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COM  360  Spring  Research  Paper  

 

   

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE     Done  by:   Hessa  Al  Amri   Shaima  Ebrahim   Shama  Ahmad     Birgit  Traur    

 

 

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

     

  Abstract:       The  media  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  main  factors  that  is  responsible  for  affecting  many  peoples  lifestyle.  One  of   the  major  issues  is  the  body  image.      It  plays  an  important  role  in  shaping  peoples  perception  in  aspects  like   stereotyping,  criticism,  finding  a  role  model  and  so  on.  Exposures  exist  in  variety  of  media  such  as  watching   television  channels,  magazines,  and  music.  Media  exposures  differ  from  one  country  to  another  depending  on   people’s  culture  and  reaction  to  the  exposure  of  media  to  them.    In  previous  research,  theorists  discussed   people’s  dissatisfactions  with  their  body  images  in  the  western  countries.  The  aim  of  this  research  is  to   investigate  whether  the  media  has  influenced  the  people  in  the  United  Arab  Emirates,  specifically  women.     The  authors  attempt  to  analyze  the  women  in  the  UAE  by  researching  and  creating  experiments  in  order  to   find  out  if  they  judge  their  body  image  according  to  what  they  see  in  the  media.  This  means  if  they  feel  self   conscious  about  their  body  image  after  they  watch  television  or  see  a  page  in  the  magazine,  and  if  they   believe  that  there  is  a  certain  image  the  media  shows  that  women  are  expected  to  live  up  to,  and  finally  if  they   want  to  lose/gain  weight  for  the  sake  of  the  society  rather  than  being  healthy.  The  authors  review  different   female  body  types  in  the  UAE  and  their  perception  by  giving  them  questionnaires  to  fill  in  from  different   groups  in  different  environment.  They  then  create  a  chart  and  a  database  to  analyze  and  compare  results.                 Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

               

Contents:  

   

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction     Literature  review   Research  Problem   Hypothesis   Equipment  and  Methodology   Results  and  Discussion   Conclusion   Reference   Appendices  

        Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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    Introduction     "Every  society  has  a  way  of  torturing  its  women,  whether  by  binding  their  feet  or  by  sticking  them  into   whalebone  corsets.  What  contemporary  American  culture  has  come  up  with  is  designer  jeans."   —Joel  Yager,  M.D.   The  media  can  influence  people  in  many  different  ways,  whether  they’re  exposed  to  the  television   commercials,  magazines,  radios  and  so  on.  These  influences  can  be  positive  in  some  ways  and  others  in   negatives  ways.  One  of  the  aspects  that  have  been  affected  throughout  the  media  exposure  is  people’s   perception  in  body  image.  The  following  report  discusses  the  issues  that  revolved  around  woman’s  body   image  whether  it’s  the  media  to  blame  or  not.  According  to  online  reports  done  by  professors  in  countries  like   the  US  and  Canada,  the  media  has  caused  a  lot  of  people  to  change  their  body  image  in  order  to  fit  in  when  it   came  to  schools  and  universities  and  caused  numerous  eating  disorders  to  many  teens.         Literature  review   Bissell  and  Kimberly  (2004)  Thin-­‐ideal  media  content  is  said  to  be  one  of  the    aspects  that  is  responsible  in   encouraging  body  disorder  and  image  perception  in  young  girls  and  university  women.  The  study  tests  the   correlation  between  sports  centre  exposure  during  the  Olympic  games  with  the  overall  sports  as  well.    This   study  examines  the  media  exposure  during  the  sports  season  and  what  it  showed  is  that  not  only  young   women    are  unhappy  with  their  bodies  but  many  older  women  as  well  were  found  to  be  as  unhappy  with  their   body  shape  as  younger  women.  Both  sports  media  exposure  and  sports  participation  were  related  to  more   positive  body  image  attitudes.  However,  exposure  and  participation  in  lean  sports  were  related  to  more   negative  attitude  in  women.    Furthermore,  while  eating  disorder  is  popular  among  teens  and  young  adults  it  is   still  not  been  able  to  pinpoint  that  most  common  cause  of  the  problem.    Pipher  asserts  that  the  ‘’look-­‐ obsessed,  media  saturated,  ‘  girl-­‐poisoning’  culture,’’  she  blames  the  media  for  promoting  principles  of   thinness  and  beauty  unachievable  for  most  women.  Entertainment  such  as  TV  exposure  sets  up  the  standards   of  thin-­‐  ideal  media  content  that  is  related  to  endorsement  of  thinness  in  women.    Media  that  any  other  leads   to  higher  rate  of  body  dissatisfaction,  urge  to  be  thin,  anorexia  and  bulimia  in  young  girls  and  women.        (Derenne  JL,2006)  Dr  Jennifer  L  .  Derenne  and  Eygene,  from  the  Division  of  Child  and  Adolescent  Psychiatry  at   Massacheauttes  General  Hospital  did  a  research  in  order  to  analyze  body  image  and  if  the  media  really  affects   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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peoples  eating  disorders.    Their  objective  is  to  eating  disorders  including  obesity  and  anorexia,  which  has  been   a  major  health  problem  .  They  explained  how  the  exposure  of  people  to  the  mass  media  including  factors  like   television,  magazines  and  the  Internet  is  related  to  obesity  and  negative  body  image.    The  authors  explained   the  circumstances  of  the  problem  and  through  that  attempt  to  find  potential  solutions  to  change  those  eating   disorders.    Their  method  was  to  review  changes  in  an  ideal  woman  BMI  throughout  history,  analyze  the   current  attitudes  towards  shape  and  weight  in  woman,  create  interventions  in  order  to  increase  healthy  habits   and  improve  self  esteem  in  people.    The  result  was  not  a  success  due  to  great  power  of  the  current  mass   media  that  lead  to  great  dissatisfaction  in  people  about  their  self  esteem  and  body  image.    Derenne  and  Egyne   concluded  that  even  though  changing  peoples  unhealthy  habit  is  a  difficult  task,  little  changes  could  be  made   to  improve  people’s  lifestyle  through  parents  to  help  prevent  the  next  generations  from  being  affected  or  yet   become  worse.    They  suggested  that  all  parents  should  control  their  children’s  eating  habits  and  most   importantly  limit  their  exposure  to  media,  promote  healthy  eating  and  moderate  healthy  exercises  in  order  to   increase  their  self-­‐esteem.  In  addition  to  that,  they  suggested  that  advertising  companies  should  increase   funding  for  high  quality,  visible  advertising  campaigns  to  increase  awareness  to  people  for  a  better  healthy   life.     Amani   Al   Hashemi   who   is   a   student   counselor   at   the   Abu   Dhabi   Women's   College   (ADWC)   had   done   some   studies   about   media   and   it   is   affect   on   the   women   students   in   the   UAE.   However,   in   one   of   her   studies   shows   “that  increased  media  influence  and  repeated  exposure  to  a  "distorted  image  of  reality"  played  a  significant   role   in   the   rising   increase   of   inclinations   to   developing   eating   disorders   amongst   young   Emirati   women”   (Moussly,   2010).     Also,   in   her   same   study   shows   that   90%   of   the   students   spend   almost   17   hours   weekly   watching  television  while  75%  of  them  read  magazines  and  indicating  that  repeated  exposure  is  a  factor  and   one  reason  that  could  made  women  affected  by  media  is  the  repeated  exposure  to  the  thin  ideal  so  it  makes   them  started  to  accept  the  models  shown  as  a  true  representation  of  reality.      In  addition  to  that,  Hill  and  Gina  Jarmen  discuss  the  issue  around  student  body  image  through  their  journal   article  whether  the  media  really  the  influence  behind  it.  They  studied  college  students  ad  used  them  as  an   example  to  study  body  image  perception  amongst  college  students  who  are  exposed  to  photographs  of   models  and  those  who  aren’t  exposed  to  the  photographs  in  order  to  compare  their  psychological  views  then   completed  a  survey  to  convey  their  ideal  body  weight  and  shape.  Students  who  were  exposed  to  the   photographs  complete  the  survey  about  the  body  weight  and  height  satisfaction  had  significantly  different   values  than  students  who  were  not  exposed  to  the  photographs.    This  presented  the  idea  of  how  powerful  the   mass  media  could  be  and  its  effects  in  peoples  body  satisfaction  especially  women  and  cause  an  impact  to   their  health  behaviors.    (Hill  ,  Gina  Jarmen  ,  2009)       Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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  Hargreaves,    Duane  A,  Tiggermann,  Marika  (2003)  These  finding  shows  that  not  only  media  is  affecting  directly   girls  perception  of  their  body’s  and  builds  up  a  dislike  in  them  but  it  also  affect  them  in  an  indirect  way     through  the  influence  on  boy’s  expectations  and  evaluation  of  girl’s  appearance.  and  depression.     Gathered  together,  the  result  indicates  that  media  not  only  caused  people  to  drastically  lose  weight  in  order   to  feel  better  about  them,  it  also  caused  others  to  do  the  opposite  and  gain  large  about  of  weight.  Over  half  of   the  United  States  is  defined  as  clinically  overweight,  and  eighteen  percent  are  clinically  obese  (Brownell,2005)   ,  it  appears  many  of  them  have  been  influenced  by  the  television  ,  internet  ,  radio  and  so  on  ,  drastically   reducing  their  time  to  exercise,  move  around  and  eating  healthy.         Research  problem   When  a  woman  sits  on  the  couch  watching  their  favorite  television  series,  then  a  commercial  pops  up  of  a   runaway  model.  The  model  in  the  commercial  is  tall  and  skinny  walking  down  the  runway;  after  seeing  that   does  the  woman  look  at  her  body  and  says,  “I  want  to  have  a  body  just  like  her”  This  research  will  investigate   how  many  of  that  same  lady  exists  in  women  of  the  United  Arab  Emirates.     The  question  that  this  research  revolved  around  is  (Does  the  media  influence  the  way  women  think  of  their   body  image?)    

 

Hypothesis     The  purpose  behind  it  is  to  establish  possible  cause  of  media  effects  in  woman  in  order  to  solve  the  problem,   or  perhaps  there  isn’t  a  problem.  Maybe  the  media  did  not  influence  woman  body  image  in  the  UAE,  which   could  lead  to  the  second  purpose  that  is  solving  the  hypothesis  of  this  topic.  The  hypothesis  is  that  the  media   does  influence  woman’s  thought  of  their  body  image  in  the  UAE,  and  through  this  findings,  the  truth  will   reveal  whether  the  hypothesis  is  true  or  not.     In  order  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  the  research,  a  primary  and  secondary  research  will  be  conducted.  However   before  that,  first  thing  is  to  explain  the  experimental  process.    Firstly,  determine  who  the  target  group  is  when   creating  a  questionnaire  or  experimenting  on  candidates.  Secondly,  determine  activities  with  which  to   “experiment”.  Thirdly,  pick  the  individuals  out  of  a  population  to  fill  out  the  survey.  Finally,  collect  and  analyze   the  results  in  order  to  help  discuss  about  it.     Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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  Methodology     The  research  conducted  is  a  mixed  method  type,  meaning  it  contains  both  qualitative  with  the  open-­‐ended   questions  and  quantitative  samples  with  the  multiple-­‐choice  questions.  Creating  more  questions  that  is   quantitative  related  was  a  better  idea  to  ensure  that  the  candidates  would  finish  the  questions  fast  and  not   feel  that  they’re  are  pressured  with  many  information  to  write  and  that  it  isn’t  time  consuming,     The  equipment  used  for  this  research  paper  is  questionnaires  that  have  been  presented  to  a  selective   audience.  The  selection  has  been  divided  in  four  different  environments.  Most  of  the  questionnaire  was   conducted  in  the  morning  for  several  reasons  such  as  the  university  timing  and  due  to  the  fact  that  it  is   unlikely  for  many  local  women  to  be  around  at  night.  The  other  two  sets  of  questionnaires  were  held  in  the   afternoon  due  to  the  majority  of  local  women  workout  in  the  late  afternoon  for  reasons  such  as  coming  back   from  work  or  the  university  and  so  on.  while  handling  the  questionnaire  to  the  candidates  it  was  estimated  to   take  around  one  to  two  minutes  to  fill  out  the  questionnaire.  Each  of  the  candidates  were  given  space  to   insure  privacy  and  to  give  them  comfort  while  answering  the  questions.   Since  the  survey  will  be  focusing  on  body  image  and  women,  it  is  likely  that  the  candidates  would  not  feel   completely  confortable  exposing  personal  information  such  as  name,  age,  especially  their  height  and  weight.   Therefor  an  informed  consent  has  been  included  at  the  beginning  of  the  survey  saying:   “The  following  questions  are  designed  by  Zayed  University  students  for  the  purpose  of  gathering  information   for  research  methods  course.  The  information  will  be  absolutely  confidential.”     This  way  the  candidates  will  feel  more  secure  and  safe  to  provide  the  information  needed  in  order  to  collect   data.  Excluding  the  name  section  will  make  it  easier  to  them  to  mention  their  age  and  weight  to  ensure  that   they  answer  the  questions  with  complete  confidence  and  honesty.     The  first  set  of  people  who  answered  the  questionnaire  was  Zayed  University  students  whom  were  sitting   around  the  atrium.  By  that  it  will  give  an  expand  perspective  of  different  people  whom  are  taking  different   majors.  There  might  be  the  chance  that  certain  students  in  one  major  may  be  exposed  to  a  specific  kind  of   surroundings  or  data  that  may  play  a  role  in  influencing  them  in  answering  the  questions.  In  other  words,   there  might  be  a  chance  for  the  majority  of  students  answering  similarly  to  one  another  by  the  influence  of   what  they  are  studying.  It  is  known  that  student  in  a  specific  major  tend  to  be  alike  in  a  way.  That’s  why   instead  of  presenting  the  questionnaire  in  one  classroom  it  was  selectively  picked  on  different  student  whom   had  different  major  and  by  that  may  have  different  prospective  about  the  topic.   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

The  second  environment  that  the  questionnaire  was  handout  in  The  Dubai  Mall.    An  outside  investigation   showed  that  The  Dubai  Mall  holds  around  a  million  people  a  day  which  means  that  there  will  be  a  rich  income   of  data  and  defiantly  more  diverse.  Since  the  research  paper  is  based  on  UAE  women  the  foreigners  were  not   asked  to  answer  the  questionnaire  but  the  targeted  audiences  were  local  women.   The  third  environment  was  Dubai  Ladies  Club  gym.  It  was  a  bit  hard  to  separate  the  local  women  from   foreigners  because  in  this  case  they  all  were  wearing  sport  kits  and  not  the  usual  “Abbaya”  that  the  local   women  wear  while  going  out.  By  that,  the  women  were  asked  kindly  if  they  were  local  and  if  yes  they  were   asked  if  they  could  give  a  minute  or  two  to  answer  the  questionnaire.       The  forth  environment  was  the  household  of  each  students  whom  are  writing  this  research  paper.  What  left   from  the  questionnaires  was  divided  between  them.  The  collected  data  from  the  family  members  show  a   deeper  sense  of  personal  information  and  that  the  majority  of  the  family  members  have  similar  habits.   The  survey  is  focusing  on  the  woman  in  the  UAE,  and  since  this  survey  will  focus  on  woman  being  exposed  to   the  media.  The  target  audiences  are  females  who  are  both  married  and  unmarried  but  at  an  age  from  16  and   above  since  this  is  the  age  group  that  is  most  likely  exposed  to  the  media.  This  being  said,  the  survey  will  only   focus  on  Emarati  local  woman  because  the  research  is  focusing  on  media  effects  of  woman’s  body  image  in   the  UAE.     The  size  of  the  sample  is  around  100  surveys  in  order  to  gather  enough  individual  data  to  judge  how  the   population  sample  respond  to  the  questions  and  to  keep  it  as  fair  as  possible.     The  candidates  will  be  picked  from  as  mentioned  before  from  a  population  in  four  different  environments.  The   strategy  will  be  selective  sampling  since  it  will  be  hard  to  do  a  random  sampling,  systematic,  quote  and  the   cluster  sample  due  to  the  lack  of  data  needed  to  perform  the  random  sampling  (ex  attendance  sheet).     There  were  several  issues  faced  while  conducting  the  survey  that  were  outside  the  control  of  the  researchers.   The  research  paper  was  supposed  to  be  adding  up  to  a  hundred  questionnaires  but  due  to  several  factors  we   ended  up  with  two  missing  and  one  half  answered.  The  questionnaire  didn't  have  an  arrow  indicating  that   there  is  more  in  the  back  that  is  the  reason  for  this  questionnaire  in  being  half  answered.  As  for  the  missing   two,  it  was  simply  out  of  the  researchers  control  where  the  candidates  couldn't  be  found  and  the   questionnaire  were  lost.   After  collecting  almost  100  samples  back,  an  excel  file  has  bee  created  to  ease  the  process  of  inserting   quantitative  data  onto  the  cells.  For  each  question  there  was  a  column  and  another  column  nearby  was   created  to  list  the  number  of  people  who  answered  the  specific  choice.    After  adding  the  numbers  onto  the   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

data,  a  chart  has  been  created  for  each  of  the  questions  and  a  percentage  was  added  inside  to  help  compare   along  with  its  value.    (see  appendices)     The  survey  are  hard  copy  that  means  that  they  are  in  double  sided  sheet  with  pens  and  pencils  provided  to  the   candidates  to  make  it  easy  for  them  to  answer.   Since  this  is  a  type  of  a  social  sampling,  there  was  no  need  for  any  budget  or  money  to  fund.  The  sheets  have   been  printed  from  university  for  free  and  the  places  that  were  accessed  were  free.     Results  and  discussion:       The  average  age  of  the  UAE  women  who  did  the  survey  are  between  age  17  and  25  years  old  and  the  average   of  their  weight  are  between  43kg  and  85kg.  Their  height  averages  are  between  147cm  and  178cm.  However,   the   charts   below   tell   the   percentage   of   each   question   in   the   survey   and   they   are   scale   between   1   and   7.   1   represents  the  strongly  disagreeing,  7  represents  the  strongly  agree  and  what  between  are  more  agree  and   more  disagree.      

I  exercise  

 

Daily   6%  

  Never   17%  

         

3  qmes   a  week   14%  

Monthl y   21%  

Twice  a   week   24%  

Once  a   week   18%  

  This  chart  shows  how  many  of  the  UAE  women  exercise.  The  highest  percentage  is  24%  and  that  tells   that  20  of  them  workout  twice  a  week.  While  next  higher  percentage  is  21%  and  that  tells  that  18  of  them   exercise  monthly.  The  lowest  percentages  are  14%  and  6%.  The  14%  tells  that  12  of  them  workout  at  least  3   times  a  week  while  6%  tells  5  of  them  workout  daily.     Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

It  wasn't  as  a  surprise  to  see  that  the  women  that  have  answered  the  questionnaire  aren't  exercising  as   much  where  the  “never”  shows  quite  a  high  percentage.  This  may  be  due  to  factors  such  as  no  time  because   of  work  or  university,    having  children,  married  and  unable  to  go  and  do  on.  However,  there  is  the  fact  that  it   may  also  due  for  not  bothering  to  work  out  or  not  caring.  In  the  questionnaire  that  was  conducted,  women   weren't  asked  the  reason  why  they  don't  work  out  because  the  beauty  of  this  questionnaire  is  focusing  on   psychological  effects  that  women  are  facing  regarding  body  image.                  

Never   7%  

  I  eat  fast  food:  (KFC,  Mc   Donald’s,  etc  )       3  qmes  a   week   15%  

Monthly   18%  

   

Daily   3%  

Once  a   Twice  a   week   week   27%   30%  

    This  chart  shows  how  often  do  women  of  UAE  eat  fast  food,  such  as  KFC,  McDonalds  and  etc.  As  what   is  mentioned,  the  highest  percentage  is  30%  or  20  of  them  do  eat  them  as  once  a  week.  The  next  higher   percentage  27%  or  18  of  them  eats  them  twice  a  week.  While,  the  lowest  percentages  are  3%  and  7%.  The  3%   or  2  of  them  eat  theses  types  of  food  as  a  daily  base  of  their  life  and  7%  or  5  of  them,  they  never  eat  them,   which  they  might  be  considered  as  a  healthy  people.   The  majority  of  the  women  who  answered  indicate  that  their  eating  habits  not  that  healthy.  It  shows  a  higher   percentage  in  eating  fast  food  than  having  a  healthy  diet.  There  is  a  contrast  between  this  chart  and  the  

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

10  


Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

exercise  chart,  there  is  a  high  percentage  here  and  a  higher  percentage  of  women  never  working  out  which   may  cause  a  hazard  to  their  health  as  the  data  shows.  

I  feel  like  I'm  fat  even  though   others  tell  me  I  look  fine     Strongly   Strongly   disagree                           agree                                  1   7   15%   2   22%   10%   3   10%  

6   18%   5   13%  

4   12%  

 This  chart  explains  how  emirates  women  feel  about  their  body  image  and  if  they  really  think  their  fat  even   though  others  like  their  family  and  friends  tell  them  they  do  look  fine  and  not  fat.  The  result  shows  that  about   the   quarter   -­‐22%-­‐   of   them   strongly   agree   with   the   state   and   they   are   the   majority.   While   the   lowest   percentage  is  15%  and  they  are  strongly  disagree  with  the  state.    It  was  sad  to  see  this  data  in  particular  because  all  women  are  beautiful  and  what  worse  than  you  not   accepting  your  self  when  other  have.  H.D.  Posavac,  S.S.  Posavac,  E.J.Posavac  (1998)  between  the  accepted   standard  of  female  attractiveness  and  their  own  bodies,  they  may  become  concerned  that  their  own  weight  in   not  acceptable.        

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

If  I  were  thin  I'd  like  myself   Strongly   disagree                           beWer.       1   2   6%   Strongly   agree                                   7   30%  

8%  

3   7%   4   16%  

6   18%  

5   15%  

  The   result   of   this   chart   tells   that   most   of   the   Emirati   women   will   feel   better   and   they   might   like   the   way   their   body   looks,   if   they   were   thinner.   However,   30%   of   them   strongly   agree   with   the   state   and   18%   are   more   agree.  While,  8%  of  them  strongly  disagree  and  6%  more  disagree.  Clearly,  it  shows  most  of  them  agree.   These  results  are  in  the  line  of  what  the  researchers  have  expected.            

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

Magazines  influence  the  way  I   Strongly   feel  about  m y  body.    

Strongly   agree                                   7   6%  

disagree                           1   6%  

6   11%  

2   15%  

5   24%  

3   17%   4   21%  

  This   chart   shows   how   influence   the   magazines   could   be   on   women   of   UAE   in   the   way   the   feel   about   their   body.   24%   of   them   more   agree   with   that   and   it   is   the   highest   percentage   on   the   chart.   While,   6%   are   strongly   disagree  with  that.  They  do  not  believe  the  magazines  influence  them  and  there  are  around  only  3  girls.   This  clearly  states  that  people  get  affected  while  seeing  images  in  the  magazine  even  though  most  of  them  are   not   natural   and   have   photo   shopped   in   many   cases.   Over   half   of   the   United   States   is   defined   as   clinically   overweight,  and  eighteen  percent  are  clinically  obese  (Brownell,2005)  ,  it  appears  many  of  them  have  been   influenced   by   the   television   ,   internet   ,   radio   and   so   on   ,   drastically   reducing   their   time   to   exercise,   move   around  and  eating  healthy.    Therefore  it  is  important  to  understand  how  people  behave  nowadays  regarding   health   and   body   images   so   that   little   changes   could   be   made   to   improve   their   lifestyle.   Like   said   before   (Derenne,2006)  Future  parents  could  prevent  the  next  generations  from  being  affected  or  yet  become  worse.  

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

I  think  about  calories  when   Strongly   I  eat.       disagree                           1   5%  

2   Strongly   agree                                   11%   7   21%  

3   10%  

6   13%  

5   19%  

4   21%  

  This  chart  shows  how  many  of  UAE  women  count  or  think  about  their  calories  they  consume  everyday.    The   highest  percentage  is  21%  and  that  tells  most  of  them  think  of  what  they  eat  and  it  is  equally  to  women  who   are  between  and  thinking  and  not  thinking.  The  lowest  percentage  in  this  chart  are  5%  .The  5%  are  strongly   disagree  and  they  never  have  a  thought  about  thinking  of  their  consuming  calories  they  eat.  

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

I  feel  that  society  pressures   Strongly   women  to  be  thin.      

disagree                           1   10%  

Strongly   agree                                   7   16%   6   13%  

2   16%  

3   13%  

5   13%   4   19%  

  This  chart  is  about  if  women  of  UAE  feel  that  the  society  is  pressuring  women  to  be  thin.  The  majority  feels   that  it  is  natural  for  19%  and  that  is  24  women  who  believe  in  that.  The  lowest  percentage  is  10%  and  they  are   strongly   disagreeing   with   the   state.   It   is   clearly   that   there   is   a   reputation   for   women   who   are   more   agree   to   a   group   who   is   more   disagree   but   overall   the   number   of   women   how   are   agree   more   than   those   who   think   the   society  doesn’t  pressures  women  to  be  thin.    

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

Rate  your  saZsfacZon  with  your   body  image        

Strongly   agree                                   7   8%  

5   6%  

Strongly   disagree                           1   21%  

6   10%  

4   10%  

2   22%   3   23%  

While  this  chart  is  showing  the  rate  of  the  satisfaction  of  women  of  UAE  with  their  body  image.  The  highest   percentage   is   23%   and   21%.   The   23%   is   there   are   natural   and   the   21%   says   they   are   strongly   disagreed   which   means   they   are   not   satisfied.   The   two   lowest   percentages   are   6%   and   8%.   The   6%   tells   they   are   nearly   agreed   and   satisfied   and   the   8%   of   them   strongly   agree   which   means   they   are   satisfied.   Overall   more   than   the   half   is   not  satisfied.   There  is  a  kind  of  contradiction  in  this  data  where  is  shows  that  the  highest  is  leaning  towards  strongly  agree   and  close  behind  it  with   percentage  it  shows  strongly   Please   i ndicate   b y   c ircling   t he   disagree.    

relevant  leWer  of  which  body  shape   you  would  rather  have?    

B   40%   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

A   60%  

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

  This  chart  shows  what  types  of  the  body  shape  or  feature  do  women  of  UAE  prefer  or  what  to  be  alike.  As   what   it   says   60%   of   the   women   choose   A,   which   is   the   skinny   woman.   While   the   other   half   choose   B,   which   is   the  healthy  woman.  Clearly,  the  media  is  affecting.   Even  though  the  image  B  is  of  a  healthy  balanced  curvy  woman,  most  of  the  people  preferred  to  be  extremely   skinny  and  thin  which  is  unhealthy  rather  than  being  healthy,  this  clearly  stated  the  media  influencing  people   to  be  extremely  skinny.    

I  feel  that  there  is  a  certain   image  that  women  are  expected   to  live  up  to.       Strongly   disagree                           Strongly   1   agree                                   2   9%   8%   7   27%   3   10%   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

6   14%  

5   17%  

4   15%  

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

  This  chart  is  about  how  many  women  of  UAE  feel  that  there  is  a  certain  image  that  they  should  be  to  live  up   to.  Most  of  them  strongly  agree  with  this  state  by  27%.  The  lowest  percent  is  8%  and  they  are  almost  strongly   disagreed.  As  a  result  most  women  of  UAE  believe  in  that  state.   The  majority  of  women  picked  strongly  agree  which  wasn't  a  surprise  to  the  researchers  because  they  have   expected  this  results.  Referring  to  the  literature  review,  Haegreaves,  A,  Tiggermann  (  2003)  researched  that   their  findings  suggests  that  the  media  may  have  an  indirect  impact  on  girls  body  image  through  influence  on   boys   expectations   and   evaluations   of   girls   appearance.   To   date,   however,   little   research   has   examined   the   impact  of  ongoing  exposure  to  attractive  and  unrealistically  thin  female  images  on  men  and  boys.  

A\er  watching  TV,  I  feel  more   self-­‐conscious  about  my  body   image.         Strongly   Strongly   disagree                           agree                                   1   7   14%   17%   6   2   5%   11%   5   15%   4   19%  

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

3   19%  

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

While   this   chart   is   about   what   do   women   of   UAE   feel   when   they   watch   TV   like   being   more   self-­‐conscious   about  their  body  image.  The  highest  percentage  is  19%  and  it  is  reputed  twice  but  we  can  say  most  of  them   silently   disagreed.   The   lowest   percentage   is   5%   and   its   more   agree.   As   a   result,   they   think   they   are   more   disagreeing  than  agreeing.   The  results  were  quit  surprising  since  the  researchers  expectations  were  different  and  leaning  more  towards   “strongly  agree”  but  the  majority  chose  natural.  Referring  back  to  literature  review,  Bisell,  K  (2004).  Thin-­‐  ideal   media   content   is   said   to   be   one   of   the   aspects   that   is   responsible   in   encouraging   body   disorder   and   image   perception  in  young  girls  and  university  women.  Entertainment  such  as  TV  exposure  sets  up  the  standards  of   thin-­‐ideal  media  content  that  is  related  to  endorsements  of  thinness  in  women.  Media  that  any  other  leads  to   higher  rate  of  body  dissatisfaction,  urge  to  be  thin,  anorexia  and  bulimia  in  young  girls  and  women.  

I  feel  that  the  media  portrays   the  average  female  body   correctly.           Strongly   disagree                           Strongly   agree                                   1   12%   2   7   8%   26%   3   11%   6  

9%  

5   23%  

4   11%  

 

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

19  


Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

This  chart  is  about  do  they  feel  that  the  media  portrays  the  average  female  body  correctly.  Most  of  who  did   the   survey   had   agreed   with   that.   The   highest   percent   is   26%.     The   lowest   percent   is   8%   and   they   are   more   strongly  disagreeing.  As  a  result,  most  of  women  of  UAE  believe  that  the  media  shows  the  right  body  image   that  average  women  should  look  alike.   This  data  shows  a  clash  when  comparing  to  other  data.  The  majority  of  women  mentioned  later  on  that  media   were  the  highest  common  factor  in  their  self  conscious  and  in  need  to  change  their  body  image.  However,  this   data  shows  that  media  doesn't  play  a  lead  role  in  that  factor  which  makes  the  researchers  think  that  there  is  a   two   chance   case.   Either   they   were   in   denial   or   they   didn't   understand   the   question.   Back   to   the   literature   review,   H.D.   Posavac,   S.S.   Posavac,   E.J.Posavac   (1998).The   ideal   image   of   feminine   attractiveness   currently   presented   in   the   media   is   rigid,   with   a   particular   emphasis   on   thinness.   Many   authors   have   suggested   that   media  of  attractiveness  may  be  responsible  for  the  normative  discontent  among  young  women  regarding  their   own  image.  Haegreaves,  A,  Tiggermann  (  2003).  Thus  the  media  repeated  presentation  of  thin  and  attractive   women,  frequently  paired  with  beauty  and  success,  may  leas  viewers  to  hole  largely  unrealistic  expectations   for  women's  appearance.  

 

Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

This  image  shows  what  do  women  of  UAE  think  about  an  image  of  an  average  woman.  23  of  them  think  she  is   curvy,   13   of   them   think   is   a   medium   size   and   8   of   them   think   she   is   fat.   While   the   others   has   different   description  like  chubby,  big  bone  and  fine.  Overall,  they  think  she  is  silently  fat.   There  was  a  qualitative  question  presented  to  the  candidates  to  describe  the  woman  in  the  picture.  To  start   with,  while  planning  the  questionnaire  there  was  some  difficulties  in  finding  a  way  in  analyzing  the  data.  There   were  many  solutions  presented,  to  make  a  box  with  3  to  4  words  which  are  positive,  negative  and  natural  but   then  the  research  paper  is  about  that  person  who's  answering  and  not  putting  limitation  to  the  many  words   that  can  be  used  and  that  is  the  beauty  in  conducting  such  a  research  paper.     There   were   many   words   used   and   many   ways   in   analyzing   the   data.   The   first   method   that   cam   up   is   grouping   the  words  either  negative  or  positive  in  circles.  The  larger  the  circle  shows  the  highest  percentage  of  people   using  that  word  in  the  questionnaire.  But  then  it  looked  a  bit  to  messy  so  another  chart  was  made  and  3  circles   were  presented.  The  positive  words  were  grouped  together  and  the  negative  words  were  grouped  together   while  the  natural  words  are  between  the  two  circles.  

      Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

21  


Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

  The  last  question  in  the  questionnaire  that  was  conducted  it  asked  the  women  “  what  motivates  me  to  change   my  body  image?”.  There  were  many  answers  and  some  weren't  in  forms  of  words  but  sentences  so  when  it   came  in  analyzing  the  data  it  was  taken  of  the  theme  of  the  sentence.  The  results  showed  that  there  were  3   categories  represented  and  they  are  ‘  Me’,  ‘Peers’  and  ‘Social  media’.  The  data  was  represented  in  three  boxes   the  largest  box  shows  the  highest  amount  of  people  referring  to  ‘social  media’  where  celebrity  and  TV  series   have  been  the  major  impact  on  these  women  that  were  asked.  The  second  was  ‘peers’  where  it  showed  family   and   friends   influencing   but   mostly   influenced   by   friends.   The   smallest   box,   which   got   the   least,   was   ‘Me’,   women  being  healthy  for  them  selves.             Conclusion     In  conclusion,  this  research  paper  is  about  the  media  influence  on  the  way  women  think  of  their  body  image.   Television   commercials,   magazines,   radios   are   some   examples   of   the   media.     It   proved   by   the   survey   that   had   been  given  to  majority  of  UAE  women  that  media  is  affecting  their  body  image  and  on  how  they  criticize  other   women.  Also,  the  survey  showed  that  most  of  the  UAE  women  believe  that  the  media  portrays  the  average   female  body  correctly  and  they  are  not  satisfied  about  their  body  image  even  though  others  tell  them  they  are   normal.  As  a  result  they  believe  if  they  are  thinner  they  will  be  much  better  and  some  of  them  tend  to  think  of   counting   calories.   As   our   view   of   point,   in   future   the   media   will   change   their   message   for   showing   a   skinny   modes  to  an  average  modes  because  nowadays  people  is  asking  for  that.         Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

22  


Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

                    Reference  and  Citations  :     Bissell, K.( 2004). What do these messages really mean? Sports media exposure, sports participation, and body image disortion in women between that ages of 18 and 75. Journalism and mass communication quarterly. 81.1 108-123 Body Image and Self-Esteem. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Kids Health: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/body_image/body_image.html Catterin, Jill A, Thompson J, Kevin, Carmen Williams, Robyn. Body Image, Mood and televised images of attractiveness: The Role of Social Comparison. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , June 2000 : 220-239 Christina Russell. (2000). Exercise and Fitness: Media’s influence on body image. Central Michigan University. Derenne JL. (2006).Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Academic psychiatry. Derenne, J. L. (2010, June 17). Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Retrieved April 14, 2011, from Search Proquest: http://search.proquest.com/docview/196508089 Grogan S. (1998). Body image: understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women, and Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

children. Routledge Ltd. Haegreaves.A, Tiggermann. M .( 2003). Female ‘ thin ideal’ media images and boys attitudes towards girls. H.D. Posavac, S.S. Posavac, E.J. Posavac. (1998). Exposure to media images of female attractivness and concern with body weight among young women. University of Utah, Loyola University Chicago. Hill GJ. (2009).Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?. Journal of family and consumer sciences. Jennifer L. Derenne, M. a. (2010, May). Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from AP Psychiatry online: http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/30/3/257?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFO RMAT=&author1=Derenne&title=Body+Image+Media+and+Eating+Disorders&andorexacttitle=or&se archid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&volume=30&firstpage=257&resourcetype=HWCIT Kamalipour and Rampal. (2001).Media, Sex, Violence, and Drugs in the Global Village. Rowman & Kuttlefield inc. K Harrison, V. Hefner. (2005). Media exposure, current and future body ideas and eating disordered eating among preadolebibliography Bissell, K.( 2004). What do these messages really mean? Sports media exposure, sports participation, and body image disortion in women between that ages of 18 and 75. Journalism and mass communication quarterly. 81.1 108-123 Body Image and Self-Esteem. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Kids Health: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/body_image/body_image.html Catterin, Jill A, Thompson J, Kevin, Carmen Williams, Robyn. Body Image, Mood and televised images of attractiveness: The Role of Social Comparison. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , June 2000 : 220-239 Christina Russell. (2000). Exercise and Fitness: Media’s influence on body image. Central Michigan University. Derenne JL. (2006).Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Academic psychiatry. Derenne, J. L. (2010, June 17). Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Retrieved April Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

14, 2011, from Search Proquest: http://search.proquest.com/docview/196508089 Grogan S. (1998). Body image: understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. Routledge Ltd. Haegreaves.A, Tiggermann. M .( 2003). Female ‘ thin ideal’ media images and boys attitudes towards girls. H.D. Posavac, S.S. Posavac, E.J. Posavac. (1998). Exposure to media images of female attractivness and concern with body weight among young women. University of Utah, Loyola University Chicago. Hill GJ. (2009).Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?. Journal of family and consumer sciences. Jennifer L. Derenne, M. a. (2010, May). Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from AP Psychiatry online: http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/30/3/257?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFO RMAT=&author1=Derenne&title=Body+Image+Media+and+Eating+Disorders&andorexacttitle=or&se archid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&volume=30&firstpage=257&resourcetype=HWCIT Kamalipour and Rampal. (2001).Media, Sex, Violence, and Drugs in the Global Village. Rowman & Kuttlefield inc. K Harrison, V. Hefner. (2005). Media exposure, current and future body ideas and eating disordered eating among preadolescence girls: a longitudinal panel study. Journal of Youth and adolescence vol. 35 Mc Cabe, Marita P, Lina, Mellor, David,Kylie.(2005). Media Influences on Body Image and disordered Eating Among Indigenous Adolescent Australians. Myers, D. G. (2009). Psychology in Everyday Life. United States of America : Catherine Woods. Moussly, R. (2010, May 23). Falling prey to eating disorders. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Gulf News: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/education/falling-prey-to-eating-disorders-1.630591 Sparhawk, J. M. (2003, Augest). BODY IMAGE AND THE MEDIA. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Uwstout: http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2003/2003sparhawkj.pdf Thomas J, K. S. (2010, Feburary 19). Eating attitudes and body image concerns among Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

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Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

female university students in the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved April 2011, 15, from NCBI: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172004 scence girls: a longitudinal panel study. Journal of Youth and adolescence vol. 35 Mc Cabe, Marita P, Lina, Mellor, David,Kylie.(2005). Media Influences on Body Image and disordered Eating Among Indigenous Adolescent Australians. Myers, D. G. (2009). Psychology in Everyday Life. United States of America : Catherine Woods. Moussly, R. (2010, May 23). Falling prey to eating disorders. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Gulf News: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/education/falling-prey-to-eating-disorders-1.630591 Sparhawk, J. M. (2003, Augest). BODY IMAGE AND THE MEDIA. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from Uwstout: http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2003/2003sparhawkj.pdf Thomas J, K. S. (2010, Feburary 19). Eating attitudes and body image concerns among female university students in the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved April 2011, 15, from NCBI: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172004                    

Appendices:  

 

 

   

Survey  sample   Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

26  


Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image    

 

 

 

Database   Charts                                           Media  effects  on  women’s  body  image  in  the  UAE    

27  


Weight study