Page 1

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (ARCHITECURAL STUDIES)

BDR 201 BUILDING STUDY & REPORT

ACACIA, KLIUC, KAJANG Prepared by: MOHAMED HASSAAN 102906300 Lecturer: IDRIS TAIB


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement 1.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 5

2.

BACKGROUND OF THE BUILDING .............................................................................. 6 2.1 Historical Overview ......................................................................................................... 6 2.1.1 Kuala Lumpur infrastructure University College (KLIUC) ..................................... 6 2.1.2 ACACIA block F – Male hostel ............................................................................... 7 2.2 Use of the Building .......................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 8

3.

SITE STUDY ......................................................................................................................... 9 3.1 General Overview ............................................................................................................ 9 3.2 Site Context, Landscape & Surroundings ...................................................................... 10 3.2.1 Site Plan .................................................................................................................. 10 3.2.2 Neighborhood Context ............................................................................................ 11 3.3 Access & Circulation ..................................................................................................... 13 3.4 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 14

4.

ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS ...................................................................................... 15 4.1 General Overview .......................................................................................................... 15 4.2 Analysis of Form, Space & Order .................................................................................. 16 4.2.1 Form & Function..................................................................................................... 16 4.2.2 Space & Circulation ................................................................................................ 19 4.3 Environmental Study ...................................................................................................... 21 4.3.1 Climatic Consideration ........................................................................................... 21 4.3.2 Space, Light & Ventilation ..................................................................................... 25 4.4 Building Materials .......................................................................................................... 26 4.4.1 Exterior Analysis .................................................................................................... 26 4.4.2 Interior Analysis...................................................................................................... 28

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

1|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.5 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 28 5.

Building Systems.................................................................................................................. 29 5.1 General overview ........................................................................................................... 29 5.2 Building structure ........................................................................................................... 29 5.2.1 Substructure ............................................................................................................ 29 5.2.2 Superstructure ......................................................................................................... 30 5.3 Building Envelope & Roof System ................................................................................ 32 5.3.1 Roof System ............................................................................................................ 32 5.3.2 Building Envelope .................................................................................................. 32 5.4 Methods and Details of construction .............................................................................. 34 5.4.1 Pile .......................................................................................................................... 34 5.4.2 Column.................................................................................................................... 35 5.4.3 Beams ...................................................................................................................... 36 5.4.4 Staircase .................................................................................................................. 37 5.4.5 Floor ........................................................................................................................ 38 5.4.6 Window ................................................................................................................... 38 5.4.7 Roof......................................................................................................................... 39 5.4.8 Parapet wall ............................................................................................................. 39 5.5 Mechanical & Electrical Services .................................................................................. 41 5.6 Water Supply & Sewerage Systems ............................................................................... 43 5.6.1 Water supply: .......................................................................................................... 43 5.6.2 Roof and surface water drainage............................................................................. 44 5.7 Building By-Laws Interpretation ................................................................................... 46 5.7.1 Technical Requirement & Applications.................................................................. 46 5.7.2 Fire Requirements Analysis .................................................................................... 49 5.8 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 51

6.

INTEGRATED ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 52

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

2|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

6.1 General Analysis ............................................................................................................ 52 6.2 Integration of Building Components & Services ........................................................... 52 6.3 Coordination of Technical Requirements and Building Performance ........................... 53 6.4 Critical Assessment ........................................................................................................ 53 7.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION ...................................................................... 54

Appendices i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Appendix A – Correspondences Appendix B – Copy of Technical / Working Drawings (A1 / A2 size) Appendix C – Transcripts, Field Notes & Sketches Appendix D – Preliminary Works Appendix E -

References

Compact Disk contains softcopy of drawings, photographs & report is attached at the back of this report.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

3|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Acknowledgement I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this report.

My deepest thanks go to Lecturer, Idris Taib the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. He has provided great information for writing this report. All the E-Books he shared with us had so much that we need.

My deep sense of gratitude to PROTASCO BERHAD for providing us with the information of the building.

I would also thank my Institution and my group members without whom this project would not be a reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and wellwishers.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

4|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

1. INTRODUCTION

T

his report is a study report prepared for BDR 201 – Building Study and Report by a group of 4 students, to Block F which is currently used as the male hostel.

The building is constructed from a concrete structure with walls made up from brick and plaster. This building has a lot of architectural ordering principles used in it, which makes it look smaller and light than it actually is.

But like every other aspect his building too has some problems in it. The purpose of this report is to analyze the building and understand it in various aspects, covering site suitability, structure, construction and detail, climatic consideration, choice of materials services etc…

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

5|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

2. BACKGROUND OF THE BUILDING

2.1 Historical Overview 2.1.1 Kuala Lumpur infrastructure University College (KLIUC)

Figure 2

Figure 4

Figure 1

Figure 3

KUALA LUMPUR INFRASTRUCTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (KLIUC) established in 1998 as Ikram College Figure 2 was first known as Research and Training Institute of Public Works Department Figure 4. Malaysia (IKRAM) in 1997 before it was privatized and known as Kumpulan Ikram Sdn Bhd (KISB). KISB inherited Ikram Park and IKRAM's distinctive features and strength.

In 2001, the institution changed its name again to Ikram College of Technology (iCT) to further strengthen its niche in the provision of technology and infrastructure based programs. Figure 1 On 13 September 2003, iCT was upgraded to a University College status, and is now known as KUALA LUMPUR INFRASTRUCTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (KLIUC). Figure 3

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

6|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

2.1.2 ACACIA block F – Male hostel Block F – Male hostel; the name of this building is ACACIA. It was built in 1998. Located in KUALA LUMPUR INFRASTRUCTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (KLIUC) next to the main entrance to the college, this building was first designed to function as a hostel for both male and female together; where one half of the building is to be used by boys and the other half by girls. This was changed due to difficult circumstances. Now the hostel is used by male only and the hostel block next to it; block G is used as the female hostel.

Below shows the details of the ACACIA project.

Project title

: Proposed design and build of 2 blocks 9 story hostels at Ikram Park, Jalan Serdang 43000 Kajang, Mukim Sepang, Selangor for Ikram Education Sdn. Bhd.

Owner

: Pesuruhjaya Tanah Persekutuan Malaysia

Developer

: Kumpulan Ikram Sdn. Bhd.

Architect

: ADP Consultant Architecture Design

C&S

: Perunding Sentral

M&E

: Mektricon Sdn. Bhd.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

7|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

2.2 Use of the Building This building is used for residential purposes. Block F is provided with 194 bed rooms; which have both single and double rooms. The building has 2 laundry rooms, 2 kitchens, 2 prayer rooms and even a shop. It also has a guest lounge for students living in this hostel to bring visitors. If they are not comfortable to study in rooms, the students are always allowed to use the common study in the ground floor.

The main purpose of this building is to provide a living for the students studying in KLIUC. This block is therefor built in a location that classes are close and walking distance of not more than 5 minutes from the hostel.

2.3 Summary Built in 1998; the building ACACIA was first used as a hostel for male and female to gather. But due to difficult circumstances this has been changed. Today the building is used as Block F – the males‟ hostel.

This building was designed by ADP consultant Architecture Design. The building is designed with lots of architectural features, functions to provide a great happy stay for students studying at KLUC.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

8|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

3. SITE STUDY

3.1 General Overview Block F, the male hostel along with Block G, the female hostel is located at a corner of the campus. It is a very ideal location for the two blocks. The residents can have a peaceful and calm environment when the building is at a corner, but not so far from the academic blocks. The classrooms and amenities are at walking distances, which makes it very easy for the students living in the hostel. It is just 2-3 minutes away from the academic blocks and the cafeteria. But it is far for civil and engineering students. The civil and engineering blocks are all the way on the other side of the campus.

However since Block A has been turned into the language school. And the bus stopping, in front of the block G, the surrounding area of Block F has become one of the busiest areas in the campus.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

9|P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

3.2 Site Context, Landscape & Surroundings 3.2.1 Site Plan

Figure 6 – location plan

Figure 7 – key plan

Figure 5 – site plan

There are no shading trees around the building. It makes the environment hotter. Block F blocks the wind as the wind direction is from north-west to south-east direction. The traffic is high in front of block F, the heat from the vehicles is also in the atmosphere. The area, especially at noon is very hot.

Since there are lot of people and vehicles in front of Block F, one thing that is most annoying is the noise. There is quite a lot of noise in this area, especially at morning and evening times. There are no sound barriers in the environment, so all the noise goes to the building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

10 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

3.2.2 Neighborhood Context Block G – Female Hostel The female hostel is an exact repetition (a copy) of Block F - the male hostel. It is

located

to

south

of

Block

F

respectively. There is not much effect on the case study building; Block F due to this building.

Block A – Language School Block A was the female hostel before. Now it has been changed to the language school of KLIUC. This building is located to south-east of block F, but on a higher ground level.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

11 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Block B – Renovating Architecture School Block B was a male hostel until last year; 2010. Now it is being renovated to be the Architecture

and

built

environment

school. This building and block A are very similar design in overall architecture.

Cafeteria Cafeteria is in front of block B. It takes about 2-3 minutes to walk from block F to cafeteria. Shading trees are less in this area. But they have provided a covered pedestrian walk way around this area.

Mosque The mosque which is also is south-east of block F is very close. A Pedestrian step ramp has been provided to mosque. There are some shading trees provided near the mosque and block A. It makes this area cool and comfortable.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

12 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

3.3 Access & Circulation

Figure 9

Figure 10 – site circulation

Figure 8

There is a heavy pedestrian traffic in front of the Block F and Block G, due to schedule bus stopping in front of block G - the female hostel. There are no pedestrian walk ways around the building. Therefor it is very dangerous for the students walking. Figure 9

On rainy days there is no option for the students to walk to the classrooms dry from Block F. It is very important to provide walk ways like it is in Block 2 to Cafeteria. It will make it safe and easy for the students living in the Block F. Figure 8

The road in front of Block F is too narrow for the current traffic. There is not enough space to drive two ways when the bus stops. With the location changing of the guard post, the vehicle traffic has become worse.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

13 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

3.4 Summary In general the site is an appropriate site for this building. But it still needs more shading trees in order to make the environment comfort for the people circulating around the site. It could also add more pedestrian walkways with or without roof, which is very important for the safety of the pedestrians. If these problems are corrected this site can become one perfect site for the building; Block F.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

14 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4. ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS

4.1 General Overview This building is an international style building. It is also known as the Bauhaus style. It was a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of Modernist architecture. International style is a style of architecture applied to residences and public buildings that is minimalist in concept, is devoid of regional characteristics, stresses functionalism, and rejects all nonessential decorative elements; typically this style emphasizes the horizontal aspects of a building.

The building is designed mostly by using the forms of ordering principle. Most of the forms does not relate with function. The minimum spaces are used while using a large surface is exposed to the wind ward direction, but faced the long facades to east and west directions, which increases heat gain. All these are explained in detail later on in this chapter.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

15 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.2 Analysis of Form, Space & Order 4.2.1 Form & Function

Figure 11

Ordering Principles in terms of plan -

Hierarchy Symmetry

The whole plan of the building is symmetrical; as shown by the red dash line and one blue side which mirrored. There are transformations from Type 1 to Type 2 rooms and vice versa as

Transformation

Repetition

labled in Figure 11. As clearly seen from the plan shown in orange colour, there are lots of repeated rooms with same shapes and sizes in this building. The recessed rectangular shapes give its rhythm to this building when seen

Rhythm

from the plan. Shown in green waves in Figure 11.

Table 1

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

16 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Figure 12

Ordering Principles in terms of elevation The hierarchy of this building is the entrance. The entrance has been made to the hierarchy in terms of size and colour, by focusing big peach box in the Hierarchy

center of the building. There is a mono pitch roof in the entrance which is a light blue. Peach and light blue colours are complimentary colours and make the entrance even more focused. The whole building is a total symmetry, from façade to the whole floor plan.

Symmetry

There are columns and beams shown outside the buildings on the two corner sides of it. This makes the symmetry much more powerful. The most powerful transformation is the window sets next to the entrance. The

Transformation

6 panel window set transforms itself in to a square window set with 9 panels, again it transforms into a smaller 6 panel window set above it, and then to a pair of 2 vertical panel window sets. The whole building is made up of repetitions. There are lots of repetitions of geometric shapes. Recessed squares and rectangles have been repeated

Repetition

vertically and horizontally along the building as shown by yellow colour in Figure 12. Also most of the windows on the façades of the building are in

same size and type. This makes superb repetitions of windows too. -

Rhythm

Table 2

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

17 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Proportion

Figure 13

This is a geometric architectural design made up from squares and rectangles. Square and rectangular volumes have been subtracted and added from and to the huge main structure, making it look less bulky, lighter to the top and heavier to the bottom. Also multiple scales of rectangular shapes have been used in this building. Figure 13

Due to these multiple scales of rectangles used in it, the building seems to look much smaller and lighter than its actual size. The two forms of columns and beams on both sides of the building, gives it balance and stability to the mass and scale. It acts as a larger mass holding the building at the bottom of it.

Function Most of the forms used in this building are used for aesthetic purposes. The box volumes which are subtracted from the main volumes that are used as repetitions; it is not used for any function. These subtractions also disallow to use the maximum space of the rooms in the building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

18 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.2.2 Space & Circulation

Figure 14 - spaces

Size (m x m)

G

1

2,3 & 4

5, 6 & 7

8

9

Total

Type 1

2.4 x 4.2

8

10

12

8

8

46

Type 2

4.2 x 4.2

18

24

24

26

22

144

Type 3

4.8 x 4.5

2

2

4

Bathroom

1.2 x 0.9

14

14

14

14

14

70

WC area

0.75 x 1.75

10

10

10

10

10

50

Refuse Chamber

1.7 x 2.3

1

1

1

1

1

5

Kitchen

4.2 x 3.6

2

2

Laundry

3.6 x 7.8

1

1

Dry Yard

4.1 x 3.4

2

Study Room

3.2 x 4.5

Common Study

11.0 x 11.0

1

1

Prayer Room

4.2 x 4.2

2

2

Warden Room

3.8 x 4.2

1

1

Guest Lounge

3.8 x 4.2

1

1

Shop

4.2 x 4.2

1

1

Lift motor room

7.2 x 7.2

2

2

2

2

10

2

2

2

2

8

1

1

Total Rooms =

317

Table 3

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

19 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

In this building more than 60% of the rooms are used as hostel rooms. All the sizes of spaces except for the bathrooms are according to UBBL 1984(the building by law of Malaysia). As referred to the table on figure‌. The size of the bathroom is 1.2m x 0.9m.

In UBBL:Minimum dimensions of latrines, water-closets and bathrooms Section 43 (c)

in the case of bathrooms, not less than 1.5 square meters with width of not less than 0.75meters.

Figure 15 - circulation

Circulation of Block F- male hostel is spinal. A corridor is provided where rooms are arranged on both sides of the corridor respectively.

When entered into the building, first faced is the lobby space. This space is where the elevator is located. There are 3 other stairs located on 3 sides of the building. The stairs have been properly ventilated.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

20 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.3 Environmental Study

Figure 16

4.3.1 Climatic Consideration

Consideration of Sun Path

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

21 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

The shape of the building is in such a way that minimizes the sunlight to the west façade of the building. But the orientation of the building is not correct. As shown in Figure 16, the façades with larger surface areas are due east and west direction. Because of this there is too much of direct sunlight on the east and west building façades.

Below in Table 4 shows the amount of direct sunlight to the percentage of rooms in the building per one year.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

22 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Direct Sunlight / year Orientation

No. of Rooms (%)

Hours

Months

Percentage

Current

65

6570

9

75

35

0

0

0

65

4380

6

50

35

0

0

0

Proper

Difference in % of Direct Sunlight after proper orientation =

25%

Table 4

If the building has been oriented properly the amount of direct sunlight per one year could have been reduced by 25%. This will increases the thermal comfort inside the building. Less energy will be consumed to cool the building. Therefor if the building was oriented correctly, this building could have been more energy efficient.

At day time, a lot of heat is absorbed by the front façade of the building in current orientation. This heat is released at night time when the environment is cooler than the brick walls. So inside and outside environment is not cool to its maximum potential.

Consideration of Wind Path The prevailing winds are from north-west to south-east as in Figure 16. The Building is orientation according to the wind direction is reasonable. More surface area is provided to the rear façade by creating a spinal arrangement. Therefor more rooms are faced to the wind ward direction.

The rooms on the east side (front) of the building do not get any prevailing winds. The front side is faced to the lee ward direction. Wind walls have been provided to guide the winds inside the building spaces. The spines are one of the forms that act as wind walls. Another is the boxes subtracted from the main shape; some of it also acts as wind walls. Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

23 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Openings have been provided so that the winds are cross ventilated across the building. But there are no cross ventilation provided in most of the rooms.

Consideration of Rain and Monsoon The consideration of rain has been made by placing top hung casement windows. The advantage of using this type is that the window can be opened to some extent when it is still raining. This allows the natural wind inside the building even when heavily raining.

The roof system has 9o slop so that the water can run down to drain. The roof system is discussed later on this report in the chapter building system on page 31.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

24 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.3.2 Space, Light & Ventilation % of window Area of

Window

No. of

Area of Total

Room (m2)

Type

Windows

Windows

area by floor area Type 1

10.08

W1

2

1.44

14

Type 2

17.64

W1

4

2.88

16

Type 3

21.6

W1

4

2.88

13

Bathroom

3.24

W6

1

0.36

11

WC area

5.25

W8

1

0.90

17

Refuse Chamber

3.91

W5

1

1.08

28

Kitchen

15.12

W3

1

2.16

14

Laundry

28.08

W3 / W4

2/1

6.48

23

Dry Yard

14.35

Huge Opening

-

-

-

Study Room

14.4

W3

1

2.16

15

Common Study

121

W2

16

17.28

14

Prayer Room

17.64

W4

1

3.24

16

Warden Room

15.96

W4

1

3.24

20

Guest Lounge

15.96

W4

1

3.24

20

Shop

17.63

W4

1

3.24

18

Lift motor room

51.84

-

-

-

-

Table 5

Daylight and ventilation is provided to most of the spaces in this building. The Dry Yards and the common study area have been provided with cross ventilation. The space which is not properly ventilated accordingly to UBBL is the bathrooms. Only One window with an area of 0.36m2 is provided for every 3 bathrooms; an area of 3.24m2, which is window area of 0.12m2 per bathroom.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

25 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

According to UBBL:Natural Lighting and Ventilation Section 49 (4)

Every water-closet, latrine, urinal or bathroom shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more windows having a total area of not less than 0.2 square meter per water closet, urinal latrine or bathroom and such openings shall be capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air.

4.4 Building Materials 4.4.1 Exterior Analysis The building is made up from reinforced concrete structure. The walls are made of 110mm thick brick with 20mm plaster on both sides. The windows are aluminum frame windows with clear single glazed panels. Roof is from metal corrugated sheets. To understand the thermal comfort of these materials used in exterior, below is the U value and how comfort is the thermal conductivity of this building.

U value of wall Layers

Thickness

Thickness

Thermal Conductivity

Resistance

(mm)

(m)

(W/mK)

(m2K/W)

External Surface

-

-

-

0.04

Brink wall

110

0.11

0.62

0.177

Plaster

20

0.02

0.16

0.125

Internal Surface

-

-

-

0.13

Total Resistance :

0.60

U value = 1/R = 1 / 0.60 = 1.67 W/m2K

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

26 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

U value of window Typical single glazed window

=

1.22 W/m2K

Area of Window Approximated total Area of windows =

208m2

Area of Façade Approximated total Area of façade =

1510m2

Area of Façade Walls Approximated total Area of façade walls = 1302m2

Average U Value Average U Value =

(1.22 x 208) + (1.67 +1302) 1510

Average U Value of front Façade = 1.61 W/m2K

The Average U value for the front Façade of the building is high. Human comfort Average U value is between 0.2 and 1.2 W/m2K. To make it comfort the Thermal resistance of the building should be increased.

When double glazed windows the U value drops to 1.50 W/m2K. This value still does not fit in the human comfort range. The alternative is to use air conditioning and fixing Shading devises, which is quite expensive.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

27 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

4.4.2 Interior Analysis All the rooms in Block F have a floor finish of ceramic tiles. The floor finish of the toilet is also ceramic tiles. The corridors floor finish is cement render. This is a good thing, because it reduces the construction cost of the building.

The refuse chamber has a floor finish of ceramic tiles. Therefor it is easier to clean and maintain the refuse chamber. If the refuse chamber had a floor finish like cement render it would make it very difficult to clean the place.

4.5 Summary The materials used in exterior are not enough to provide the thermal comfort of the building. But this could have been neglected if the building was oriented correctly and proper shading devices were provided.

As for the interior materials, the rooms have been tiled and some places like the stair case landings have a cement render which is fine, because it looks neat and it must have reduced he construction cost of the building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

28 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5. BUILDING SYSTEMS 5.1 General overview The Building is made from a concrete structure, enveloped with brick walls and pitch roof system. The foundation of the building is pile foundation. Most of the roof structure is hidden due to the constructed parapet wall around the boundary of the building.

Block F uses a typical electrical system where main electrical supply starts from the national grid, provided by Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Water supply in Block F is supplied by Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (SYABAS), which is semi-government water Supplier Company.

5.2 Building structure 5.2.1 Substructure Foundation Block F – male hostel uses pile foundation. The piles used are end bearing piles. Pile foundation is used due to case of heavy construction and the shallow soil which is unstable and weak or if the magnitude of the estimated settlement. Construction detail of the foundation is discussed on page 33.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

29 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.2.2 Superstructure Columns In this building reinforced concrete columns are used. The columns were arranged in a way that it gives stability and balance to the building much more easily. The details of columns on page 34

Staircase

Figure 17

The primary function of a stair is to allow vertical movement safety from one level to another. The stairs of Block F was constructed in inclined slab with reinforced concrete. There are 3 staircases provided at 3 sides of the building see Figure 17. The type of Staircases used is parallel. A landing of an area 3.36m2 is provided after each flight. All the staircases have a floor finish of cement render. No. of raiser in each flight = 16 Stair rise = 178.125mm Stair Steps = 260mm Width of stair = 1200mm The door swing of D4; access to the staircase is positioned that its swing does not encroach on the required width of the staircase landing. Figure 17

It also goes accordingly as on:Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

30 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Neufert Ernst and Peter Architects Data Third Edition “To match length of stride 2 risers + 1step = about 62.5 cm”

In the building 2 raisers + 1step = 61.6cm which is fine and best practice.

There is one more staircase provided for the Lift Motor Room; also made from reinforced concrete. This flight does not need to be as mentioned above, as it is a short flight and not used very frequently.

No. of raiser in flight = 10 Stair rise = 200mm Stair Steps = 260mm Width of stair = 1200mm

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

31 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.3 Building Envelope & Roof System 5.3.1 Roof System The roofing system in Block F is a hip roof system. It is constructed with a 9o pitch. But a low pitch roof of 10o or less to the horizontal, in BS1600 is defined as a flat roof. There is a parapet wall is constructed around the boundary of the building. Most likely it is to hide the roof structure of the building.

The material used for the roof of block F is corrugated metal sheet. This is a good material to use in this climate. Some of the advantages of using corrugated metal sheets include: Light Weight material and portable  Reusability with the Metal therefore galvanized corrugated metal roofing can also be environment friendly.  Galvanized corrugated metal roofing can also be a fire proof material  Sound insulation can be provided.

5.3.2 Building Envelope Wall Block F is enveloped by a wall system of 100mm thick clay bricks, with 20mm cement plaster on both sides and finished with paint, except for services rooms. Services rooms are assumed to have a brick finish without any plastering. The finishes of the walls are different in exterior and interior. The finish of exterior is rougher than it is in interior.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300 Figure 18 - flush mortar joint method

Figure 19 - stretcher bond

32 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

The walls are assumed to be constructed by a stretcher bond style of brick laying, (Figure 19 - stretcher bond ) with flush joint of mortar joint method. (Figure 18 - flush mortar joint method ) This is the most common method used in Malaysia.

Exterior Doors and Windows In this building, aluminum framed single, clear glazed windows are used. All the windows are top hung. Referring to the climate using top hung is an advantage for rainy days. Refer to chapter Environmental Study page 23 for details. Metal grids are provided in ground floor windows and openings for security purposes.

The main entrance door is made from clear glass and stainless steel. Door type is side hung casement door.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

33 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.4 Methods and Details of construction 5.4.1 Pile

Figure 20 – typical end bearing pile

The pile geo technical capacity is 55T and the caps were designed based on pile capacity of 550kN for each pile. Mild and High Yield Steels are used for the piles. Where Mild Steel is 25N/mm.SQ and High Yield Steel is 560 N/mm.SQ.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

34 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.4.2 Column In Table 6 shows the all the column details of the building. Stump

Column Mark

Column Size

Reinforcement

Links

Lapped Length

C1

225 x 500

8Y20

R10 – 150

800

C2

225 x 500

10Y20

2R10 – 150

800

C3

225 x 500

10Y25

2R10 – 150

1000

C4

225 x 600

12Y25

2R10 – 150

1000

C5

250 x 600

14Y25

2R10 – 150

1000

C6

As shown

18Y20

R10 – 150

800

C7

300 x 900

12Y20

2R10 – 150

800

C8

500 x 300

10Y20

R10 – 150

800

C9

450 x 450

8Y20

2R10 – 150

800

C10

450 x 450

8Y20

2R10 – 150

800

Table 6

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

35 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Figure 21 shows a typical diagram of a column is connection to the slab.

Figure 21

5.4.3 Beams Unfortunately the any details for beams were not received. Therefor below shows a typical diagram of how beams are most likely to be arranged in this building, which is a grid arrangement system. This is the most economical way to arrange the beams which also reduces the span length.

Figure 22

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

36 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.4.4 Staircase In this building reinforced concrete staircases are constructed.

The advantages of

constructing concrete stairs are: It can be easily molded into any desired geometrical shape  It is more fire resistance  It needs less bulky section is that more head room is available  It is less noisy  It has more attracting appearance if suitable finishes are used  It can be kept clean easily Below in Figure 23 shows a typical detail of reinforced concrete stairs as used in block F.

Figure 23

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

37 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.4.5 Floor Below shows, the typical construction detail of floor system. The Damp proof membrane disallows water vapor or damp to get in to the walls which might cause efflorescence.

5.4.6 Window Below shows a typical construction detail of aluminum windows, as used in Block F.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

38 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.4.7 Roof Block F uses low pitch hip roof for its roof system. Below shows, a typical hip roof construction detail.

5.4.8 Parapet wall

Figure 24

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

39 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

The typically parapet wall detail shows the correct way to construct a parapet wall. There must be a capping on top of the parapet wall, with a drip edge provided. His is to drip of the water without reaching the wall. The capping has to be provided in order to reduce the water going in to the wall. Figure 24

The picture show the efflorescence caused by not constructing the parapet wall correctly with caps and drip edge.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

40 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.5 Mechanical & Electrical Services Block F uses a typical electrical system where main electrical supply starts from the national grid, provided by Tenaga Nasional Berhad. This company provides the electric current needed to the whole campus. But the current they send is in such a high voltage, that it has to be stepped down before it reaches to the buildings.

A transformer is placed near block F, (as in the picture) in order to decrease the voltage of the current. The transformer converts into three-phase four-wire ring circuit to the residential or commercial building rate, which is only 415/230 V. It is then distributed to all the buildings in

KLIUC campus. (Figure 25)

Figure 25

Block F receives the electric current which comes from the sub-station, and it will bring it to the electrical cost control metering system. The electricity supply authority has an obligation to provide a meter to record basic data on which a tariff charge is based. The majority of small meters in use are of the induction type, where record units are consumed, to which a tariff is applied to calculate the charge to the consumer. The induction meter which may be liable to electrical and mechanical failure, should be serviced and must be withdrawn at intervals for testing to comply with legal requirements. After connected with electrical metering system, finally it goes to the Electrical Distribution Board System (DB). A distribution board (panel board) is a component of an electricity Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

41 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

supply system which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuit, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure.

A main switch and in recent boards, one or more Residual-current devices (RCD) or Residual Current Breakers with Overcurrent protection (RCBO), will also be incorporated.

DB system is an important system use in the electrical circuit. It will protect all the physical facilities in the time, such as the fluorescent light, air-condition, and those facilities are plugging on the switch.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

42 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.6 Water Supply & Sewerage Systems 5.6.1 Water supply: Water supply in Malaysia is supplied by different water company throughout the country. In Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (SYABAS) is semi-government water Supplier Company. Water supply travels from the reservoir and then to underground water grid system and into each building.

Figure 26

Mains: water is supplied to the existing building via water main from the reservoir, which is held under high pressure. These pipes come under streets roads or pavements. In this case high density HPVC (high density PVC) is used for water main pipe material.

Service Pipe: Connections to the water main are through service pipe. The service pipe is run to a stop valve near the site boundary.

Stop valve: The purpose of the stop valve is to enable the water undertaker to be stopped in case there is water wastage in the building, maintenance or when water is disconnected for not paying bills.

Supply pipe: this pipe runs from stop valve to the building. It is run underground and into the building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

43 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Figure 27

Water tank The water from the supply pipe is sent up to the water tanks on top of the building. This is to create

an active water pressure to supply water to each floor.

5.6.2 Roof and surface water drainage Rain water drainage: Rainwater coming off the roof is collected by gutters and outlets and discharged by rainwater downpipes to drains, sewers or soak ways. This building has flat roofing. Water down pipes is made of PVC.

Max. roof area (m2)

Gutter size (mm)

Outlet size (mm)

6.0

-

-

8.0

75

50

37.0

100

63

53.0

115

63

65.0

125

75

103.0

150

89

Table 7

The area of a roof in this building is about 100m2. As show in Table 7 outlet size should be 89mm. The building uses an outlet pipe of size of 10mm, which is the correct size for the outlet pipe.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

44 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Storm Drains: Drainage works around the building helps rainwater to be carried away form the building. These drains are connected to network of storm drains which effectively carries storm water away.

Waste water Disposal: Block F most likely uses a one pipe system of plumbing.

In one pipe system of plumbing in multi-storied buildings, the lavatory blocks on different floors are placed one above the other. The main pipe collects both soil waste and waste water from different appliances. This main pipe is directly connected to the drainage system.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

45 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.7 Building By-Laws Interpretation 5.7.1 Technical Requirement & Applications UBBL Section 39- Natural light and ventilation

1- Every room designed, adapted or used for residential, business or other purposes except hospitals and schools shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more windows, having a total area of not less than 10% of the clear floor area of such room and shall have openings capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air of not less than 5% of such floor area.

3- Every room used for the purpose of conducting classes in a school shall be provided with natural light and ventilation by means of one or more windows, having a total area of not less than 20% of the clear floor area of such room and shall have openings capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air of not less than 10% of such floor area.

UBBL Section 44- Height of rooms in residential buildings, shop, houses, schools, etc.

4- In schools, the height of rooms used for the dissemination of knowledge shall be not less than 3 meters headroom.

UBBL Section 122- Pipes and service ducts

1- Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables o conduits the dimension of such ducts or enclosures shall be-

(a) Adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and for crossings of branches and mains together with supports and fixing; and

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

46 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

(b) Sufficiently large to permit access to cleaning eyes, stop cocks, and other controls there to enable repairs, extensions and modifications to be made to each or all of the services accommodated.

2- The access openings to ducts or enclosures shall be long enough and suitably placed to enable lengths of pipe to be installed and remove.

UBBL Section 165- Measurement of travel distance to exits

1- The travel distance to an exit shall be measured on the floor or other walking surface along the centre line of natural path of travel, starting 0.300 meter from the most remote point of occupancy, curving around any corners or obstructions with 0.300 meter clearance there from and ending at the storey exit, where measurement includes stairs, it shall be taken in the plan of the trend noising.

UBBL Section 168 Staircases

1- Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. 2- Staircase shall be of such width that in the event of any one staircase not being available for escape purposes the remaining staircases shall accommodate the highest occupancy load of any one floor discharging into it calculated in accordance with provisions in the Seventh Schedule to these Bylaws. 3- The required width of a staircase shall be the clear width between walls but handrails may be permitted to encroach on this width to maximum of 75 millimeters. 4- The required width of a staircase shall be maintained throughout its length including at landings 5- Doors giving access to staircase shall be so positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

47 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

UBBL Section 173- Exit doors

1- All exits doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. 2- Exit doors shall close automatically when released and all door devices including magnetic door holders, shall release the door upon power failure or actuation of the fire alarm.

UBBL Section 225- Detecting and extinguishing fire

1- Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws. 2- Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5meters from the nearest point of fire brigade access. 3- Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the Fire Authority.

UBBL Section 227- Portable fire extinguishers

1- Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

48 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

5.7.2 Fire Requirements Analysis Fire safety For the protection of the building and safety of the people who are using the block F building, there are enough firefighting systems and fire detection system installed according to „‟ GUIDE TO FIRE PROTECTION IN MALAYSIA”.

Fire extinguisher Fire extinguisher is the first aid medium of firefighting of present technology. Fire extinguisher is not for fire fighter use, it‟s for people who are using the buildings.

All the extinguishers are put inside the cabinet and locked. It helps the durability of extinguishers. The problem is that in some cabinets, there aren‟t any keys to open the cabinet. So in case of emergency it cannot be used.

Fire Hose Reel In every floor, there is a provided fire hose reel and it was designed for all people who stay in this building or live there. This too is not for fire fighter use. All hose reels have a length of 30 meters. Diameter is 25 mm. Some hose reel is in cabinet. One hose reel should be provided for every 800sq/m of usable space. There are hose reels that are installed with and without cabinet in this building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

49 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Pipe work for hose reel system is generally 50mm nominal diameter and the feed to individual hose reel should be have galvanized. The pipe is accordingly painted with primer and finished with red paint.

Fire Alarm System In block F building, there is manual fire alarm system installed. The function of this system is to inform the people inside the building or surrounding that building a fire incident has happened.

A person who sees the fire at the building should break the glass of this call point, and activate the alarm system. Some call points are already broken

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

50 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

Fire exit and sign boards Elevators are main system that this building uses to go from one floor to another. There are two lifts provided. One of them is signed as the bomba lift (bomba means fire in Malay language) to be used specially in case of fire.

There are 3 more parallel staircases provided at three sides of the building which can also be used for fire exits. Therefor including the lift bomba there is a total of 4 fire exits in this building.

5.8 Summary Most of the general requirement was full filled according to the requirement of UBBL. All the structural components were coordinated. The coordination of technical requirement and the building performance was well performed. The clearance height, passage width, stair width, stair location, ventilation, natural lighting, circulation and sizes of doors are according to the requirement. Fire requirement was also according to the requirement but it was not maintained and serviced accordingly.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

51 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

6. INTEGRATED ANALYSIS

6.1 General Analysis

The building was originally built to perform as a hostel for male and female together. But now, due to difficult circumstances, it is now used as the male hostel. The building is constructed with a concrete structure with steel pile foundation.

The surrounding site of the building has very few trees, which makes the environment of the surround pretty warm. Also due to change of location of the new entrance the site became more congested.

There are not enough pedestrian walk ways provided around the site.

6.2 Integration of Building Components & Services

Generally the services of this building were acceptable. Except for fire services should be well maintained.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

52 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

6.3 Coordination of Technical Requirements and Building Performance

The coordination of technical requirement and the building performance was generally well performed. The corridor width, stair locations, lift locations were according to the requirement. Fire requirement was also according to the requirement but it was not maintained and serviced accordingly. And for the sizes of bathrooms, they were not enough as referred to UBBL.

6.4 Critical Assessment

The building orientation was not correct. Due to this some rooms have too much of heat gain. The other thing that was found is the parapet walls. They donâ€&#x;t have capping which cause to efflorescence from the top of the building.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

53 | P a g e


BDR 201 – Building Study & Report

7. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

C

onstructed as a hostel, the building has an outstandingly focused entrance. But there are no pedestrian walk ways provided around the building. Since the area is now very

congested with vehicle traffic, I think is important to provide pedestrian walk ways around the site.

Shading trees around the building and around the site is almost none. Shading trees have to be placed in order to make a better environment, since lots of CO2 gas is released out around the area.

The Building is designed using squares and rectangles, emerging its form with box volumes. This brings up an awesome architectural design when talking about the aesthetics of the building. But if talked about functioning, there are no shading devices provided, and the parapet wall made to hide the roof structure is not working. There needs to be capping on the parapet wall.

The plan of the building of the building functions quite well. There is a spinal circulation by using corridors, which have good natural ventilation in it. He rooms were arranged in a way that more rooms are faced to the windward side.

The services of the building are also fine except that the fire service should be well maintained. By all these facts I have to conclude that the building could become a better place to live if certain things like shading devices, a parapet capping and a more controlled maintenance is performed.

Bachelor of Science (Architectural Studies) |Mohamed Hassaan| 102906300

54 | P a g e

BDR report  

this report is a report about jhfslkdfjksddddasdkjfhskdjhfaskdjfhasdjhfksadhfk jfkj skjdhf lkjsdhf kjshdf jdhlfas hdjkhadjskhfl ajkhfkjshadl...

Advertisement