth of the statement, “Words and logos on high class clothes are small.” Indicate the organization of the essay with the map (p. 158). After you have discussed the questions in paragraph 6 and students explore the idea of the law in Harvard, Illinois, ask if anyone attended a school where uniforms were mandatory. How did that work out? Do they recommend it? Why or why not? Review the vocabulary by giving the students the table (p. 158) with the words in the left-hand column omitted and asking students to fill in the blanks. Summarize the selection in one sentence.

Sample: Legible clothing provides free advertising for manufacturers and opportunities for college students to make personal statements; however, the new concept of gang clothing has created conflicts in some areas of the country. (32 words)

157


Legible Clothing

Clothing with labels sends a manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s message.

Word

T-shirts and sweatshirts are popular messagesenders among college students.

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Gang clothing is creating debates in educational and legal circles.

Synonym 3

insignia

emblem

crest

logo

status

position

rank

standing

satirizing

mocking

lampooning

parodying

paraphrase

restating

rephrasing

translating

trophy

award

medal

prize

affiliation

relationship

attachment

connection

metaphorical

a representation with words

158


Quiz “Legible Clothing” True/False ___1. John Molloy, in Molloy’s Live for Success, advises consumers to avoid all legible clothing. ___2. Original manufacturers like to display their labels on inexpensive knock-offs because many people can afford them. ___3. Popular message-senders are t-shirts and sweatshirts. Multiple Choice ___4. Logos on luggage communicate a. b. c. d.

humor. personal messages. status and financial position. affiliation with a group.

___ 5. Which argument below was not mentioned as a cause for debate concerning gang clothing? a. It is covered by the first amendment of the Constitution and should be allowed. b. It indicates that the wearer is in the right place at the right time. c. It contributes to violence in the schools. d. It should not be allowed in schools.

159


Student Resource Guide B: A Guide for ESL (ELL) Readers Introduction • Give each student a 3 x 5 index card and tell them this is their admission ticket to class. Then ask them to write down all the ways they have learned new words. • Ask the students to compare their dictionaries to ones you have brought to class. If you can borrow a variety of two-way dictionaries and conventional dictionaries, ask the students to study them and make some comparisons. • Distribute a copy of the connect-the-dot handout (p. 161) and allot 6.3 minutes while the students highlight or fill in dots with color coding stickers to indicate any terms they are sure they could teach someone else. • As you discuss the tips for ESL readers, ask the students to fill in the concept map handout (p. 162) for guided note taking. • Show students the following handout on “Parts of Speech” (p. 163). Explain that, like a carpenter, they must learn the names of the tools before they can create an heirloom. • As you discuss the handout, you may need to give an explanation of transitive and intransitive verbs. To do this, remind students that sentences have subjects and predicates. Frequently, sentences have direct objects. As they may remember, you can determine the direct object of a sentence by finding the verb and asking the question “What?” For example, in the sentence, John ran the race. John is the subject, ran is the verb. Then ask “Ran what? Race.” Race is the direct object. Hence, ran must be a transitive verb, since it takes a direct object. On the other hand, show them the following sentence: The parachute floated. Ask them to point out the subject, then the verb. Next, explain that floated will never take a direct object. While we can say “floated slowly, or formlessly, or unexpectedly” all of those words are adverbs. Thus, floated is what we call an intransitve verb. (Remind them that trans means across.) Follow-Up • Tell the students to create study cards for the “Confused Words and Phrases.” Tell the students to write the word or phrases and accompanying sentences. Then tell them to write an original sentence and draw a picture to help them remember the term. Allow time for the students to share some of their ideas or transfer some to Post-it chart paper to display and discuss. •

Some excellent resources for this chapter include the following: o Woe Is I by Patricia T. O’Connor (This is grammar taught with some levity.) o The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White (This book is a classic, and no college student should be without it.) o http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/ (This site has excellent explanations, PowerPoint presentations, and quizzes.) o http://a4esl.org/ (This is an interactive site with different levels of difficulty.) o http://www.eslcafe.com/ This is touted as a meeting place for ESL teachers and students around the world. 160


Connect the Dots Fill in the dots to indicate any terms you are prepared to teach someone else.

Subject

Predicate

Coordinate sentences Coordinating conjunctions Subordinate sentences

Two-way dictionaries Subordinating conjunctions

Modifiers Adverbs Adjectives Idioms

161


1. ___________

5. ___________

2. ___________

Tips for ESL Readers

4. ___________

3. ___________

162


Parts of Speech Nouns (Names of people, places, things, and ideas.)

Interjections (Show emotion.)

William Faulkner

Oh no!

London computer epitome

Hey! Prepositions (Express relationships such as time or space.)

Pronouns (Take the place of nouns.)

he

around

him

under during himself whom Conjunctions

(Con=together; junction=join)

Adjectives (Modify nouns and pronouns.)

Used to join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences: FANBOYS.)

green five

because

labyrinthine erratic

since and

so

Verbs (Show action or a state of being; may be indicated as v.i. or v.t. for intransitive or transitive verb.)

but

Adverbs (Used to modify, or change, adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs.) very now

was

well could be

relentlessly

reminisce precipitate

â&#x20AC;˘

When discussing coordinating conjunctions, remind students of the mnemonic device FANBOYS, which represents for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Use the following guided note-taking activity to discuss the conjunctions. Have the students fill in the blanks as you explain each one. 163


Joining Words And But, yet

â&#x20AC;˘

Meaning Clues Links similar and equally important ideas. Connect opposite ideas or change in thought.

For, so

Indicate reasons or shows that one thing is causing another.

Or, not

Suggest choice or options

Examples Jim is in by biology class, and Pierce is in my psychology class. Professor Clark gave a homework assignment, yet she did not collect it. Most English majors in our college take a foreign language, for it is a requirement. We could make a fire in the fireplace, or we could get out some extra blankets.

Use the following for the lecture on subordinating conjunctions:

Joining Words Before, after, while, during, until, when, once Because, since, so that

Meaning Clues Indicate time.

If, unless, whether, even if

Explain conditions.

Although, as far as, in order to, however

Explain circumstances.

Give reasons.

164

Example After taking the test, Leon felt relieved. Because I was working, I was unable to go bowling. Unless I leave work early, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll miss class. Although I used a dictionary, I still did not fully understand the word.


Multicultural Reader

165


Reading Selection 1 The Most Hateful Words By Amy Tan Reading Level: 6.1 Introduction • Ask the students to prepare to write a double-entry journal. The first entry is for them to write about a time when they experienced one of the following emotions: regret, remorse, forgiveness, redemption, loss, or shame. Allot ten minutes for them to construct and write a brief paragraph. •

Use the story impression handout (p. 167) to prepare students for this autobiographical selection.

This is a good lesson to review literary terms. If students need a review, select some terms you know are important to critical reading such as autobiography, biography, memoir, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, oxymoron, and personification. Students may need guidance in completing the questions in the textbook. Note that questions b and e are similes.

Use the handout (p. 168) to review vocabulary and synonyms before they read the selection.

Follow Up •

Ask the students to complete the second entry of their journal by asking them what words would they like to be remembered for saying to others. Allot ten minutes for them to consider the consequences and connections and then have them write a paragraph explaining their choice. Ask the students to research Amy Tan at the following site: http://www.amytan.net/ , where she reveals her struggle with Lyme disease, the band she plays in with other well known writers, and myths and legends about her life. Summarize the story in a pyramid summary: Amy Tan forgives her mother and herself for painful words they said to each other over the years after her mother calls in the midst of her struggle with Alzheimer’s, six months before her death. 166


Story Impression “The Most Hateful Words”

Study the ten words from the story. 1. sixteen 2. arguments 3. remember 4. different 5. injustices 6. forty-seven 7. story 8. Alzheimer’s 9. healing 10. forget

In the space below, write your prediction of the story’s content. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

167


â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Most Hateful Wordsâ&#x20AC;?

Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

bequeath

leave

give

bestow

collapse

cave in

crumple

fall to pieces

eternal

everlasting

unending

timeless

exchange

conversation

talk

discussion

forbade

prohibited

banned

hindered

frantic

anxious

worried

hysterical

impenetrable

inscrutable

obscure

mysterious

injustice

unfairness

prejudice

bias

stricken

suffering

injured

incapacitated

tilt

tip

slant

lean

torment

taunt

annoy

bother

168


Quiz “The Most Hateful Words” True or False ____ 1. Six months before she dies, the mother does not remember who her daughter is. _____2. The mother emigrated from China. _____ 3. The story is a fictional account of a mother and daughter’s relationship. Multiple Choice _____ 4. The author reveals that the mother in the story a. had tried to harm herself several times. b. protected her daughter from all emotional traumas. c. allowed the author too much freedom when she was a teenager. d. resented her daughter’s intelligence and success. _____ 5. The author’s mother led a. a happy life. b. an interesting life filled with exotic travel and celebrity. c. an emotionally challenging life. d. a studious life filled with research.

169


Reading Selection 2 Seoul Searching By Rick Reilly

Reading Level: 5.0 Introduction • •

Ask the students what compels an adoptee to seek out birth parents, especially when they know they were given up willingly. Can you think of any literature in which characters seek to find their ancestors?

Follow Up •

Complete the time line from the text. Time Line for “Seoul Searching”

4-monthold Rae is adopted from Korea

Family begins search

Rae’s birth mother is located

Family travels to Korea

Rae meets her foster mother

Rae meets her birth mother.

Summarize the selection in 60 words or less

Who: Rick Reilly What: Recounts the journey to locate and meet his adopted daughter’s birth mother When: When Rae is 11 and asking about her mother Where: Travel to Korea Why: Rae is restless to fill a hole in her heart How: Effective sleuthing by Friends of Children of Various Nations who arrange a trip to Korea. Journalist Rick Reilly recounts his family’s journey to locate and meet his adopted daughter’s Korean birth mother. Because 11-year-old Rae is curious and eager to fill the emptiness in her heart, her adopted family is successfully aided by effective sleuthing from Friends of Children of Various Nations who arranged the trip to Korea. (53 words)

170


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Seoul Searchingâ&#x20AC;?

Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

beaming bittersweet

glowing pleasant and painful stylish renounce distressed throng reel unwilling strengthened unperturbed

radiating joy poignant

exuding happiness happy and regretful elegant disclaim troubled crowd heave averse fortified at ease

chic disown distraught gaggle lurch reluctant steeled unruffled

fashionable reject upset horde sway hesitant toughened in control

171


Quiz “Seoul Searching” True/False _____ 1. Rae was often self-conscious and felt people stared at her because she looked different. _____ 2. Rae’s mother gave her up for adoption because at the time of Rae’s birth she was married to a man who was not Rae’s father. _____ 3. Giving Rae up for adoption was especially difficult because she was the product of a long, loving relationship with her childhood sweetheart, but she had to marry a man who was selected by her family. Multiple Choice _____ 4. When contact with Rae’s birth mother was established, they a. b. c. d.

sat the entire time in the van parked outside the town’s boundaries. met in a coffee shop in a neighboring town. met in a park. met at the adoption agency.

_____ 5. Rae’s reaction at having met her birth mother can best be described as a. disappointment at the iciness of her birth mother. b. despair over having to leave her, knowing there would never again be any contact. c. jealousy over her birth mother’s other children. d. elation at having her questions answered and the hole in her heart healed.

172


Reading Selection 3 Coming into My Own Reading Level: 7

by Ben Carson, M.D.

Introduction • Introduce Ben Carson’s story by reading aloud the acrostic from his book, Think Big, which reveals his philosophy. As you read each line, write the initial letter on the board: T—Talent/time: Recognize them as gifts; H—Hope for good things and be honest; I—Insight from people and good books; N—Be nice to all people; K— Knowledge: Recognize it as the key to living; B—Books: Read them actively; I—Indepth learning skills: Develop them; G—God: Never get too big for Him. • Ask if anyone has heard Dr. Carson speak or read any of his books (Gifted Hands, Think Big, or The Big Picture) or seen him on TV specials. If so, some students may be able to share some information before they preview the article. Follow-Up • Have students complete the table of synonyms (p. 174) to reinforce their vocabulary. Present the table with the vocabulary word in the left-hand column eliminated and ask students to supply the word after considering the synonyms that you have presented. • While in medical school, Carson learned to give the college instructors more than they asked for, so he frequently did in-depth research on a particular subject. Ask students to search the Web for additional information on Carson’s life and work and then report to the class. This could be a collaborative assignment for groups: summaries of his books; an explanation of a turning point in his life when he stabbed a classmate; a moment in college when he was rewarded for his honesty; the surgery on the Binder twins that gained him international acclaim; his study techniques in medical school; the discouraging counseling he received from an advisor concerning his abilities; and the Carson Scholars program he and his wife have created. Show the 45-minute video: Faithful Journey: The Life and Career of Dr. Ben Carson (Carolina Medical). • Summarize the selection in 60 words or less. Who: Ben Carson, head of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins What: Shares anecdotes of his experiences and encourages people to be positive and proactive. When: Throughout his career Where: In speeches and writings Why: Because he overcame some major obstacles in his own life How: Through the support and discipline imposed by his mother, he now accepts selfimposed obligations to act as a role model to black youngsters Because he was able to overcome financial and academic obstacles in his own life through the support and discipline imposed by his mother, Ben Carson, head of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, frequently shares anecdotes of his life and career to encourage young people. Carson feels a special obligation to act as a role model to black youngsters. (59 words)

173


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Coming into My Ownâ&#x20AC;?

Word orderly

intern

Synonym 1 medical attendant

Synonym 2 medical helper

Synonym 3 medical assistant

medical school graduate in supervised training

entrepreneurs

capitalists

respiratory

related to breathing

therapy

treatment

industrialists

rehabilitation

174

people who take risks in organizing a business

healing


Quiz “Coming into My Own” True/False ___1. Benjamin Carson’s mother was a major positive influence in his life. ___2. Because of his position as a doctor, Carson has not been the recipient of racial prejudice. ___3. Because of the state of race relations today, Carson sees no hope for the future. Multiple Choice ___4. Carson feels many of the pressing racial problems will be taken care of when a. b. c. d.

more people are college-educated. computer technology gives people a more global view. medicine improves mental health professions. minorities refuse to look to others to improve their situations.

___5. According to Carson, “The only pressure I felt during my internship, and in the years since has been a____________.” a. b. c. d.

self-imposed obligation to act as a role model for Black youngsters. need to educate white medical professionals. need to pay back exorbitant loans incurred during medical school. constant need to prove himself as a qualified professional.

175


Reading Selection 4 Living Life to the Fullest By Maya Angelou Reading Level: 7 Introduction •

Ask if anyone has read I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Angelou’s autobiographical account of her youth, a compelling story of tragedy, loss of innocence, survival, and triumph. You may want to get a copy and read a portion aloud to pique the interest of the students.

Ask students what it means to live life to the fullest. Give students a chance to offer their ideas of what a “full life” can be.

Next, ask what they anticipate Angelou believes people do who live life to the fullest.

Follow-Up •

After students have had a chance to read the passage silently, ask them to recall what they can about the details. As they each have a chance to offer something they remember, write their ideas on the board without editorializing.

Angelou is known for her rich vocabulary, so spend some time with the words by introducing the following table of “word sorts,” synonyms of the words listed (p. 177). Show the students table with the vocabulary word in the left-hand column eliminated and ask students to supply the word after considering the synonyms that you have presented.

After students have had a chance to read the passage silently, ask them to recall what they can about the details. As they each have a chance to offer something they remember, write their ideas on the board without editorializing.

Finally, read another selection from Angelou’s book, Wouldn’t Take Nothing For My Journey Now.

Summarize the passage in one sentence.

Citing her Aunt Tee, who exhibited the qualities of one who savors life, Maya Angelou reveals that the art of living is not tied to power or money; rather, it lies in a willingness to embrace life as an adventure and an art that can be developed. (47 words)

176


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Living Life to the Fullestâ&#x20AC;?

Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

sinewy

wiry

lean

strong

scenarios

anticipations

situations

possibilities

tautly

rigidly

stiffly

inflexibly

convivial

cordial

genial

hospitable

meticulous

vigilant

detailed

scrupulous

founts

causes

wellsprings

origins

camaraderie

companionship

amity

company

maven

specialist

professional

connoisseur

incurred

sustained

encountered

experienced

177


Quiz â&#x20AC;&#x153;Living Life to the Fullestâ&#x20AC;? True/False ___1.

Aunt Tee worked for thirty years as a maid and then retired to Bel Air, California.

___2. The man and woman for whom Aunt Tee worked were envious of the fun she and her friends had on Saturday night. ___3.

Angelou believes that living well requires a natural creativity that cannot be developed.

Multiple-Choice ___4. With which statement about the basic talents needed for living well would Maya Angelou disagree? a. It requires a love of life and ability to take pleasure from small offerings. b. It requires an assurance that the world owes you nothing. c. It requires the gifts of money and power and the realization that they are gifts. d. It requires recognizing that people, though they differ from you, can be good companions. ___5. We often forget that life is an ongoing adventure because of the a. b. c. d.

routines we follow. money we have. power we have. money and power we lack.

178


Reading Selection 5 American Indian Mascots Should Go by Rick Heffern Reading Level: 14 Introduction •

Distribute a copy of the anticipation guide (p. 180) and ask students to complete it before you divide them into groups. Once in their groups, have them discuss and defend their answers. While they are still in their groups, discuss each statement as a class. Then have the students read the selection silently.

Show the students table with the vocabulary word in the left-hand column eliminated and ask students to supply the word after considering the synonyms that you have presented.

Follow-Up •

• • •

Assign each student to a partner and distribute a copy of the discussion web handout (p. 181) for them to fill in details for and against eliminating American Indian sports mascots. Then assign each set of pairs to another set so each group has four people to add more ideas to their sheet. Follow this session with an opportunity to discuss the issue. You may want students to research the 2006 NCAA decision to allow Florida State University to keep its Seminoles mascot because it was endorsed by two tribes. Finally, ask the students to write a paragraph expressing their conclusion about whether or not American Indian sports mascots are appropriate. Summarize

Who: American Indian sports mascots What: are offensive to Native Americans When: Currently Where: in the country Why: They demean the Indian culture How: Through caricatures and disrespectful use of American Indian symbols Currently, all national American Indian sports mascots are offensive to Native Americans because they demean their culture through caricatures and the disrespectful use of their symbols. (26 words)

179


Anticipation Guide: “American Indian Mascots Should Go” • • •

Read the following statements concerning the use of American Indian sports mascots. Put a check next to each statement you agree with. Be prepared to support your views about each statement by thinking about prior knowledge you have about NCAA and professional sports mascots. You will be sharing this information with other members of your group when you discuss the six statements.

______ 1. American Indian sports mascots are disrespectful. ______ 2. Many sports items such as feathers are considered religious symbols to American Indians. ______ 3. Sports mascots help teach fans about the country’s true heritage. ______ 4. Many Native American youth believe it is better to be disrespected than to be invisible, so they are not opposed to the sports mascots. _______ 5. Only a few national groups have actually spoken against the use of American Indian sports mascots. _______ 6. Most members of the Indian nation believe the mascots honor proud warriors. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

180


Discussion Web â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Indian Mascots Should Goâ&#x20AC;? Directions Consider your prior knowledge and what you learned from the reading selection. On the lefthand side, write reasons against the statement. On the right-hand side, write reasons for the statement.

Against _________________________

Pro __________________________

_________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________

American Indian sports mascots should be eliminated _________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________

_________________________

__________________________ Conclusion

181


â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Indian Mascots Should Goâ&#x20AC;?

Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

activist

campaigner

protestor

objector

advocacy

support

encouragement

backing

belligerent

aggressive

argumentative

quarrelsome

caricature

cartoon

picture

drawing

counterfeit

fake

imitation

sham

crucial

critical

vital

essential

demean

degrade

debase

disgrace

derogatory

disparaging

insulting

offensive

disparaging

belittling

disapproving

demoralizing

endorse

support

sanction

approve

hoopla

brouhaha

publicity

notoriety

paraphernalia

things

belongings

supplies

proverbial

recognizable

well-known

memorable

stereotype

typecast

catalogue

categorize

warp

distort

twist

misrepresent

182


Quiz “American Indian Mascots Should Go”

True or False _____ 1. Most anti-mascot activists are sympathetic to the culture of American Indians. _____ 2. Indian mascots distort non-Indian children’s attitudes toward Native peoples. _____ 3. When surveyed by a Stanford University psychologist, 90 percent of Native American high school students said they did not mind the sports mascots.

Multiple Choice. _____ 4. With which statement would most American Indians disagree? a. American Indian sports mascots are disrespectful. b. American Indian sports mascots teach a distorted view of their culture. c. Some American Indian sports mascots have reflected respectful ways to honor their warriors. d. Anti-Indian sports mascots make up a small group of liberal protestors in the country. ______ 5. To some, fans who love American Indian sports mascots are similar to a. people who deny the Holocaust ever occurred. b. Native American historians who use the mascots to publicize Indian culture and symbols. c. university psychologists. d. advertisers who use visual symbols to promote a product.

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Reading Selection 6 Hispanic, USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies by Rose del Castillo Guilbault Reading Level: 8 Introduction • • • •

Ask if anyone knows what a migrant worker is. Explain that this story is told from the viewpoint of a girl who worked as a tomato sorter one summer when she was sixteen. Has anyone done a tedious job similar to the author’s—a job that required work on a conveyor belt? If so, he or she may want to share observations about the experience. What were the hours? What were the responsibilities? What were the co-workers like? Have you ever undertaken something you dreaded, and then discovered hidden benefits?

Follow-Up • • •

Review the vocabulary with the students prior to their reading. Have them highlight and mark after the first reading. (Be sure to remind them not to highlight more than 20-30 percent and to circle unfamiliar words.) Have the students complete the table (p. 185) of the synonyms to assess their understanding of the vocabulary. Ask the students to summarize the passage in one sentence.

Sample: To supplement her income to finance college, the author takes a summer job in a vegetablepacking shed and discovers a connection and respect for women she originally misjudged but eventually grew to appreciate. (33 words)

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hispanic, USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladiesâ&#x20AC;? Word

Synonym 1

Synonym 2

Synonym 3

crescendo

increase

loudening

upsurge

tedious

monotonous

boring

wearisome

gregarious

outgoing

extroverted

convivial

melancholic

despondent

miserable

forlorn

fatalism

The belief that events in life are determined by fate

strenuous

arduous

laborious

exhausting

pragmatic

sensible

no-nonsense sensible

sorority

society

group of women

alliance

stigmatize

shame

disgrace

dishonor

anticlimactic

A commonplace event that ends in a series of important events

dyspeptic

cantankerous

irritable

cranky

irrevocably

irreversibly

immutably

permanently

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Quiz “Hispanic, USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies” True/False ___1. Most of the women the author worked with were from New Mexico. ___ 2.

The women in the shed were to stand and pick flawed tomatoes from the conveyor belt.

___3. The women in the plant made fun of the Anglo, male supervisor. Multiple Choice ___4.Which is not a description of the women in the packing shed? a. Gregarious b. Quiet and reserved c. Gossiping d. Hardworking ___5.

The author was appalled and deeply affected by the women’s confidences, and her mother told her, a. b. c. d.

“Then become educated, so you won’t be like them.” “Go to college and learn how to help them.” “That’s nothing. It they were in Mexico, life would be even harder.” “They’re only entertaining you. Their life is not like the embellished stories you hear.”

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Reading Selection 7 I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace By Alephonsion Deng Reading Level: 11.1 Introduction • • • • •

Begin by asking students to complete a copy of the story impression (p. 188). Discuss with the class what they predict the selection will be about and write the predictions on the chalkboard. Allot 8 minutes for the students to read the selection silently, considering their predictions as they read. Distribute the Timeline handout (p. 189) and ask the students to complete the concept map to indicate the sequence of events of the story. Discuss the synonyms handout (p. 190) to ensure students expand their vocabulary after the reading.

Follow-Up • Make a copy of “Angelo’s Story” (p. 191) and ask for volunteers to do a popcorn reading. (Students take turns reading a paragraph aloud.) Discuss the similarities and differences in the two stories. • Ask the students to summarize the selection in 50 words or less. Who: Alephonsion Deng (one of the “Lost Boys” of Sudan) What: Adjusted to his new life in the United States When: From the time he was 7 Where: San Diego from Sudan Why: Government troops attacked his village and killed his family How: Through community support, education, experiences in a new culture. Alelphonsion Deng, one of the Lost Boys of Sudan, witnessed government troops attacking village and killing his family when he was only seven. Fifteen years later, he arrived in San Diego, California, and faced new challenges that he overcame through community support, education, and experiences in a new culture. (49 words)

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Story Impression â&#x20AC;&#x153;I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peaceâ&#x20AC;? Study the ten words from the story. 1. village 2. Sudan 3. walked 4. cornmeal 5. United States 6. challenge 7. void 8. memoir 9. emotions 10. dignity

In the space below, write your prediction of what you think the story will be about. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Timeline â&#x20AC;&#x153;I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peaceâ&#x20AC;? Study the events from the story, and then write the corresponding number of each in the appropriate box to indicate the sequence in which they occurred. 1. The author lives in Kenya for nearly ten years, where he attends school. 2. The author attends a football game with his friend Adam. 3. The author is chosen to go to the United States. 4. The author has a job as a records clerk at Kaiser Hospital and attends college. 5. The refugee camp in Sudan is attacked by soldiers. 6. The author gets a job at Ralphâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. 7. The village in southern Sudan is attacked.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peaceâ&#x20AC;?

Word acquaint challenge convenience interact lash memoir mentor ravage refugee sanctuary unscathed vengeance void

Synonym 1 familiarize question usefulness interrelate criticize journal adviser devastate migrant refuge unharmed revenge emptiness

Synonym 2 enlighten confront accommodation cooperate berate record counselor destroy expatriate asylum intact retribution hollowness

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Synonym 3 introduce dispute accessory relate attack chronicle guide damage immigrant shelter unhurt reprisal abyss


ANGELO’S STORY By Greg O’Berry Angelo is going to tell you a story. I’m going to help, but this is his story in his words—a story so far out of the realm of the “American Experience” that we don’t even have a point of reference. “In 1987, my mama and two brothers lost their lives when the Islamic Regime (Sudan) declared jihad on Christians. Mama was cooking. I was playing with my young brothers who also died on this day that I will never forget. The enemy attacked our village and began shooting randomly, leaving dozens of people dead… Mama grabbed me and ran in the middle of the firing…she was shot in both legs while holding my hand and trying to keep me safe. I remained there helpless, crying and screaming while she bled…I couldn’t help her…I was seven years old.” I met Angelo at Thomas Nelson. Tall and good-natured, he never fails to give me a 100-watt grin and a firm handshake along with his standard greeting, “Hello, my friend,” and it never sounds worn or insincere. Angelo doesn’t want you to feel sorry for him or the thousands like him. He doesn’t want you to cry or feel guilty or hate those responsible. What Angelo wants is for you to hear this. I’ll let him tell you: “It might be interesting or boring to you, but may the Lord open your heart, mind, ears and eyes to read and understand it [his story] completely without any interference.” His story continues… “Later Mama opened her mouth and said, ‘Son’. I was very excited when I heard her voice; I thought she was recovering. She was dying instead. ‘I’m sorry to leave you in this world at this age, but there is nothing I can do to avoid it’, she said. ‘I’m now dying, but keep these three things in mind, One: God, Two: Respect, and Three: Do 191


not steal.’ Before I could respond she died. I remained there for the rest of the night trying to wake her up until I fell asleep beside her body.” Two days later, without food or water, Angelo came upon another group, mostly children. “They were preparing to travel east where the sun rises. On our way it took us a month, traveling hundreds of miles on foot…we survived on leaves and stagnant water.” They eventually made it to a refugee camp in Ethiopia, where their numbers swelled to 16,000—all children between five and nine years old. As governments often do in that part of the world, Ethiopia’s fell in 1991. The children, or “Lost Boys” as they are now called, were forced to walk back to Sudan. “Ethiopian rebels and Sudan government troops collaborated and started attacking us before we could even leave the country. About 6,000 boys died on the way through the attacks and the River Gilo claimed the lives of those who did not know how to swim. There were very few caretakers trying to help thousands of us. We learned very quickly the rules of survival.” They were again chased all the way across Sudan and then finally, their backs up against the Kenyan border, the U.N. intervened and took them to Kakuma—a refugee camp in Kenya. “We remained in Kakuma for nine years getting a little education from the U.N. until the U.S. government decided to bring us here…” Angelo is now a young man. He goes to school full-time at Thomas Nelson Community College and works two jobs. He also selflessly and tirelessly lobbies our government for economic and diplomatic assistance for the Southern Sudanese people. The day I met Angelo I showed him how to use a treadmill. We work together at the Thomas Nelson Wellness Center and it was his first day. He pushed the buttons and began to

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run—all giggles and teeth and gangly limbs, his seven-year-old inner child still firmly intact—a six feet plus little boy amazed at the world and open to all its possibilities Angelo is going home for the first time in many years. He’s leaving on December 23rd and hopes to be reunited with his father and only surviving brother by Christmas. We get to meet someone like Angelo, if we’re lucky, a few times over the course of our existence. We tend to think that we change their lives. We’re wrong. If we let them, they change ours.

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Quiz “I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace” True/False ____ 1. Deng’s parents were killed by government soldiers. ____ 2. While living in Kenya, Deng was attacked by Sudanese soldiers. ____ 3. Once in the U.S., Deng took classes to learn the basics about life in America. Multiple Choice _____ 4. How old was Deng when he arrived in the United States? a. 7 b. 12 c. 17 d. 22 _____ 5. Deng’s first job in the U.S. was a. a waiter in an international hotel in San Diego, California. b. bellhop at an international hotel in San Francisco, California. c. medical records clerk at a local hospital. d. grocery store clerk and stocker

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Part Three: Useful Teaching Materials

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Online Student Resource Guide Test-Taking Strategies: A Review Introduction • • •

You may choose to discuss this chapter in conjunction with Chapter 1 when you have the students focus on attributes of an active learner. Point out that test anxiety, though a real condition, can be alleviated by preparation. Just as an Olympian practices and sometimes over-prepares for an event, a student needs to do the same. Point out the best time to begin preparing for an exam is the first day of class.

Follow Up •

Use the handout in the manual (p.197) to discuss the “General Suggestions for Objective Exams.”

To accompany the discussion on strategies for taking multiple-choice tests, use the handout in the manual (p. 198).

Use the handout in the manual (p.199) to accompany the lecture on how to take to an essay test:

When discussing items in “Achieving Success with Standardized Tests,” you will want to consider the placement test that determined a student would be in your class. In addition, the SATs may still be a test some students plan to take. Also, many standardized tests on college campuses are now computerized. Apprise students who feel uncomfortable with that format that they can request a pencil/paper test; however, they are frequently timed while the computer tests are untimed.

Provide an opportunity for students to explore the following Web sites, which will help them determine more hints for taking exams. Ask the students to rate the sites according to usefulness, credibility, and ease of navigation. http://www.eop.mu.edu/study/ http://www2.plattsburgh.edu/learningcenter/testtakingtips.cfm http://www.byu.edu/ccc/Learning_Strategies/test/strategy.htm http://www.frontiernet.net/~jlkeefer/exams.htm

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General Suggestions for Taking Objective Exams How to Approach Objective Exams

Read the directions.

Leave nothing blank.

Look for clues.

Write your answers clearly.

Check over your answers before you turn in the exam.

Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change answers without a good reason.

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Begin by reading each question as if it is a fill-in-the-blank or short answer question. Read all choices first, considering each. Read combination choices. Use logic and common sense.

Examine closely items that are similar. Determine if the question requires application of knowledge.

Techniques for Taking Multiple-Choice Tests

Pay special attention to the level of qualifying words. Jot down the essence. Avoid the unfamiliar. Eliminate choices that are obviously false. Choose the longest or most inclusive answers. Be careful of “all of the above” and “none of the above.” Make an educated guess.

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How to Take an Essay Test  Read through the question completely.  Turn the question into a statement and use it for your topic sentence or thesis statement.  List or map details you plan to include and then number them in the order you will use them.  Focus on your topic sentence or thesis statement as you write your essay.  Be sure to use transition words such as first, second, in addition, finally, most important, most critical, etc.  Reread your answer and check spelling, punctuation and grammar.  Be sure the answer is neat. Even if neatness is not a consideration by the instructor, it will make a better impression.  Never leave an essay question unanswered. If you run out of time, jot some notes in the margin. Some instructors will give you points for the information outlined.

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Student Information Sheet Name _______________________________________________ Student ID_________________ Mailing Address ________________________________________________________________ Street

City

Zip

Phone ___________________________ Best time(s) to call_____________________________ Academic Information Is this your first semester here? ____ If not, how many semesters have you been here?_____ What other courses are you taking this semester? _____________________________________ Work Do you work? _____ How many hours a week do you work? ___________________________ Where do you work? ___________________________________________________________ What is your job? ______________________________________________________________ How many hours a week does your work schedule allow for studying? ____________________ Languages What is your first language? ______________________________________________________ If you came here from another country, how long have you been in the U.S.?_______________ Favorites Sports team? __________________________________________________________________ TV show?_____________________________________________________________________ Movie? _______________________________________________________________________ What movie did you most recently see?______________________________________________ Book?________________________________________________________________________ What is the latest book you read? __________________________________________________ Radio station? _________________________________________________________________ Song? ________________________________________________________________________ Sentence Completion

The greatest things about me are_____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ The greatest problems I currently face are ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ In the space below, write three questions you have about the course or how to succeed academically.____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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Sample Syllabus

Instructor: Office: Hours: Voice Mail: E-mail:

“Books had the power to alter my view of the world forever.”—Pat Conroy We live in a visual culture, one which daily bombards us with images—written and electronic—that we must comprehend, analyze, and synthesize. That is even truer of the experiences of college students who must comprehend and evaluate large amounts of material quickly. To do this successfully, the student needs skills in note taking, time management, vocabulary enhancement, increasing comprehension, critical reading, and summarizing. This course is designed for students who want to improve their reading skills and develop helpful study strategies. Required Materials McWhorter, Kathleen T. Essential Reading Skills, 3rd ed., Longman, 2007 College-level dictionary 3x5 index cards Highlighters #2 pencils Attendance and Academic Demeanor Come to class every day. Absences (excused or unexcused) in excess of _______ days—may result in your being administratively withdrawn from the course. Withdrawals prior to _____________ will result in a grade of “W.” Withdrawals after that date will result in a grade of ______. Be sure to arrive on time. It is very distracting and impolite to your instructor and classmates when students enter class late. Students who are tardy ten minutes or more will be counted as absent. In addition, students who leave class ten minutes or more before the end will also be counted as absent.

If you must be absent, be sure to call the instructor. 201


Please honor the no eating, drinking, or smoking policy in the classroom and lab. Also, please realize the importance of proper academic demeanor and turn off all cellular phones, pagers, headphones, and radios before entering the classroom. Plagiarism Students are cautioned about plagiarism, which literally means “to kidnap” and is the passing of another person’s words, ideas, or particularly apt phrases as your own. Credit will not be given for any plagiarized work. The following schedule is subject to change. Please check with your instructor to verify assignments and test dates. I am a part of all I have read.” --John Kiernan Week 1

Course Introduction Personal Introductions Reading Actively (Chapter 1)

Week 2

Building Vocabulary Using Your Dictionary (Chapter 2) “The Most Hateful Words”

Week 3

Building Vocabulary Using Context Clues (Chapter 3) “Seoul Searching”

Week 4

Building Vocabulary Using Word Parts (Chapter 4) “Coming into My Own”

Week 5

Test: Building Vocabulary Locating Main Ideas (Chapter 5)

Week 6

Locating Main Ideas (Chapter 5 continued) “American Indian Mascots Should Go”

Week 7

Identifying Supporting Details and Transitions (Chapter 6) “Hispanic, USA: Conveyor-Belt Ladies”

Week 8

Understanding Implied Main Ideas (Chapter 7) “I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace”

Week 9 Test Chapters 4-6 Keeping Track of Information (Chapter 8)

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Week 10

Recognizing Basic Patterns of Organization (Chapter 9)

Week 11

Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect (Chapter 10)

Week 12

Review Patterns Test Patterns Introduction of Reading and Thinking (Chapter 11) Introduction to College Textbook Reading: Student Resource Guide A

Week 13

Critical Reading and Thinking (continued) Student Resource Guide A (continued)

Week 14

Critical Reading (continued)

Week 15

Critical Reading Review Critical Reading Test

Important Dates: Classes Begin: Last Day to Add a Class: Last Day to Drop for Refund Last Day to Drop with a grade of W Classes End: Final Exam:

“A good reader is one who has imagination, memory, a dictionary, and some artistic sense.”—Vladimir Nabokov

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Reading Level Analyses I (The reading levels on the selections below include Mastery Tests 3 for each chapter as well as Additional Reading Selections 1-7. They are listed here in order of appearance and are based on Fry Graph* and Flesch-Kincaid** calculations.) Reading Selection 1. To Love and to Cherish 2. We Don’t Have AIDS, but We Suffer, too 3. Online Dating Sites Aren’t Holding People’s Hearts 4. Don’t Ask 5. Why Go Veg? 6. Primary Colors 7. Body Piercing and Tattooing 8. Right Place, Wrong Face 9. When Mommy Goes off to War 10. The Beautiful Laughing Sisters 11. Civil Liberties and the Right to Privacy 12. Food Safety: A Growing Concern 13. Legible Clothing 14. The Most Hateful Words 15. Seoul Searching 16. Coming into My Own 17. Living Life to the Fullest 18. American Indian Mascots Should Go 19. Hispanic USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies 20. I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace

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Reading Level 10.0* 5.8** 11.8** 10.0* 16** 7.0* 14.0* 7.0* 4.7** 7.0* 15.0* 13.0* 10.0* 6.1** 5.0* 7.0* 7.0* 14** 8* 11.1**


Reading Level Analyses II (The reading levels on the selections below include Mastery Tests 3 for each chapter as well as Additional Reading Selections 1-7. They are listed here in order of difficulty and are based on Fry Graph* or Flesch-Kincaid** calculations.) Reading Selection 1. When Mommy Goes off to War 2. Seoul Searching 3. We Don’t Have AIDS, but We Suffer, too 4. The Most Hateful Words 5. Primary Colors 6. Right Place, Wrong Face 6. The Beautiful Laughing Sisters 7. Coming into My Own 8. Living Life to the Fullest 9. The Beautiful Laughing Sisters 10. Hispanic USA: The Conveyor Belt Ladies 11. Don’t Ask 12. To Love and to Cherish 13.Legible Clothing 14. I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace 15. Online Dating Sites Aren’t Holding People’s Hearts 16. Food Safety: A Growing Concern 17. Body Piercing and Tattooing 18. American Indian Mascots Should Go 19. Civil Liberties and the Right to Privacy 20. Why Go Veg?

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Reading Level 4.7** 5.0* 5.8** 6.1** 7.0* 7.0* 7.0* 7.0* 7.0* 7.0* 8.0* 10.0* 10.0* 10.0* 11.1** 11.8** 13.0* 14.0* 14.0** 15.0* 16.0**


Introduction Bingo Circulate around the room to acquire the signature of anyone who can accurately fit the given descriptions. You may only use a name once. Be sure to have the person sign your sheet in the appropriate box.

Someone who Someone with a can name the highlighter author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

Someone who is a visual learner

Someone who can name three attributes of an active learner

Someone with a dictionary

Someone who can name three attributes of an effective instructor

Someone who is an auditory learner

Someone who can change a flat tire without reading instructions

Someone who color codes notes

Someone with a thesaurus

Someone who learns best by listening, rather than taking notes

Someone who knows the definition of the root word bio

Someone who knows the deadline to withdraw with a â&#x20AC;&#x153;wâ&#x20AC;?*

Someone who can name two books by Ben Carson, M.D.

Someone who is a kinesthetic learner

Someone who can identify the author of Hamlet

Someone who reads to his or her child each night

Someone who reads at least 15 minutes each day

Someone who can identify the country where Mt. Everest is located

Someone who can define labyrinthine

Someone who listens to music when he or she studies

Someone who doodles in his or her notebook

Someone who Someone who needs to walk exercises around when he regularly or she reads

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Someone who can identify two attributes of a dolphin


Reading Survey (Pre-Course Personal Assessment) Circle the answer that best indicates your feelings and concerns about taking this course. 1. I feel my high school experience adequately prepared me for the academic challenges of college. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 2. Taking this course is not necessary to my success as a college student. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 3. My vocabulary is strong and exemplary for an entering college freshman. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 4. I am comfortable “attacking” new and unfamiliar words and can pronounce them and discern their meaning with ease. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 5. Although I am comfortable “saying the words” when I read, I cannot always understand the content of what I have read. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 6. Although I am comfortable “saying the words” and comprehending what I have read, I have difficulty remembering the content, even right after finishing an assignment. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 7. Although my reading is adequate, my writing ability needs improvement. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 8. When I think about taking a math class, I feel uncomfortable. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 9. I am able to manage my time. a. strongly agree b. agree

c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

10. I have good organizational skills in my academic life. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

11. I am organized in my personal life. a. strongly agree b. agree

c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

12. I do not procrastinate. a. strongly agree

c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

b. agree

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13. My reading rate is adequate for my needs. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

14. Improving my reading rate is a priority for me. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

15. Improving my vocabulary is a priority for me. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

16. Improving my comprehension is a priority for me. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

17. Improving my writing ability is a priority for me. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

18. I feel that attending and participating in class are essential to academic success. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 19. I feel that successful students are prepared for class. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree

d. strongly disagree

20. I feel that successful students perceive their instructors as experts. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 21. Successful students stick to an organized study routine. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 22. Successful students develop a collection of study skills strategies. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 23. Successful students take responsibility for their own learning. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 24. I am comfortable using the computer and searching the Internet. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 25. Learning to evaluate information on the World Wide Web is a priority for me. a. strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree 24. How many books have you read in your lifetime? a. none b. 1-5 c. 5-10

d. too many to count

25. How many hours of TV do you watch a day? a. none b. 1-2 c. 3-5

d. too many to count

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KWL What You Know

What You Want to Know

209

What You Have Learned


Suggested Trade Book Titles for Nontraditional Students Students who read perform better on the SATs. Students who read tend to write more fluently. Students who read tend to be active learners. In order to improve their reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, and reading speed, students need to read more. If you require the students to read a trade book in addition to the classroom text, encourage them to develop the habit of reading at least 15 minutes a day. Explain to them that Ruth Love, former Superintendent of Chicago Public Schools, once said, “If we could get our parents to read to their preschool children fifteen minutes a day, we could revolutionize the schools.” Ask your students if they would be willing to invest fifteen minutes a day to revolutionize their own lives. Below are some titles your students would be interested in reading. In addition to being good stories, they are “quick reads.” These titles are also popular with ESL students. *Denotes nonfiction. Title Author The Samurai’s Garden Holes The Five People You Meet in Heaven *Tuesdays with Morrie Early Autumn Clover Ellen Foster The Notebook A Walk to Remember The Wedding Kindred The Old Man and the Sea The Pearl *Wouldn’t Take Nothing for My Journey Now Here on Earth Turtle Mood Where the Heart Is Hoops *By Any Means Necessary Anything to Win I Know What You Did Last Summer Killing Mr. Griffin Are You in the House Alone? How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent *Walkabout *A Child Called “It” The Lovely Bones *The Color of Water *Gifted Hands *Think Big *The Big Picture *Finding Fish The Bean Trees Shane Their Eyes Were Watching God The Things They Carried All Quiet on the Western Front

Gail Tsukiyama Louis Sachar Mitch Albom Mitch Albom Robert B. Parker Dori Sanders Kaye Gibbons Nicholas Sparks Nicholas Sparks Nicholas Sparks Octavia Butler Ernest Hemingway John Steinbeck Maya Angelou Alice Hoffman Alice Hoffman Billie Letts Walter Dean Myers Walter Dean Myers Gloria Miklowitz Lois Duncan Lois Duncan Richard Peck Julia Alvarez James Marshall David Pelzer Alice Sebold James McBride Ben Carson, M.D. Ben Carson, M.D. Ben Carson, M.D. Antwone Fisher Barbara Kingsolver Jack Schaefer Zora Neale Hurston Tim O’Brien Erich Maria Remarque

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Book Review Project

Title: Author: Publisher and Publication Date: Number of Pages: Rating: (Excellent; Very Good; Good; Fair; Poor) Themes: Page Number of a Brief Passage to Read Aloud:

Summary: A succinct synopsis of the story, including one direct quotation from the book. Evaluation: A one-paragraph critique that expresses your opinion of the book, who it would appeal to, and what you liked or disliked. Be sure to justify your rating.

211


Book Project Grading Written Review=50 points Presentation=40 points Following Directions and Meeting Deadlines=10 points Total Project=100 points Themes=10 points Summary=20 points. (This should include who, what, when, where, why, and how. Also, the student will include a topic sentence in each paragraph with specific supporting details and transition words when applicable. Extra points can be accrued for appropriate use of vocabulary words, which should be highlighted or underlined in the body of the paper. No credit will be given for plagiarized work.) Opinion=20 points. (The student will justify his or her rating with specific observations of the book by including a topic sentence, and details connected with transition words. Extra credit will be given when vocabulary words are used appropriately and highlighted or underlined. Finally, include a Web site that provides information about the author and the book and rate the site by telling how beneficial the information was in helping you comprehend and evaluate the book. In the summary or in the opinion, you must include a direct quotation from the book. Presentation: In 2-3 minutes share your summary without revealing the ending and read a brief passage from the book. Be prepared to field questions.

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Part Four: Complete Answer Key

213


Complete Answer Key Chapter One: Reading Actively Exercise 1-1 (p. 3) 1. NH 6. 2. NH 7. 3. NH 8. 4. H 9. 5. H 10.

Exercise 1-2 (p. 6) 1. T 4. T 2. T 5. T 3. F

NH H H H NH

Exercise 1-3 (p. 7) 1. c 4. b 2. a 5. c 3. d

Exercise 1-4 (p. 8) 1. e 4. d 2. a 5. b 3. c

Exercise 1-5 (p. 9) 1. b 4. a 2. c 5. b 3. c What Have You Learned? (p. 10) 1. F 4. T 2. T 5. T 3. F 6. F Practice Test 1-1 (p. 12) 1. b 2. b 3. c 4. a 5. d 6. b 7. d 8. c 9. b 10. b Practice Test 1-3 (p. 17) 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b 6. b 7. d 8. c 9. b 10. c

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 10) 1. e 4. b 2. c 5. a 3. d Practice Test 1-2 (p. 14) 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. b 6. d 7. b 8. d 9. b 10. d Mastery Test 1-1 (p. 21) 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F Mastery Test 1-2 ( p. 23) 1. d 4. b 2. a 5. a 3. b

Mastery Test 1-3 (p. 29) 1. d 11. a 2. b 12. b 3. b 13. a 4. c 14. b 5. c 15. d 6. a 16. convened 7. d 17. conviction 8. a 18. fortify 9. c 19. refracted 10.b 20. nurture

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Chapter 2: Using Your Dictionary Exercise 2-1 (p. 36) 1. a thing or part having the shape of a curve; a line having no straight part; the act of curving 2. a pitched ball thrown with a spin 3. Bend refers to twisting something that is normall staight. Exercise 2-2 (p. 37)

Exercise 2-3 (p. 37) (Answers will vary.)

1. pronoun, adjective, adverb, conjunction

1. transitive verb

2. preposition, conjunction, verb

2. less than

3. adjective, adverb, verb, noun

3. circa; about; around the time of

4. noun, adjective, verb, interjection

4. obscure; obsolete

5. noun, verb, adjective

5. French; France

Exercise 2-4 (p. 39)

6. plural

Exercise 2-5 (p. 40)

1. commit

1. frim Middle English (gingivere,” Old English (gingifer,”

2. capture

Old French “gingivre,” Medieval Latin “gingiver,”

3. barometer

Latin “zinziberi,” Greek “ziggiberis,” Prakit “singabera,”

4. schedule

and Sanskrit “srngaveram”

5. identification

2. from Latin “tintus” and Italian “tinto”

6. indifference

3. from Latin “calculare” and Greek “khalix”

7. learned

4. from Middle English “fantastik,” Old Rench “fantastique,”

8. liquid

Latin “fantasticus,” and Greek “phantastikos”

9. nuisance

5. from Middle English “autentik,” Old French “autentique,”

10. pharmacy

Latin “authenticus,” and Greek “authentikos”

Exercise 2-6 (p. 40) 1. a legal title to property held by one party for the benefit of another 2. reasoning from the particular to the general 3. a distinct substance composed of the atoms or ions of two or more elements in definite proportions 4. a book of original entries in a double-entry system, indicating all transactions and the accounts in which they belong Exercise 2-7 (p. 42) (Answers will vary.) 1. She is a woman of culture who values music, literature, and art. My uncle is very involved with the culture of roses. 2. The parrot spent most of its day on its perch. The small cabin was perched high in the mountains. 3. The small boat was capsized by the sudden surge. The music surged through the auditorium. 4. The blacksmith wore a leather apron. Park your car on the apron beside the garage. 5. Your behavior is highly irregular. New England’s coastline is irregular. Exercise 2-8 (p. 43) 1. slightest trace

4. principal division within a musical symphony

2. a round in a race

5. hard-surfaced area in front of an airplane hangar

3. courses of action; procedures

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Exercise 2-9 (p. 44) 1. crises

Exercise 2-10 (p. 45) 1. Petite often applies to a woman’s figure and means small and trim.

2. judgement

Diminutive means unusually small.

3. sur-prise

2. Careless means inattentive or unconcerned, and it can imply negligence.

4. burst

Thoughtlessness suggests a lack of consideration for others.

5. criminally

3. Odor is a neutral word meaning “smell.” Aroma refers to a pleasant odor, often a spicy one. 4. A grin is a broad smile exposing the teeth and is a natural expression of happiness. A smirk is an affected, bold smile expression derision, smugness, or conceit. 5. Hurt refers to physical or mental distress or lessening the worth of something. Damage refers to an injury to one’s reputation or status or a decrease in the value of property.

Exercise 2-11 (p. 46) 1. look down upon; reject; make light of

4. in a straight line; by the shortest route

2. started; began

5. promoted to a better position that has less power; promoted to

3. start fresh; improve; make a change for the better

a higher but less desirable position

Exercise 2-12 (p. 48) 1. pol/ka

6. in/no/va/tive

11. tan/ge/lo

16. te/nac/i/ty

2. pol/lute

7. ob/tuse

12. sym/me/try

17. mes/mer/ize

3. or/di/nal

8. ger/mi/cide

13. te/lep/a/thy

18. in/tru/sive

4. hal/low

9. fu/tile

14. or/gan/ic

19. in/fal/li/ble

5. ju/di/ca/ture

10. ex/toll

15. hid/e/ous

20. fa/nat/i/cism

Exercise 2-13 (p. 50) 1. made dirty or impure 2. something than can cause disease, such as a bacterium or virus 3. the state of being extremely poisonous or infectious 4. not transparent or translucent; unable to be seen through 5. poisonous, causting harm or death 6. medical condition in which there are too few red blood cells 7. microscopic organisms that transmit disease 8. substances that prevent the destructive effects of oxidation 9. toxic chemicals 10. substances that regulate cells and bodily functions

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Chapter 2: What Have You Learned? (p. 51) 1. one 2. usage notes 3. root 4. part of speech 5. parentheses Practice Test 2-1 (p. 53) 1. a 4. a 2. d 5. d 3. b

Chapter 2: What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 51) 1. c 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. e

1. a 2. d 3. c

Practice Test 2-3 (p. 56) 1. a 6. c 2. d 7. d 3. c 8. c 4. a 9. a 5. b 10. a

Mastery Test 2-1 (p, 58) 1. d 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. c

Mastery Test 2-3 (p. 63) 1. d 6. d 11. a 2. d 7. e 12. d 3. c 8. a 13. b 4. b 9. c 14. b 5. a 10. b 15. merciless

16. state of health 17. trapped 18. spread 19. overload 20. irregularity

Practice Test 2-2 (p. 54) 4. b 7. a 10. b 5. a 8. d 6. d 9. c Mastery Test 2-2 (p. 61) 1. d 6. b 2. c 7. b 3. a 8. c 4. c 9. b 5. a 10. a

Chapter 3: Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues Exercise 3-1 (p. 73) 1. a 6. 2. b 7. 3. d 8. 4. b 9. 5. a 10.

b b a d b

Exercise 3-2 (p.75 ) 1. d 6. b 2. d 7. b 3. c 8. c 4. b 9. d 5. b 10. c

Exercise 3-3 (p. 77) 1. c 6. 2. a 7. 3. b 8. 4. b 9. 5. b 10.

b c c c c

Exercise 3-4 (p. 79) 1. a 6. b 2. d 7. c 3. b 8. a 4. a 9. a 5. c 10. c

Exercise 3-5 (p. 80) 1. c 6. 2. b 7. 3. c 8. 4. b 9. 5. b 10.

b b a c a

Exercise 3-6 (p. 82) 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. a

What Have You Learned? (p. 84) 1. context 2. Context clues 3. synonym 4. definitions 5. inference

Practice Test 3-1 (p. 86) 1. c 6. c 2. d 7. d 3. a 8. d 4. b 9. b 5. a 10. c

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Practice Test 3-3 (p. 90) 1. change 2. silent 3. weaknesses 4. gruesome 5. useless 6. not intended 7. limit 8. burned 9. travel plan 10. trusting relationship

Practice Test 3-2 (p. 88) 1. b 2. b 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. c 8 .a 9. c 10. c

Mastery Test 3-1 (p. 91) 1.change 2.doubtful 3.affect 4.show 5.studied

Mastery Test 3-2 (p. 92)

6. colors 7. prison 8. theory 9. places of confinement 10. erupt

1. houses 2. given up completely 3. those who are similar 4. few 5. almost

6. noticeable 7. hardship 8. definitely 9. not continuous 10. dependable

Mastery Test 3-3 (p. 96) 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. c 6. c 7. d 8. a 9. a 10. c

11. b 12. b 13. a 14. c 15. a 16. zaftig 17. bane 18. profiling 19. stagnation 20. compatibility

21. b 22. d 23. c 24. a 25. c

Chapter 4: Building Vocabulary: Using Word Parts Exercise 4-1 (p. 106) 1. f 6. b 2. d 7. j 3. i 8. c 4. a 9. g 5. h 10. e

Exercise 4-2 (p. 107) 1. bi (lingual) 2. im (perfect) 3. ir (reversible) 4. mis (informed) 5. dis (continued)

6. sub (standard) 7. retro (active) 8. inter (mediaries) 9. re (plicate) 10. dis (colored)

Exercise 4-3 (p. 109) 1. i 6. b 2. h 7. e 3. j 8. c 4. a 9. f 5. d 10. g

Exercise 4-4 (p. 110) 1. verdict 2. scriptures 3. visualize 4. spectators 5. prescribed

6. apathetic 7. synchronized 8. graphic 9. extraterrestrial 10. deduce

Exercise 4-5 (p. 112) (p. 115) 1. conversation 2. assistant 3. qualifications 4. internship 5. eaten 6. audible 7. sincerity 8. permission 9. instructive 10. remembrance

Textbook Challenge (p. 115) 11. mortality 12. presidential 13. feminist 14. hazardous 15. destiny 16. differences 17. friendship 18. comfortable 19. popularity 20. apologetic

What Have You Learned?

1. food that can spoil quickly 1. F 2. emitting radiation 2. T 3. reproducing 3. F 4. tiny organisms that can only 4. T be seen using a microscope 5. T 5. people who work to protect 6. F the environment 6. not purposefully, by accident 7. the combined effect of two or more things working together

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Practice Test 4-1 (p. 117) 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. b 5. c 6. b 7. b 8. a 9. c 10.a

1. c 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. c 7. a 8. a 9. a 10. b

Practice 4-2 (p. 119)

Practice Test 4-3 (p. 121) 1. ver 2. terr 3. un 4. vis 5. vert 6. voc 7. uni 8. dict 9. trans 10.Thermo

Mastery Test 4-1 (p.122 ) 1. restore 2. figured as less 3. not attentive; sloppy 4. made a mistake at estimating 5. not inclined 6. afraid 7. give up 8. conquered 9. large number 10. changed

Mastery Test 4-2 (p. 123) 1. erroneously 2. endanger 3. strenuous 4. flexible 5. peaceful 6. snakelike 7. dramatic 8. location 9. tension 10.benefits

1. b 2. c 3. d c. b 5. b 6. d 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. d

Mastery Test 4-3 (p. 126) 11. a 21. a 12. c 22. a 13. d 23. b 14. b 24. a 15. c 25. c 16. b 17. e 18. a 19. c 20. d

Chapter 5: Locating Main Ideas Exercise 5-1 (p. 134) 1. b 6. d 2. c 7. c 3. a 8. c 4. c 9. a 5. b 10. b

Exercise 5-2 (p. 135) 1. b 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. c

Exercise 5-3 (p. 136) 1. b 4. d 2. c 5. c 3. a

Exercise 5-4 (p. 138) 1. nutrients 4. complete proteins 2. proteins 5. imcomplete proteins 3. amino acids

Exercise 5-5 (p. 142) 1. Overall, studies have shown pizza to be highly nutritious. 2. Perhaps the most common method for defending or justifying something that has been said and may be perceived negatively is “the excuse.” 3. But within that field, it’s also a good idea to maintain a high degree of visibility. 4. Dirty words are often used by teenagers in telling off-color stories and this can be considered part of their sex education. 5. In fact, consumers should go home and evaluate and weigh the purchase decision. 6. The 1950s were to most Americans a time of great security. 7. Assessing the characteristics of your audience will allow you to make inferences about its values and interests and enable you to tailor your speech to those interests. 8. The words “effortless exercise” are a contradiction in terms.

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9. Burger King Corporation offers both a service and a product to its customers. Burger King, then, is marketing a positive experience, as promised by its advertising and promotional efforts and delivered by its product. 10. Thus, there are significant cultural differences in the way people are taught to view themselves. What Have You Learned? (p. 145) 1. a 4. a 2. c 5. b 3. c

What Vocabulary Have You Learned (p. 145) 1. c 4. b 2. e 5. d 3. a

Practice Test 5-1 (p. 147) 1. c 2. b 3. c 4. a 5. d 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. d 10.c

Practice Test 5-2 (p. 149) 1. knee-bends, jogging, lifting weights, swimming 2. Burger King, Wendyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, Hardees, Sonic 3. piano, trumpet, drums, harp 4. shy, friendly, distant, moody 5. Honda Civic, Volkswagen Beetle, Dodge Intrepid, Toyota Camry 6. tea, milk, orange juice, grapefruit juice 7. vegetables, fish, fruit, dairy products 8. baseball, tennis, golf, rowing 9. Faith Hill, Britney Spears, Garth Brooks, Tony Bennett 10. saw, screwdriver, spade, trowel

Practice Test 5-3 (p. 150) 1. b 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. b

1. b 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. b

Mastery Test 5-1 (p. 152) 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. a 10. b

Mastery Test 5-2 (p. 154) 1. b 2. b 3. b 4. c 5. a 6. a 7. d 8. b 9. d 10.c

1. a 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. b 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. a 10. d

Mastery Test 5-3 (p. 159) 11. a 12. a 13. c 14. a 15. c 16. framed 17. hierarchical 18. paradox 19. status 20. asymmetrical

21. a. 22. c 23. b 24. c 25. d

Chapter 6: Identifying Supporting Details and Transitions Exercise 6-1 (p. 169) A. Key detail: information about tastes Key detail: through memory Minor details: humans use fragrances Minor details: smell of chicken roasting Minor details: woman wearing one brand of perfume fragrance of a brand of shaving cream B. 1. First 2. also 3. third 4. finally

Exercise 6-2 (p. 170) 1.

a. Voice changes in boys begin to occur at age 13 or 14. b. Facial proportions may change during adolescence. c. Adolescents, especially boys, gain several inches in height. e. Primary sex characteristics begin to develop for both boys and girls. 2. a. By the time an infant is six months old, he or she can make twelve different speech sounds. c. During the first year, the number of vowel sounds a child can produce is greater than the number of consonant sounds he or she can make. d. Between six and twelve months, the number of consonant sounds a child can produce continues to increase. 3. a. By becoming involved with the actors and their problems, members of the audience temporarily forget about their personal cares and concerns and are able to relax. c. Almost everyone who attends a play expects to be entertained.

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e. There is a smaller audience that looks to theater for intellectual stimulation. b. Licorice blends with tobacco and provides added mildness. c. Licorice provides a unique flavor and sweetens many types of tobacco. e. Licorice helps tobacco retain the correct amount of moisture during storage. 5. a. The automobile industry is a good example of an oligopoly, even though it gives the appearance of being highly competitive. b. The breakfast cereal, soap, and cigarette industries, although basic to our economy, operate as oligopolies. e. In the oil industry there are only a few producers, so each producer has a fairly large share of the sales. 4.

Exercise 6-3 (p. 172) 1. first 2. Individuals continually meet new people of opposite sex. Living longer can lead to marital discontent. Many functions of marriage are fulfilled by other institutions. 3. first, second, third 4. living longer 5. minor detail Exercise 6-4 (p. 174) 1. Later 2. on the other hand 3. Next 4. For example 5. In addition 6. because 7. however 8. Similarly 9. For example 10. because

Exercise 6-5 (p. 175) 1. e 2. g 3. j 4. a 5. i 6. h 7. c 8. d 9. b 10. f

Exercise 6-6 (p. 175) A.1. first 2. second 3. third 4. finally B. 1. in contrast 2. however 3. on the other hand C. 1. also 2. further D. 1. begins 2. then 3. finally E. 1. such as 2. for example What Have You Learned? (p. 178) 1. main idea 2. major details 3. Transitions 4. finally 5. â&#x20AC;&#x153;on the other handâ&#x20AC;?

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 179) 1. d 2. a 3. e 4. c 5. b

Practice Test 6-1 (p. 180) ( answers for the diagram appear from top to bottom and from left to right) Key Details: polarizing, coated, photochromatic Minor Details: soak up harmful sun rays; best buy for knocking out glare and reflections; have a metallic coating that reflects lights; coating may rub off; more expensive; respond to ultra-violet light only will not screen out infrared rays Practice Test 6-2 (p. 181) 1. first 2. Second 3. such as 4. On the other hand 5. also 6. another 7. Because 8. To illustrate 9. Likewise 10.Finally

Practice Test 6-3 (p. 182) 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. c 5. d

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Mastery Test 6-1 (p. 183) 1. d 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. a 6. d 7. b 8. a 9. c 10.d Mastery Test 6-3 (p. 192) 1. d 11. d 2. c 12. b 3. a 13. a 4. b 14. d 5. b 15. c 6. a 16. eschew 7. a 17. vogue 8. d 18. intolerant 9. c 19. chronic 10.d 20. arresting

Mastery Test 6-2 (p. 149) 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b 10. d 21. d 22. a 23. b 24. a 25. c

Chapter 7: Understanding Implied Main Ideas Exercise 7-1 (p. 200) 1. b 4. a 2. b 5. c 3. c

Exercise 7-2 (p. 201) 1. c 4. b 2. a 5. a 3. c

Exercise 7-3 (p. 203) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

the flu dying in an accident a power outage closed

Exercise 7-4 (p. 204) 1. The two people are involved in an automobile accident. 2. The two people are arguing: The woman is accusing the man of some wrongdoing; the man is not accepting blame. Exercise 7-5 (p. 207) 1. Topic: Divorce Details: one in seven marriages one in three marriages highest of any major industrialized nation (almost one divorce for every two marriages) Implied main idea: divorce rate has increased 2. Topic: Immigration Details: population rural/urban middle mortality Implied main idea: Immigration What Have You Learned? (p. 209) 1. implied 2. general/specific 3. important 4. details 5. in your own words

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 210) 1. d 2. e 3. a 4. c 5. b

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Practice Test 7-1 (p. 212) 1. vandalized 2. spoiled 3. overexposure 4. camping 5. Super Bowl 6. eating disorder 7. cancelled 8. St. Patrickâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Day 9. late 10. speeding ticket

Practice Test 7-2 (p. 214) Paragraph 1 Topic: Severe Punishment Details: learning, avoid, chances/opportunities, aggressive, peers Implied Main Idea: Effects Paragraph 2 Topic: Color Coding Details: traffic, distinguish thoroughfares and work areas, zones, points or parts, pipes, wires Implied Main Idea: distinguish between things or make distinctions. Paragraph 3 Topic: Trees Details: a chemical, tannin, duration, intensity Implied Main Idea: under attack Practice Test 7-3 (p. 216) 1. a 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. d 6. b 7. b 8. d 9. b 10.a

Mastery Test 7-1 (p. 219) 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. d 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. c 10. d

Mastery Test 7-2 (p. 222) 1.R 2.NR 3.R 4.R 5.NR 6.R 7.R 8.R 9.NR 10.NR

Mastery Test 7-3 (p. 227) 1. a 11. d 2. a 12. b 3. d 13. b 4. a 14. b 5. c 15. a 6. b 16. retrospect 7. b 17. condemnation 8. c 18. eccentricities 9. c 19. disconcerting 10. d 20. abduction

Chapter 8: Keeping Track of Information

21. c 22. a 23. d 24. d 25. a

Exercise 8-2 (p.238 )

Exercise 8-1 (p.236 ) 1. money 2. Example 2 3. too much highlighting; wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t save time when studying 4. a. anyone on a small income b. wealthy people

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Answers may vary.


Exercise 8-3 (p. 241) I. A. 3. Two or more children B. Households of today 1. Single parent 2. No children 3. Only one person II. A. Americans stay single longer C. Gap between male and female life expectancies III. B. 1. More income per person 2. Need smaller houses, cars, food packages 3. Spend more on entertainment and fads 4. Spend more on travel Exercise 8-4 (p. 245) Suggestions for Overcoming Procrastination Clear your desk Give yourself 5 minutes to start Divide task into manageable parts Start somewhere Recognize when you need more information

Exercise 8-5 (p. 246) Answers for examples may vary. Exercise 8-6 (p. 247) A. 1. F 2. T 3. T

1. a. First b. Second c. Next d. Then e. Finally

B. 4. c 5. a

What Have You Learned? (p. 250) 1. T 5. F 2. F 6. T 3. T 7. F 4. F

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 251) 1. d 4. b 2. e 5. c 3. a

Practice Test 8-1 (p. 2) Summary: variety of people; backgrounds; Advertisers; Geographic areas; mistakes; Nike; Anglo life; celebrities Spanish-speaking; TV shows

Practice Test 8-2 (p. 255) 1. a 6. d 2. c 7. b 3. d 8. a 4. d 9. a 5. a 10. b

Practice Test 7=8-3 (p. 258) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I. drug I. A. 1. wake up effect I. A. 2. good taste I. A. 3. calorie free II. C. Enhances alertness, reduces fatigue II. E. Increases oxygen consumption II. G. Increases urinary output III. Side effects III. B. Insomnia III. F. Mild delirium

Mastery Test 8-1 (p. 261) Answers to the diagram appear from top to bottom and left to right) Intimacy, No single definition, Compassionate, Passionate, Passion, arousal and ecstasy, Decision/Commitment, suitable partner, physiological arousal

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Mastery Test 8-2 (p. 2632) A.1.b. head A.2. Mental A.2.b. meaning B.1.a. Maintain eye contact B.1.c. face B.2. Verbal B.2.a. questions B.2.c. agreement C.1.a. talking C.1.b. direction Mastery Test 8-3 (p. 266) 1. d 6. b 11. b 2. c 7. b 12. d 3. a 8. a 13. a 4. b 9. b 14. b 5. c 10. d 15. c

16. c 17. d 18. a 19. e 20. b

21. b 22. c 23. a 24. c 25. d

Chapter 9: Recognizing the Basic Patterns of Organization Exercise 9-1 (p. 276) 1. for instance 2. a. low grade on biology lab report b. car â&#x20AC;&#x153;diesâ&#x20AC;? c. argument with a close friend d. checking account overdrawn 3. first 4. a. new job or career b. marriage c. divorce d. birth of a child e. death of someone close f. beginning college 5. second 6. for example 7. a. hot kitchen b. noisy machine shop c. coworkers who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t do their share 8. first 9. for example 10. ask yourself how you can finish a task

Exercise 9-2 (p. 279) 1. partnership 2. used in small businesses; two or more owners; partners establish conditions, contribution of partners, division of profits, authority, duties, and liability (answers may vary) 3. stress 4. yes 5. for example; in addition 6. Term: Small Business Administration 7. a. assists people getting into business b. helps them stay in business c. helps small firms win federal contracts d. acts as a strong advocate for small business 8. no 9. assimilation and accommodation 10. through examples/stories about Harry (answers may vary)

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Exercise 9-3 (p. 283) 1. 2 1 4 3 2. 3 2 4 1

3. 2 3 1 4 4. 3 2 4 1

5. 4 1 3 2

Exercise 9-4 (p. 286) 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. First/also/In addition/Last but not least 5. A. The number of such companies has risen 2. 75 percent had codes in 1970 B. 1. They increase public confidence 3. They improve internal operations 4. They prescribe a response to unethical behavior What Have You Learned? (p. 289) 1. patterns of organization 2. definition 3. chronological order 4. listing 5. for instance 6. distinguishing features 7. process 8. next

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 290) 1. e 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. a

Practice Test 9-1 (p. 291) 1.c 2.b 3.c 4.a 5.c 6.d 7.c 8.d 9.a 10.b

Practice 9-2 (p. 292) 1. a 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. a 6 c 7 c 8 b 9 d 10.a

Practice Test 9-3 (p. 295) 1. a. antisocial b. paranoid c. compulsive 2. Answers may vary. 3. Listing 4. few job opportunities; certain jobs open; women still considered inferior; more occupations open; high level of employment; women found in most branches of industry; 52 million women in workforce 5. chronological order Mastery Test 9-1 (p. 297) 1.a 6. a 2.d 7. d 3.c 8. a 4.c 9. b 5.b 10. c

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

c a a d a

Mastery Test 9-2 (p. 300) 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. b

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Mastery Test 9-3 (p.305) 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. d 5. c

6. b 7. b 8. d 9. c 10. d

11. b 12. a 13. d 14. c 15. a

16. vestibule 17. violation 18. ovation 19. residue 20. splurged

21. a 22. a 23. d 24. d 25. b

Chapter 10: Recognizing Comparison/Contrast and Cause/Effect Patterns Exercise 10-1 (p. 312) 1. Answers will vary.

Exercise 10-2 (p. 314) they are very much alike and they are both good They also have in common Another similarity her two brothers are the same

Exercise 9-3 (p. 315) A. that they are very different system is unlike In New York, on the other hand or however Another contrast In New York, however or on the other hand a major difference Despite their northern B. 1. First of all 2. Another 3. Finally

Exercise 10-4 (p. 317) 1. b 2. d 3. Similarities 1. both small 2. both involve face-to-face contacts/friendly 3. both important Answers may vary. Examples are given. Differences 1. primary are personal and intimate; secondary are impersonal 2. secondary more formal 3. secondary come together for specific purpose 4. more time spent in secondary groups 5. primary groups are person-oriented; secondary are goal-oriented

Exercise 10-5 (p. 319) 1. mental illness 2. a. physical changes b. chemical imbalances c. environment/childhood experiences/stress d. combination of causes Answers may vary.

227


Exercise 10-6 (p. 320) A. several serious effects several hours because of Consequently, those who Another result, which was the main reason for B. 1. car accident 2. a. two people died b. traffic was delayed c. people missed the fireworks d. speed limit was lowered 3. yes 4. a. First b. In addition c. Another d. After What Have You Learned? (p. 322) 1. cause/effect 2. comparison/contrast 3. topic sentence 4. cause/effect 5. comparison/contrast

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 322) 1. e 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a

Practice Test 10-1 (p. 324) 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. d 6. b 7. c 8 .a 9. d 10.a Practice Test 10-2 (p. 326) Passage A: Difference #1 Suburban residents Difference #2 Suburban residents Difference #3 city Difference #4 Suburbanites Difference #5 Suburbanites Difference #6 Suburbanites Passage B:

Practice Test 10-3 (p. 328) 1. a 6. d 2. d 7. a 3. c 8. c 4. a 9. a 5. b 10. b

I.A. Acceptance of product I.A.1. coffee cans I.B. Acceptance of people I.B.2. Black I.B.4. Green

Mastery Test 10-1 (p. 331) 1. d 2. a 3. a 4. c 5. d 6. b 7. d 8. c 9. a 10.a

Mastery Test 10-2 (p. 334) 1. c 2. d 3. a 4. d 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. d 9. c 10. a

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Mastery Test 10-3 (p. 340) 2.c 2.b 3.db 4.bc 5.a 6.b 7.c 8.d 9.c 10.c

11. c 12. a 13. d 14. a 15. b 16. rehabilitation 17. Kevlar 18.fatigues 19. deployment 20. medic

21. a 22. b 23. d 24. d 25. c

Chapter 11: Reading and Thinking Critically Exercise 11-1 (p. 350) 1. T 6. T 2. F 7. T 3. F 8. T 4. T 9. T 5. F 10. F

Exercise 11-2 (p. 351) 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. d

Exercise 11-3 (p. 354) 1. c 4. a 2. d 5. d 3. b

Exercise 11-4 (p. 357) 1. request 6. gown 2. overlook 7. showy 3. tease 8. awkward 4. glance 9. artificial 5.display 10. take

Exercise 11-5 (p. 359) 1. incredulous 2. nostalgic 3. disapproving 4. sympathetic 5. informative

11. limousine 12. large 13. dine 14. inquire 15. keepsake

6. pessimistic 7. ironic 8. formal 9. optimistic 10. amused

Exercise 11-6 (p.360) 1. b 4. d 2. c 5. b 3. a

Exercise 11-7 (p. 363) 1. F 4. F 7. F 2. O 5. F 8. O 3. O 6. O 9. F

10. O

Exercise 11-8 (p. 364) 1.terrible waste of money 2. wonderful 3. the best

4. amazing 5. a worthwhile activity

What Have You Learned? (p. 365) 1. c 2. e 3. b

4. f 5. d 6. a

What Vocabulary Have You Learned? (p. 365) 1. e 2. b 3. d

4. a 5. c

Practice Test 11-1 (p. 367)

Practice Test 11-2 (p. 371)

1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. a 8. c 9. c 10.b

1. b 2. a 3. d 4. a 5. b 6. b 7. b 8. a 9. c 10. b

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Practice Test 11-3 (p. 373) 1. a 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. a 6. b 7. d 8. a 9. a 10.b

Mastery Test 11-1 (p. 375) 1.They are unemployed and in poverty. 2. Loss of jobs, illnesses, lack of employable skills 3. The man and woman are a couple and likely are the parents of a child. 4. Buildings, bridge or highway overhead, multiple train tracks 5. a 6. d 7. c 8. d 9. b 10.d

Mastery Test 11-2 (p. 378)

Mastery Test 11-3 (p. 385)

1. a 2. c 3 .b 4. d 5. a 6. c 7. d 8. b 9. d 10.b

1. c 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. a 6. b 7. c 8. d 9. a 10. b

11. c 12. c 13. d 14. b 15. a 16. c 17. d 18. a 19. e 20. b

21. a 22. d 23. d 24. c 25. b

Student Resource Guide A: Introduction to College Textbook Reading Exercise A-1 (p. 395) Answers may vary.

Exercise A-2 (p. 397) Answers may vary.

Exercise A-3 (p. 399) 1. draw a diagram, explain the process in your own words 2. review frequently, test yourself, overlearn 3. organize into a chart, visualize, discuss with other students 4. mnemonic devices, test yourself, visualize Textbook Excerpt 1: Political Science/History “Civil Liberties and the Right to Privacy” Answers may vary. Textbook Excerpt 2: Health “Food Safety: A Growing Concern” Answers may vary Textbook Excerpt 3: Communication “Legible Clothing” Answers may vary.

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Student Resource Guide B: A Guide for ESL (ELL) Readers Exercise B-1 (p. 412) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Exercise B-2 (p. 415)

parents; travel children; learn William Faulkner; wrote Psychologists; are interested patients; may refuse use; is increasing method; is based elements; exist attention; may be defined instructions; are written

1. d 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. b

Exercise B-3 (p. 416) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C. C. S. S. C.

personnel office/accepted/I expect Computers have become/role/has/not yet been fully explored Humankind has inhabited this earth for several million years. the Cuban economy depends upon the worldwide demand for sugar. We/learn/we are/having other experiences

Exercise B-4 (p. 417) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

you; can relieve; how students; can use; terminals; which shoppers; clip; why I; am going to talk when world’s oil supply; is concentrated; where

Exercise B-5 (p. 419) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Female participation in sports has increased since the 1970s. There is a difference between what are typically thought to be male and female sports. The United States cannot deny the right to vote to anyone who is at least 18 years old. Potential violence is rarely carried out in armed robberies. However, it is this potential violence that allows the robber to attain his/her goal—generally money. 5. According to some researchers, the cause of problem drinking lies in the part played by genetics. Other researchers perceive the cause of problem drinking as an inability to cope with stress.

Exercise B-6 (p. 419) 1. -- 2. ; 3. :

4. ; ; ;

Exercise B-7 (p. 421) 5. :

1. keep track of, watch 2. to prevent someone from receiving recognition for an action by doing it before him or her 3. unaware 4. to deal with a difficult and unavoidable situation 5. to speak openly and frankly

Multicultural Reader Reading Selection 1: “The Most Hateful Words” (p. 432) Checking Your Comprehension 1. c 6. d 2. b 7. a 3. c 8. c 4. b 9. d 5. d 10. c Vocabulary Review 16. bequeathed 19. impenetrable 17. tilted 18. frantically

Words in Context 11. fits of anger 12. caused anguish 13. emotional pain resulting from injurly, loss, or despair 14. wandered away 4. a 15. lasting forever Studying Words 20. a 23. b 21. c 24. b 22. c

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16. c 2. e 3. f

5. d 6. g 7. b


Reading Selection 2: “Seoul Searching” (p. 442) Checking Your Comprehension 1. a 6. d 2. d 7. c 3. a 8. d 4. b 9. b 5. a 10. c Studying Words 20. a 21. a 22. c 23. b 24. c

Words in Context 11. feeling or showing unwillingness or hesitation 12. distressed 13. moved forward suddenly 14. radiating joy

Vocabulary Review 15. chic 16. unruffled 17. gaggle 18. disowned 19. steeled

Reading Selection 3: “Coming into My Own” (p. 450) Checking Your Comprehension 1. d 6. c 2. c 7. c 3. b 8. a 4. d 9. a 5. a 10. b Studying Words 20. d 21. d 22. a 23. d 24. a

Words in Context 11. protective clothing worn by hospital personnel 12. firm, stubborn, unyielding 13. position 14. meet

Vocabulary Review 15. orderly 16. entrpreneurs 17. intern 18. therapy 19. respiratory

Reading Selection 4: “Living Life to the Fullest” (p. 458) Checking Your Comprehension 1. c 6. d 2. b 7. a 3. a 8. d 4. b 9. c 5. a 10. a

Words in Context 11. cheerful and noisy party 12. got her attention by gesturing 13. looking into 14. position, viewpoint

Vocabulary Review 15. d 20. h 16. g 21. i 17. e 22. a 18. f 23. c 19. b

Studying Words 1. b 2. c 3. c 4. a 5. a Reading Selection 5: “American Indian Mascots Should Go!” (p. 465) Checking Your Comprehension 1. a 6. d 2. c 7. b 3. b 8. a 4. b 9. c 5. a 10. d

Words in Context 11. expressing contempt or disapproval 12. loud noisy excitement or uproar 13. fake 14. important, vital 15. distorting

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16. approved 17. lowered in status in a humiliating way 18. not hostile or aggressive


Vocabulary Review 19. d 22. b 25. e 20. a 23. g 21. f 24. c

Studying Words 28. a 26. b 29. c 27. c 30. b

31. b

Reading Selection 6: “Hispanic USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies” (p. 474) Checking Your Comprehension 1. c 6. a 2. a 7. c 3. d 8. d 4. a 9. b 5. b 10. b Studying Words 28. b 29. b 30. d 31. d 32. c

Words in Context 11. not interesting, not stimulating 12. physically demanding 13. about to happen 14. made fun of 15. telling a story about

Vocabulary Review 16. d 21. i 26. l 17. e 22. g 27. j 18. a 23. b 19. k 24. f 20. c 25. h

Reading Selection 7: “I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace” (p. 482) Checking Your Comprehension 1. c 6. c 2. b 7. b 3. d 8. c 4. a 9. a 5. d 10. c

Words in Context 11. wrecked or damaged by war 12. to confront or deny boldly 13. familiar with 14. suddenly attacked verbally 15. emptiness 16. communicating or working together

Vocabulary Review 17. c 23. b 18. e 24. c 19. d 25. d 20. a 26. a 21. b 22/ s

Instructor’s Manual Answer Key Textbook Excerpt 1 (p.151) 1. f 2. t 3. f 4. a 5. c

Textbook Excerpt 2 (p.156) 1. t 2. f 3. t 4. c 5. e

Reading Selection 1: “The Most Hateful Words” (p. 169) 1. f 2. t 3. t

Textbook Excerpt 3 (p.159) 1. f 2. f 3. t 4. c 5. b Reading Selection 2: “Seoul Searching” (p. 172)

4. a 5. a

Reading Selection 3: Coming into My Own (p. 175) 1. t 4. d 2. f 5. a 3. f

1. t 2. f 3. f

4. b 5. d

Reading Selection 4: Living Life to the Fullest (p. 178) 1. f 4. c 2. t 5. a 3. f

Reading Selection 5: “American Indian Sports Mascots Should Go” (p. 183) 1. t 4. c 2. t 5. a 3. t Reading Selection 7: “I Have Had to Learn to Live with Peace” (p. 194) 1. t 4. d 2. f 5. d 3. f

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Reading Selection 6: Hispanic USA: The Conveyor-Belt Ladies (p.186) 1. f 4. b 2. t 5. c 3. t


Online Student Resource Guide: Test-Taking Strategies: A Review Exercise 1. a 2. d 3. c

4. d 5. c 6. b

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ENG 079 Essentials Teaching Ideas