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PRINT RELATED SOLUTIONTS FOR EMERGING MARKETS

by Heya Basu DDE, NID


National Institute of Design (NID) The National Institute of Design (NID) is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multidisciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. The institute functions as an autonomous body under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. NID is recognized by the Dept. of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR) under Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, as a scientific and industrial design research organization.

NID R&D CAMPUS, BANGALORE The National Institute of Design R&D Campus better known as NID Bangalore is a design institute located in Bangalore, in Karnataka. The R&D campus specializes in Research and Development activities related to design and is one of the three campuses that is part of the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad. The campus currently offers two IT related post graduate design courses and one Retail related design course.

NID has been a pioneer in industrial design education after Bauhaus and Ulm in Germany and is known for its pursuit of design excellence to make Designed in India, Made for the World a reality. NID’s graduates have made a mark in key sectors of commerce, industry and social development by taking role of catalysts and through thought leadership.

National Institute of Design

Photograph Courtesy: Wikipedia, clicked by Planemad

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Design for Digital Experience We use a number of digital products and applications in our daily life at home, school, office, for information, communication, education, entertainment, banking, healthcare etc. Design for Digital Experience focuses on experiential component to enhance the quality of life in the digitally enabled society also keeping in view the rural/ urban spaces & requirements. The context for digital products and experiences could be seen to encompass areas such as Software products; Digital learning environments; Handheld gadgets and devices; Entertainment based applications and other virtual environments for supporting user interactions within the digital world.

Another set of courses look in the area of enriching content from aspects such as narrative styles, use of appropriate media, interactivity with focus on developing aesthetic sensibilities and creative communication strategies. A course titled ‘Digital Design and Society’ emphasizes on research to create a knowledgebase with regards to usage of Digital products in Indian society and inform in context of future design directions keeping in mind Indian socio-cultural aspects. The programme takes students with diverse professional backgrounds such as fine and applied arts, film- making, engineering or technical, design, mass communication and architecture.

The various course modules for this programme can be broadly categorized into those that focus on design processes for the development of concepts, prototyping and evaluation with the user in mind.

Design for Digital Exprerince

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Hewlett-Packard Hewlett-Packard or commonly known as HP is a technology company that operates in more than 170 countries around the world. They explore how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities, aspirations and dreams. They provide infrastructure and business offerings that span from handheld devices to some of the world's most powerful supercomputer installations.

HP IPG HP's Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) is the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises. Products and technology associated with IPG include Inkjet and LaserJet printers, consumables and related products.

They offer consumers a wide range of products and services from digital photography to digital entertainment and from computing to home printing

Hewlett - Packard

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Acknowledgments “I can no other answer make, but, thanks, and thanks.” – William Shakespeare. A project is truly never completed on ones individual ability. It’s the strength of all the help by those caring people around us which gives us the ability to finish without deviating. I would like to show my deep regards to Ms. Mamata N. Rao, Coordinator Design for Digital Experience, Associate Senior Faculty, NID R & D Campus, Bangalore for guiding me throughout the project with her wide knowledge in research, design process and years of teaching experience. With her guidance and encouragement it has helped and influenced me in completing my project and fulfilling my goal without moving out from the track. I am grateful to HP IPG and Mr. Arun Koormamtharayil, Senior User Experience Designer, HP IPG, R&D Hub, Bangalore, for giving me this opportunity to pursue my diploma project in such a great place. Also I appreciate his great efforts for mentoring me and guiding me with feedback and support throughout the past six months. It was my pleasure to be in the company of Manjunath, Sunil, Vijoy and Nimisha from HP and thank them for being there whenever I needed help.

A special thanks to Sundar, Pooja, Harinee, Nida and many other from HP for being those friendly faces to smile at and have wonderful conversations. Also their help in giving me insights when I required them. I considered myself to be lucky to have Zalak in HP along with me. To give me company at all the high and lows of time, to encourage me and to always show me a positive attitude. Friends are always special and no one can ever be more grateful to them. Apart from Zalak, Harinee, Nida and others that I have previously mentioned, I thank Puja, Dinu, Abhay, Harsh, Pawan, Pratik, Kunal, Angie, Sangeeta, and many others for being my strength and for giving me so much knowledge that I could use in this project. It’s no one more I can thank but my parents. They’ve always been my pillar of strength and support. They’ve been through my up’s and down’s helping me in every possible way without giving me the slightest mind to worry. I regret that I could not mention each and every name, but most grateful to all those who have helped me and in one way or the other have made an influence on this project.

Thank you all, Regards, Heya.

Acknowledgments

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Acknowledgments Synopsis The “I can objective no other of answer this project make, wasbut, to gain thanks, insights and thanks.” into Mobile, – William Print &Shakespeare. Scan related scenarios in Emerging Markets. The study was to see the A project way peopleisinteract truly never with devices completed and use onprinter ones individualinability. functions Emerging It’s the Markets strength soofasall to the point help to by thosesolutions specific caring people that could around beusdeveloped which gives to us the ability target these to markets. finish without Ethnographic deviating.Research on Mobile usage in Indian context, potential I would Print & Scan like touse show wasmy also deep conducted. regards to Ms. Mamata N. Rao, Coordinator Design for Digital The target Experience, users for this Associate project was Senior the average Faculty, NID R &class middle D Campus, Indian family. Bangalore for guiding me throughout the project with her wide knowledge inresearch research,was designmainly process ethnographic and years of The teaching with experience. her guidance and research detailedWith interviews with families encouragement it has helped and influenced about their print related behaviours. me in completing my project and fulfilling my goal without moving out from the track. I am grateful to HP IPG and Mr. Arun Koormamtharayil, Senior User Experience Designer, HP IPG, R&D Hub, Bangalore, for giving me this opportunity to pursue my diploma project in such a great place. Also I appreciate his great efforts for mentoring me and guiding me with feedback and support throughout the past six months. It was my pleasure to be in the company of Manjunath, Sunil, Vijoy and Nimisha from HP and thank them for being there whenever I needed help.

A special Pooja,about Harinee, The projectthanks got outtoa Sundar, lot of aspects print Nida scan and many other from for being and behaviour. SinceHPpaper is athose big friendlyoffaces aspect this behaviour, to smile atit and was have seen that wonderful paper conversations. help in giving me had a lot moreAlso valuetheir when it carried certain insights when IThrough required them. information. the research it was studied that people stored paper categorically I considered be paper lucky to have Zalak in in many ways.myself Whentothe carried value of HP along high importance with me. such To as give money me company transaction at all or themedical high and lows many of time, encourage me of health, didtosave the physical alwayscopy showbymescanning a positivethese attitude. and todigital papers. Thus a concept was developed to allow a Friends are alwaystheir special and no records one can ever family to save medical and be morerelated gratefulpapers to them. Apart fromform, Zalak, medical in the digital so Harinee, Nidaaccess and others that I have that they can it whenever andpreviously wherever mentioned, I thankthePuja, Dinu, Abhay, they want without dependencies of aHarsh, single Pawan, Pratik, Kunal, was Angie, Sangeeta, gadget. This concept achieved using and the many computing others for technology. being my strength and for cloud giving me so much knowledge that I could use in this project. It’s no one more I can thank but my parents. They’ve always been my pillar of strength and support. They’ve been through my up’s and down’s helping me in every possible way without giving me the slightest mind to worry. I regret that I could not mention each and every name, but most grateful to all those who have helped me and in one way nor the other have made an influence on this project.

Thank you all, Regards, Heya.

Acknowledgments Synopsis

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Contents Print Related Solutions for Emerging Markets Introduction Project Brief Design Proposal Project Scope

002 003 004 005

Pilot Study Understanding Emerging Markets The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies, and Emerging Markets India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions What Makes India Attractive for International Business The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential People’s Understanding of Digital Products in India Products Used in a Daily Household Purchase of Products in India Understanding HP products for India

008 009 016 023 024 028 029 031 037

Exploratory Research User Study Research Methodology Objective User Demographics Findings

SMB Printing Patterns in India Types of Printing Printing Requirements Usage Patterns

040 040 040 041 044

060 061 061 062

Paper Usage Pattern in The Home Environment Actors and Their Individual Paper Usage Patterns

066 068

Printing Patterns and Paper Usages in Different Task Based Segments

074

Legal Documents Education Medical Records

075 078 081


Contents Medical Record Management Background Study of Different Medical Record Management System Electronic Medical Management System Paper Based Medical Management System Personal Health Record Management System

Medical Record Management Research & Analysis User Study Objective & Interviewees Findings User Sets

Medical Elements and Their Importance

082 086 088 088 089 091

095 096 096 097 099

106

Design and Concept

113

The Requirement Technologies Available Personas Scenarios Ecosystem Workflows

114 115 116 120 124 126

For Tasks Done on Printers For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computers

Wireframes Printer Screens Mobile Phone Screens Computer Screens

126 129

140 140 144 159

Conclusion

176

References

178


012 Understanding Emerging Markets


Print Related Solutions for Emerging Markets Introduction Project Brief Design Proposal Project Scope


Introduction It was in the 1970s that it was detected that the digital world would take over everything. All offices would go 100% digital and that not a single piece of paper would ever be seen. It was expected that automation will bring improvements in productivity through the use of automatic typewriters and other stand-alone equipment that crank out paper faster. Also that interoffice information will move automatically. People would read their daily newspaper on digital screen whenever they want, wherever they want. They needn’t have to be dependent on the local news prints. They can read news of London sitting in Bangkok. Children would never have to write homework, but would have to type their homework onto computers and portable screens. But the reality is that even four decades after this

prediction, paper still exists and plays a very vital role in the day to day life of every individual. It may be varied forms. Forms like the newspaper, letters, expense bills, reports, etc. It is still seen that people tend to store a lot paper in their lives as well as use and generate them. The dream may be to go totally digital, but the reality shows something different. In reality it can be seen that the digital era incorporates with paper. The biggest example of this is the printer. At present times it is this digital technology of printing that helps people to print whenever they want whatever they without the hassle of going to a printing press. 40 years later, paper is still not completely replaced by digital technologies. Paper is still around in the work and home environment. Moreover, computers and papers are used in conjunction with each other.

The Expected

The Traditional

The Reality

002 Introduction


Project Brief This project is aimed at gaining insights into Mobile, Print & Scan related are used in Emerging Markets. The way people interact with devices and use these printer functions in Emerging Markets point to specific solutions that could be developed to target these markets. Ethnographic Research on Mobile usage in Indian context, Potential Print & Scan use & explorations on possible solutions would form the core of the work in this project. This project will involve a lot of research oriented work, in addition to explorations of solutions with the insights gained through research. This project will be done at HP IPG R&D hub, Bangalore under the guidance of Mr. Arun Koormamtharayil, Senior User Experience Designer, HP IPG, R&D Hub, Bangalore.

Project Brief 003


Design Proposal PHASE 1: + Problem Defining + Pilot Study - Existing Work - Literature - Research Papers + Area of Study Defining

PHASE 4: + Conceptualisation - Study of existing designs - Concept - Target Audiance - Final Concept/Design

PHASE 2: + Exploratory Research - User Study - Data Analysis - Insights - Problems - Limitations

PHASE 5: + Documentation

PHASE 3: + Redefining area of study & Objective + User research in chosen area - Data Analysis - Insights - Problems - Opportunity

004 Design Proposal


Project Scope In this project research will be done in these homes and printer shops to see their usage of paper in everyday life and printing/scan needs and habits respectively. This project looks into if a requirement can be generated for printing in India. If the cost of printing and scanning is made efficient enough for the requirements of the daily paper usage. In this project research will be conducted in homes with computers/laptops and also homes without. Research in the small print shops and internet cafes. The research style will be exploratory ethnographic. These will be in order to understand the usage of paper in everyday life. The printing and scanning needs and habits of people.

Project Scope 005


004 Design Proposal


Pilot Study Understanding Emerging Markets The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets


Understanding Emerging Markets Emerging markets are countries such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Turkey that, in contrast to advanced economies, are experiencing rapid economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. Most emerging markets are characterized by a young population and a growing middleclass. While emerging markets represent attractive markets and low-cost manufacturing bases, they also tend to have inadequate commercial infrastructure, evolving legal systems, and a high-risk business environment. Despite their drawbacks, emerging markets have begun to produce new global challengers, top firms that are fast becoming key contenders in world markets. These firms pose competitive challenges to companies from the advanced economies, such as in North America, Europe and Japan.

008 Understanding Emerging Market

In a recent study by The Boston Consulting Group shows that there are many companies origin to these emerging markets have spread their business into the global market. Most of them coming from India and China alone. The success of new global challengers suggests that the character of international trade and investment is shifting. Today, there are many more emerging market firms active on the world stage. They possess distinct advantages and are becoming key competitors to MNEs (Multinational Enterprises) from advanced economies, which have traditionally dominated international business.


The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies, and Emerging Markets GREENLAND

N

O

N

S W E D

R

ICELAND

E

W

A

Y

ALASKA

FINLAND

R

U

S

S

I

A

ESTONIA

C A N A D A

NETHERLANDS LANDS IRELAND BELGIUMM

UNITED KINGDOM

LATVIA

DENMA ENMARK

LITHUA NIA RUSSIA BELARUS

GERM GERMANY

POLAND

CZECH REP. SLOVAKIA

LUXEMBOURG BOURG

UKRAINE

KAZAKHSTAN

LIECH. LIECH. AUSTRIA MOLDOVA HUNGARY SLOVENIA SWITZ. ITZ. SL ROMANIA

FRANCE

CR CROATIA BOSNIAHERZEGOVINA

UNITED STATES

MONACO ONACO

ANDORRA

SPAIN

OF AMERICA

IT ITALY

LEBANON

GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

NICARAGUA

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

COSTA RICA PANAMA

GUINEA

BURKINA FASO

IVORY COAST

LIBERIA

SWEDEN DENMARK

GERMANY

FRANCE

AUSTRIA

LIECHTENSTEIN

SWITZERLAND

ITALY

NEPAL

OMAN

ERITREA

SUDAN

BANGLADESH

INDIA

MYANMAR (BURMA)

TAIWAN LAOS

THAILAND

YEMEN

SOMALIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

ETHIOPIA

SRI LANKA

CAME CAMEROON

MALAYSIA

UGANDA

SINGAPORE

KENYA RWANDA BURUNDI

ZAMBIA

BOLIVIA

SLOVAKIA

INDONESIA

TANZANIA

ZIMBABWE

NAMIBIA

MADAGASCAR

AUSTRALIA

SWAZILAND

SOUTH AFRICA

BULGARIA

I

URUGUAY

GREECE

T U R K E Y

H

ALBANIA

FIJI

NEW CALEDONIA

LESOTHO

Advanced Economies

ARGENTINA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

VANUATU

MAURITIUS RÉUNION

BOTSWANA

PARAGUAY

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

MALAWI MOZAMBIQUE

MOLDOVA

ROMANIA

MACEDONIA

PHILIPPINES

BRUNEI

ANGOLA

HUNGARY

YUGOSLAVIA

VIETNAM

CAMBODIA

DJIBOUTI

NIGERI IGERIA

JAPAN

BHUTAN

L

MONACO

PAKISTAN

QATAR UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

CHAD

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (ZAIRE)

PERU

UKRAINE

SLOVENIA CROATIA SAN BOSNIAMARINO HERZEGOVINA

N I IGER GE

EQUATORIAL RIAL CONGO GUINEA A REPUBLIC GABO GABON CONGO

B R A Z I L

POLAND

CZECH REP.

LUXEMBOURG

ANDORRA

COLOMBIA ECUADOR

BELARUS

NETHERLANDS BELGIUM

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

LATVIA LITHUANIA RUSSIA

IRAN

KUWAIT

EGYPT

NORTH KOREA SOUTH KOREA

C H I N A

SAUDI MALI

SENEGAL GAMBIA GUINEA-BISSAU

SIERRA LEONE

VENEZUELA

LIBYA

KYRGYZSTAN TAJIKISTAN

AFGHANISTAN

IRAQ

ARABIA

MAURITANIA

PUERTO RICO

HAITI

G HAN A TO G O B E N IN

CUBA JAMAICA BELIZE HONDURAS

ISRAEL JORDAN

ALGERIA

UZBEKISTAN AZERBAIJAN TURKMENISTAN

SYRIA

CYPRUS

MOROCCO

MEXICO

ARMENIA

TURKEY

GREECE TUNIS TUNISIA

HAWAII

GEORGIA

MACEDONIA ALBANIA

PORTUGAL

WESTERN SAHARA

MONGOLIA

BULGARIA

YUGOSLAVIA

NEW ZEALAND

ALGERIA

Emerging Markets

C TUNISIA

Advanced Economies

CYPRUS

MALTA

Emerging Markets

FALKLAND ISLANDS/ MALVINAS

Developing Economies

Developing Economies

LIBYA

Advanced economies are post-industrial countries characterized by high per-capita income, highly competitive industries, and well-developed commercial infrastructure. The advanced economies are the world's richest countries and include Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, the United States, and most European countries. These countries have reached a fairly mature

state of industrial development, largely transformed from manufacturing economies into service-based economies. Home to only about 14 percent of the world’s population, the advanced economies have long dominated international business. They account for about half of world GDP, over half of world trade in products, and three-quarters of world trade in services. Advanced economies have democratic, multiparty systems of

The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets 009


government. Their economic systems are usually based on capitalism, with relatively little government intervention in business. They have tremendous purchasing power, with few restrictions on international trade and investment. They host the world’s largest MNEs. Developing economies are low-income countries characterized by limited industrialization and stagnant economies. Of the developing economies, the most numerous group includes Bangladesh, Nicaragua, and Zaire.

Developing country consumers have low discretionary incomes; the proportion of personal income spent on purchases other than food, clothing, and housing is very limited. These countries are also hindered by high infant mortality, malnutrition, short life expectancy, illiteracy, and poor education systems. Thus making the economic growth of these countries to mere minimum due to the above mentioned problems. Also the governments in these countries happen to be severely indebted. Most of these debts exceed the countries annual gross domestic products. Bu-

Dimensions

Advanced Economies

Developing Economies

Emerging Markets

Representative countries

Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, United States

Angola, Bolivia, Nigeria, Bangladesh

Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Turkey

Approximate number of countries

30

150

27

Population (Percentage of world)

14

24

62

Approximate average per capitaincome

33,750

6,450

13,250

Approximate share of world GDP (PPP basis)

48

9

43

892

1,877

3,775

Telephone lines per 1,000 people

1,369

355

724

Personal computers per 1,000 people

517

39

191

Internet users per 1,000 people

533

103

240

(U.S. dollars; PPP basis)

Population (millions)

(fixed and mobile)

Table 1: Key Differences among the Three Major Country Groups SOURCE: World Bank at www.worldbank.com: International Monetary Fund at www.imf.com

010 The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets


Trade Conditions Industry

Advanced Economies

Developing Economies

Emerging Markets

Highly Developed

Poor

Rapidly Improving

Substantial

Limited

Moderate but increasing

Trade barriers

Minimal

Moderate to high

Rapidly Liberalizing

Trade volume

High

Low

High

Inward FDI

High

Low

Moderate to High

Competition

Table 2: Trade Conditions within Major Country Groups SOURCES: International Monetary Fund at www.imf.org, World Bank at www.worldbank.org, and CIA World Factbook 2007 at https://www. cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/

reaucracy and red tape in developing economies often hinder the ability of firms from these countries to participate in the global economy. Emerging market economies or, briefly,

Characteristic Median age of citizens

Advanced Economies

emerging markets, refer to a subset of former developing economies that have achieved substantial industrialization, modernization, and rapid economic growth since the 1980s. The economies are differentiated by degree

Developing Economies

Emerging Markets

38 years

24 years

32 years

Services, branded products

Agriculture, commodities

Manufacturing, some services

High

Low

Medium

Free or Mostly Free

Mostly Repressed

Moderately Free or Mostly not free

Capitalist

Authoritarian, socialist or communist

Rapidly transitioning to capitalism

Regulatory environment

Minimal regulations

Highly regulated, burdensome

Achieved much economic liberalization

Country risk

Low

Moderate to high

Variable

Strong

Weak

Moderate and improving

Well-developed

Inadequate

Moderate but improving

Major sector focus Education level Economic and political freedom Economic / political

Intellectual property protection Infrastructure

Table 3: National Characteristics of Major Country Groups SOURCES: International Monetary Fund at www.imf.org, World Bank at www.worldbank.org, and CIA World Factbook 2007 at https:// www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/

The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets 011


Population GDP (PPP basis) Energy Consumption Exports Foreign direct investment, net inflows Stock market capitalization

0

20

40

60

80

100

Chart 1: Why They Matter: Emerging Markets as a Percent of World Total SOURCES: Economist. (2006). “The New Titans,� September 14, survey section; International Monetary Fund at www.imf.org; Central Intelligence Agency. (2006). World Factbook, at www.cia.gov; World Bank at web.worldbank.org

of economic development and per-capita income. Currently, some 27 countries are considered emerging markets. These economies are found mainly in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. The largest emerging markets are China, India, Brazil, and Russia.

GDP growth rate of nearly 7 percent, a remarkable feat. As Chart 2 shows, their economies have been growing much faster than those of the advanced economies. [2]

Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic is that these countries are enjoying rapidly improving living standards and a growing middle class with rising economic aspirations. As a result, their importance in the world economy is increasing as attractive destinations for exports, FDI, and sourcing. ([1] The above have been reference from the book of International Business Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, Pearson Publications, 2009.) In Chart 1 it can be seen that emerging markets account for over 40% of the worlds GDP. Similarly, they represent over 30 percent of exports and receive over 20 percent of FDI. In the mid-2000s, the emerging markets collectively enjoyed an average annual 012 The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets


United States Britain Euro Countries Canada Australia Japan China Venezuela Argentina India Peru Colombia Singapore Hong Kong Russia

0

+2

+4

+6

+8

+10%

Chart 2: GDP Growth Rates in Advanced Economies and Emerging Markets SOURCE: Norris, Floyd. (2006). “Maybe Developing Nations Are Not Emerging but Have Emerged,� New York Times, December 30, p. 8.

The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies and Emerging Markets 013


Pilot Study India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions What Makes India Attractive for International Business The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential


India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions India happens to be the second most populous country in the world (after China) with an approximate of 1.21 billion people. It also happens to have the biggest democracy on planet earth. India is a vast country that is said to roughly cover an area of that of Western Europe (or even bigger) [3] & [4].

016 India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions

As India is big, it is also diverse. The reason for such a diversity of India is due to its rich diverse history. It is said that India was once a land of many kings and emperors, with many different religions and culture. Thus now it happens to stand as one country with the vast diversity due to the descendents of those kings and their kingdoms. [5] & [6]


CULTURE India is the only country in the world to have so many religions and beliefs. The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse subcultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old. [8] & [9]

Religion

In fact a large population of India in terms of behavior happen to be highly religious irrespective of their religion. Thus it can be seen the number of idols and picture of Gods and Goddess, religious symbols, etc around an individuals life. Such artifacts can be seen in many places of an Indian family like houses, cars, wallets, etc. Also with so many religions comes many rituals, ceremonies, festivals and beliefs.

Ethnic Groups

India is the birth place of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. According to the 2001 census, Hinduism accounted for 80.5% of the population of India. Islam (13.4%), Christianity (2.3%) and Sikhism (1.9%) are the other major religions followed by the people of India. This diversity of religious belief systems existing in India today is a result of, besides existence and birth of native religions, assimilation and social integration of religions brought to the region by traders, travelers, immigrants, and even invaders and conquerors.

There are estimated to be around 6000 ethnicities originating from India. Since Indian states are divided on linguistic divisions, most commonly that is assumed to be an ethnic group. But ethnic groups in India are not only based on linguistic difference, but also with food, culture, rituals and clothing. Also things like dance, music, crafts, architecture and geographic demographics influence an ethnic group.

Languages Some of the very distinctive things that can be noticed about the Indian culture is that the Mutli-Lingual phenomena. The government of India has officially recorded 29 different languages in the coutry. But according to stud-

India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions 017


ies it is found that India has a total of 418 spoken languages with 407 living and 11 extinct out of them. Also with so many languages it has also been found that there are over 2000 different dialects.

Festivals

India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India are the Independence Day, the Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti. In addition, many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals include Navratri, Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Dussehra, Eid, Christmas and Good Friday. Several harvest festivals, such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam are also fairly popular.

many Spices and Herbs. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian, many traditional Indian dishes also include: chicken, goat, lamb, fish, and other meats. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history, such as the Persians, Mughals, and European colonists.

Heritage & History

Cuisine India is known for its love for food and spices, and it plays a role in everyday life as well as in festivals. Indian cuisine varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the country. Generally, Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories — northern, southern, eastern, western and north-eastern. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of

018 India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions

As mentioned above that India has had a diverse background a diverse history. Thus due to which India has also a very diverse heritage. Cultural sites that have archaeological, historical and aesthetic value. Natural sites that conserve endangered species, provide suitable habitats and preserve the wild side of life. And


the unique historical sites that transcend you into a wondrous era like none other. India most popular landmark the Taj Mahal happens to be one of the seventh wonder of the world. Heritage sites of India vary from era like stone carvings from the Indus Valley Civilization to as late as forts and palaces of the Mughal emperors. Also out of the four oldest and well-preserved epics of the world, two happen to belong from India, The Ramayana and The Mahabharata.

Arts & Crafts Similar to food India also has a varied diversity in its local arts and crafts. This diversity is due to influence of different ethnic backgrounds of the people with also the availability raw materials of the respective geographic regions.

India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions 019


SOCIAL Although India has a diverse culture and heritage, Indian people on the other hand happen to have similar characteristics when it comes to the social aspects of life. Behavior of Indian people is similar to each other but very distinct from the rest of the world. Indians are very society conscious. Here people live in societies. They believe in living in community groups where their culture is similar. People have a fear of the society and repercussion. People here believe in practicing norms and culture that the society accepts thus not making them an outcast. A very noticeable social behavior is that Indians have strong family connections. Although in modern India and in many big metro cities a chunk of them live in small nuclear families, it can be seen that the joint family system still exists in one way or the other. Marriages in India for centuries have been arranged. Even today, the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members, with the consent of the bride and groom. Weddings here are highly ostentatious with loud music, bright lights and huge celebrations. Generally a huge amount of money is spent for the ceremonies, looking at all the rituals and customs are followed with the guest list reaching a few hundreds. Due to the large number of wedding rituals, they generally stretch over a period of two to three days. One of the main source of entertainment in India is the Movie industry with Bollywood (Mumbai based) being the most popular. Bollywood movies are hugely influential on the young generation of India and it happens to be

020 India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions

one of the biggest industries of the country earning nearly $2 billion revenue a year. Cricket is treated as a religion rather than a sport in India. Cricket is played in every street and corner of this country. Whenever there a major match (international) occurring, it can be seen that the whole country virtually comes to a standstill to enjoy this sport. To a certain extent Western style of living is an acceptable reform in India amongst those in the urban area. But in the rural it’s considered a taboo. Although the culture may not be very much acceptable, comfort of living life and technology are most welcomed in India. There are diversified economic groups in India. One can notice the extreme ends of this with the super rich and the poorest of poor. But this doesn’t mean that there is separation with the living society. It can be seen that the rich and poor live here side by side. [7], [10], [11]


Bollywood Influential

Cricket Crazy

Strong Family Ties

Flamboyant Weddings

Society Conscious


LIVING CONDITIONS Living in India may not seem like a very comfortable one for an outsider, but certain factors are very noticeable and are a part and parcel of their everyday lives.

POWER CUTS

in India are a very frequent. Majority of the power cuts are not scheduled, although some are due to late monsoons, since power in India is generated by rain water harvesting.

“CHAOS & DISORDER� is a major

phrase in India in many aspects. For example the traffic in India. Although there are rules and regulations when it comes to traffic but not all are followed. Also long queues can be a disappointing for many to get any work done like paying bills, visiting the bank or post office etc.

LONG COMMUTE TO OFFICE

is something that can be noticed in metro cities like Bangalore, Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad, etc. The reason for this is that these cities happen to be old cities that are growing radially. Thus with the new industries coming up, offices happen to be situated far away from the main parts of the cities. Since Indians have strong family connections, many live in JOINT FAMILIES. Thus living in the same house. So houses in India happen to be crowed with people often sharing a room. Also the middle class people do live in SMALL HOUSES, mostly being apartments. Thus space in a house is very

022 India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions

congested and limited. India in environment happens to have a

HIGH LEVEL OF DUST. Thus for the simple reason of protection of it can be seen that in Indian houses most electronic gadgets are covered in plastic all the time. This is because electronics items are highly expensive as compared to an income of the family and is something that will be used for years. When it comes to the usage of expensive items, people in India are not very brand conscious. They are ok with buying a non branded product in order to save money. [8]


What Makes India Attractive for International Business India ranks among the well known emerging markets in the global economic scenario. Since the economic liberalization policies were undertaken in the 1990s, emerging market India has really prospered which has helped to boost the Indian economy to a great extent. India as an Emerging Market posses numerous advantages that fosters its rise. The presence of low-cost labor, knowledge workers, government support, low-cost capital, and powerful, highly networked conglomerates have helped make this country formidable a challenger in the global market place. Also it is attractive to internationalizing firms as target markets, manufacturing bases, and sourcing destinations. India has two sets of economies, urban area economy and rural area economy. The urban areas tend to have more developed economic infrastructure and consumers with greater discretionary income than rural areas. Also India is called a Transition Economy. Transition economies Subset of emerging markets that have transformed from centrally planned economies into liberalized markets. The transition economies hold much potential. Long burdened by excessive regulation and entrenched government bureaucracy, they are gradually introducing legal frameworks to protect business and consumer interests and ensure intellectual property rights. [1] India has become important for marketing a wide variety of products and services. The growing middle class in India implies substantial demand for a variety of consumer

products such as electronics and automobiles and services such as health care. Also it is a very good target for manufactured products technology. With all this potential market it can be seen that demand in India is also growing. India has long served as platforms for manufacturing by MNEs. Firms from Europe, the United States, and other advanced economies have invested vast sums to develop manufacturing facilities here. The reason is that this market is home to low-wages, high-quality labor for manufacturing and assembly operations. In addition India has large reserves of raw materials and natural resources. Outsourcing helps foreign firms become more efficient, concentrate on their core competences, and obtain competitive advantages. When sourcing involves foreign suppliers or production bases, then the phenomenon is known as global sourcing or off-shoring. Thus, global sourcing refers to the procurement of products and services from foreign locations. India has served an excellent platform for sourcing. For example, firms in the IT industry such as Dell and IBM reap substantial benefits from the ability to outsource certain technological functions to knowledge workers in India. Intel and Microsoft have much of their programming activities performed in Bangalore, India. Investments from abroad benefit emerging markets as they lead to new jobs and production capacity, transfer of technology and know-how, and linkages to the global marketplace. [2]

What Makes India Attractive for International Business 023


The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential

The Indian middle class represents the proportion of people in between the wealthy and the poor. The middle class has economic independence and includes people who work in businesses, education, government, and hourly jobs. They consume many discretionary items, including electronics, furniture, automobiles, recreation, and education. Middle-class households make up the largest proportion of households in India. In India and other emerging markets, the size and growth rate of the middle class serve as signals of a dynamic market economy.

024 The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential

As seen in table 4 there is quite a sizable middle class population in emerging markets. For marketers of products and services, these countries are prime prospects. India and Indonesia rank at the very top, given their large populations. While India features a large middle-class populations in absolute terms, its per-capita GDP is rather modest compared to the rest of the countries. Also the in the table it can be seen that the percentage of income is rather high. [12]


Country

Middle-class population (millions)

Percent of income held by middle class

Per-capita GDP, (PPP, U.S.$)

China

587

45

8,486

India

534

49

4,031

Indonesia

105

48

4,616

Russia

67

47

13,210

Brazil

65

35

9,531

Mexico

42

41

11,761

Turkey

32

45

9,629

Thailand

28

45

9,638

South Korea

26

55

25,403

Table 4: Magnitude of Middle-Class Population for a Sample of Emerging Markets, 2007 SOURCES: International Monetary Fund at www.imf.org, World Bank at www.worldbank.org, and globalEDGE™ at globaledge.msu.edu

The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential 025


004 Design Proposal


Pilot Study People’s Understanding of Digital Products in India Products Used in a Daily Household Purchase of Products in India


People’s Understanding of Digital Products in India In India it can be noticed that not majority of the people happen to be very tech savvy. People here are very grounded and satisfied with things they have. They do not spend much when it comes to technology, especially products that fall into the luxury segment like iPods, tablets etc. Digital gadgets here are more popular with the younger generation than the older generation. Majority of the digital products in Indian society are associated with luxury rather than a necessity. Thus owning a very expensive product symbolizes as high status in the society. Amongst all, mobile phones happen to be associated as the most essential of all products in modern India which is followed by the television set.

028 People’s Understanding of Digital Products in India


Products Used in a Daily Household As seen earlier that the middle class makes up the majority of population in any emerging market. Thus in India also the major population is the Middle Class family with an average income of Rs.6,50,000 per annum per family. [13] Thus the study done here also is considering the average use of digital products and other essential house hold products in the Indian Middle class homes. It can be noted that in the Indian house hold products can be distinguished into three different categories. The essentials and must haves for the whole family; the exorbitant in the house, and the accessorial for an individual in

The essentials and must haves for the whole family The products that line up in this category are, • Mobile phone: It happens to be the most preferred product in modern India. In a middle class family it is essential for each member to have one, even it is the most basic and cheapest model. It is affordable here due to the low call rates. In some families it can be seen that only the head of the family has one. • Television set: It happens to be the biggest and in some cases the only source of

entertainment for the whole family. • Landline Phone: This is an item that still exists in a house although in modern India with the increase of mobile phone, this can be seen to deplete. • Desktop Computer: Its not a very big essential item, but in modern India it can be noticed that every household has at least one. • Refrigerator: This is as important as the mobile phone or television set. From small to medium size refrigerators can be seen in every household. • Music System: A radio and a cassette player is the minimum that is always available.

Products Used in a Daily Household 029


The exorbitant in the house The products that fall under this category in the house happen to be essential only in certain circumstances. These products are bought only on need basis. Some of these products happen to be seen quiet often in Indian houses but not necessarily in all house. They are, • Washing Machines

The accessorial for an individual in the house These products are purely considered to be luxury and are only used by one or two persons in the whole family. These happen to be a major source of entertainment for the individual rather than being an essential gadget. Thus it can be noticed that they are very rarely bought in India. These products happen to be,

• Microwave oven

• iPods

• Cameras

• Mp3 players

• Air Conditioners

• Walkman

• Printers/Scanners

• Tablets

• Internet connection

• Laptops

• DVD/VCD player • DTH box

030 Products Used in a Daily Household


Purchase of Products in India As seen earlier Indians are very grounded and satisfied when it comes to what products to buy. Thus purchasing a product wholly depends on the necessity. People in India are very conscious when it comes to buying something that happens to be expensive. A lot of research goes in before any decision is made. Research using the internet to make decisions is increasing in modern India. Although major sales happen in the retail shop, but product comparison and brand comparison are increasing over the internet. Saving money is a big part when it comes to buying a product. Most people like to have a deal when buying a product. Thus buying during festival season increases due to the package deals and discounts.

People here not very brand conscious. Getting the right product features for the required necessity is the most important thing. Even if people are ready to buy products of a good reputed brand, brand loyalty is seen very little. Pay a huge price at one time for that product is acceptable but when it comes to maintaining and buying accessories for that product, then people here are ready to go cheaper. Thus non branded products (made in China) are very popular here. Therefore paying a huge bulk of money at one time is acceptable but not for a periodical time. Also in India, brand recommendation is something that is popular. People tend to buy the same product and brand of someone whom they know and has had good satisfaction. But sometimes people get highly influenced on what a sales person in a retail shop tells them to buy.

Purchase of Products in India 031


27%

No Computers 1%

Computer Owners Printer Owners

73%

Chart 3: Survey by International Data Foundation about Computer and Printer owners in India

In view of HP, the number of people who have computers and printers is a key factor in India. A study conducted by International data foundation has seen that out of the whole population of India, only 27% of homes have computers. Out of those 27% only 30% have printers, which mostly happen to be basic printers with the basic function of print and scan.

032 Purchase of Products in India


Purchase of Products in India 033


012 Understanding Emerging Markets


Pilot Study Understanding HP products for India


036 Understanding HP Products for India


Understanding HP Products for India Hewlett Packard or better known as HP is a technology company with a wide range of products. HP has successful lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small business use. Indian people recognize HP as a good brand for the name, reputation, quality and variety of products. The most common products being the printer, workstations and laptops. In fact since HP was one of the first companies to launch their consumer line of products in the country, it continues to be a reputed name due to its such long term presence. The most popular product of HP is its printers. In India it is a very popular choice for printers along with desktop computers in the consumer level market. The reason being that HP has focused on the middle class economy group in India and have launched many varieties of the deskjet printers which have only the basic function of printing. Thus when it comes to selling this product became popular with the middle class and the rich middle class.

At present all in one (AiO) printers which have two more additional features to its ancestral models, i.e. Scanning and Copying are becoming popular. This is due to the rising economy and earning capability of the people here. HP has a wide range of printers. They range from printers for home, small business and large organizations. The two main categories of printers are Inkjet Printers and Laser Printers which differ in technology and potential use. The recent most development in the company is the web connected printers. These printers not only do the basic functions of a printer which is printing, scanning and copying, but also have the feature of connecting to the internet. Besides printers, HP has a varied number of products that are slowly becoming popular. Like the all in one desktops and workstations, Plam mobile phones, WebOS tablet and services in the cloud. [15]

Understanding HP Products for India 037


036 Understanding Emerging HP Products for India 012 Markets


Exploratory Research User Study Research Methodology, Objective & User Demographics Findings Computers Printers -

Usage Patterns People who own Printers Triggers for buying Fequency of Use Printing Patterns Emotions of Owning Disadvantages & Problems

People who do not own Printers Reasons for not buying Frequency of Printing ePrint Background Reaction to ePrinting Scanners Usage Patterns Disadvantages & Problems Mobile Phones - Usage Patterns About HP

Summary

Understanding HP Products for India 037


User Study Research Methodology Research methodology that was being used is the exploratory ethnography. Here people were interviewed in detail about their printing and scanning habits.

Objective The basic objective of these questions were to get out few points.

• How often did they scan? What did they mainly scan?

• Does the person own a computer? What is the basic use of the computer?

• Do they own a mobile phone? What type of mobile phone do they own? What are the core functions that they use in the mobile phone?

• If they do not own a computer (or use) then what is the reason for them not to own one and is there a future requirement for them to own one? • If the person owns a printer, what was the trigger to buy a printer? How often do they print from the printer? What settings do they generally use to print? What is the quantity of printing? What are the emotions of owning a printer? What are the disadvantages & problems of owning a printer? • If they do not own one, what was the reason? Where do they generally print? What is the frequency of printing? What is the quantity of printing? • Their understanding about eprint.

040 User Study: Research Methodology & Objective

• Also to find out what is their general view about HP and HP products.


User Demographics A total of 31 users were interviewed for this. The people interviewed were chosen from middle class families, the reason being that HP’s main market segment happens to be this segment. All the interviewee were then categorized into five groups that were seen in an Indian middle class home. They were School Students, College Students, Professionals, Senior Citizens and Housewives.

13%

19%

School Students 16%

College Students Professionals

16%

Senior Citizens Housewives 36%

Chart 4: User Demographics of interviewed subjects

User Study: User Demographics 041


Findings Computers - Usage Patterns Here the analysis was made with people using personal computers and not computers or laptops provided by a company. Out of all interviewed 97% of them own a computers or laptops. If not they use a common one that is used in the family. School Students 50%

College Students

five out of eleven of them owned their own personal laptop. The rest used a computer or laptop which is common in the house. Amongst elderly people four out of five used computers and all of them owned their own. Amongst housewives everyone used computers but only one owned her own laptop while the others used common 50% ones for the homes. The next thing was to see what are the activities that they perform with the computer. Here all subjects had internet con55% nection, thus the major use of the computer was to use the internet. Chart 80% 20% 5 shows the percentage of tasks done using a computer with most 80% of them happen to be via using the internet. Using the computer as a medium for entertainment like movies and music was the highest, while checking email was the next. Social networking was high amongst every group except for senior citizens. Apart from housewives and senior citizens, the computer using for work was also a very common task. All the tasks in the upper part of the chart till text chatting was very popular with school students, college students, professionals and 100%

Professionals 45%

Senior Citixens

Housewives 20%

Use individual Laptops/Computer Use shared Laptops/Computer in a house Chart 5: Percentage of individuals owning their personal (single person using) Computer/Laptop

Chart 5 shows the percentage of how many people had their own laptop or computer which was only used by them. Amongst school students two of them had laptops of their own. All college students owned their personal laptops. Amongst professionals, only

044 User Study: Finding - Computers


housewives. Those could be seen very little amongst senior citizens. On the other hand voice/video chat was the most prominent amongst senior citizens. Looking at financial data and business related data was only popular amongst professionals. Amongst all the subject there was only one subject, Mrs. V Nalanda, who said she didn’t use a computer. The reasons that she said is that she doesn’t know how to use one. She had tried learning but always needed guidance. Also the need of it doesn’t strike so much to use. For entertainment the

Entertainment Email Social Networking Work Related Educational Information General Information Text Chatting Online News Online Ticket Booking Online Banking Voice / Video Chatting Financial Information Business Information Blogging Others

0

20

40

60

80

100%

Chart 6: Percentage of tasks done on a Computer/Laptop

television was satisfactory and to keep contact the telephone was sufficient. Also according to her things like booking of tickets she had her husband do it or rather she prefers the traditional way. So is the case for banking and getting news. Although she explained that if she had a laptop dedicated to herself, it may urge her to use it and learn, but that too didn’t seem very urgent and she wasn’t very eager for it.

User Study: Finding - Computers 045


Printers - People who own one Number that owned a printer Yes - 19%

No - 81%

assignments. • Frequency of their printing increased.

17%

School Students 50%

College Students Professionals

33%

• It was becoming a hassle to travel to

Chart 7: Percentage Printer Owners

Only six out of thirty one people had printers. Most of them being School Students. College students bought printers but it depends on the course that they were studying. Students of design and arts academy bought, the reason being that their course required them to submit work in paper form more than digital form. And only one professional had a printer.

• Urgency is one major factor for buying a printer. Most of the college students claimed that they saw an urgent need in prints and thus had bought one.

print shops. • Prints required during unearthly time of the day. • To see result of work immediately.

Printers - Frequency of use Printers - Triggers for Buying The main trigger for buying could be seen that it was Education. The triggers that made these people buy printers are • Schools and Colleges require submissions in paper. • High volumes of printing is done by these people, for the sole reason of 046 User Study: Findings - Printers

When it came to school students, the frequency was quite high. They printed around 20-30 A4 papers in a month. Design college students were also around 5-10 A4 papers. The quantity although was never so many together. A maximum of 4-5 papers at once.


Printers - Patterns in Printing As seen earlier people in India see the value of money and thus are very conscious. This can be seen in printing too. Although students may need to print for a work submission, it still has a lot of cost cutting. All school students printed pictures. The pictures were arranged in softwares like Microsoft Word or Paint brush to fit as many pictures in one A4 size page

Some of the school students could be seen even optimizing paper. Whenever prints were required for reference or pictures are printed which will be later on cut to different sizes, prints were taken on used paper which had one side printed and the other side blank. Design college students had different needs and thus followed a different pattern. Most of their printing was not done at home but they preferred going to print shops. Thus the prints that they took at home were mainly for reference purposes.

Also another very common pattern seen is that if the print is taken for a rough purpose or for reference, which is common with the college students, then all print is taken in grayscale to save ink too.

User Study: Findings - Printers 047


Printers - Emotions of owning a printer “Saves time and energy of travelling to a print shop.” “Less risks, like personal data not exposed to anyone else.” Parents believe it’s good for kids and their education. “What’s best for them!” “Easy proximity to printing.” “Can print anytime anywhere.” “Don’t have to feel guilty about making a mistake, can print another extra page.” “It’s better to own one than ask a friend or relative as a favour.” “I can see immediate results to my work.” For school students, “It stands out in class, I can be one of the best with such amazing pictures from the internet.” For college students, “Having something physical really makes an impact.” “It’s easy to read from a paper than from a screen.” “Can read comfortably whenever and wherever.” “Once notes are printed, I don’t have to dependent on electricity for studying.” “Easy to make notes on printed paper.”

048 User Study: Findings - Printers


Printers - Disadvantages & Problems • Maintaining is too expensive, since the cartridges cost a lot. • Due to dust printheads have been damaged. • Paper jams are very frequent. • Sometimes error occurs and cannot be understood what it means. • One particular case said that she needed a black and white print, while her yellow was low, the printer did not print at all. • Printer cannot be connected wireless to laptop.

User Study: Findings - Printers 049


Printers - People who do not own one Its not these people never take prints, but prefer not to buy a printer. There were many reason to why they didn’t want to buy printers. Chart 8 shows the rank in reasons why these subjects didn’t buy printers. The top most priority happen to be that an urgent requirement never came up. Thus they didn’t buy. Also the people who didn’t earn printers, especially were professionals. Triggers also like their work doesn’t need them to take many prints unlike students. Also that most work places provide common printers for basic (black & white) printing. Thus with such easy access and no requirement they do not buy. The next was a big reason that

01

No requirement for prints

02

Ink cartridges are expensive

03

Uncertainty of requirements while buying computer/laptops

04

Easy access to print shops

05

Can do basic printing at work

06

Prefer digital copy over physical

07

Too many papers, too much clutter

08

Maintaining is a problem

09

Space is a problem

10

No good offers on printers

11

Limited budgets

12

No demos in shops

Reasons why subjects do not own printers Rank Chart 8: Ranking of reasons why subjects did not buy a printer

is the ink cartridges happen to be way too expensive than buying the printer initially. This is something every subject complained about irrespective of they owning a printer or not. Also another big thing that can be seen in India are small shops that offer print services. This is a very strong system that has been working in India for years now. These shops are basically internet cafes, DPD shops, photocopy shops, etc, which have the regular inkjet printers made for consumer markets. Thus people tend to go to these shops for printing whenever it is required. Also it can be seen that these shops are very popular in residential areas and thus they happen to be situated in a walking distance of five to ten minutes, thus making it easier for less frequent people who print. In the newer generations and with the digital age, it can be seen that people prefer keeping things as a digital copy than physical copy. One

050 User Study: Findings - Printers

of the main reasons for this was that digital copy can be accessed through many places. Also with the number of pages printed, the clutter in a house increases, which everyone of these subjects wanted to avoid.


Printers - Frequency of Printing Its not that these people do not at all print, they do print and have a good frequency, but not as much as the students. Thus making them print around 3-4 pages a month. There are even certain particular items that they print quite frequently. They happen to be, • Tickets • Official Letters • Application forms • Meeting hand outs • Maps • Work related reading materials • Sudoku and puzzles

User Study: Findings - Printers 051


ePrinting - Background ePrint is a service from HP that allows you to print direct to select HP printers by sending an email to your printer's email address. ePrint is easy to use. If you can use email, you can use ePrint. ePrint lets you print from any smart phone or computer without installing any special drivers or software. You can use ePrint sitting on the couch in front of your printer or from a coffee shop on the other side of the country. As long as you can send an email to your ePrint enabled printer, you can print.

036 Understanding HP Products for India

Benefits of ePrinting are, • Express printing • Anytime and anywhere • Printing from portable devices • Printing at a convenient time, without continuous monitoring


Reaction to ePrinting Most members think of “ePrinting” as the ability to remotely print from multiple devices and/or locations to actual printers via a wireless connection. However, quite a few equate the term with paperless “printing” to an electronic file.

If someone else who has access to my printer mail id, and I don’t want them to print, how can I control my printer remotely. Also the hassle of continuously being on the look out of who is randomly sending print commands to my printer.

The term ePrinting is not understood by most people, questions like • What is it? • How can I print without a computer? • How much will it cost? • Why will I want to give a print command at a printer faraway? • When will I get my printed paper?

How long will it take to print a job, need to get a feedback in terms of time like, • document sent to printer • document received by printer • printer initializing for printing • printer is printing • printer has finished printing • successfully or non-successfully print job has been executed • if non-successful then feedback of problem like no paper, paper-jam, low ink, etc. • if successfully printed then how to know the result of printed document like, color, text, etc.

A few suggest that the term “ePrint” is vague, offering alternatives such as “vPrinting” (virtual), “wireless printing,” or “remote printing.” Many didn’t understand well the advantage of such a technology. They have the feeling that its better to see the print immediately after printing.

Some believe there is no difference between ePrint and Fax, thus the way Fax has died similarly ePrint will.

People feel that it will cost more just for such a technology also there is the additional cost of the ink cartridges. Concerns came about will HP charge for this email service to the printer. Feedback if the printer is ON or OFF Feedback if the job is done or failed Concern of someone should be there to collect the printed paper

User Study: Findings - ePrint 053


Scanning This particular feature or device was a big hit amongst all subjects with good views pouring in. Scanning is one task that every of these people did and used very frequently. There were no specific particular items that everyone scanned but it varied in terms of context. There were people scanning legal and official documents, while some scanned items like notes and books for work. Also there were people scanning photographs for either memory or passport photos for back up, while others were scanning news paper and magazine articles for hobbies and interest. The reason why scan was a favorite feature is as earlier mentioned, people preferred taking a digital back up. The main reasons for this is, • With a digital back up, there is less clutter in the physical world. • Data can be easily searched with just keying in the right keywords and found instantly rather than searching for the real thing in the actual world. Thus no need to categories data. • Data if kept in a server or internet (email) it can accessed from anywhere easily. • Since scan is colored, with just a print command the whole thing can be made physical easily. • Data can be easily carried with oneself and also be transferred.

054 User Study: Findings - Scanning

Scanning - Patterns in Scanning Most people though didn’t own a scanner (or AiO) didn’t again feel the need to buy one due to similar reason for not buying a printer. Easy access being the number one. Although a big complain was that print shops charged a high fee for scan for about Rs.10/- for an A4 sheet with dpi of 300 and the rates went higher with dpi. Thus people scan from offices and other places. In fact unlike printing people didn’t find it a problem asking friends and family as a favour since it doesn’t cost as much. When people scan, they say that first see a preview of the image and then hit scan. The only features that they change in scan is dpi (very few did this), the folder in which they want the file to be stored and the format of the image file.

Scanning - Disadvantages & Problems Apart from the enormous amount of praise, there were certain disadvantages that certain subjects pointed out. Professionals who scanned documents in the office said that they didn’t scan legal documents like passport, passbook, etc. This is because, after scanning these scans were to be kept in a common server which was accessible to everyone, which they liked to avoid. Scanning takes a lot time and it’s a very slow process. It increases with dpi. Previewing and scanning being two different tasks took a lot of time. Instead people preferred that the preview if alright should be saved as the image. Scanning documents larger than A4 was not possible in home and shop scanners.


Mobile Phones Mobile phones are something that everyone in this generation has. It happens to be the number one digital product owned in the country. Also with such high technology, people here. Types of cell phones Smart Phones - 41%

Traditional with GPRS - 59%

Chart 9: Percentage of Smart Phone owners vs Traditional Phone owners

It was seen that except school students giving them the ability to do more. Android everyone had a mobile phone. There were two happen to be the most common out of these. distinctive types of mobile phones, one was a simple phone with color screen, camera and GPRS enable. The other was smart phones with touch screens. Chart 10 shows the various tasks these Phone call people perform on a SMS mobile phone. Some of Alarm Clock these people had phones Watch that had were able to connect to printers via the Reminders Bluetooth, but none of Save Notes them used it or knew how Camera to use. Taking a print from Play Games mobile phone seemed Music / Radio / Videos very vague to many of Torch them and they questioned as to what type of things Use internet for email will they print. Also Use internet for social netwroking most though had that Other Internet uses feature in their phone, GPS didn’t particularly have Specific Applications the Bluetooth feature in their mobile phone. Use as pendrive Many of them having Back up their phone data on computer the simpler phone intend to buying 0 20 40 60 80 100% touch screen smart phones very soon thus Chart 10: Percentages of tasks performed on a mobile phone User Study: Findings - Mobile Phones 055


About HP All participants did know about HP and their view was HP is the company that makes PCs, Laptops and Printers. HP happens to be more famous for printers amongst these people. The ones that had printers had bought HP. Although the response to HP products was not very favorable due to high costs and maintenance.

056 User Study: Findings - About HP


Summary It was seen that every house does have at least one computer and most people do use it, with the highest use being for entertainment, social networking, email and doing work. People who have printers are students. They have bought it due to high volume of prints, high frequency of print and urgency. Most people who bought printers optimized their usage with economy style of printing and printing with many images on one page. The biggest disadvantage or problem that people showed with printers is that the cost of the cartridge was very high, thus their consumption also was very much calculated. The majority interviewees did not own printers.The main reason for not owning printer was that the requirement was very little. Other places for print were print shops and people printed at work. The maximum things that people printed were tickets. ePrinting was very little understood by people. The term seemed very abrupt. More than looking at it as an advantage people had concerns with it. The main concern with ePrinting was feedback from the printer. Scanning was more preferred than printing, especially with people who did not own printers. The need to keep a digital copy of many important physical papers seemed very essential for many, thus they used scanner and used it quiet often. People scanned anywhere they could get a scanner for free. They did not prefer going to a print shop for scan since it was very expensive. A little less than 50% of the interviewees had smart phones and the others had potential to buy them. Other than the basic functions of a phone people used it to access the internet for social networking and emails. Although not many used other applications on their smart phone, they did want to give it a try. Opinions about HP were mixed with good impressions and bad.

User Study: Findings - Summary 057


056 User Study: Findings - About HP


Exploratory Research SMB Printing Patterns in India Types of Printing Printing Requirements Usage Patterns Summary

User Study: Findings - Summary 057


SMB Printing Patterns in India SMBs (Small Medium Businesses) or SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises), in India, plays a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country. It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 39% of the manufacturing output and around 33% of the total export of the country. Further, in recent years the SME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. As per available statistics, this sector employs an estimated 31 million persons spread over 12.8 million enterprises and the labor intensity in the MSE sector is estimated to be almost 4 times higher than the large enterprises. [16] & [17]

The research done here was a survey done by InfoTrends. This was a survey of a combination of companies with small to a little of medium size businesses. The companies surveyed were mainly service based companies. The services varied from small IT solutions to marketing solutions. The company sizes that were targeted had an average of 80 employees. A total number of 90 companies were surveyed for this. [18] Chart 11 shows the percentage of comapny size.

SMBs happen to be a very big and potential market audience for 2.2% printing in an emerging market 7.8% 14.4% e c o n o m y. Since it has been estab14.4% 18.9% lished that in India the digital technology is not yet well 14.4% established 15.6% and well embraced, thus a good 21.1% amount of printing still does Chart 11: Percentage of employees in the surveyed SMBs (company size & total number = 90) happen. 060 SMB Printing Patterns in India

1 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 49 50 to 99 100 to 249 240 to 499 500 or more


Types of Printing Commercial Offset Printing Digital Printing Photocoping Wideformat Others

0

20

40

60

80

100%

Chart 12: Percentage of different types of printing used by SMBs

The main type of printing that the major market goes for is the commercial printing or the offset printing. Almost 73.2% of these SMBs went for the conventional type of offset printing since when printing in bulk they worked out to be cheaper with the printing press giving them more discounts and offers with higher the number. Digital printing is very rare, but there is still some people that do go for that kind. About 10.9% did use digital printing. This was mainly for a smaller number of bulk and was done when time was an issue with delivery of the article needed to be made fast. Photocopy is something that is very common amongst small business. It works out cheaper for these businesses to just get one paper printed and then photocopy them according to the requirements. Some of the disadvantages with photocopies did persist is that the original print needed to be black and white and the paper sizes would normally be fixed to A4 and A3. Thus about 8.1% of these businesses used photocopies.

Wide format printing was very rare and were mainly used for the advertising. Since small and medium businesses have a money constraint proposition and generally flow with word of mouth, advertising business was never a medium of print. Thus there is only 1.1% that used wide format printing. Around 6.7% went for other types of printing like Prepress, Color Trade, Display Graphics, etc. Chart 12 shows the same.

Printing Requirments There are different types of requirements that a business faces. It also depends on what the business is. Since the business researched in this context are service and marketing. The order of requirements that were seen are, Marketing Collaterals – These consisted of business cards, brochures, etc. Most of these were given to offset printers, since these happened SMB Printing Patterns in India: Types of Printing & Printing Requirements 061


in huge bulks that were required through out the year, but done only once.

6% 7%

Marketing Collaterals 39%

Transactional Materials

Tr a n s a c t i o n a l Publishing & Packaging Materials Materials – 30% These consisted Direct Mails of bills, invoices, trans promos, stateOthers ments, etc. These 18% since happen to be of high demand and change frequently. Thus Chart 13: Percentage of the different types of printing requirements in a SMB these materials are printed using digital printing. Some of these materials like invoices and bills which have a very legal issue related and may be very few and printed from the office printers or a near The usage patterns of printing in the SMB sector by printing shop. While the others are given to can be seen with the two major type of printing, a printing outlet where instant digital printing is The Offset printing and The digital printing. done. The offset printing – As seen earlier that this is Publishing Material – These consist of brochures, the most prefered printing in this sector. The manuals, etc. Since these also require in bulk, its reason being that SMBs have a lot of printing always given to a printing press and is done in material, that need to be printed in bulk. Thus offset printing. in offset printing the cost of printing reduces for a bulk order. Thus marketing collaterals and Packaging Materials – These are similar to publishing and packaging materials are given publishing materials, but only in some medium for offset printing. Also the materials that are may change to plastic ad others. Thus offset given can be seen that are the core area of printing is used here to. business for these businesses. Thus the printing quality needs to be perfect. So such materials Direct Mails – These are purely used for business are given as contract jobs around once a year references and legal issues. Thus these items are to printing houses, where the job is done with all printed with digital printing done in the office graphic softwares, etc. with the office printer or a near by printing café or shop. The Digital Printing – This can be divided into two categories,

Usage Patterns

Digital printing in shops – This type of printing is also prefered but in small quantities. This 062 SMB Printing Patterns in India: Printing Requirements & Usage Patterns


printing may be required once in a month basis. This type of printing is used for transactional materials where there is a good amount of quantity like 100 copies. Digital printing with officejet printers in the Office – This type of printing is something that is used on a regular basis for printing few sheets of paper in particular sizes specifically like A4. Materials like direct mails, proposals, etc are printed in this medium. Also mostly black and white prints is the main type of printing done.

Summary SMBs/SMEs are potential market audience for printing in emerging markets. Company sizes are average of 80 employees. Offset printing is the most preferred with around 73%. Only 10.9% use digital printing. Marketing collaterals, packaging and publishing materials are most of the print requirements, which at present is done by using offset. Transactional prints are used doing digital printers. A few number around 11.1% considered investing in digital printers, however 58.9% would like to learn about digital printing and its advantages. SMB Printing Patterns in India: Usage Patterns & Summary 063


062 SMB Printing Patterns in India: Printing Requirements & Usage Patterns


Exploratory Research Paper Usage Pattern in The Home Environment Actors and Their Individual Paper Usage Patterns School Student College Student Professionals Senior Citizens Housewives

Summary

SMB Printing Patterns in India: Usage Patterns & SUMMARY 063


Paper Pattern Usage in The Home Enviornment Paper happens to be a very old source of importance. The oldest record of paper is in the 2nd century BC. Ever since paper has developed to many forms as we know it today. Today paper is one big or some call it the biggest source of conveying information. In fact in the real world with so much digital technology paper still holds the highest value of proof. Thus it can be seen with still so much digital technology around paper still continues to grow in volume in a house. On an average it can be seen that nearly 30% of a house storage has paper. It is all kinds, shapes and sizes. Paper that is used in the house have different use, different meaning and different value. Paper in homes range from cleaning paper like tissue, to information paper like newspaper and magazines, to transactional papers like cheques to papers with proof like legal document. Thus paper is filled in a house hold and can be found anywhere in the house. Since paper has a big role in printing, a study was conducted with what are the different paper types in a home environment. Here not all kinds of paper was seen but paper which conveyed some kind of information. The objective of this study was to see the amount of paper that was self generated by individuals in a home along with paper that already entered the home printed, with hand written papers and partially printed and hand written papers. Also paper has shelf life with its purpose of meaning. For example and empty receipt has 066 Paper Pattern Usage in The Home Environment

no value but when it is used in transaction for purchase that small piece of paper becomes essentially important depending on what was purchased. If that paper was to purchase a small amount of items like grocery or to pay the monthly house maintenance, then it has a value of either a day to a month respectively. But if it represents the purchase of gold, then it has a value for eternity. Thus with this view in the study all the papers were also categorized with its shelf life. The category was of three types with Short Term Value which ranges from a day to a week to couple of weeks. Then is the Medium Term Value which happens to be some months and then is the Long Term Value which is for years to eternity. Thus Chart 14 shows the break up of paper in a home environment with respect to its type of printed or hand written and its value. It can be seen from the this chart that not much of the papers that happen to be in a home are self generated print. In fact a lot of the paper is already printed and is entering the home. To an earlier hypothesis of HP will people want their ePrint enabled printers to get their bills printed to them on their printers, the answer is, “No.� The reason for this is that these pieces of paper already happen to be entering the home printed, thus no body is paying anything for it. If these papers were to come home, then the home individual has to pay for the paper as well as the ink, so even if the cost per page is Rs.0.50, the individual will not be ready to pay since at present he/she not paying anything.


Te

Sh or t

Short Term Valu e

Forms

Hand Written 16%

& Prints Coming into the 64%

alue rm V Long Te

ID Card

Voter's ID Pan Card

Bill s&

Re ce

De

ath

er of At to C rn Bir ipts e e r th t i f of i Ce ca y Exp te rtif en i Fina c ncia Wa sive I ate tem l Po rra nty rtfo s lio Ca Do cum rd Ban e n k St atem ts ent Pass boo Dom k icile C ertific ate Passpo rt Driving Li cense

Self Generated Prints 7%

s er ap sp w ipts Ne s ses ery ece pas Ga ation cy R ing a d r s St t a arm eceip / Bo Ph R kets l Tic ATM e v Tra azine gs Mag Listin ks day e Boo Holi olleg ol / C Scho s l record Medica ty ci tri Elec Water Mobile Landline Internet House House Mai

ntenance Teleph one D irectori Calen es dars Jour nals Visit ing Car Ma ds nua l gu Dic ide tion s Atl ary a Sto s r y Co Bo Re ffee oks lig Ta bl iou s B e Bo ok oo s ks

s dia pe es t clo uid n cy e En vel G eem nts r me Tra t ag cu n do Re d use an Ho ty/l nse per ents Pro le Lice um ic doc Veh tion istra Reg k Boo te RC rtifica ee ce Degr rtificate de ce Bonafi eets Mark sh Offer letter Invoice/salary slip

Po w

Va lu e

Bills

g Lon

t emen Agre Rent Slips y r la Sa ) nals ssio ds rofe r p a c & ts ege ting g hs i ll s i o V C rap eetin tmen da cts ( tog m oin gen Proje Pho f the p a p o s/A ng tes ter eeti nu Let M Mi te ica rtif e C ge ria ar M

Sho rt T erm

az

ag

/M

ium Term Value Med

Di rec Cho re tio s/ dic ns T ati to lue on a P o-d Va Rat Sc lac o he ion rm e Pro du ject Ca le s (S r ch d Fee ool) App lica Visa Scho tion A ol / c olleg pplicatio e ap plica n Mutua tion l Fund Forms Income Tax Form Examination Form Partially Printed Pension forms Hand Written Railway forms 13% Bank forms Cheques ents Appointm e Letters / Invoic

Me

ine

ls

na

ur

o /J

Bo ok s

m diu Me

Flyers/Advertisements Brochures Movie Ti ckets News papers Price L Printe abels d Pa ckag Cou ing Par pons / kin Gif t gT Bu V ouc i hers De s/Loc ckets Ba part al Ti Do nk T men ckets t G ctor oken al St ore ro ce ’s Pr s stic ry es ker cri s pti on

Value

ls Bil

Notes (School) Letters rs y Reminde y / Birthda Anniversar bers ne Num Telepho k ss Boo Addre riting s ting iary W y Lis nal D a ents olid Perso H m sign iary /As l D re ts ork en ew hoo itu c S Hom end intm ngs Exp ppo eeti t Its t A s ily Da ly M Po g Lis ek pin We op Sh Term Long

Legal Docum ents

Chart 14: Break Up of Paper in the Home Environment

Although self generated printed paper here may seem very little, but it is little in variety and not quantity. The amount self generated depends on the work of an individual basis as

shown earlier. (School and college students print the maximum in a house.)

Paper Pattern Usage in The Home Environment 067


Actors and Their Individual Paper Usage Pattern School Students

College Students

Their usage of paper is highly concentrated to a few in variety, but that doesn’t mean it little, the quantity is huge. In fact their consumption of paper is countable the highest in a house. The reason for this being that school work is a lot based on paper still today. Though education and digital world happen to get along quickly, but schools recommend the traditional style of work and to be on paper. The work referred to here is especially school projects, assignments and school notes.

College students are very similar to school students. Although they have a little more diversified usage of paper and most of them are concentrated to project, assignments and notes. Along with this they even generate huge amounts of print. But the amount solely depends on the stream which the student is studying. Like students of design and arts happen to have huge amounts of self generated prints, while others do not to that amounts.

Due to such requirements of paper in their daily curriculum it can be seen that this segment buys a substantial amount of printer and thus are a very big trigger for printer sales. Thus with comparison to the paper usage pattern as seen earlier they happen to be a big contribution to self generated prints. Children are mostly tech savvy and can normally operate any digital device, especially a computer and printer. Thus they do not need much of a help in operating devices.

Students of other streams typically have projects in only one semester of the whole course. The general pattern is that they do all work on their computer and have a soft copy. Usually there is one print shop near the college that does all the printing. They give the soft copy to that print shop and the shop prints it in the pattern that the college wants and does the whole finishing of the project with binding and covering etc. Thus these students are not a big trigger of purchasing printers like the students of design and art, who have to take prints on a regular basis and many of them for reference purposes. But something common that we see in all college students is that although prints may not be very popular, photocopies of notes and books are very heavy and intense. Typically on an average they take photocopies 20 to 40 page a month.

068 Actors and Their Individual Paper Pattern Usage


College students are highly tech savvy and use gadgets like mobile phones, computers and tablets. Thus these subjects can be seen don’t need paper in places like reminders, phone numbers, etc. Only paper is used for work.

Senior Citizens Senior citizens have a diversified usage of paper. Most of them happen to be from the hand written category and the prints coming in category. Although they have a diversified range of paper usage, their quantity of self generated prints is very small and limited. Thus they do not make good triggers for buying printers.

Professionals

Their usage of technology is also very limited. To the maximum some of them use computers and mobile phones only.

They on the other hand have a highly diversified usage of paper with for different things. They have hand written papers for small reminders to applications and also handle papers that happen to print in. But if they are working in IT companies then the amount of self generated prints are very little due to digital environment. Also since the amounts are so low they prefer taking prints from their offices or from print shops and internet cafes. They are not big triggers for buying printers due to the reason mentioned above. Also if they need any bulk printing done they prefer doing this in printing shops since it works out cheaper and also this kind of occasion comes very rarely.

Housewives There is a lot of similarity between senior citizens and housewives when it comes to paper usage. They also have a diversified usage of paper with most categories of hand written and print ins. Also they have very little quantities of self generated prints. But they happen to be quite tech savvy and can use many applications on smart phones and use computers for varied purposes

Actors and Their Individual Paper Pattern Usage 069


Summary Paper is a source of information. Paper has value. Papers used in transaction is the highest amount of proof. In a house around 30% of paper can be found in storage. Not many self generated prints. Maximum number of prints are come in the house are printed and people pay no money for it. Thus those cannot be used in a design to print at home. Amongst actors, school students are the biggest trigger for self generated prints. Professionals do not print due to digital environment. Paper has a value of storage data. From Chart 14 it can be seen that legal documents are a big category to save information and their value is extremely high.

070 Paper Usage Pattern - Summary


071


072 Understanding Emerging Markets


Exploratory Research Printing Patterns and Paper Usages in Different Task Based Segments Legal Documents Education Medical Records

Understanding Emerging Markets 073


Printing Patterns and Paper Usage in Different Task Based Segments In the previous segment it was established that paper is a source of information and by either writing or printing this information is brought onto paper. Thus when it is seen data is stored. Data is stored on paper so that it can be communicated later or shared to others. As a matter of fact data over paper is written or printed in order to convey information from one person to another. In the next step of the research instead of just seeing paper and printing habits randomly in the home environment it was taken into action to see the different tasks or categories where there is huge amounts of data that is being stored. Thus implying that with every task there is data stored for which a whole of paper is used. It was earlier established that the people interviewed did like saving their data and documents in digital form as well as physical form. Some of the reason for this is that due to physical paper there is more clutter. Also when searching for a certain information physical paper is hard to find, while if it is in the digital format just with inserting a specific keyword it can retrieved. Also to get access to that information one has to be in the same place as where the physical paper is kept. So if they have this digital data in a server then with server address they can access this information from

074 Printing Patterns and Paper Usage in Different Task Based Segments

anywhere and from any device. Also physical paper is sometimes difficult to carry while if its in digital format it is easily carry-able. Thus keeping these above points in mind certain categories were looked upon where there are huge amounts of paper used and data storage is happening. Here also we will be seeing that the data stored has value to be stored for some good period of time.


Legal Documents It has been seen previously that legal documents happen to be a huge part of paper that is present in a house hold. Along with these being a huge part, they happen to be papers that have a long term value. Since these papers are representation of huge amounts of money transactions, thus the value of these papers happen to be immense. Since the value being so great, people tend to have the originals of these papers kept safely. Photocopies of these papers are kept in immense numbers and are submitted as representations or proofs of ownership, money transactions, identification, etc. When interviewing people, it was seen that professionals had a habit of keeping a scanned copy of many of these documents. Two main reasons that they mentioned is, • Keeping a digital copy just as a back up, so that in case of loss, it can still be found. • Also, if in emergency a copy of any document is required for proof, just a print of it can

be taken, with no hassle of getting the original and then photocopying it. Thus making it an easy access. Q.) Where are these scans taken? • Since none of these professionals owned a scanner or AiO printer, they preferred getting these documents scanning in a print shop. They wouldn’t get these items scanned in their offices, the reason being that any document scanned in their offices has to be saved in a shared folder to be accessed. Thus due to security reason of someone else getting hold of these documents is a threat. So they go themselves to a print shop scan the documents and directly save in a portable pen drive. Q.) Where do they generally save these documents? • All of them answered that they have these papers kept in files in their house and most of them were kept in cupboards or drawers which were not opened very frequently. • As for the digital copies, they saved it on

Understanding Emerging Markets 075


folders mainly named as “Important” or “Personal” in their personal computers. Also they had a copy stored in their personal email ids as drafts with attachments for the easy access. Q.) Would they like to save these documents in a cloud based server? • The general answer for this was quite

negative. The reason being that cloud based services was not very popular by any of the people interviewed. They had not much knowledge about the security. Cloud based storage didn’t really give them the sense of personal; rather it was something that they conceived as others are also sharing the same server. It was similar to the shared server of their offices.

Home

Education & Employment

Vehicle

Identification

Financial

Transactional 076 Printing Patterns and Paper Usage in Different Task Based Segments - Legal Documents


Education Although education has not much of storage data when looked at from the home environment. If regarded as storage then it needs be seen from the perspective of the school. Since the original study of this project is regard to printing with regard to the home environment, thus the situation of the school record management is not looked upon. Since it was established earlier that school and college students happen to be the biggest trigger in the market for print this seems to be a very big task based study. So the study was done seeing who are the different people in the education industry and what are they printing. WHO: Here it can be seen that there are total three types of people who play the roles in getting things printed. First the school student. In this also there are

012 Understanding Emerging Markets

three participants, One being the kindergarten and primary school students. This age group is typically from 3 years to 9 years old that is till 4th standard. Next happens to be the middle school student which are between the age groups 10 years to 12 years that’s between 5th standard to 7th standard. Then happens to be the high school students, between the age group of 13 years to 17 years that being 8th standard to 12th standard. Second the college students. In this also there are the two categories, Engineering, science and other similar stream students. Design and arts college students.


Third the faculty. Here it’s the teachers for the above mentioned students respectively. WHAT: School Students: Kindergarten & Primary School Students – They do not print themselves. It’s more of things being printed for them by an elder such as the parents or teachers. Things printed for them are, Craft work related, Color paper, Stencils, Cartoon outlines, Learning purposes like alphabets, tables, animals, etc. Middle School Students – They take prints themselves and do not need much of assistance. Things they print are, Assignments, data copied from internet/encyclopedia to be hand-written Projects – again data copy like images and pictures for sticking, front page of project is always printed for the school project certificate and index has to be printed. This segment also takes a lot of photocopies of notes, books from the library, other students homework, previous years question papers, etc.

Resumes during the time of placements. Photocopies of notes of other students, teachers, other colleges and tuitions books (chapters, especially foreign author books), question papers, forms (examination, admission, leave). Design & Art College Students - Full project is printed. Prints are taken and bounded in professional printing shops like Printo, Control P, etc. Paper quality is different, like glossy 220 gsm, etc. These projects need high customization. Resumes during the time of placements. Photocopies of notes of teachers, books (chapters, especially foreign author books, pictures), forms (examination, admission, leave). Faculty:

College Students: Engineering, science and other similar stream students - Projects – Full project is printed and bound according to the college template; usually the college has a shop within to do this or an internet café/ photocopy shop outside the college offers this. Print outs of research paper for study and projects.

The kindergarten teachers mainly take prints for craft and art. Also for coloring, learning guides and test questions. Middle school teachers take prints and photocopies of learning material from books and internet articles. Although students of Engineering, Sciences and

Printing Patterns and Paper Usage in Different Task Based Segments - Education 079


Medical Record Medical record management is the storage a medical record, health record, or medical chart a patient thus it being a systematic documentation of a patient's medical history and care. It is one of the most booming and promising industries of data storing and data sharing with a numerous number of papers used. Thus this

area being an interesting part for study of data management and print management. Hence this is the area chosen to be studied further in detail in the further sections.

Printing Patterns and Paper Usage in Different Task Based Segments - Education 081


012 Understanding Emerging Markets


Medical Record Management

Acknowledgments

(v)


012 Understanding Emerging Markets


Medical Record Management Background Study of Different Medical Record Management System Electronic Medical Management System Paper Based Medical Management System Personal Health Record Management System

Acknowledgments

(v)


Background Medical record management is the storage a medical record, health record, or medical charts of a patient thus it being a systematic documentation of a patient's medical history and care. It contains sufficient data written in sequence of occurrence of events to justify the diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Protection of records from destruction is an important task as they provide us evidence of legal status, ownership, accounts received and the particulars of obligations required by the government agencies or private organizations. These records can be either electronic or in print forms and are critical because they contain information required to continue functioning during disasters or to re-establish operations after a calamity has ended. Paper based records are still by far the most common method of recording patient information for most hospitals. The majority of doctors still find their ease of data entry and low cost hard to part with. However, as easy as they are for the doctor to record medical data at the point of care, they require a significant amount of storage space compared to digital records. In many hospitals physical records are being held for years. The costs of storage media, such as paper and film, per unit of information differ dramatically from that of electronic storage media. When paper records are stored in different locations, collating them to a single location for review by a health care provider is time consuming and complicated, whereas the process can be simplified with electronic records. This is particularly true in the case of person-centered records, which are impractical to maintain if not electronic thus difficult to

086 Background

centralize. When paper-based records are required in multiple locations, copying, faxing, and transporting costs are significant compared to duplication and transfer of digital records. Because of these many "after entry" benefits, federal and state governments, insurance companies and other large medical institutions are heavily promoting the adoption of electronic medical records. The sheer volume of information generated by healthcare, both physical and electronic, is staggering. A 200 bed hospital could easily generate more than a mile of paper documents a year, a significant portion of which must be stored. It is estimated that patient administrative paperwork alone takes at least 30 minutes for every hour of patient care. This does not include the diagnostic data, and the increasing number and complexity of tests ordered by physicians and clinicians. [19] Therefore many companies and firms at present are working in on establishing the Medical record management system. Most of them being electronic. Also the government of India is working on making it a national health


record management system with medical records of a person with a unique identification number can be stored in a common data based system or the cloud with certain privacy rights so that it can be accessed from any place at the time of an emergency.

At Present With regard to this project a study was done and certain doctors were interviewed. It was noticed that every hospital did have an electronic medical record management system. Along with producing physical records, there was always an entry done in the electronic form. But this entry is not done by the doctor. In fact it is done by other hospital staff. Thus the doctors interviewed said that they had no idea about using this electronic system. It was mainly used for storing data, but no reference is made except at the billing counter.

Every hospital had their own electronic storing software which had not commonality. Thus there is no system of transferring data from one place to the other. Even within the hospital this facility is not well used. Since the doctors hadn’t been using this and no patient is given a permanent patient id, thus this system was being redundant. So when asked as to if the doctors needed to refer to any past medical history or data of the patient, what or how do they do it. The doctors replied that they solely relied on the patient to give this information. Many of the doctors said that they always ask the patients to come for another appointment bringing all the required medical records and charts.

Background 087


Study of Different Medical Record Management Systems Electronic Medical Management System Electronic Medical Records Management Systems or Electronic Records (ERs) are either born digitally or converted from paper records using a scanner. ERs may be a combination of text, graphics, data, audio, pictorial, or other information representation in digital form that is created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved, or distributed by a computer system. ERs are not just a collection of data but also the consequences of an event. Besides, records need to provide evidence of the content and structure of the document; the context of its creation is present and accessible. ERs can be created from organization’s financial, human resource and corporate databases. Word processors (e.g., WordPerfect, Microsoft Word), Spread Sheet (e.g., Excel), E-mail, Computer-

aided-Design (CAD) and Web publishing tools (e.g., Dreamweaver) are the sources for the creation of ERs. ERs are part of an organization’s memory that is invaluable to the current and future functioning of an organization or a corporate body. To consider ERs as formal records with intrinsic value, these must go through stringent information management policies. For the sake of reliability and authenticity, ERs must adequately capture and describe the actions these represent. The record should not only preserve the ‘content’ but also the ‘context’. Therefore, Stephens and Wallace have indicated that now most of the archival repositories are undergoing transition from paper to electronic format. Archival institutions worldwide have plans to protect the integrity and ways to retrieve archival value of the ERs. The work flow of an ER is as shown below.

Creation & Capture

Disposition

Preservation

Appraisal

Disposal 088 Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Electronic Medical Management System


Paper Based Medical Management Services

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a major flagship teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. It was formed out of the 1996 merger of Beth Israel Hospital (founded in 1916) and New England Deaconess Hospital (founded in 1896). Among independent teaching hospitals, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center consistently ranks in the top four recipients of biomedical research funding from the National Institutes of Health. Research funding totals

nearly $200 million annually. BIDMC researchers run more than 850 active sponsored projects. One such project that started out is the medical record management system. This hospital has a paid facility, where in the hospital maintains a patients records for a period of 20 years. On request for any record and for a sum the a service is provided to the patients to receive a

Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Paper Based Madical Management Service 089


copy of their medical records. For request of Medical Records (Paper): One must contact the health information management department. This departments manages all the records of patients that have been treated in this hospital. The rule is that the information will be stored for 20 years after the patient is discharged. If the patient needs any record, he simply has to download and print the application from the website, fill it and send it via post. The request can be made by the patient or the patient guardians or a legal representative of the patient. For legal representative and guardian, they should also send in a letter of approval by the patient. The hospital only mails back the copy of the requested record and does not email it unless due to an emergency another medical center requests for it. The copies of the report is sent within 7 to 14 days and the fee is collected on delivery. The fee structure is, $19.25 for clerical & administrative work $0.65 per page till 100 pages $0.34 per page over 100 pages For Postage it is additional For public assistance health programs like Medicare & Masshealth, they do not charge. (But for that request papers from these programs have to be shown).

images) - Only provided on the request of a physician of their hospital. Images on the Internet with software to make annotations: Also only provided to physicians of their hospitals. To place an order one must call a given number during working hours, give his identity and request. Or he can fill in a form and submit it in person. Or he can fax or email the form. To collect it, he has to do a self pick. He needs to bring a photo identity else if someone else comes, then the patient needs to give a letter of authorization. Also the hospital allows the copy sent by mail to another physician outside the hospital only on submission of letter of authorization from the patient. The fee for this is $8 per sheet. There is no charge for the CD or internet access since this is only sent to a physician working in the hospital. The application form can be downloaded from the website of the hospital

(http://www.bidmc.org/PatientAndVisitorInformation/PreparingforYour Visit/MedicalInformation.aspx)

For request of Medical Records (On Film, eg: X-rays, MRI, etc): The copies may be in the form of, Physical Images on Film. Images burnt on CD (Can give multiple

090 Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Paper Based Madical Management Service


Personal Health Record Management System A personal health record or PHR is a health record where health data is curated by an individual user themselves. This stands in contrast with the more widely used electronic medical record which is held by institutions such as a hospital and contains data entered by clinicians or billing data in order to support insurance claims. The intention of a PHR is to provide a complete and accurate summary of an individual's medical history which is accessible online. The health data on a PHR might include patient-reported outcome data, lab results (either entered by a patient or downloaded from the testing lab itself), data from devices such as wireless electronic weighing scales or collected passively from a smartphone. HRs can contain a diverse range of data but usually include information about: • allergies and adverse drug reactions • chronic diseases • family history • illnesses and hospitalizations • imaging reports (e.g. x-ray) • immunization records • laboratory test results • medications and dosing including over the counter medications and herbal remedies

• surgeries and other procedures • vaccinations • and Observations of Daily Living (ODLs) In addition to storing an individual's personal health information, some PHRs provide added-value services such as drug-drug interaction checking, electronic messaging between

Google Health

Microsoft Health Vault

Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Personal Health Record Management System 091


patients and providers, managing appointments, and reminders.

Patients Like Me

My Med Help

The PHR solutions that were studied here were all web based PHR solutions. Some solutions allow for import of medical data from external sources. Others allow for data to be shared with other applications or specific people. Mobile solutions often integrate themselves with web solutions and use the web-based solution as the platform. The web based PHRs studied here are the Google Health, the Microsoft Health Vault, the Patients Like Me, My Med Help and Apollo Health Records. Most of the features in all these were same except few. Out of all to use Google Health seemed to be the most simple and straight forward. With everything on one page with different sections. One can also add a family member the same way he or she makes their own profile and can then toggle between each family member with just the help of tabs. One good feature of Microsoft Health Vault is that it keeps giving updates of the latest medical improvements and treatments available for the problem one faces, thus keeping the patient up to date with data. Patients Like Me, as the name suggest, gives the ability to share similar problems of health with the ability to anonymous. Thus having the

Apollo Health Records 092 Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Personal Health Record Management System


social network ability with people and their counter parts with similar problems thus giving them the hopes that they are not the only ones with such problems. Although there were many good features in these PHRs, the fact of just saving a medical record with some tags was lacking very much. Google did have this, but with a limited size for each file.

Study of Different Medical Record Managment System - Personal Health Record Management System 093


094 Design Proposal


Medical Record Management Research & Analysis User Study Objective & Interviewees Findings User Sets The Organized Consolidator The Unorganized Non Consolidator The Relative

Medical Elements and Their Importance Summary

Project Scope 095


User Study Objective The objective of these interviews was that to find out the medical well being of these people and if they ever had a medical problem what was the procedure they pattern. To know where and how they kept their medical records and how they recalled it and accessed it. To find out their mentality and behavior of

their keepings. To find out what are the problems they find. The people interviewed here were not seen as individuals but seen as a member of a family and thus all problems and patterns were seen as the family and not as an individual.

Interviewees

Dr. V Janaki

Dr. Mamata Leach

Dr. Dey

S G Basu

Mr. Ganapati

Sheela Vaijanthi

D John

Pratyaksh Sharma

Mayur & Amulya

Pradip Kumar Ray

096 Medical Record Management - User Study


Findings With the interviews conducted and analyzed it could be noticed that medical problems in a house can be categorized into several different categories, depending upon the seriousness of the illness to the number of times a doctor is visited. Thus the scenarios are, One Time Visit: • This is usually one visit to the doctor • At the end of the course doctor is not consulted • Commonly: Cold, fever, throat infection, small wound, cut, stomachache, acidity, etc. Steps: 1. Illness 2. Doctor is consulted (local general physician, family doctor) 3. Doctor prescribes medicines (tablet, syrup, ointment, remedies) 4. Prescription is taken to chemist 5. Medicines bought and taken according to prescription Paper used: • Hand written prescription by doctor Problems: • Prescription is not understood by patients • Many chemists also do not understand • Some patients say they have to visit doctor again to get a legible prescription • One patient says she has the phone number of doctor and calls to know what is written in prescription if not legible

Two or Three Visits: • Visit is not more than two or three to the doctor • Either when doctor prescribes a test or when first prescription does not sure • Commonly: High fever, internal pain in one part of the body, abnormal body functionality, etc. Steps: 1. Illness 2. Consult doctor 3. Doctor prescribes tests 4. Laboratory visit 5. Form for the test to be done 6. Sample for test to be done 7. Collection of test results after a period of time on laboratory slip submission 8. Tests shown to doctor 9. Doctor prescribes medication 10. Prescription taken to chemist 11. Medication taken according to prescription. Paper used: • Prescription for tests • Slips in the laboratory • Test results • Doctors prescriptions Problems: • Too much travelling, especially a problem when the patient is ill and doctor not in same place of the laboratory • Laboratory Slips misplacing by patient • Prescription legibility • Patients fear if test results are misplaced or exchanged with another patients

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Recurring Visits But for Limited Time: • It is recurring visit to the doctor, but for a limited time of the illness • Mainly doctors attached to some Hospital is consulted in this case • Accident cases • Also curable dieses like malaria, jaundice, typhoid, etc Steps: 1. Symptoms/ illness/ Accident 2. Doctors visit 3. Doctor prescribes a partial medicine and tests 4. Lab tests done 5. Doctor starts treatment accordingly (physical like operation or physiotherapy or medicinal) 6. Medication and treatment revised with time to time visit to the doctor 7. A final doctor’s consultation after the recovery Papers used: • Prescriptions • Lab tests • X-Ray sheets • Scan sheets • Lab slips • Patient’s temporary Hospital health record • Insurance claim papers • Hospital forms Problems: • People don’t have much knowledge about insurance, (even if they have, they don’t know which one since someone else makes it for them) • Due to second opinion, doctors may change and so the patients may be asked to do the tests again • A lot of information is relied on the patient like the patients whole medical history • In emergencies, knowledge about allergies,

098 Medical Record Management - User Study

chronic dieses, etc are not known, thus tests needed to be done and time is wasted • Patients lose prescription or forget to take it to the doctor for later check ups. • Patients fear if test results are misplaced or exchanged with another patients. Recurring Visits: • A regular monthly or weekly routine is followed to visit the doctor • Mostly a general physician or family doctor is consulted • Commonly: blood pressure, diabetics, asthma, arthritis, etc Steps: 1. Initial symptoms 2. Doctors visit 3. Doctors prescriptions for tests 4. Few rounds of steady medication 5. Doctor’s timely visit 6. Medication according to prescription Paper Used: • Doctors prescription • Test results Problems: • Hassel to keep going to the doctor • Saving a prescription if the medication is not changed • Also saving a prescription in medication is changed and doctor wants to see all the previous medications • Patients are not used to carrying their initial test results and previous prescription, so if doctor is changed or fluctuation in readings, then the patient has to get all the prescriptions and tests. • Sometimes if doctor is changed they ask for new set of tests • Some patients have gluco-meter and BP


measuring machines, but they do not regularly note down their readings • Also the above machines require continuous factory maintenance. People do not do that since it is expensive. Other Serious Disorders & Very Rare Visits: • Specialists are visited like optician, dentist • Usually long procedure to get the treatment, etc • Regular check ups are required but not often (yearly or once in 2-3 years) • Health records are kept but generally not asked by these specialists

The Relative – This is not a user set typically for one person, but signifying the relation between two individuals. It can taking care of a relatives medical records from a distance or by staying in the same house. Also the people involved in this may or may not be organized. Thus the characteristics of these three user sets are shown in the following pages.

User Sets From the interviews taken three different user sets were noticed depending upon their pattern of keeping things and recall and the problems that they faced. The three different user sets are, The Organized Consolidator – This user is a systematic person who keeps everything order and has a procedure of recalling things. The main people that were seen in this user set were the elderly. The Unorganized Consolidator – This is the more careless ones. They had no idea of where to keep what. The things they kept were not organized and were kept at easy reach due to convenience. But when they had to search for something they would not know form where to start the search. The younger generation typically fell into this user set.

Medical Record Management - User Study 099


The Organized Consolidator What?

Prescriptions

Medicine names

How & Where?

In folders/files/Diary/ Shelves/Drawer

Written in diary/ In laboratory envelopes/ Photocopy of Prescription Under Mattress

For reminders of medication dosages

For future reference to the doctor and self

Why?

For Company Medical Reimbursement

X-rays and Scans

For a record of medical history For showing to the doctor

For future reference to the doctor For insurance claim

Recall?

With respect to size. Eg: X-Rays and tests to big to be kept anywhere other than under the mattress With respect to content. Eg: Doctors contact in Address Book; Prescription in folders, files, etc. With respect to importance for future use. Eg: Bills, Forms, Prescription, etc.

100 Medical Record Management - User Study


Laboratory Tests

Doctors Contact

Medicine Bills

Medical Claim forms

In laboratory envelopes/ Under Mattress

Business card diary/ Address book/ Mobile Contacts

Clipped together In shelves/In drawers

Files/ Folders/ Shelves/ Drawers

For a record of medical history

Contacting for appointments

For reimbursement of medication

For medical claim and reimbursement

For showing to doctor

For insurance claim For proof of purchase if required to give back medicines to chemist

Problems?

Since in a medical procedure consist of all the elements, these elements are placed in different places of the house due to their sizes and utility. Thus consolidating them to keep track of what medicines were used, what was the prescription, who the doctor was, what were the tests, etc.

Thus, consolidating the data.

Medical Record Management - User Study 101


The Unorganized Non Consolidator What?

Prescriptions

Medicine names

X-rays and Scans

How & Where?

Folded In bag pockets, books, in open shelves, etc

No written document, just the most used ones remembered in memory.

In the Laboratory Envelopes; Under the mattress

Why?

For buying medicines

For future reference to the doctor and self

For mental satisfaction of having some record to show in future

For reference to medication dosage

Recall?

With respect to Size. Eg: X-rays, Scan, test, etc under the mattress due to their large size With respect to action at the moment. Eg: Kept the prescription in shirt pocket when consulted doctor. With respect to access. Eg: Prescriptions and medicines are kept in an open shelf or dining table where the access is easy. With respect to importance. Eg: Medical bills kept in cupboards, shelves, drawers, etc.

102 Medical Record Management - User Study


Laboratory Tests

Doctors Contact

Medicine Bills

Medical Claim forms

In the Laboratory Envelopes; Under the mattress

Cell phone contact list, Written on prescription, Business card kept in random place.

Not clipped, drawer, shelf, cupboard, diary, etc

Office bags, folders, etc.

For mental satisfaction of having some record to show in future

If required to contact again

For reimbursement of medical

For medical claim and reimbursement

For insurance claim Proof of purchased medicines

Problems?

They have a messy way of keeping things. Unorganized, thus they rely totally on memory for recall. Also no co-ordination of the time and place where they keep the things. Misplace a lot of important stuff. For these people its not important to keep a history or record of their medical treatment. For them its

important to find that piece of information when required.

Medical Record Management - User Study 103


The Relative What?

Prescriptions

(Medicine names)

(X-rays and Scans)

How & Where?

In folders/files/ Shelves/Drawer/ Cupboard

---

---

To keep a record of what medicines are prescribed

---

---

Why?

Also to take second opinion of another doctor proximity (if staying at a distance).

Recall?

With Respect to How the information is received. Eg: If the relative has sent doctors content via email, they know its in the mail. With Respect to Content. Eg: Prescriptions and Bills are generally kept in one place only so they have look there. Browsing through w.r.t Names. Eg: All papers like bills or prescription kept together, thus look through with patients name/ hospital/ date etc.

104 Medical Record Management - User Study


(Laboratory Tests)

Doctors Contact

Medicine Bills

Medical Claim forms

---

In Diary/ Cell phone contact list/ Email

Clipped together in shelves/ Drawer/Cupboard

Files/ Folders/ Shelves/ Drawers/ Cupboard

---

To keep in contact with the doctor

For medical reimbursement and insurance claim

For medical claim and reimbursement

To know progress of health

Problems?

Since these people are at a distance, they are very eager to know details about what is happening whether it is a small illness or big procedure. They are generally organized and keep data methodical. They may not have immediate access to a lot of information like X-Rays, Scans, etc. which they would like to have in order to have a second opinion from a doctor near to them. Even bill collecting for them is important for medical reimbursement. Thus, easy and fast access to details of the

medication.

Medical Record Management - User Study 105


Medical Elements and Their Importance In any medical diagnosis situation besides the medical reports there are many other elements that happen to be very important. All these elements carry a key piece of information which may be required in a later date, thus saving

them correctly is very important. The follow images show the different elements used in a medical diagnosis situation with the information that these elements provide.

Prescription • Hospital/ Dispensary/ Clinic Name • Patients Name, Age, Gender • Date • Diagnosis • Medication Name + Dosages • Doctors Name and Seal

Medicines • Name

106 Medical Record Management - Medical Elements and Their Importance


X-Rays & Scans • The Image

Test Reports • Name of the Lab • Patients Name, Age, Gender • Test Name • Doctors Name • Findings

Doctor’s Contact • Name, Specialized Field • Phone Number • Address

Medical Record Management - Medical Elements and Their Importance 107


Medical bills • Chemist Name and Address • Bill Number • Date • Patients Name • Doctors Name • Medicine Name, Quantity, Batch number • Total Amount

Insurance Claim Form • Company/ Insurance Name • Person Claiming name, Mode of Reimbursement • Patient Name • Doctor’s Name • Hospital Name • Amount Claim (Prescription + Bill to be attached)

Thus it can be seen that many of the information that these elements give happen to be repetitive. If all the repeated information is removed the total information is, Hospital/ Dispensary/ Clinic Name Patients Name, Age, Gender Date of Diagnosis Diagnosis Medication Name + Dosages Doctors Name and Seal The Image Name of the Lab Test Name Findings Chemist Name and Address

108 Medical Record Management - Medical Elements and Their Importance

Bill Number Date Total Amount Thus with if one needs to know only these information, storing all the elements are not required. For these information only four elements are required to be stored. They are, Prescriptions X-Rays & Scan Sheets Test Reports Medical Bills


Medicine Name

Importance of Medical Elements >>

Medical Bills Prescriptions Medical Claim Forms Scans & Tests Doctor’s Contact Detail

Days

Weeks

Months

Years

Chart 15: The Importance of Medical Elements vs each elements value w.r.t time.

Also many of these elements have a value with time. Chart 15 shows exactly what is the value, but also shows the importance with respect to each other.

Medical Record Management - Medical Elements and Their Importance 109


Summary Different medical situations have a different pattern. One common thing in all was that a lot of paper is used in many different context. A majority of the paper is currently saved in most households. Referring back to some of the papers does happen quiet frequently. There are different types of user sets with one being a very organized person about his medical records and medicines. The second who is not very well organized and has problems finding data when required. The third happens to be a relative taking care of a patient. All three user sets have been studied to see their behavior patterns of how they store the medical records and paper and how they recall if they have to find data. Then different medical elements make up the total medical documents in a diagnosis. Each of these elements give vital information. Sometimes these information may be repeated thus only four of these elements if stored all information can be generated. 110 Medical Record Management - Summary


Medical Record Management 111


024 The Middle Class of India as an Indicator of Market Potential


Design and Concept The Requirement Technologies Available Personas Primary Persona Secondary Persona Tertiary Persona Scenarios Ecosystem Workflows For Tasks Done on Printers For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computers Wireframes Printer Screens Mobile Phone Screens Computer Screens

India: The People, Culture, Society and Living Conditions 025


The Requirement There is a requirement of a system, where a person can effortlessly digitize the medical records that he gets during a diagnosis. It should be an easy upload with him having nothing much to do. Also with that he can give other information which may not have a record to support. In the meanwhile along with his information he can store records of his family, thus making it a family account. Not only can he access the account but if given permission his family also should be able to access the account. Also with easy keying of words he should be able to easily get whatever record he wants without much waste of time. The system should be able to give him reminders of finishing a certain task related to his or his family’s health. Also a strong security control that nobody can easily access the information unless the user wants to share it. One should be able to see easily a patients medical history from small diagnosis to major illnesses. Past procedures should be shown. Problems and allergies. An emergency contact info is important. All this information should be available from anywhere anytime. Also it should not be device dependent.

114 The Requirement


Technologies Available Being in the 21st century there are ‘N’ number of technologies that can be used for this system. Thus for this project a bunch of technologies were brain stormed. Technologies varying from using the internet and web based applications to simple reminder systems like the SMS or an alert system like WhatsApp used in android. Technologies similar to the system like Evernote, SkyDrive and Dropbox were also studied, so that if this system could be incorporated with any one of these applications. Data security is one essential thing, but a person should not have difficulties assigning access. Other PHRs like Google Health was studies so that some of its features can be used in this system. Sharing system was also studied like sharing on facebook, you can choose who you want to share with just a drop down.

Common technologies like email, computers, mobile devices were no doubt real good options for a system like this. Image stored using the printer scanner or even photographs can be something interesting on this system. But the most important of all was to learn about the cloud computing system since this is the next generation technology that HP is working on. Cloud computing is the fact that one can store & access data from any network anywhere at anytime using any device. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). It does not require enduser knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.


Personas Primary User “I may not be very organized when it comes to keeping medical history of myself or of my family’s, but I do feel the importance of it.”

Amit Gupta 37yrs | Male | Bangalore

Stays with his Wife and Daughter Profession: Senior IT Consultant at an MNC giant.

Medical Facts: Amit has high Blood pressure and Glucose count in his blood stream. Apart from that he has been diagnosed with typhoid sometime back. He visits the doctor once every month to get a health check up for himself and his family. He generally gets one prescription every month written by the doctor to buy his BP and diabetes medicines. He buys the medicines from the same medical shop every time. Record Organization: Amit doesn’t keep much of a record when it comes to medical documents. He collects the chemist bills and prescriptions to just get the reimbursement from his company. He doesn’t recall many of the medicine names of pattern of any medical procedure except for the medicines that he takes regularly. But for him the information of is parents who do not live with him are very important and tries as much to note them down, but that too is not very consistent. Medical Expenses: Amit’s medical bills monthly are around Rs.2500/- Which mostly he gets reimbursed from his company. His company also reimburses medical of his family. But there are certain budget limits to certain procedures and medication that his company offers. Thus when that occurs Amit has to calculate those expenses and then submit his reimbursement sheet. Digital Medium: Amit has a laptop from work. He uses it around 10 hrs a day. Also he owns an iPhone which he uses extensively by using different apps for work and pleasure. He is very tech savvy and keeps himself update to new technology and gadgets.

116 Personas - Primary User


Secondary User “For me my daughter’s vaccinations and pediatrician visits are very important. I always keep a timetable of that.”

Renuka Rai Gupta 35yrs | Female | Bangalore

Profession: Housewife

Medical Facts: Renuka doesn’t have much of a chronic problem nor does she have any recurring illness. Time to time she has a certain back pain for which she doesn’t bother going to the doctor. She just visited once and whenever the pain occurs she takes those medicines that were then prescribed. Record Organization: Renuka is also not much of an organizer when it comes to health and medical records. She does remember some certain important medicines. She writes them down in a diary she uses for her daily expenditure. But she is careful to write down all the records of vaccinations and pediatrician visit for her five year old daughter. She does this incase she doesn’t miss anything. Digital Medium: Renuka’s uses of the computer is very limited. She uses the desktop PC in her house. She uses it around 1-2 hrs a day checking mail and social network sites. She also uses the internet occasionally to search for information like recipes and exercises. She is tech savvy and is interested in the latest mobile phones. She owns a Nokia N97 phone.

Personas - Secondary User 117


Secondary User “I stay in Lucknow and my son stays with his family in Bangalore. My son likes me to keep informing continuously about mine and my wife’s health and medical check ups.”

Shailesh Kumar Gupta 72yrs | Male | Lucknow

Stays with his Wife. Profession: Retired school teacher.

Medical Facts: Mr. Gupta is a diabetic patient and has had it for the past 17yrs. He has also had a Heart By-Pass surgery in year of 2010. He does have to go for regular check up around every 6-7 months for his heart. Also he’s had a knee surgery in 2003, but is ok now and doesn’t need to go for any check up for it. Record Organization: Mr. Gupta is a serious type of person and keeps all information like procedures, lab tests, x-rays, etc till date with him. He tries to keep everything as organized as possible, but sometimes he does misplace things. Since he stays away from his son, he tries to keep his son informed about his health and visits to the physician. Also when he has any major medical procedure he sends a copy of the tests and medication to his son (who asks for it). Medical Expenses: Mr. Gupta’s medical expense for a month is around Rs.3000/- which includes medication for himself and his wife. Some of the medicines that he takes regularly he doesn’t take a bill from the chemist else he always makes sure to take it. Also since his son can reimburse medical expenses for the family he mails many of the prescription and bills to his son for the reimbursement. Digital Medium: Mr. Gupta has a desktop computer and printer in his house which his son has given him. He’s not very tech savvy but can manage to use email and the internet. His computer usage is 2-3 hrs a week. He doesn’t have a smart phone, he uses a Nokia 5030 phone.

118 Personas - Secondary User


Tertiary Users Padmashree Gupta 68yrs | Female | Lucknow

Stays with Mr. Shailesh Kumar Gupta, in Lucknow. Is not at all tech-savvy and is uncomfortable with modern digital gadgets.

Divya Gupta 5yrs | Female | Bangalore

Daughter of Amit & Renuka. Is very young to be using any digital product to the fullest.

Personas - Tertiary Users 119


Scenarios Scenario - 1

Amit’s father Shailesh is unwell and is taken to the hospital

Shailesh needs a ByPass surgery and is admitted to the hospital

In due course of time an immense amount of paper is piled up

Thus Amit just does a quick scan through his printer and saves all in one place

120 Scenarios


Scenario - 2 Previous Records?

Amit decides to take a second opinion about his father’s health

But the doctor asks for the previous reports and prescriptions

Amit shows all information to the doctor on his smart phone instantly

Scenarios 121


Scenario - 3 NOTIFICATION!

Renuka has to remember her family’s, especially her daughter’s vaccinations and medication.

It comes as an alert on her phone at the right time.

Scenario - 4 NOTIFICATION!

LUCKNOW

Shailesh staying at home scans and saves his documents on his printer.

122 Scenarios

BANGALORE

It comes as a notification to Amit at Bangalore that Shailesh has added a new medical document.


Scenario - 5 NOTIFICATION!

Amit needs to claim his medical bills

BILLS

The system gives him timely notifications on it.

PRESCRIPTIONS

Also arranges the images of the papers according to the date and tags them respectively like bills and prescriptions.

Scenarios 123


THE DEVICES

THE INTERFACE

THE MOBILE PHONE

AN APPLICATION

+ Add New Member + Add New Document + Get Notifications + Edit Data

+ Interface of the Mobile Phone + Interface of th Computer + Interface of the Connected Printer

+ Assign Print Jobs

+ Connects all devices seamlessly to the clound

THE STORAGE THE COMPUTER

THE CLOUD

+ Add New Member + Add New Document + Get Notifications + Edit Data

+ All data from the devices are saved + Connects to all devices through the application + Stores all task + Triggers for notification

+ Assign Print Jobs

THE CONNECTED PRINTER + Quick Save + Quick Find

+ Assign Print Jobs 124 Ecosystem


ACTORS The Active Member

Information stored about this person and also controls a part or full system in the family

The Passive Member

Information stored about this person

THE TASKS ADD A NEW MEMBER

+ Basic Profile Info * + Diagnosis Information + Vaccination Information + Problems & Allergies Information + Insurance Information + Make Active Member (Optional)

ADD A NEW DOCUMENT

+ Date on the Document * + Add Details - Patient; Ailment; Category; (Optional)

SEARCH DOCUMENT

+ Keyword Search - Through OCR or Details Added + Search Through Labels - Patient, Diagnosis, Notifications, etc.

ASSIGN ACTIONS

+ Share a Document - To a member in the system - Via email to an email id + Print a Document - Connect instantly to printer - Save as print job and print later on printer + Delete a Document

PRIVACY SETTINGS

+ Master Member can choose to share a diagnosis with other active members

Ecosystem 125


Workflows: For Tasks Done on Printer Quick Save Quick Save

Place Paper

Scann Settings

Add Details Now

Patient

Ailment

Add Details Later

Category

Bills

Prescriptions

Reports

Date on the Document

126 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Printer

Save

Scans

Others


Quick Save Quick Access

Keyword Search Library

Family

Notifications Reimbursement

Family

Family

List of Document Images

View

View Details

Actions

Share

Print

Delete

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Printer 127


Print Jobs Print Job

Job List

Select Job

Print

Print Settings

Paper Type

Paper Size

Print Style

Print

Delete from Print Jobs

128 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Printer

Retain in Print Jobs


Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer View Document Library View

Search by Keyword

Edit

Share

Select from List

Print

Delete

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer 129


Share Document Library View

Search by Keyword

Select from List

Document Preview

Edit

Share

Print

Delete

With a Member

Via Email

Active Member List

Email View Attached File

Select Member

Type Email ID

Share

Send

130 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer


Print Document Library View

Search by Keyword

Select from List

Document Preview

Edit

Share

Print

Delete

Connect to Printer

Save as Print job

Printer List

Save

Select Printer

Print

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer 131


Member Profile View

Family

Member List

Profile

Name

DOB

Gender

Edit

132 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer

Blood Group Active Member Emergency No.

Print


Member Profile Document View

Family

Member List

All Documents

Document Preview

Edit

Share

Print

Delete

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer 133


Member Profile Diagnosis View & New Diagnosis Family

Member List

Diagnosis

Diagnosis List

Select Diagnosis

View Document in Diagnosis

New Diagnosis

Edit

Name

Status

Date

Privacy Settings

134 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer

Save

Notes


Member Profile Problems & Allergies View and New Place Paper

Place Paper

Place Paper

Place Paper

Patient

Bills

Prescriptions

Category

Reports

Scans

Others

Save

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer 135


Member Profile Vaccination View and New Vaccination Family

Member List

Vaccinations

Vaccinations List

Edit Existing Vaccinations

Name

New Vaccinations

Date

Save

136 Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer

Note


Member Profile Insuarance and New Insurance Family

Member List

Insurance

Insurance List

Edit Existing Insurance

Insurance Name

Company Name

New Insurance

Validity Date

Insurance ID

Note

Save

Workflows: For Tasks Done on Mobile & Computer 137


Notifications Notifications

Open Notifications

Closed Notifications

View Individual Notification

Open

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Malaria | Prescription 27 Jan 2011

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Malaria | Prescription 27 Jan 2011

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Malaria | Prescription 27 Jan 2011

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Conclusion India, an emerging market and a big target for booming business. India though has a diverse culture, but the people characteristics happen to be similar. The middle class, being the most growing for a potential for big companies, to set as the target. There are many things that can be done for them. HP does have a huge base in India and has a strong market hold for printers and computers. But still there is more potential and need in this country for which HP can do a lot. Printers are bought in large numbers in the consumer level in the United States, but its not so in the emerging markets and HP is on a look for the reasons as to if there are other needs. When it comes to printers or any digital gadgets, it was seen that people don’t buy unless there is a real urgency for it. People here buy a product with a lot of research and then go in for the best product in their budget. When it comes to printers, it was seen that people do not tend to buy. The only trigger was education with school students. They used other means and methods of printing like print shops, printing at work or ask friends and family. The reason seen was that those other options worked out to be cheaper and more effective than buying a whole printer, with its disadvantages of being expensive to maintain, etc. On the other hand a good number of people did use other gadgets like the smart phone. Every middle class house was seen to have a

176 Conclusion

computer at least and did use the internet extensive. SMBs did do a lot of printing. But since they have a huge number of prints that they take at one time, going in for the commercial offset printing and photocopy was a more preferred option rather than digital printing. Paper on the other hand was extensively used in many manners. Paper happens to be a source of information and holds the highest value of proof for anything. Thus paper doesn’t seem to be going anywhere soon with the digital world coming up. In fact paper is getting integrated with the digital world. It was seen that paper was already printed held the maximum place in a house rather than self generated prints. Thus storage of paper was a big opportunity area. Paper that was stored in a house was always respect to some certain category or task. Paper storage seemed to clutter a space and finding a particular piece of information was very difficult. Categories where there was a lot of data stored on paper was seen to be legal documents and the health care. Thus health care was taken to keep a families health care records in a one documented place. So that it can be easy to save, categorize and find what one needs. The PHR application built not only stores but enables a person to access his information from anywhere with any device with the cloud


computing system. Also with the same time, its not just one person but the whole family who can handle it and manage their medical records. With the ability to remind a person to finish doing certain tasks it helps a person not to forget important things like taking a medication or vaccination. The growth of this system can be in many ways. It can be done in a national level with certain privacy rights that only when necessary information can be withdrawn by a medical personnel. Information can be sent to the patient so as he can learn about the latest developments about the illness that he has. Or even have a discussion portal for patient suffering with the same illness.

Conclusion 177


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178 References


Study References: Google Health Microsoft Health Vault Patients Like Me Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Medi-Crecs Apollo Personal Health Record My Med Help Carsten Schwesig, Ivan Poupyrev, Eijiro Mori, Gummi: A Bendable Computer, CHI 2004, April 24–29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. Signer, B. Fundamental Concepts for Interactive Paper and Cross-Me¬dia Information Spaces, Dissertation, ETH No. 16218, Zurich, Switzerland, 2006. SMB Online Communities Customer Insights Report, HP Market Vision, Communispace. How To Craft Your Customer Research Plan, by Vidya L. Drego., Forrester. SMB Needs Framework: India Deep Dive, HP. Shopper Insights, HP. SMB Study – Germany & USA, by Jyotika Singh and Andrea Shelly, HP. Usability Guidance for Improving the User Interface and Adoption of Online Personal Health Records, Kirsten Peters, Michael Niebling, Cassandra Slimmer, Thomas Green, Jayson M. Webb, Robert Schumacher, User Centric, Inc. February 2009. An introduction to Personal Health Records, Retrieved January 26, 2009.

References 179


Study References: What is a Personal Health Record? Retrieved January 26, 2009, from MyPHR.com Emerging Market Trends in India, InfoTrends. Emerging Markets Printing Relevance, by Suzanne Leighton and Kate Anderson, HP. Emerging Markets Ethnographic Research Review, HP. A Mono Ink Printer Study in China and Brazil , HP. Image references: Flickr and Google Images.

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