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+ Hope for the Children of Haiti Orphanage, Educational Facility, Medical Clinic and Trade School CAMPUS D’ESPOIR “Campus of Hope” Hope For the Children of Haiti A (501) (c) (3) non-profit organization Waltham, MA USA Bon Repos, Haiti Architectural:

Studio Luz Architects. LTD. Project Team: Hansy Better Barraza, Anthony J. Piermarini AIA Michael Beaman, Jenny Kwon

MIT Public Service Fellows: Il-Joong Kim, James Smith, Rebecca Edson Consulting Mechanical Engineer: Sinote Ibrahim, Boston, MA Architecture, Engineering and Construction: TECINA S.A. Port-au-Prince Haiti

Generous Support for this project has been provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Public Service Department.


PROJECT FACTS Location: Port-au-Prince, HAITI Site Characteristics: Undeveloped parcel of land scheduled to be part of the expansion of Port-au-Prince Zoning Constraints: n/a Type of Client: Non-Profit Organization Program: Orphanage, Educational Facility, Medical Clinic and Trade School Construction Systems: Combination of cast concrete, stone masonry, wood construction and ironwork Funding: Donors Schedule: To be completed by year 2018 Square Footage: 150,000 Square Feet on 16 acres of land Cost: $6,000,000 (average of $40.00 per square foot) Materials: Concrete, stone, wood, metal Population: 7,063,722 (July 2002 est.) Capital: Port-au-Prince Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland Climate: tropical; semiarid in the east, where mountains cut off trade winds Languages: French and Creole are official languages Literacy: 45 percent of those 15 years and older can read and write (USA = 97%) Infant mortality rate: 93.35 deaths/1,000 live births (USA = 6.69) Life expectancy at birth: 49.55 years (USA = 77.4 years) Population below poverty line: 80% (USA = 12.7%)


introduction

"Society is living beyond its means. We are about to dispossess the earth of capital assets in the space of a few lifetimes through patterns of exploitation. These patterns are devastating the natural environment upon which we depend for our long-term survival.� -Architects for Social Responsibility

PROJECT DESCRIPTION The project involves the Master Plan and Design of a new orphanage, educational facility, medical clinic and trade school in the Bon Repos quarter of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Haiti is one of the poorest, most densely populated, and least developed countries in the Western Hemisphere. Within this rough and mountainous country, 80 percent of the population lives in abject poverty, and the unemployment rate is 70 percent. The climate in Haiti is tropical, with semi arid areas in the east. The country is prone to hurricanes, tropical storms and long dry seasons. Given the challenging circumstances in Haiti, the project sets new precedent for sustainable planning and construction that embrace ecological consciousness for a developing country.

The client is Hope for the Children (HFC), a 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization, currently operating a school for 250 children and an orphanage for 60 children in Bolosse, Port-au-Prince. HFC is dedicated to meeting the extreme needs faced by neglected and abandoned children in Haiti. Because the needs of the children in Haiti are so overwhelming, a new facility is planned on a 16-acre parcel of land owned by HFC in Bon Repos. This new Campus d’ Espoir (Campus of Hope) will provide a home to 90 orphans, a school for 400 children, a trade school, housing for staff and volunteers and a medical clinic serving both the immediate school population and people from the surrounding area.


background information

location >

^ rural housing

^ urban housing

^ light: precedent study

^ street

^ housing detail

^ form: precedent study

^ vernacular

^ market

^ air: precedent study

^ material palette

^ political instability

^ shade: precedent study

geography >

climate >

politics >


PROJECT DESCRIPTION (CONT.) The objectives for the new facility are to increase the number of orphans from 60 to 90 by expanding the available living space and educational facilities. Establish a family atmosphere where the children can receive individualized attention in village style communities. Build improved educational facilities for both the orphans and day students. Provide longterm housing for the administrative staff, caretakers, and volunteers that will foster a stable and welcoming environment. Provide local youth with the opportunity to develop trade skills through the building of a vocational center. Establish a neighborhood health facility to serve the orphanage and larger community.

The educational facilities will include 19 classrooms, computer and science labs, library, cafeteria, chapel / assembly hall, and administrative offices. These facilities will embody community building through shared resources and sustainable practices.

This school would be a model school and

training ground from which we would help fund other poorer schools throughout Haiti.

The housing facilities for the children living on campus will serve the social good through fostering a culture of brother and sisterhood. Children will live in village style homes of groups of 8 to 10 with a live-in House Mother. As with all the facilities in the Campus d’Espoir, the housing is seen a new model of development for Haiti.


material research

ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIONS

Environmental Criteria for Selecting Materials

The resultant design of the facilities took into consideration the orientation to the prevailing winds; responded to the topography; and created many shaded public areas to escape oppressive heat. The basic building materials will consist of natural elements from the land. In addition, we will incorporate vibrant colors to give the facilities a joyful and welcoming impression. Campus d’ Espoir is committed to creating a model of environmental awareness for Haiti. The buildings are to be subordinate to the ecosystem and cultural context while fostering use of sustainable practices. Construction consist of local building materials such as concrete block, rammed earth, natural stone and gabion systems, used in innovative ways, the project ameliorates the negative associations with such materials. Recycled aluminum will be used to create solar panels for hot water supply, insect screen and hurricane shutters; since this material has great longevity (over 100 years) and has very little embedded energy costs, it is ideal for this application. The roof mounted solar panels and wall hung hurricane shutters will also serve as a secondary building skin taking advantage of the effects of convection in the tropical heat. The roof designs are shaped to resist frequents hurricanes and provide for natural ventilation. The project will use the most sophisticated engineering techniques to use evaporative cooling through hand pumped wells that feed pools and storage of rainwater through cisterns. The objectives of the design were to create a self sufficient, sustainable, and vibrant community environment. Potable water will be extracted from local wells via wind driven pumps. Rainwater will be collected for grey water applications in toilets and clothes washing. Elevated storage tanks will use gravity distribution and decrease electrical dependency. Sustainable Material Criteria Chart

Concrete :

Rammed earth :

5 Points / Cold

13 Points / Warm


v material use diagram

With respect to materials, we will use the following: a.

Rammed earth as

it is natural, has no embedded

energy

costs, and can breathe therefore is an excellent building

material

maximizing

for

human

comfort levels. b. Recycled aluminum will be used for the roof

surfaces,

solar

collectors, screenings, and

openings;

economical

it

is

and

readily available. c. Natural stone which is pink and plentiful will be used as much as possible and will add


medical clinic & trade school v

secondary material distribution

metal fabric / glass >

school complex v formed concrete >

local quary stone >

housing for faculty, staff & vulnerable children v

metal color panels >

ornamental iron >


+ HFC

masterplan

Bon Repos, Haiti

Masterplan Campus D’Espoir

Campus d’Espoir embraces natural systems for human living and comfort using the simplest technology that is appropriate to the functional need and passive energyconserving strategies to create a very low environmental impact. The Master Plan layout takes advantage of solar orientation for shading of public gathering areas, captures prevailing winds for ventilation, integrates buildings and site circulation with the existing topography, incorporates of trees and low vegetation to combat erosion of topsoil. Each building will have the following: -Underground well which is already on site will be used as a source for potable drinking water. -Solar power will be used to as great an extent as possible to power the well and to provide electricity to the buildings.

PROGRAM 1

MULTI-USE PAVILION

-For electricity, there is a power line approximately 100 feet from the site that we can tap

2

FUTURE EXPANSION

into by use of a transformer bank which may be supplemented by a diesel generator.

3

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

4

CAFETERIA

5

LIBRARY

6

CLASSROOMS

7

ASSEMBLY HALL

8

BASKETBALL COURT

9

SOCCER FIELD

-Windmills will be placed strategically on the site to provide power to the Campus.

-Solar collectors on top of each roof will collect solar energy and cool the roof by absorbing heat. The collectors will generate hot water for use in the school and housing and will cool the inside temperature of each building. -A concrete slab will be used to absorb heat; the ventilation through the air space will maximize the heat transfer away from the buildings through convection.

10 MEDICAL CLINIC 11 TRADE SCHOOL 12 ORPHANAGE HOUSING 13 MANAGEMENT HOUSING 14 EMPLOYEE HOUSING 15 ENTRANCE GATE


V phase 3 housing II - housing for hfc children courtyard gardens

< phase 2 housing I - housing for hfc children

^ phase 1 Infrastructure educational classroom core

timeline yr 1-2

^ educational administration cafeteria

^ educational administration cafeteria

yr 2-4

yr 4-6

BUILDING CODES Campus dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espoir is intended to set a new standard in construction for Haiti. As building codes and the means to enforce them are practically non-existent in Haiti, we are working with an internationally respected contractor and building to standards of the building codes found in the United States. Given the similarities of climate between Florida and Haiti, the project has incorporated life safety and hurricane standards found in the Florida Building Code as well as standards of Americans with Disabilities Act. This is an unprecedented leap in quality for Haiti.


phasing V phase 4 housing III - faculty and staff

FUNDRAISING

^ educational library stacks chapel

HFC is positioned to cultivate interest and sponsorship of several large foundations, which is expected to provide 80% of

< medical clinic trade school cores

^ phase 5 hope for the children of haiti’s campus d’espoir complete

up front costs. It is anticipated that the balance would be raised through internal resources. This is an exemplary project in many of its aspects, appealing to various

yr 6-8

yr 8-12

grants/foundations and their respective areas of interest including

sustainable

building practices in a developing country; the education, care and housing of vulnerable children; the development of a health clinic; the provision of an education in Haiti which has no formal system of education for 90% of the children. ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING FEES To help assist HFC in this very important mission, our Architectural Services and

FLEXIBLE PHASING The facilities will be realized in phases to coordinate with HFC’s funding efforts. The project is designed in a modular fashion, where small cores support larger open shared spaces, this strategy is intended to tag smaller donations to program parts. Due to the political climate in Haiti and ambitions of the project, it is more conceivable for HFC to organize fundraising for a basic building component, such as classroom, or service kitchen, then to raise money for a whole new building. The construction strategy is based on each modular component corresponding to a portioned fund. This would allow ultimate flexibility in construction. One can either build the supporting facilities at the same time or added later.

As funding is secured and as the

school proves to be self-sustaining, addtional housing for the administrators and the staff would be provided.

Engineering

Services

Pro-Bono basis.

have been on a


COMMUNITY BUILDING CAMPUS D’ESPOIR HFC has always maintained the highest standards of ethics and excellence in the treatment and education of its children. This high ethical standard will continue during all phases of the Project. We are working with a contractor in Haiti who is held in high regard by the Haitian community. We will be monitoring the project during each phase of construction to ensure that the working conditions are not only in conformity with governmental requirements, but with our own high degree of regard for human life and its potential. Our project is designed to address all the needs of the community: education, medical care, housing, a trade school, and the community’s spiritual life. The Campus will play an integral role in improving the conditions of this poverty-stricken country plagued by malnutrition, illiteracy, unemployment, and environmental problems. As more children matriculate from the school and orphanage, Hope for the Children of Haiti shall develop a robust alumni network, which could provide long term support in terms of consultation, references and donations to sustain the Campus d’Espoir. There is also a ongoing connection with the Haitian Diaspora in the United States that continues to provide guidance to the HFC.

Medical Clinic & Trade School


Educational Complex

Housing for vulnerable children faculty & staff


+ HFC

Bon Repos, Haiti

Housing for Vulnerable Children, Faculty & Staff

HOUSING FOR VULNERABLE CHILDREN Hope for the Children of Haiti (HFC) primary mission is to care for Haitian children who have been neglected or abandoned. To best meet the extreme needs of these children HFC is planning the Campus D’Espoir, the heart of which is housing facilities for the children in their care. More than simply a place to sleep, the mission of HFC to create a loving home, where the children can learn family values and have sibling companionship. The architecture of the children’s’ home is based on creating family units of 8-12 children with a home Mother. The homes are designed as cultural and communal centers, where group interaction, sharing and supporting resources are encouraged. The abilities of the children and those who care for them, to socialize, learn and grow in the home are paramount to the mission of HFC.

^ air + water flow diagram

v ventilation studies


+ HFC

Bon Repos, Haiti

Housing for Faculty, Staff and Vulnerable Children

PROGRAM 1

FACULTY / STAFF HOUSING

2

HOUSING FOR CHILDREN

3

COMMUNITY GARDENS 1

3

1

TOPOGRAPHY These

homes

are

located

around

the top of a small hill located on the site.

The homes are configured to

take

advantage

of

primary

winds,

solar orientation as well as create a communal garden court where children can play and socialize. The Landscape design of this open space is intended to embrace the indigenous vegetation and topography of Haiti.

Housing Complex >

2 3 2

1


< faculty/staff housing type I

PLAN VARIATIONS The housing facilities are conceived as a village of homes, in contrast to a more institutional dormitory setting. The orphanage facilities will

< faculty/staff module

be built individually to provide a family-like setting so the children will feel comfortable and receive individualized attention. Each of the homes will be constructed to house 8 to 10 children and foster a culture of family

< faculty/staff housing type II

overseen by a trained housemother and general support staff. Each home has a large communal center, or family room, which is open to a shared kitchen facility and the bedrooms of the children. This

< vulnerable housing type I

gathering space is an intersection space for the eating, studying, playing and conversation. Each housemother will has an adjoined bedroom and small private bathroom.

^ vulnerable housing type II


HOUSING PROTOTYPE DESIGN Roof Drain Diagram

legend aluminum mesh for ventilation >

solar collectors >

hot water tank >

cold water / rain water tank > Solar Collector Installation insect screen >

gabion >

Collectors should be installed to receive maximum solar energy. In Haiti, strong ray comes from South West. For maximum efficiency the collectors should be placed within 15 degree deviation from South West.


ENERGY The most exciting aspect of the project involves the mechanical system which will be incorporated into each building and will provide both a water supply for laundry and sanitary purposes and a cooling system for the building itself. Every building will have a water tank situated over the service core of the building. The tank will provide all the water required for domestic use of the students and residents in the respective buildings. It is a modified thermosphere system which is widely recognized for its energy efficiency.

V solar collectors

V thermosiphone system diagram


^ orphanage housing type II : elevations

V orphanage housing type II : first floor plan

Ventilation Liner The construction for the building uses the simplest means to take advantage of passive cooling, local well water, rain water recycling, solar powered thermo-siphoning panels for hot water, and efficient use of local building materials. One primary goal of the project is to promote and utilize sustainable construction and maintenance techniques. The Campus Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espoir Housing is conceived to set an example to the Haitian community at large, to celebrate Haitian culture and provide a model for development in the island nation.

V orphanage housing type II : Basement floor plan


wall section >

Each house will be constructed using local stones for the masonry construction, which does well in Haitiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tropic climate for thermal gain, insect resistance and moisture performance. Concrete will also be used in combination with recycled corrugated metal formwork to create unique textures. Hurricane shutters are conceived as colorful animate objects, which allow the children and parents to change configuration to take advantage of ample breezes, or create a protected interior environment in the rainy seasons.


+ HFC

Bon Repos, Haiti

Educational Facility

view of outdoor classrooms >


4

5

3

5

PROGRAM 1

ENTRY LOBBY

2

MAIN OFFICE

3

CONFERENCE ROOM

4

COPY CENTER

5

OFFICE

6

LIBRARY

7

COMPUTER ROOM

8

CIRCULATION DESK

9

STACKS

5 10 1

8 11

22

9

9 9

11 23

11 12

11 CLASSROOM

12

17

12 SHARED FLEXIBLE SPACE 13 WC

13

11

15

12

14 CAFETERIA 15 KITCHEN

16

12

14

11

16 FOOD SERVICE

21

11

17 DISH SERVICE

12

18 CHAPEL

13

12

19 GARDEN TERRACE

21 SWIMMING POOL

9

7

6

10 READING ROOM

2O MULTI-PURPOSE PAVILION

23

2

5

11

23

12 18

22 BASKETBALL COURT 23 OUTDOOR PLAY SPACE ^ 1st floor plan


10 9

9

20 6

10

9 9 9

12 11 11 12 11 11

13

12 11 11 11

^ circulation flow diagrams SCHOOL Our vision is to build a school which fits with our vision for providing a superior education to the children of Haiti and of which our current students

12 11 11 11 12 11

who have already demonstrated their ability to excel can be proud. It is anticipated that this school would attract children from families who would be able to pay tuition but where a substantial number of students would be on scholarships supported by sponsorships from the developed world. This school would be a model school and training ground from which we would help fund other poorer schools throughout Haiti On the campus there would be an orphanage which would also be a model

^ 2nd floor plan

and a training ground for other poorer orphanages through Haiti.


unfolded library elevation >


^ school : entry courtyard


DESIGN CONCEPT The Campus dâ&#x20AC;?Espoir has a rich programming strategy.

This begins with the design of the

educational facilities which provide a center for learning and exchange between the orphaned children and their peers in the local community. As such the concept for the architecture of the school concentrates on the shared experiences and places where socialization can occur.

For

example the library and administrative offices cradle the entrance courtyard, creating a welcoming environment and expressing the core function of the school as a place for study and growth. A classroom spine provides the main body of the school, where open-air classrooms are dispersed between interior classroom clusters allowing for creative teaching and sharing of resources. Vibrant colors will also be painted onto the hurricane shutters to infuse the building surface with a visual dynamism welcoming to the children and complementary to the spirit of the school and its facilities.

v roof spine ^

early concept renderings ^


^ school : section at classroom with chapel beyond

^ school : section at classroom with cafeteria beyond


^ open air classroom roof studies v

^ school : classroom elevations v


^ library reading room view

PROGRAM The school facilities will consist of 19 classrooms, with separate wings for a laboratory, computer lab, a chapel, assembly space, library, cafeteria and kitchen; faculty and administrative offices; facilities for mechanical maintenance, storage, corridors and lockers.

open air entry courtyard >


+ HFC

Bon Repos, Haiti

Medical Clinic - Trade School


+ HFC

Bon Repos, Haiti

Medical Clinic - Trade School

PROGRAM 1

EXAMINATION ROOM

2

NURSE STATION

3

ELEVATOR

4

RECEPTION

5

WAITING AREA

6

RESTROOM

7

PHARMACY

8

LAB

9

SECURED YARD + WASTE

10 YARD 11 GREEN HOUSE 12 SHELTERED YARD 13 CAFE + COMPUTER ROOM 14 HEAVY TRADE CLASSROOM 15 INFIRMARY 16 OFFICE 17 DENTAL EXAM 18 LAUNDRY 19 NURSING CLASSROOM 2O TRADE CLASSROOM

^ 1st floor plan


V trade school : view towards the entry

V medical clinic : entry

^ 2nd floor plan

V medical clinic : model MEDICAL CLINIC AND TRADE SCHOOL To support the mission of the Campus Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espoir and engage with the Haitian community at large, HFC is planning to construct a small Medical Clinic and Trade School.

The Medical clinic will

serve the basic medical needs for the Campus as well as local residents.

As medical facilities

for basic distribution of medication, regular check-ups, basic dental work, and general shortterm care for minor health problems are rare in Haiti, the community need is strong.

The Medical

Clinic will also serve as an international hub for medical volunteers and nurse training facility.


^ wireframe form studies

CORE + LINERS The

architecture

public spaces. The

public

of

the

school

is

developed

around

the

construction

of

primary

service

cores,

which

expand

and

are

adapted

by

open

The service cores contain the supporting facilities for the medical staff as well as define areas of separation and interaction.

areas

of

the

building

are

filled

with

light

and

allow

for

natural

The design is composed of three wrapping layers constructed out of metal screens. and to the degrees of privacy.

ventilation

and

create

an

inviting

interior

environment.

The screen unravels according to the programmatic elements

The screens are organized around three main organic forms, providing a central core

for each of the composition.

v cast cores


^ skin studies v


TRADE SCHOOL The Trade School is intended to allow for young adult and continuing education for the local community. Coupled with Medical center it will allow for the training of nurses and medical staff as well as offer trade skills courses.

Facilities can

accommodate a range of activities from computer technology to more traditional building and mechanical trades.

^ medical clinic: view from river


^ longitudinal section through clinic

SCREENS The

buildings

incorporate

a basic prefabricated steel frame structure, which is then clad with operable metal panels and sunshades.

^ cross section through clinic


ARCHITECTURE The architecture of the school is developed around the construction of primary service cores, which expand and are adapted by open public spaces.

The service

cores contain the supporting facilities for the medical staff as well as define areas

of

separation

and

interaction.

The public areas of the building are filled with light and allow for natural ventilation and create an inviting interior environment.

^ east elevation


^ south elevation

^ north elevation

top view >



Hope for the Children of Haiti "Campus of Hope"