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A Training Module for Manipur and Nagaland 2013


Building Perspectives and Strengthening Community Mobilization for Empowerment and Sustainability of PUD Groups is a training module that takes community members through a process of self-exploration, situation analyses and perspective-building from the empowerment and mobilization perspective. A prelude to this is a brief on the context of PUDs and the need for engaging with them through a community-led and sustained mobilization process that addresses their vulnerability issues.

Published by EHA- Project ORCHID, Jubilee Complex, Pan Bazar Guwahati 781001, Assam, India Year of publication: 2014 Copyright: Project ORCHID


Training Module - Project ORCHID

CONTENTS PREFACE 1

THE PATH TO SUCCESSFUL TRAINING 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

2

INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES 2.1 2.2 2.3

3

Preparing for the Training Welcoming the Participants The Training Methodology Training Recapitulation and Evaluation

Introductions and getting acquainted Expectations Ground rules for participants and trainers

TRAINING SESSIONS

Section 1: Perspective-building Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Sub-activity 3a Session 4 Sub-activity 4a

Out of the ordinary – Generating a different thought process Analysing causes and effects of events – Bus accident exercise Problem tree – Analysing the causes and effects of drug use 9-dot exercise Agree-disagree game to enhance-self esteem Chart and the black dot

Section 2: Understanding Community Needs And Issues

Session 6 Session 7

Pegs for mobilization – Identifying priority issues (Activity 1 or 2) Addressing issues – What is our approach?

Section 3: Vision For Building Community Organizations Session 8 Session 9

Who is community? Collectivization and its related principles Activity 1: Making the longest chain

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Activity 2: Passing the ring – principles of coming together Activity 3: Balloon game Activity 4: Broken squares Session 10

Getting organized to address issues

Section 3: Sustaining Community Mobilization: Activities And Plan Sesion 11

Long-term and short-term plan

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TRAINING SCHEDULE

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ANNEXURE


Training Module - Project ORCHID

ABBREVIATIONS CBG Community-based group CBO Community-based organization IDU Injecting drug user NGO Nongovernmental organization OST Opioid substitution therapy PUD People using drugs

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EHA-Project ORCHID gratefully acknowledges the important contributions of the module development team, the staffs of Project ORCHID and Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT), and the community groups of people who use drugs (PUDs) in Manipur and Nagaland in bringing out this training module. The list of persons who helped to draft, review, run workshops and provide valuable insights to the development of this training module are listed below: Module development team: Mohan HL, KHPT Raghavendra, KHPT Mallika Tharakan, KHPT Contributors: Manipur PUDs CBGs/CBOs Humanitarian Organization of Progressive Empowerment (HOPE), Churachandpur Empowerment Community Organization (ECO), Thoubal Bright Age Foundation (BAF), Imphal East Community Effective Response Organization (CERO), Imphal West Women at Risk Empowerment Network (WREN), Churachandpur Brighter Union (BU), Bishnupur Hope for All Foundation (HFAF), Bishnupur Nagaland PUDs CBGs ESPOIR, Phek District Survivor, Kiphire Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) Mohan Chandra, Consultant M Suresh Ramachandra Rao Urmila Chanam Mahesh Doddamane Srikantamurthy M Suresh


Training Module - Project ORCHID

EHA- Project ORCHID Melody Lalmuanpuii Senti Tzudier Lolly Singh Temjen Jamir Yangersangli James Lotha Renbo Lotha Ginlalsiam Buhril Sonlian Kullai Umarani Chanu Surmick Waribam Asem Jitem

Editing of the training module was done by James Baer and designed by …to be inserted later………This work was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The

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PREFACE Project ORCHID (Organized Response for Comprehensive HIV Interventions in Districts of Manipur and Nagaland) is a collaboration between Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) and Nossal Institute for Global Health (NIGH), University of Melbourne. Project ORCHID is a ten year (2004-2014) HIV prevention program that implements targeted interventions amongst Injecting Drug Users (IDUs), Sex Workers (SWs), and Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and their sexual partners in thirteen districts of Nagaland and Manipur. From the outset of the project, the core value of engaging and involving communities in the program has been practiced by Project ORCHID. Community mobilization at Project ORCHID aims to strengthen and enhance the ability of communities to work together to identify and achieve goals that are of importance to the community.The Project places emphasis on enabling the process of community mobilization to be community focused nity” by the PUDs themselves considering their own local contexts. Accordingly, ‘comcurrently using drugs either through injection, oral or other modes, those on opioid substitution therapy (OST), are on the path of recovery or ex- users. This has become the ‘community’ that Project ORCHID is working with in the context of community mobilization though the initial focus of the Project on harm reduction interventions had only been people who inject drugs. Project ORCHID invests in capacity building processes of the community through which community can plan, carry out and evaluate activities on a participatory and sustained basis to address their own needs either by themselves or in collaboration with other stakeholders. This training module is one of the tools used to build the capacity of the community groups. The module is divided into four sections, preceded by some introductory exercises: 1.

Perspective-building: helping participants think beyond conventional, self-blaming attitudes towards drug use to understand the social and political causes and effects of drug addiction the PUD community, and prioritizing the community’s needs

4.

understanding and practicing the principles of collectivization Sustaining community mobilization through short- and long-term planning.


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sessions also help them to conceptualize the need to come together. Through discussions and practice in voicing opinions, PUDs will be equipped with knowledge and skills so that they can join together to take up various tasks and responsibilities, demand rights, access services and address issues that are important for the community. sus on conceptualizing and implementing the mobilization strategy. It can then be used with community members to build their perspectives and develop a community-centered vision and plan for mobilization. It is our hope that the module will be of use as a resource for organizations working with PUDs across different regions in India and other countries. Though the examples and focus of this module is on PUDs, with a slight variation it can be used as effectively for other community groups such as Sex workers (SWs), Men having sex with men (MSMs)

EHA-Project ORCHID


THE PATH TO SUCCESSFUL TRAINING


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1. THE PATH TO SUCCESSFUL TRAINING 1.1 Preparing for the Training

prepare.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Preparation Process management Resource management Management of human relations.

reports and articles will strengthen facilitation during the program. Engage in research to keep yourself up to date with the prevailing realities in the PUD existing problems will be of great help during the training period.

program staff, and if possible, the persons participating in the training. This rapportbuilding will prove very useful during the program.

participants to help those who are slower or who cannot write. If none of the participants can write, conduct the activities verbally and use pictorial representations or symbols to list their expectations.

improve your skills, including time management.

organizers.

also ensure task allocation well in advance.

your gestures and general conduct.

ideas or issues.


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let problems or worries affect your peace of mind. Keep away from other work pressures and mentally fortify yourself to focus on the scheduled program. Begin the

1.2 Welcoming the Participants It is important to start the training program on a relaxed and positive note. Many of the participants will have little or no previous experience of a training program or workshop. Therefore it is only natural that they might be anxious or unsettled. Training programs are usually arranged in a secluded place to keep the participants from getting distracted. This means that the participants have to travel to get to the training site. The journey and the unfamiliar surroundings of the venue will probably add to their uneasiness. Therefore, it is essential that the participants must be in a proper frame of mind to be able to participate actively in the training sessions. They should be given time to refresh themselves physically and to prepare themselves mentally. The facilitators should strive to create a warm, cordial and relaxed environment so that the participants can feel at ease with their surroundings and with each other. This is just as important as the actual training that will follow. 1.3 The Training Methodology The module includes a mix of interactive stories, information sharing, and discussions using interpersonal communication techniques, plus games and energizers. Any process that requires a high level of literacy, or uses examples not connected to the lives of the community, has been excluded. Therefore, traditional materials such as blackboards, handouts or notebooks are not needed for this training. Instead, group discussions; role-plays and other forms of participatory learning are used. 1.4 Training Recapitulation and Evaluation There should be a brief recapitulation exercise at the end of each day of the training, to go over the content that has been delivered and help understand to what extent the participants are engaged in the process and whether the content has been successfully delivered. This can be done by generating a small list of questions covering important content from each of the day’s sessions and asking the participants to answer them. This will help you to assess to what extent the participants are engaged in this process. Evaluation refers to the assessment of both positive and negative effects of the entire workshop. A training evaluation can assess if the objectives of each session have been met, how participatory and energizing the module’s sessions were, and the overall also include an assessment of the overall training experience such as food, accommodation and logistics. Evaluation is particularly important with the PUD community since they often shy away from speaking openly about their thoughts, because of self-stigma, poor self-esteem, lack of exposure to a workshop environment, or cultural factors.


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As the training participants may be from different levels of educational background, it is important to create appropriate ways for each of them to voice their frank opinions. One suggestion is to have a brainstorming session at the end of the module to gather insights from the participants regarding learning, the value of each session as it relates to their lives, and how it has changed their attitudes. Evaluation is also important in collecting suggestions for future training sessions. The facilitators’ skills can be reviewed using input from the participants and by each of the facilitators sharing notes and experiences between themselves.

felt about the training. For example:

Subject

Session Content Methodology used Atmosphere of training Adequate breaks Facilitator’s language Atmosphere of training Stay arrangements Food arrangements

Good

Average

Poor


INTRODUCTORY EXCERCISES


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2. INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES 2.1 Introductions and getting acquainted (30-minute exercise) Although participants may come from the same background and geographical area, and may speak the same language, more often than not they appear to be strangers in training situations. They may have a nodding familiarity with one another, but they may show reluctance to acknowledge individual relationships. This session is vital for both participants as well as facilitators. It aims to bring out the background of all the participants – their interests, hobbies and talents. Without reducing this session to a mere conduct self-introductions so that everyone feels that they know each other and has a better understanding of the other participants. Three activities are suggested below to choose from. Suggested activity 1 Ask the participants to sit in a circle. Tell them that you will throw a ball to one of them. The one who catches the ball will have to introduce himself to the entire group giving as the trainer to model the kind of response you are looking for, before throwing the ball ball to somebody else in the circle. Repeat the process, ensuring that all the participants get a chance to introduce themselves. Suggested activity 2 Participants stand or sit in a circle. Ask them to think about who or what they would like to be and why. They can choose from categories of famous people from history, sports, music, movies and so on; or characters who are known in the local community; or fruits, colors, cartoon characters, etc. For example, if the selected category is movie actors,

they would like to be. Suggested activity 3 Ask all the participants to share their name with the larger group and say one thing about Joseph and I have visited Paris.�


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2.2 Expectations (15-minute exercise) Participants usually come to a training program with a variety of expectations. It is essential that they are helped to articulate their expectations, most of which should conform to the overall objectives of the training module. The facilitator should prepare this list of training program objectives before the training. Eliciting a list of the participants’ expectations, and achieving clarity about how these expectations can or cannot be addressed, will set the tone for the training. This is the time for important issues to be raised by each participant regarding the sessions. Begin by asking the groups to brainstorm and share their expectations with the larger group. Write these down on a piece of chart paper and display it to all. Encourage everyone to speak and share at least one of their expectations. Note that some of the expectations may fall completely outside the context of the training. Don’t discourage them from talking about these, but list them all down. Try to group these expectations into the four key sections of the training: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Perspective building Community needs Vision-building of community organization Road map: short-term and long-term plan

Discuss those that do not fall within the scope of the training program, and either park or put them aside for further discussion at a later point, or modify the objectives. Clarify that the participants’ expectations will be met as long as they fall within the parameters of the training, and if there are expectations that cannot be met, explain why this will not be possible. Note that the methodology of this session may vary depending on the type of group that attends the workshop. For example, if the number of participants is large (above 25), if the participants are new to such a process or if most of them are shy and quiet, this exercise can be done as small-group work: the participants can be divided into groups their list with the full group. Another methodology is to distribute small cards to each participant who can write upon it their expectations. All the cards are then collected and compiled as a list upon the board by the facilitator.


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2.3 Ground rules for participants and trainers (15-minute exercise) In order to make the most of the time together during the training program, everyone the workshop. Suggest certain items which they may like to include, such as punctuality, respect for other people’s views, politeness, being non-judgmental, giving everybody a chance to air their views, not using mobile phones, or making sure everyone participates and no one dominates activities. Begin by asking all the participants to form a large circle. Place a large piece of paper on norm or rule for the training. If everyone else agrees, ask that person to come into the circle and to draw a symbol of their choice to represent that norm or rule. For example, punctuality could be depicted as the sun, or as a clock face. Politeness could be represented by a smiling face and respect could be shown by the picture of an ear, listening. A mobile phone could be drawn with an X over it.

review them again together for clarity. Encourage group members to try to follow these rules. Ask two or three participants to volunteer each day to help remind the group of ground rules throughout the training program. In this way, responsibility to follow the ground rules is shared. If the group is big, the participants should choose a group leader from among them. The responsibilities of the group leader could include: Help in maintaining group discipline Acting as timekeeper In case of problems, liaising with the training team Seeking cooperation of the group whenever needed


TRAINING SESSIONS


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3. TRAINING SESSIONS Section 1: Perspective-Building Session 1: Out of the ordinary – Generating a different thought process Objectives: To help participants think beyond the obvious. To help them see that if they choose to they can move beyond habitual ways of thinking or acting and understand things differently. Methodology: A game – using materials creatively Materials required: A duster, a plate, a marker pen Duration:

NOTE that before actual sessions begin, there will be three sessions (totaling about one hour) on introductions, eliciting expectations and setting norms and rules of the training. See Section 2 above for details.

30 minutes Process/methodology:

marker – for everyone to see. and display in action how they could use it in a different way than it is normally used. session can also be used to break some ice and lighten the mood. into discussion.


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DISCUSSION POINTS: 1. 2. 3. 4.

We often are blinded from seeing things out of the ordinary because our minds are closed and too used to thinking what is commonly seen or done. Unless we make a decision to open our minds and think, we will miss out on a lot of newer ways of looking at our own lives. We will not have new ideas and we will not grow without newer ideas. People who can think differently can come up with different solutions to the same problem

Tips for the facilitator:

easily. Be patient with them and encourage them to speak and share. minded. You may not always get the response that you were expecting, but that is OK. As the sessions progress, the participants will begin to open up more.

talking.

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES: In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops, the following uses were displayed by the participants: Duster: To hit someone; as a toy car; to throw at naughty students in class. Plate: To catch rainwater; to fan yourself when it’s hot; as an ashtray; to cover your head in rain; as a mirror; as a donation plate to collect coins/money . Marker: As a toy gun

Expected outcome:

opportunities to think out of the ordinary.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Session 2: Analysing causes and effects of events – Bus accident exercise Objectives:

Methodology: Brainstorming and discussion Materials required: Chart paper, marker Duration: 30 minutes Process/methodology: Ask them to analyse the possible causes and effects of this accident. Give them 5 minutes to think. brainstorm and list down the causes as they share.

Effects

Causes

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government is not doing anything? They may give different reasons such as faction leaders don’t allow them or because they don’t have money.

effects. Give them an example: An immediate effect may be loss of a life. A consequence of that effect may be a child being orphaned. causes and effects. analyse a situation deeply:

Understanding causes and effects helps us to know how to respond to a problem and come up with the correct solution.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES: In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops, the following causes and effects were stated by the participants for the bus accident exercise: Primary reasons: Bad buses, narrow roads, drunken drivers, bad roads. Secondary reasons: Overstressed/duty drivers, easy access to alcohol, carelessspare parts, corruption, improper recruitment. Primary effects: Death, injury, loss of property, damage.

Tips to the facilitator: Never tire of asking them why? Expected outcome:

doesn’t bring long-term solutions.

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Session 3: Problem tree – Analysing the causes and effects of drug use Objectives: causes and effects of drug use. blame.

Methodology: Group work and problem tree Materials required: Chart paper, markers Duration: 1 hr 30 minutes Process/methodology: group should have not more than 7-8 members. effects and the causes of being a PUD based on their contexts and experiences, and to draw a problem tree like the one in the previous exercise.

and present their problem tree to the larger group. questioning them. Pick one cause from each group’s presentation to do this. careful not to make them afraid or uncomfortable. deeper causes and effects too. of north-east India which have made drug use prevalent. further. another. Consolidate the presentations of all the groups, using the help of willing participants, co-facilitators or staff to do this. Draw a common problem tree.


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EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES: In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops, the following causes and effects were

Causes/Factors

Effects/Consequences

Easy availability

Blame for petty crimes

Peer pressure

Loss of reputation

Curiosity

Discrimination against families of IDUs

School drop outs

Excommunication

Depression/frustration

Stigma/no rights for children

Broken families

Violence/stealing

Unemployment

Separation

Topography

Neglect of idus’ families

Recreation

Broken marriage

Culture

Denial by parents

Experimentation

Loss of livelihood

Lack of life skills

No use of skill

Lack of parental guidance

Loss of employment opportunities

Unemployment

No legal support

Lack of education/skills/opportunities

Target of all crimes

High school drop out

Poor concentration

Family problems

Withdrawal

Pleasure/fun

Depression

Lack of recreational option

Mood swings

Lack of development

Loneliness

Corruption

Anxiety

No infrastructure

Poor self-esteem

Weak law enforcement

Emotional imbalance

Open/porous borders.

Blocked veins

Stigma & discrimination

Loss of life (overdosing)/limbs

Discrimination in education

Liver problems

Violence

HIV, HEP-C/B Fatigue issues Abscess Dip in immunity Ulcers Headache


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Tips for the facilitator:

participants to break out of the limited way of thinking about drug use which has been reinforced for a long time by society (and perhaps to some extent even through the HIV/IDU project). of using objects – that taught them to think out of the ordinary. effects of drug use, to help them understand how to engage in this thought process/analysis. outspoken and quiet). must try to get them to re-evaluate their situations.Remember to keep asking the

them to share their ideas, tell them that there are no right or wrong answers. Respect their responses, which will often be based on their own individual experience and may differ greatly from your own. discussion. Try to show that this issue is multidimensional and affects every aspects of the PUD’s life. Expected outcome: in a small way to their choice to use drugs, compared to the larger underlying causes. also due to societal dysfunctions.


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Sub-activity 3a: 9-dot exercise Objectives:

Methodology: Activity, game Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 10 minutes

Note that this 9-dot exercise can be done even in the middle of the session. If the discussion is getting too heavy and the participants are feeling stuck in their thought processes, immediately break and conduct this activity.

Process/ methodology:

Note that there are several energizers suggested in the annexure at the end of this training module. Use them when participants are feeling tired.

without lifting the pen from the paper. cannot, show them (start in the bottom left-hand corner of the box and follow the arrows).

solutions.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Tips for the facilitator: them or make them feel that it is too much for them. something lighter.

Expected outcome:

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Session 4: Agree-disagree game to enhance self-esteem Objectives: perceptions). Methodology: Activity, game and discussion Materials required: List of statements, chalk, chart paper, marker Duration: 30 minutes Process/methodology: room.

side for those who are neutral. statements to them. If they agree with the statement, they must move to the half of the room marked AGREE, and if they disagree they must move to the other half marked DISAGREE. disagree. The facilitator can ask someone to volunteer to give the reason.

Statement Statement Statement Statement

1: 2: 3: 4:

PUDs are criminals. Drug users are lazy people and a burden to society. Increase in drug use is because of cultural acceptance. Easy availability of drugs is the reason for drug use.

out. Statement Statement Statement Statement

8: 9: 10: 11:

Drug users can never be productive. They are damaged. Drug users have no skills. Social and political factors play no role in drug use. If all the PUDs were transported out of the state, the state would be free of PUDs and clean. Statement 12: PUDS are not trustworthy Statement 13: PUDs are irresponsible Statement 14: Punishing is an effective way to change a drug user


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about themselves and poor self-esteem. with the statement. participants’ self-image and self-esteem and helping them break away from a negative attitude towards themselves. below to encourage them and increase their self-esteem.

Tips for the facilitator:

restating the causes and effects that participants have shared in the previous sessions in the current discussions. may begin to think that there is no point discussing such issues as they cannot do anything about them. If this happens, encourage them by saying that this understanding is crucial before they can take any step forward. This understanding will help them analyse their own situations better and enhance their self-esteem. IT IS NOT THEIR FAULT THAT THEY ARE DRUG USERS.

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES:

that PUDs are lazy people and a burden to the society. Most of them also agreed that easy availability of drugs is the main reason for the large number of addictions. the drug user for his or her status. condition. Most of the responses of the participants in the previous workshops emerged form their socially reinforced belief that PUDs are antisocial elements. PUDs have been pushed to the fringes through years of stigma and discrimination, whether by family members, societal groups, the mainstream, religious organizations or political parties. They have been given no opportunity or environment to come out of their misery. The greatest challenge is to reinstate the belief of the drug user


Training Module - Project ORCHID

DISCUSSION POINTS

person is lazy irrespective of whether he uses drugs or not. who has a condition that needs to be treated. So is it with PUD. because alcohol is banned, but people still drink. for him. How will he stop using? him though God does not. because he wants to, but because the society around him pushes him to directly and indirectly.

drug users to be blamed? Expected outcome: in a small fraction to their choice for drug use as compared to multiple, larger underlying causes.

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Sub-activity 4a: Chart and the black dot Objective:

Methodology: Activity and discussion Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 10 minutes Process/methodology: the corner and display the chart to the participants.

something people talk about.

is the case with the PUDs.

they are. Expected outcome: without any basis of factual analysis. they are.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Section 2: Understanding Community Needs and Issues Session 5: Circles of influence Objective: different levels. Methodology: Activity and group discussion Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 45 minutes Process/ methodology:

They may say family or friends. Next draw a concentric circle outside and write them. accordingly draw another outward circle and write down what they say. It may be

the lower levels.

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LARGER SOCIETY- church/ political grps/social grps

COMMUNITYneighborhood villagers/ leaders FAMILY- parents/ siblings

IDU

respond.

betterment or degradation of the situation of PUDs. these levels, long-term change is not possible. markers to each group. by the PUD at the level they have been assigned. society. presentations to the whole group. Tips for the facilitator:

circles. share whatever they want to.

Larger society’s influence: 1. 2. 3. Community’s influence on family: 1. 2. 3.

Family’s influences on PUDS: 1. 2. 3.


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EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops some of the issues stated by the groups at each level are as follows:

Individual Low self-esteem Discontinuation of education No income Deteriorating health Broken families Lack of support/ parenting/negligen ce Self-stigma Trauma

Family Broken family family Loss of property Isolation within and without Decrease of income S&D Psychological trauma Stress-related health issues Legal issues

Community Suspicion Mistrust Broken relationships Disrespect from neighborhood Deprived of services Rejection and less� S&D Ostracized/judged/ punished/blamed

Larger Society Stigma (attitude) Discrimination in health settings/workplaces Harassment by police/public Insensitive media Absence of inclusive policies Excommunication Poor opportunities for education, skill development, employment No de-addiction centres No social entitlements/schemes Not enough OST services

Expected outcomes:

any long-term changes. for the situation of PUDs, and that understanding this and engaging with all the levels is essential to bring change.


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Session 6: Pegs for mobilization – Identifying priority issues (session has 2 activity options) ACTIVITY 1: SINKING SHIP Objective:

Methodology: Storytelling, group activity and discussion Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 1 hour Process/methodology:

issues that they had stated in the previous sessions. small boat in midst of deep sea. Suddenly there is a storm and your boat slowly begins to sink. It will sink completely within 5 minutes unless you start throwing things out of it to make it lighter. You have 15 important articles in the boat. If you throw out at least 70% of the articles you have one by one, starting with the less important ones and moving on to the more important ones, you are likely to survive and save the boat from sinking. The 15 most important articles in the boat are: 1. 2 kg of rice 2. 1 kerosene stove 3. 10X10 plastic sheet 4. 2 kg hammer 5. 20 meters of 10mm rope 6. 1 small bundle of match sticks 7. 1 small bundle of candles 8. 2 buckets of drinking water 9. 1 bowl of fruit 10. 1 bottle of mineral water 11. 1 tape recorder weighing 2 kg 12. 1 bed 13. 1 bag full of clothes of the sailors 14. 1 coconut 15. 1 pound of bread

the 10 articles that they can throw overboard in order to prevent themselves from sinking.


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that sometimes it is very important to act quickly and that mere discussions will not help. Sometime if they don’t act their very survival will become a challenge. need to prioritize only what is crucial for them. of the many that they listed in the previous session.

of focus and display to all. Tips for the facilitator: quickly.

Expected outcome:

ACTIVITY 2: CARD GAME Objectives:

Methodology: Card game and group discussion Materials required: Small rectangular cards (size 5 X 4 inches) Duration: 1 hour

Note that every time there is group work, there should be at least one project staff member or facilitator supporting and facilitating the discussions in each of the sub-groups.


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Process/methodology:

tree analysis.

derived from the problem tree analysis can be referred to.

they can work in future. the chart displayed from the previous sessions.

to work on them or address them. Tell them it’s their personal opinion.

divided into small groups for this activity.

issues? If yes, ask them to come forward and place them in the same line as the earlier card with the same issue.

which one of them is more important/or is a priority for them. Tick the card that is selected. new card. Repeat the comparison process. After all the cards have been compared with one another, write the totals on each card. the order of priority based on the number of cards with the same issue written on them. work. See the box above from an example.


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DISCUSSION POINTS Issues need to be prioritized: the individual but for the PUD community as a whole.

together. NGO agenda, but on what the community wants to see.

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES In the vision workshop, the following issues were prioritized through this activity:

Livelihood Self-esteem

Stigma

Work on each of the focus areas would happen at different levels. For example: For addressing stigma, interventions will be designed at both individual and family levels. Involving the family will help them also be a part of this process so that the acceptance of the community at family level also increases. The family members will see that the PUD is actually a victim. The family needs to also see and understand what the problem really is and be willing to support the PUD to come out.


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Tips for the facilitator:

doing it. they need to commit to work on these issues no matter what.

Income generation activities=19 Empowerment and self esteem= 12 Family and societal stigma= 12 Entitlements and policy= 5 Health care= 5 Expected outcomes:

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Session 7: Addressing issues – What is our approach? Objectives:

Methodology: Storytelling and discussion Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 30 minutes Process:

There was a tiny village at the foothills of a range. A weekly market/ hospital happened at the top of the hill. There were two ways to reach the market. One way was climbing up the hill through a mud road. But it was a long, tiring walk and tough climb about 10 km long. Because of that many people never managed to get provisions. The second way was a much shorter and a flat way that was only 3 km long. But the shorter way was through a jungle and there would be many wild animals to encounter.

Market


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Market/hospital which way they would choose and why. Give them about 5 minutes to think. and some may say they would try the shorter route and carry a gun with them.

going in a big group may be possible as together they would be able to protect themselves from wild animals and help each other through the jungle and it would not be that scary.

would be able to do it better in a group. short route and go through it together, they can cut away all the branches and the shrubs on the way and actually pave a way. Then the villagers would also be able to access that road more often and because of many people using the road, even the animals will eventually stop coming that way. More people will start buying what they need and make their lives comfortable. things better for the future generations. the past, people were willing to take the trouble to build these roads together. Tips for the facilitator:

and community organisation building. group. Expected outcome: issues collectively.


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Section 3: Vision for Building Community Organizations Session 8: Who is community? Objectives: they should work with.

Methodology: Group work and discussion Materials required: Chart paper and marker Duration: 45 minutes Process/ methodology: each group.

1. Who all should come together as community? Tip: Tell them that they can have both primary and secondary groups. Primary constitutes the core community, and secondary includes groups that closely impact PUDs. Do not give them examples of who will belong to secondary groups. Allow the groups to think about this for them. 2. What do I believe about my community? Tip:

community. beliefs about themselves after the previous sessions of enhancing their self-esteem.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

I believe... (From previous workshops)

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES below: PUD

FAMILY

The PUD and Family, BOTH comprise the community because they have a lot of

DISCUSSION POINTS The community members have to be chosen with care and all who are capable of helping PUDs in overcoming any aspect of their struggle or issue can be included in the community. As a facilitator, think beyond HIV project mode and do not treat drug users as a target group in a targeted Intervention. There is a need now to work in the community m Think about thisdreams just because we don’t have money and the funder may not want to fund it? The issue is what the community wants. If we want to, we should support support them.

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Tips for the facilitator:

to. The prerequisite is only that the most vulnerable groups should be the

in the previous sessions. Expected outcome: they should work with.

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Session 9: Collectivization and its related principles ACTIVITY 1: Making the longest chain Objective:

Methodology: Paper chain game and discussion Duration: 45 minutes Materials required: Old newspapers cut into thin strips, scissors and glue. Process:

individually roll the paper strips into links and interlink them to form a chain.

cannot use their hands. EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES: In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops, the aspect of leadership also came out in the discussions. The participants with their hands tied could also refer to some leaders who have knowledge and can direct the team to work better. Some responses from groups through this activity: good results. processes that make a group successful. succeed.


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groups one minute to discuss and decide on a plan for making as long a paper chain chains prepared by each group. What was the difference in the length of the chains made individually and when completed by a group? What can we compare these shorter, incomplete chains with? Did the people whose hands were tied put in any effort during the activity? Who can you compare the people whose hands were tied with? How did the original participants feel when they had their hands tied? What happened during the group work? How did you help each other?

Tips for the facilitator: facilitator can decide how to use this activity to cover other aspects apart from just the advantages of working together. Expected outcomes: organized, and hence the advantages of coming together. ACTIVITY 2: Passing the ring – principles of coming together Objective:

Methodology: Game: passing the ring, and discussion Duration: 30 minutes Materials Required: A dupatta (shawl) tied to form a cloth ring big enough for a person to pass through. Process:

group. you will place the ring around the shoulder of the leader and without letting go of each other’s hands they must pass the ring to all the members in the group. The condition is that they cannot break the chain by letting go of one another’s hands, and they must continue to stand in the circle. Tell them they have 5 minutes for the task.


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What was your experience of the game? What did you learn from this game? What did the game teach you about working together? such as accountability, team work, transparency, democracy, common goal, mutual support. Tips for the facilitator:

Expected outcome: group. ACTIVITY 3: Balloon game Objective: both inside and outside that may weaken or destabilize a community group. Methodology: Balloon game Duration: 30 minutes Materials required: Balloons, string or rubber bands, a prize in the form of a chocolate bar Process: string or rubber band. Tell them to blow up the balloons as big as they can and announce that the biggest balloon will win a prize. balloons to see how high they can make it go. when they are bounced around because of the pressure on the inside and outside. stop the activity and give the person with the largest balloon left a prize. give them all chances to respond: Did balloons break because of forces inside them or due to external factors?


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How and why did this happen? Who is likely to cause problems to a newly formed community-based group or CBO? Why should members of the CBO keep an eye on such people?

Sum up the discussion by saying that there are forces both within and outside an organization/group that can destabilize it. The CBO needs to have internal stability so that it can withstand destructive forces. EXAMPLES OF RESPONSES: In Project ORCHID’s previous workshops, participants shared that they are ones who make the principles and they should be the ones enforcing and following them too. some of the responses of the group members were:

We need to stay united no matter

Accountability and shared responsibility

Common understanding of our task needed

Flexibility to revisit strategies when needed

Common goal to achieve

Learn from each other

DISCUSSION POINTS A CBO can be the most effective platform for finding solutions to the problems faced by its members. But this is easier said than done. There will always be indivual PUDs within and without who will resist the formation and strengthening of a CBO. The participants need to understand the challenges faced in forming a CBG/CBO and carrying out its work. They should also understand that it will be


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Tips for the facilitator: explaining how they overcame the hurdle. Expected outcome: community group/CBO. Activity 4: Broken squares Objectives: problem. the solving of a group problem?

Methodology: Broken square game Duration: 45 minutes Materials required: Four sets of paper squares in 4 envelopes, each square cut up into three pieces as shown in the example below.

Process:

that there are three pieces in each. (These pieces will belong to different squares).

envelope there are three pieces of paper for forming squares. When I give the signal to begin, the task of every individual in your group is to form a square with the pieces. The task will not be completed until each individual has before him or her perfect square of the same size as that held by others.� No member may speak. No member may ask another member for a piece or in any way signal that another person is to give him or her piece. No member may take a piece from another member of the team. You cannot place the piece in a square for another team member.


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Were you able to form the square? How did you feel during the exercise? Why? How many were frustrated? Why? Ask the observers if anyone mentally dropped out when they had completed their square? Why? each of the envelopes. What was their experience of doing the same exercise in a group? What are some principles for successful group cooperation? o Each individual must understand the total problem. o Each individual should understand how he or she can contribute toward solving the problem. o Each individual should be aware of the potential contributions of other people. o There is a need to recognize the problems of other individuals, in order to aid them in making their maximum contribution. Tips for the facilitator: the team understand what involved working together. Expected outcome: other.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Session 10: Getting organized to address issues Objectives:

Methodology: Group work and discussion Duration: 1 hour Materials required: Chart paper and markers Process: building, part B talks about how to collectivize, and part C talks about a good organization. PART A: Institution-building

community-based group (CBG).

List these down on a chart paper. face challenges so that in future, they and the generation to come will not have to struggle like they did. Show them a glass half filled with water. Ask them what they see. Let them all respond. Link the responses to the need for the community to adopt a positive approach. They can look at the glass as say that there is more space to fill or there is more to be done. Tell them that though they have faced challenges and hurdles in building their community groups in the past they can still make progress and improve the situation if they are together.

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Part B: How to collectivize

Our human body is like organization. Every part has its role and all the body parts have to function together to keep the person alive. Proper signals need to reach the brain in time and proper coordination between the nerves is needed for a man to walk straight. A family is also like a small organization. The mother has a role, the father has a role. The children are expected to obey the parents. The father earns money. He has an account of how much he earns and spends. The children are not allowed to use money wastefully and the mother is not expected to spend more than what is earned. A family also has a system of functioning just like an organization. Humans have always been a part of some form of organization at every stage. Now think about your own group.

together. How shall we organize or collectivize ourselves? date the presentations. Part C: My organization

have?

participants feel are very important for their organisation. This list may include g observations. work together. Tips for the facilitator: follows. their funding needs when they list down their idea of a good organization.

Expected outcome: functioning.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Section 4: Sustaining Community Mobilization: Activities and Plan Session 11: Long-term and short-term plan Objectives: addressing their issues. organization-building. Methodology: Group work, presentation Duration: 1 hour Materials required: Chart paper and markers Process: participating well in all the previous sessions. session outcomes into a clear action plan.

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CBO Name: DISTRICT: PO Name: S.No. Indicators

A

Addressing community issues

1

Enhancing self-esteem

Activity details

Oct

Perspective building trainings with CBO

Long-Term plans (beyond 6 months)

Timeline

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

1. Refresher trainings

Perspective building training with NGOs 2

Activities to tacke stigma and discrimination

1 2 3 4 5

3

Income generation activities

1

1. Linking with NRLM

2 3 4 B

Organisationbuilding

1. Workshop for developing bye-laws

for CBO on statutory requirements 3 4 C

CBO strengthening

1. Membership 2 3 4

1. Revise bye-law if needed


TRAINING SCHEDULE


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4. TRAINING SCHEDULE S.No.

Session Name

Duration

1

Introduction

30 Minutes

2

Eliciting Expectations

15 minutes

3

Laying Down Norms and Rules

15 minutes

SECTION1: PERSPECTIVE - BUILDING Session 1

Out of the ordinary – Generating a different thought process

30 minutes

Session 2

Analysing causes and effects of events: Bus accident exercise

30 minutes

Session 3

Problem tree – Analysing the causes and effects of drug use

90 minutes

Sub-activity 3a

9 Dot exercise

10 minutes

Session 4

Agree-‐Disagree game to enhance self-‐esteem

30 minutes

Sub-activity 4a

Chart and the black dot

10 minutes

SECTION 2: COMMUNITY NEED ASSESSMENT Session 5

45 minutes

Session 6

Pegs for mobilization – Identifying priority issues (Activity 1 or 2)

60 minutes

Session 7

Addressing issues – What is our approach?

30 minutes

Total facilitator time for day 1

6 hrs 35 minutes

SECTION 3:VISION FOR BUILDING COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS Session 8

Who is Community?

Session 9

Collectivization and its related principles

Session 10

45 minutes

Activity 1 – Making the longest chain

45 minutes

Activity 2 – Passing the ring-‐ principles of coming together

30 minutes

Activity 3 – Balloon game

45 minutes

Activity 4 – Broken squares

60 minutes

Getting organized to address issues SECTION 4: SUSTAINING COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION: ACTIVITIES AND PLAN

Session 11

Long-‐term and short-‐term plan

60 minutes

Total facilitator time for day 2

5 hrs 30 minutes


ANNEXURE


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ANNEXURE Activities for introduction session Option 1 Participants are asked to introduce themselves by stating their name along with an adjective that describes them. The exercise starts with the same letter as their name. (For example, I am Simple Sarita). The subsequent participants are required to repeat the names and adjectives of previous participants before stating their name and adjective. (For example: She is Simple Sarita, I am Verrapan Vala or I am Joyful James or I am adventurous Alex). Continue until all participants have introduced themselves in this way. Option 2 Read different statements. Those who agree with these statements should come forward, form a group and introduce themselves. These statements could be: o I like to watch movies. o o o

I have two children. I am a slow eater. I like formal clothes.

Option 3 Form two large circles with all participants standing, one circle inside the other. The participants in the inner circle should face the participants in the outer circle. Participants in the inside circle should walk in one direction and those in the outside circle should walk in the opposite direction. This way, each participant gets to face and meet a new person as the circle continues to move very slowly. When you meet a new person introduce yourself and share an area of interest. Energizers The following activities and games were used as ice-breakers and ers can be used to change the tempo of the day, keep people alert, help all participants mix with each other and make friends, revive interest levels and to help keep participants in a relaxed frame of mind. The facilitator should always ask everyone to participate, but stop the game or activity when the mood is still jovial, and make sure there is no feeling of having lost or won among the participants. Rhythmic Claps As a relaxation exercise, this can be used to prepare the participants for the sessions, or it can be used for calling the participants attention after a break, or to bring silence whenever the proceed-


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Rhythmic Claps As a relaxation exercise, this can be used to prepare the participants for the sessions, or it can be used for calling the participants attention after a break, or to bring silence whenever the proceedthree clap�. The group will begin by clapping their hands twice followed by three continuous claps and repeat the latter three times. Conclude with two short claps: (Tuk tuk- tuk tuk tuk; Tuk tuk-

Who is Your Favorite? The participants form a circle and the facilitator counts off each participant from 1 to 6, giving each a name of an animal or a bird start moving around the room and to imitate the cries and movements of the animals or birds they have been named after. For case of frogs, the participants will jump and so on. Now the particianimals or birds. For example, the facilitator will announce that all frogs must form themselves into pairs and participants with that name will jump like frogs towards other frogs and become pairs. Similarly the facilitator can ask different kinds of birds to form pairs and so on. Ensure that participants imitate the appropriate cries and movements throughout the period of exercise till pairs and subsequent groups are formed. Game of Rules Form two groups with equal number of members. Call two people from each group and ask them to stand on the spots already decided by the facilitator. Draw two lines a short distance away from the two spots and ask all other members of each group to stand behind these lines. Now ask the members on the two spots to stand facing each other and to then hold each other’s hands and lift them up to form an arc wide enough to allow the other participants to run through it.

group must run through the arc. Each participant in the group must complete their run, running back to their group to give a pass to the next member, who in turn must follow the same procedure. Continue till the last participant has completed the run. All participants are required to follow the following rules in this game: 1. They must run the course in front of their respective groups. 2. They should not touch anyone while running. 3. They must give a pass to the next group member in line. 4. All participants must stand behind their marked starting line.

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Basket on My Head All the participants stand in a circle. The facilitator carries a basket on her head like a vegetable vendor, approaches one of the participants and loudly announces her list of vegetables. The participant must instantly respond by naming the vegetables. If a participant fumbles while telling the names the facilitator continues the game by going to another participant and announcing the vegetables that she is selling, and that participant must try to immediately recite her list back to her. Follow the Leader Select a leader from among the participants. She will start the game with an action or sound or both. Ask the remaining participants to imitate their leader. When the facilitator calls out and continue the game. Actions commonly include: dance steps, hunting gestures, or applying make-up. Switch to a new leader after the leader has come up with a couple of actions/sounds. Encourage those who come forward when the change is pants get a chance to play the leader. In the River, On the Bank The participants stand in two parallel lines, facing each other. Explain that all are standing on the riverbank and one step forward is the river. Participants must respond instantly to commands of game slowly and then increase speed as you vary the commands. Those who take a false step in response to the command will be out of the game. Number Acting Start the game by asking participants to speak aloud the numbers from 1 to 10. Next, the numbers will be written in the air by moving

Catch the Colour The participants stand in a circle. The facilitator loudly announces different colours, one at a time. For each colour, the participants

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Chicken and Chimp Divide the participants into two groups called Chicken and Chimp. Members of the two groups should form two parallel lines, standing members from that group must run after the Chicken and catch them while they try to evade being caught. To make the game more interesting, the facilitator must keep suspense alive by pants more alert as they eagerly wait their turn either to catch or to run. Blind Mice Ask all the participants to close their eyes and slowly walk around like blind mice. They should not bang into each other. The facilitaask them to run. Note: While playing this game, ensure that there are no obstacles on which participants can trip or hurt themselves. Chain Running Ask all the participants to stand apart and ask one to volunteer to start the game by running and touching another member. Now the other members must avoid being touched. Those who have been touched will hold hands and try to touch others. The chain will keep getting longer until the last person has been touched. Once a complete chain of the participants is formed, get them to sing a song while holding hands and moving around in a circle. Changing Favourite Places The participants stand in a circle and each of them draws a smaller circle around themselves. One participant must volunteer to stand in the middle of the large circle while the facilitator takes her place in the outer circle. The facilitator now asks the participant must choose her favorite by indicating something worn by other are my favorite.�, and all those participants wearing watches must change their place and go into someone else’s place. Other favorites could include red saris and glass bangles. Each time, one participant will be left without a vacant spot and will assume the role of the facilitator in the middle to continue the game. Encourage participants to be quick in thinking and responding. If chairs are available they may be used for participants to play the game while seated instead of standing.


Training Module - Project ORCHID

Invite one of the participants to come forward and declare her for the role of the Rani or Queen. The facilitator will act as the Minister to the Rani. Draw a fairly large circle around the Rani and say that nobody is allowed to come inside that circle. The remaining participants will form four groups. They have to please the Rani by bringing simple objects desired by her and hand it over to the Minister. Each time the Rani desires something, the group bringing the desired object at the earliest will get a point. After playing the game for a while, analyze why a certain group got more marks while others got less. Explain the need for creativity combined with intelligence. Note: Before starting the game, the facilitator can brief the participant playing the Queen to start the game asking for simple things inside the room or hall. For example, one pink chart paper, four black hair clips, a pair of brown slippers and so on. Some of the commonly desired objects may be brought from outside the hall as well. What-ho, How-much? While they are moving, the facilitator in the middle should repeat-

Suddenly, the facilitator should say a number, for example 3. Instantly the participants have to break the circle and form a group with three members. Anyone who fails to do so will be out of the game before it starts again with a new number. Note: Try variations two standing and one sitting. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang The participants stand in a circle and start saying numbers starting

Bang Bang� without a clap, they have to leave the game. In that expected to follow the rules of the game.

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Changing Favourite Places The participants stand in a circle and each of them draws a smaller circle around themselves. One participant must volunteer to stand in the middle of the large circle while the facilitator takes her place in the outer circle. The facilitator now asks the participant in the

wearing watches are my favorite.�, and all those participants wearing watches must change their place and go into someone else’s place. Other favorites could include red saris and glass bangles. Each time, one participant will be left without a vacant spot and will assume the role of the facilitator in the middle to continue the game. Encourage participants to be quick in thinking and responding. If chairs are available they may be used for participants to play the game while seated instead of standing.

Invite one of the participants to come forward and declare her for the role of the Rani or Queen. The facilitator will act as the Minister to the Rani. Draw a fairly large circle around the Rani and say that nobody is allowed to come inside that circle. The remaining participants will form four groups. They have to please the Rani by bringing simple objects desired by her and hand it over to the Minister. Each time the Rani desires something, the group bringing the desired object at the earliest will get a point. After playing the game for a while, analyze why a certain group got more marks while others got less. Explain the need for creativity combined with intelligence. Note: Before starting the game, the facilitator can brief the participant playing the Queen to start the game asking for simple things inside the room or hall. For example, one pink chart paper, four black hair clips, a pair of brown slippers and so on. Some of the commonly desired objects may be brought from outside the hall as well.


Training Module  

A training module on Building Perspectives and Strengthening Community Mobilization for Empowerment and Sustainability of People who Use D...

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