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• Electric Steelmaking Technologies • AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup • AIST 2016 North and South American DRI Roundup

A Publication of the Association for Iron & Steel Technology


ADVANCING THE TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND APPLICATION OF IRON AND STEEL January 2016

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Vol. 13, No. 1

2015–2016 Board of Directors President George J. Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc. Past President Glenn A. Pushis, vice president — sheet products, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Flat Roll Group First Vice President Wendell L. Carter, vice president and general manager, ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor Second Vice President Randy C. Skagen, vice president and general manager, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc. Officers-at-Large James F. Dudek, general manager, Strategy and Transformation, United States Steel Corporation Ronald J. O’Malley, F. Kenneth Iverson Chair, professor, and director, Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology Steven J. Henderson, vice president and chief supply chain officer, CMC Americas Keith J. Howell Treasurer Joseph T. Dzierzawski, president and chief executive officer, SMS USA LLC Secretary Ronald E. Ashburn, executive director, Association for Iron & Steel Technology Foundation President Steven S. Hansen, vice president and chief technical officer, SSAB Americas Directors William R. Allan, Ramboll ENVIRON Damon E. Burrow, Nucor Steel–Texas Charles J. Cinkowski, United States Steel Corporation Amy J. Clarke, Los Alamos National Laboratory Charles A. Copeland, AK Steel Corp. – Dearborn Works Barry C. Felton, ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor Brad S. Garwacki, Globex Corp. Adam Z. Horrex, Nucor Steel–South Carolina Lauren D. Keating, United States Steel Corporation Kalyan K. Khan, U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center Michael A. Kinney, CMC Steel South Carolina Kamalesh Mandal, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Flat Roll Group Sam A. Matson, CMC Americas Cory F. Mecham, Falk RENEW Mike D. Morson, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. Paul J. O’Kane, OneSteel Ltd. Richard H. Smith, Carpenter Technology Corp. Grant A. Thomas, AK Steel Research

IN THIS ISSUE Electric Steelmaking

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52

61

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2015–2016 Foundation Board of Trustees

T. Kurela and N. Lugo

Improvement of EAF Process and Refractory Consumption by Advanced Slag Modeling M. Kirschen, A. Hanna and K.M. Zettl

Start-Up and Commissioning of the DRI Handling System for Nucor Hertford’s EAF

B. Trumble, T. Greene, F. Memoli, S. Guzmán and K. Shoop

Performance Experience of the MultiROB at BSW — How Safety, Productivity and Accuracy Go Hand in Hand P. Hansert, R. Stech and M. Quant

Flexibility in EAF Operations at Nucor Steel–Arkansas With DRI

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T. Tirabassi, J. Hicks and D. Pantello

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Iron & Steel Technology

• Electric Steelmaking Technologies • AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup • AIST 2016 North and South American DRI Roundup

ON THE COVER

Vol. 13, No. 1

Photo courtesy of A Publication of the Association for Iron & Steel Technology

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New single-bucket-charge upper and lower electric arc furnace shells (6,500 ft3 /184 m3 ) going into service at Nucor-Yamato Steel Co., Blytheville, Ark., USA.

January 2016

President Steven S. Hansen, vice president and chief technical officer, SSAB Americas Past President Frederick T. Harnack, retired, United States Steel Corporation President-Elect Kolin L. Keller, vice president — operations support for CMC Americas, CMC Steel Texas Treasurer Joseph T. Dzierzawski, president and chief executive officer, SMS USA LLC Secretary Ronald E. Ashburn, executive director, Association for Iron & Steel Technology Trustees David L. Britten, senior vice president and chief technology officer, United States Steel Corporation William H. Emling, vice president — steelmaking and casting, SMS USA LLC Terry G. Fedor II, executive vice president, U.S. iron ore operations, Cliffs Natural Resources Eric D. Hauge, vice president and general manager, ArcelorMittal Cleveland Scott J. Laurenti, melt/cast manager, Nucor Steel–Utah Theodore F. Lyon, managing director — Iron & Steel, Hatch Associates Inc. Jerry P. Nelesen Jr., executive vice president, AKJ Industries Inc. Yuan Wang, vice president of mill operations, Gerdau Long Steel North America Chenn Q. Zhou, director, Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium, Purdue University Calumet

Detection and Resolution of Adverse Meltshop Conditions Through the Use of the GrafTech ArchiTech System


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SPECIAL FEATURES IN THIS ISSUE

33 39

83

84

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112 High-Strength Interstitial-Free Steel Obtained Using FeC Amorphous Films and Induction Heating for Packaging Applications and Cladding With Lighter Metals for Car Body Panels

Interview With Ted Lyon, AIST Foundation Trustee Safety First: Wired Glass for Industrial Applications J. MacPherson

 he AIST Road Show Visits Steel Dynamics Inc. – T Engineered Bar Products Division AIST Italy Steel Forum 2015 100 102 106

2015 T.C. Graham Prize Winner E. Cantergiani, C. Scott, B. Lawrence and C. Sinclair

119 Materials Science & Technology (MS&T15) Review 123 Call for Entries: AIST 2016 Reliability Achievement Award 124 CRU 9th North American Steel Conference 2015 Review 126 AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup 151 AIST/IAS Maintenance, Lubrication, Hydraulics and Forensic Engineering Seminar 159 2015 Emerging Leaders Alliance Conference Recap 160 AIST 2016 North and South American DRI Roundup 164 Danieli: Year in Review 2014–2015 204 36-Year Life Member: Hardarshan Singh Valia

Preliminary Information

Floor Plan Preliminary List of Exhibitors Sponsorship Opportunities

110 Innovation in Steel Applications: The 2015 T.C. Graham Prize Recipient

ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Association News

Departments

9 15 23 26 43 216 220 221

Steel News Industry Statistics Strategic Insights From WSD Personnel Spotlight Legal Perspectives New Products & Resources Advertisers Index Steel Calendar

7 President’s Message 14 Association Update 30 Foundation Update 36 2016–2017 AIST Scholarships Call for Applications 154 Technology Committees 171 Upcoming Technology Training Conferences and Seminars 184 Member Chapters 188 2015–2016 Member Chapter Officers 198 AIST Membership Recognition 206 AIST Life Members

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Technology Committee Chairs Safety & Health Barry J. Momyer, AM Health & Safety Inc. Environmental Conrad N. D’Costa, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. Cokemaking Samuel S. Sheyn, AK Steel Corp. – Middletown Works Ironmaking Albert J. Dzermejko, Magneco/Metrel Inc. Direct Reduced Iron Angelo Manenti, Tenova Electric Steelmaking Stephan A. Ferenczy, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Structural & Rail Div. Oxygen Steelmaking Nenad Radoja, Connors Industrials Inc. Specialty Alloy & Foundry Mark A. Suer, Special Metals Corp. Ladle & Secondary Refining Sunday O. Abraham, SSAB Iowa Inc. Continuous Casting Richard Besich, ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor Hot Sheet Rolling Randy D. Patterson, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Flat Roll Group Butler Cold Sheet Rolling Matt Baur, AK Steel Corp. Galvanizing Mark M. Marietti, AK Steel Corp. – Dearborn Works Tinplate Mill Products David J. White, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. Plate Rolling Corey D. Ivey, Nucor Steel–Hertford County

Rod & Bar Rolling Matthew L. Blitch, Nucor Steel–Nebraska Pipe & Tube Keith Tuma, United States Steel Corporation Rolls Terry Boyd, Nucor Steel–Arkansas Metallurgy — Steelmaking & Casting Roger L. Maddalena, Vesuvius USA Metallurgy — Processing, Products & Applications Amy B. Woods, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Flat Roll Group Butler Energy & Utilities Mark C. Kampe, CEC Combustion Safety Electrical Applications Sean C. Marlow, Steel Dynamics Inc. – Flat Roll Group Butler Computer Applications David Reynolds, Nucor Steel Gallatin Project & Construction Management Andrew C. Sarat, CMC Steel Arizona Maintenance & Reliability Jeffrey G. Blankenship, Maintenance Reliability Solutions Inc. Lubrication & Hydraulics James J. Sidow Jr., Fuchs Lubricants Co. Refractory Systems Albert E. Dainton, Vesuvius USA Material Handling Everette Davis Jr., Nucor Steel–Berkeley Cranes Robert R. Askew, Nucor Steel–Hertford County Transportation & Logistics Donald R. Spencer, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc.

Member Chapter Secretaries and Chairs Ohio Valley Tom Euson +1.513.202.5070 (secretary) Grant Thomas, AK Steel Research (chair) Philadelphia Jose de Jesus +1.484.767.7169 (secretary) P.K. Ghosh, Gerdau Long Steel North America Sayreville Mill (chair) Pittsburgh Robert Conley +1.412.721.4483 (secretary) Bernie Marrese, Universal Stainless & Alloy Products (chair) San Francisco Adrian Deneys +1.925.866.6838 (secretary) Tom Anderson, PSI Technics Ltd. (chair) Southeast Michael D. Hutson +1.704.730.8320 (secretary) Kyle Lysitt, Nucor Steel–Hertford County (chair) Southern California Michael P. Olson +1.909.350.6033 (secretary) Daniel Housel, California Steel Industries Inc. (chair) Southwest Open (secretary) Wade Hedrick, Nucor Steel–Texas (chair) St. Louis Stephen Pappas +1.314.324.4459 (secretary) Brian Young, Global Brass and Copper Inc. – Olin Brass (chair) Globe-Trotters Kyle Kingsbury +1.217.778.0886 (secretary — meltshop) Adam Horrex, Nucor Steel–South Carolina (chair — meltshop) Steve Pegg +1.614.403.5658 (secretary — rolling mill) Neil Parker, Gerdau Long Steel North America Midlothian Mill (chair — rolling mill)

Technical Editor Jennifer M. Emling Production Editor Janet A. McConnell News Editor Sam Kusic Lead Graphic Designer Christopher P. Brown Graphic Designer Carolyn A. Trobaugh Graphic Designer Krista J. McGhee

(ISSN 1547-0423) Published monthly by AIST. Editorial and advertising offices at 186 Thorn Hill Road, Warrendale, PA 15086 USA. Preferred Periodicals postage paid at Warrendale, Pa., and at additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Iron & Steel Technology, 186 Thorn Hill Road, Warrendale, PA 15086 USA. Statements and opinions given in articles, news items and advertisements in AIST Iron & Steel Technology are the expressions of contributors and advertisers, for which AIST assumes no responsibility. Publication does not constitute endorsement by AIST. Single copy U.S., Canada and Mexico, $20. Single copy other countries, $35. Subscription price U.S., Canada and Mexico, $165 per year. Subscription price other countries, $205 per year (U.S. funds). Printed in USA. Copyright 2016, AIST. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Indexed by Engineering Index Inc., 345 E. 45th St., New York, NY 10017 USA, by Applied Science and Technology Index, H.W. Wilson Co., 950 University Ave., Bronx, NY 10452 USA and by Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory — US ISSN 15470423, R.R. Bowker Co., 205 E. 42nd St., New York, NY 10017 USA. Microfilmed by ProQuest Information and Learning Co., Ann Arbor, Mich. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40612608. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: IMEX Global Solutions, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2 Canada.

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Cold Sheet Rolling, Processing, Coating and Finishing

Technical Editor Amanda L. Blyth

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IN OUR NEXT ISSUE

Managing Editor Karen D. Hickey

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Argentina The Argentina Member Chapter is currently working to appoint new executive committee members. Australia Len Woods +64 21 527 348 (secretary) Paul O’Kane, OneSteel Ltd. (chair) Baltimore Arthur J. Hamm +1.410.866.8990 (secretary) Calvin Keeney (chair) Birmingham Anna Voss +1.256.560.4489 (secretary) Trevor Saunders, Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc. (chair) Brazil Ronaldo Santos Sampaio +55 31 3225 3472 (secretary) Otavio Sanabio, O&S Consultoria e Serviços Ltda. (chair) Detroit Roger Kalinowsky +1.248.349.4500 (secretary) Richard Kritikos, U. S. Steel — Great Lakes Works (chair) India Bimalendu N. Mukhopadhyay +0091 9836 126600 (secretary) Anand Sen, Tata Steel Ltd. (chair) Korea Akira Asaka +81 45 681 2922 (secretary) Sun Cheer Sheen, Donghae SteelTech Corp. (chair) Mexico Homero Menchaca +81 8309 7750 (secretary) Rafael Colás, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Léon – FIME (chair) Midwest Mario Munguia +1.219.789.1416 (secretary) Love Kalra, ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor (chair) Northeastern Ohio Donald Salsbury +1.440.835.9400 (secretary) Larry Marks, TimkenSteel Corp. (chair) Northern Cameron Mitchell +1.905.548.7200 (secretary) Wayne Thompson, Commercial Oil Co. (chair) Northwest Patrick Jablonski +1.206.933.2205 (secretary) Chuck Berrier, Cascade Steel Rolling Mills Inc. (chair)

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President’s Message

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AIST’s Strategic Objectives for the Year Ahead

Dear members, It’s a pleasure for me to introduce a streamlined version of Iron & Steel Technology with this first issue of 2016. Last year, we conducted a survey of I&ST’s readership, and the valuable feedback led us to make some changes. We’ve moved some content online, eliminated a few extraneous items and also tweaked the design of the inside pages. A more detailed explanation of the changes appears on page 14. We hope you’ll like what you see, and we welcome additional comments and feedback. AIST held its annual Leadership Conference in November 2015. Attendance to this event is by invitation only to all AIST Technology Committee officers, Member Chapter officers and the Board of Directors. The objectives are to enhance industry value through participation in AIST activities, and to build strong leaders for our association and the steel industry. We also utilize this group to evolve the association’s strategic plan by reviewing the challenges, desired outcomes and tactics associated with our current strategic initiatives: • Globalization of Networks and Programs Desired Outcome: By the end of 2020, we expect to have 25% of our membership from outside of North America (currently 19.6%). • Membership Retention and Growth Desired Outcome: By the end of 2020, we expect AIST professional membership will reach 16,500 (currently 12,442). • Industry Training and Education Desired Outcome: By the end of 2020, we expect AIST will have 30,000 annual registered program participants and 250 annual formal education programs (currently 24,083 participants and 178 programs). • University and Student Engagement Desired Outcome: By the end of 2020, we expect AIST will award US$1,000,000 per year for educational funding, place 50 steel internships and reach 6,000 Material Advantage student members (currently US$725,000 funding, 13 internships and 5,090 student members).

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George Koenig

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Best regards,

AIST President 2015–2016

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

These strategic initiatives were reviewed during the conference, and our leaders determined several specific tactics for 2016 to assist in reaching our goals. These tactics include several enhancements to our Young Professionals program, a comprehensive social media strategy, broader communication of the latest technical developments, and more programs to bolster AIST brand awareness, including the AIST Road Show. You’ll see more details as 2016 unfolds. Finally, we at AIST are gearing up for AISTech 2016 in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA, to be held 16–19 May. The hotel space and plant tours always sell out, so make your plans now to attend. AISTech is steel’s premier technology event, and is the largest annual event of its kind. You won’t want to miss the extensive technical program, the world’s biggest annual steel-related exposition, as well as numerous networking opportunities. Register today at AIST.org!

George J. Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc.


Get the most up-to-date news at SteelNews.com FREE for AIST members

Steel News

U. S. Steel idling Illinois steel works

Also in the News

North America — United States Steel Corporation is temporarily idling steelmaking and finishing operations at its Granite City Works in Illinois, the company has announced. The company said the closure is necessary due to “continued challenging global market conditions, including fluctuating oil prices, reduced rig counts and associated inventory overhang, depressed steel prices, and unfairly traded imports, which continue to have a significant impact on the business.” The company will be working closely with its customers as it shifts production to other mills. Steelmaking operations in Indiana, Michigan

• Liberty Steel, a top-ranked service center in northeast Ohio, held a ribbon-cutting ceremony for its new Butech Bliss state-of-the-art multi-blanking line at its North Jackson facility. The multi-blanking line features entry handling equipment, Synergy® hydraulic roller leveler, hydraulic crop shear, dual arbor scrap chopper, slitter with interchangeable heads, looping pit and direct drive shear.

and Pennsylvania, and some finishing operations in Alabama, are unaffected by the decision. In October 2015, U. S. Steel put Granite City employees on notice that it was considering a temporary shutdown. Granite City principally supplies flat steel to the company’s Lone Star tubular division in Texas. The steel works has two blast furnaces and finishing operations that include a hot strip mill, a pickling line, a 4-stand cold reduction mill and hot-dip galvanizing lines. There is no timetable for re-opening the plant, according to a company spokeswoman.

SMS wraps up modernization project at Nucor strip mill North America — SMS group has completed upgrades to Nucor Steel– Berkeley’s compact strip production (CSP®) plant in Huger, S.C., USA, the company has announced. Under the project, the plant’s final strip width was increased from 1,680 to 1,880 mm, making it one of the widest CSP plants in the world, according to SMS. The double-strand plant has been in service since 1996. The project

consisted of a revamp to one of the two CSP casters, the extension of the CSP rolling mill, renewal of the X-Pact® electrical and automation systems, and the addition of an SMS Elotherm induction heating system upstream of the rolling mill. SMS said the CSP caster was fitted with new molds, a new four-cylinder oscillation system, wider segments, and a new bending and straightening unit. With implementation of the

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• ABB, a leader in energy and automation technologies, celebrated the inauguration of its new hightech Measurement & Analytics facility on 27 October 2015 in Quebec City, Que., Canada. The new 85,000-square-foot facility is located in the Espace d’innovation Michelet, a next-generation technological park in Quebec City, and represents a US$20-million investment. The building is LEED certified, aligning with ABB’s commitment to sustainable development. This center of excellence will serve various industrial markets.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

• Tamini Trasformatori Srl and TES Transformer Electro Service Srl have combined their businesses, effective 30 October 2015. The two companies will operate as a single entity, with the aim of focusing their efforts, further accelerating their own growth and sharing the best available skills. Two business units have been set up: BU Industrial, led by Riccardo Reboldi, will operate through the new TAMINITES brand; and BU Power, headed by Alberto Iperti. The service area, under the supervision of Angelo Saccone, integrates the business experience of both entities to better support customers.

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SMS group’s compact strip production (CSP®) plant.


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Steel News Liquid Core Reduction (LCR 3) module in the containment zone, the thickness of the thin slabs can be infinitely adjusted between 48 and 63 mm. SMS also added a seventh finishing stand to the rolling mill. The new stand features CVC plus® technology, as do the other six. The rolling mill also was outfitted with a new X-Pact level 2 automation system. The system provides controls for profile, contour and flatness, as well as a cooling model.

The addition of the induction heating system, which sits between the furnace and the rolling mill, gives plant operators the ability to raise temperatures of thin slabs before they are rolled. That allows for greater reductions per pass and, ultimately, an expanded range of thin-gauge products. Additionally, SMS said, the heating system allows the plant to further reduce its energy consumption. By flexibly adjusting the thin-slab temperature prior to rolling, the

furnace temperature can now be lowered to a level suitable for rolling the majority of the steel grades and strip gauges without compromising process stability or the product quality, the company said. For all strips requiring a higher entry temperature, the inductive heating systems will provide the extra heating. By means of this concept, it is possible to achieve both the extensive product range typical of the CSP technology and marked savings on energy.

Iron ore glut weighs heavily on two producers North America — With too much iron ore on hand and too few takers, one producer is curtailing production while another has given notice that it may do the same in January. On 17 November, Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. announced that it would idle pellet production at its Northshore Mining operation in Minnesota. The following day, Magnetation LLC filed notice under the U.S. Department of Labor’s Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act that it may mothball its No. 2 plant in Bovey, Minn., USA.

Cliffs chairman and chief executive officer Lourenco Goncalves said the company’s pellet inventory is at a seasonally historic high. Idling the facility will allow the company to work off inventory in advance of 2016 orders. The operation, which is made up of a mine and a taconite pellet plant, employs roughly 540 people. Many of those employees were put out of work in December, though some were retained to perform basic maintenance and to support

ongoing work at the company’s direct reduction pellet trials. Meanwhile, Magnetation, a joint venture between Minnesota-based Magnetation Inc. and flat rolled steelmaker AK Steel Corp., said that given the market uncertainty, it had no choice but to acknowledge the potential for production cuts. Magnetation recovers high-quality iron ore concentrate from abandoned iron ore waste piles and tailings basins.

Primetals setting up briquetting plant at new HBI facility

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

North America — Primetals Technologies has won an order for a residuals briquetting plant to be installed at voestalpine’s new hot briquetted iron (HBI) facility in the United States. According to Primetals, the briquetting plant will allow the facility to recycle roughly 160,000 metric tons of dusts, sludges and pellet fines per year. The briquettes it produces will be used as a substitute for pellets to make HBI.

Primetals and partner Midrex are engineering the HBI plant for voestalpine. The HBI plant will be capable of producing 2 million tons annually. Half of its production is intended for voestalpine’s Austrian steel works in Linz and Donawitz. The remainder will be sold on the market under long-term supply contracts. Adding a briquetting plant to the facility will save on resources, as all

byproducts will be recycled, Primetals said. Under the order, Primetals will provide the process know-how and plant engineering; supply some of the equipment, including the electrical installation and automation systems; and commission the fines recycling plant. The HBI facility is being built in Texas and is scheduled for start-up this year.

Grupo Simec plans to invest US$600M in new SBQ mill North America — Mexican special bar quality (SBQ) manufacturer Grupo Simec is planning to build a greenfield mini-mill capable of producing 600,000 tons of SBQ products per year, the company has announced. Simec plans to invest US$600 million in the mill, which will make

SBQ large round blooms, largediameter bars and wire rod. Startup is scheduled for the end of 2017. The mill will incorporate specialized, world-class technology and include automation equipment to assist in producing high-quality steel grades.

Danieli SpA has been contracted to outfit the mill, which will include a meltshop, secondary refining, round billet casting, hot rolling, online heat treatment of long products, in-line cold finishing bar inspection facilities and an advanced wire rod line.


11 Danieli Automation is to supply all electrical components and an advanced level 1 and 2 automation system for the mill.

Simec said the project is being funded through cash flows. It will be built close to its existing SBQ minimill in the state of Tlaxcala. That

mill is capable of producing 400,000 tons annually of small-diameter bars and flats.

Nucor to acquire cold finish bar assets in Ohio and Georgia North America — Nucor Corp. has acquired two Gerdau Long Steel bright bar facilities for an undisclosed amount, Nucor has announced. Located in Orrville, Ohio, USA, and Cartersville, Ga., USA, the facilities manufacture cold drawn steel bars for steel service centers and other markets across the U.S. They have a combined production capacity of 75,000 tons per year. The acquisition closed in November 2015. In a statement, Nucor chairman and chief executive officer John Ferriola said the acquisition will advance Nucor’s competitive

ThyssenKrupp testing coke oven emissions scrubbing process

deal will improve Nucor’s geographic coverage and expand its product range.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Europe — ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions, in conjunction with Berlin Technical University and Thyssen­ K rupp’s Schwelgern coke plant, is testing a pilot facility that converts process gas into ammonium bicarbonate. The facility produces the compound through a complex process in which coke oven gas is scrubbed and carbon dioxide is added. The ammonium bicarbonate can be used in nitrogen fertilizers or as propellants and foaming agents for plastics or porous ceramics. It also has uses in the food industry as a type of baking soda. The company said that initial results have so far been promising. Sebastian Riethof, a Berlin Technical University scientist, said that they have been able to utilize 95% of the ammonia contained in the coke oven gas. Every hour, the process yields 15 kg of solid materials from 15 m3 of coke oven gas and 2 m3 of carbon dioxide. Given those outputs, the chemical products can be manufactured competitively, the company said.

position in cold finished bar and increases its downstream market participation. He added that the


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Steel News Peter Liszio, the coke plant’s managing director, said that almost all of the plant’s process gas already is

being recycled. But if the pilot facility proves to be successful, it would

be a breakthrough in productivity and resource efficiency.

The Timken Co. announces plans for second Romanian facility Europe — Bearings manufacturer The Timken Co. is planning to build a new plant in Romania, its second facility in the country, the company has announced. The plant will make Timken’s tapered roller bearings of up to 300mm diameters for the global markets. The company said it expects to break ground on the 15,000-squaremeter site during the first quarter of

2016, with start-up slated for early 2017. The new facility will strengthen the company’s European footprint. The investment advances Timken’s strategic growth plan, DeltaX, which includes geographic expansion, competitive manufacturing and accelerating product developmentto-commercialization activities. Timken has 63 manufacturing plants and service centers around

the world, eight of which are in Italy, France, Poland, Romania and the United Kingdom. Its first Romanian plant began operations in 1997. Timken will leverage the proximity to its existing plant in Ploesti and rely on its infrastructure and a well-established talent pipeline to expand the company’s capabilities.

SSAB completes blast furnace modernization, puts new BOF converter into production Europe — The first of three new BOF (LD) converters at SSAB Europe’s Raahe, Finland, works has been placed into production, according to the vendor on the project, Primetals Technologies. SSAB is replacing the plant’s three existing converters with units that feature detachable bottoms, bottom-stirring systems and optimized geometry, allowing for a larger reaction volume and an improved refractory lining design. Primetals is providing the engineering for the converter vessels, trunnion rings and Vaicon Link 2.0 maintenance-free suspension systems. The converters feature the Vaicon stopper to minimize slag transfer on tapping.

The tips of the blowing lances are being adapted to the new converter geometry, thereby improving the blowing process. Primetals Technologies is also responsible for monitoring the pre-assembly and installation work, as well as the commissioning. The other converters are scheduled to be put into service in stages through August 2016. SSAB Raahe works is the largest of its kind in the Nordic countries. It has two blast furnaces, three BOF converters, secondary metallurgical systems and three continuous casting systems. The plant can produce up to 2.6 million metric tons of steel annually. SSAB modernized the plant’s blast furnaces several years ago,

replacing a heavy-fuel oil injection system with a pulverized coal injection system. Those upgrades, along with upgrades to another blast furnace in Luleå, Sweden, are expected to save the company SEK200 million in annual costs. As part of the Luleå upgrades, SSAB replaced the hearth carbon refractories and furnace cooling staves. It also installed a new casthouse de-dusting filter and revamped the plant’s two converters. The project has been completed, and the Luleå furnace is again producing crude iron. All told, SSAB has five Nordic blast furnaces capable of producing 6.4 million metric tons annually. However, one of the five furnaces was idled in October.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

POSCO orders vertical annealing furnace for new galvanizing line Asia — The Fives engineering group has won a contract to design and build a high-performance vertical annealing furnace for a POSCO plant, the company has announced. The furnace is to be installed on a new hot-dip galvanizing line at POSCO’s Gwangyang Works in South Korea. The continuous galvanizing line (CGL) is the seventh at the steel works and is being added to support

production of galvanized, galvannealed and advanced high-strength steels. The line will be capable of producing 500,000 tons annually. Fives will outfit the line with its latest-generation Stein Digiflex vertical annealing furnace, which is equipped with the latest AdvanTek radiant tube combustion system, which is fueled by coke oven gas, and its patented Flash Cooling

technology. The technology operates at a high H2 rate of up to 65% H2. Fives supplied two other vertical annealing furnaces in the plant. The furnaces, which are on CGL No. 5 and CGL No. 6, help make exposed panels and high-strength steel grades. F


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14

Association Update AIST announces creation of 30th Technology Committee: DRI The Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST)’s board of directors approved the formation of the Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Technology Committee on 17 November 2105. This marks AIST’s 30th Technology Committee to address specific process, engineering, equipment or reliability technologies associated with the iron and steel industry. Initially a subcommittee of the Ironmaking Technology Committee, the DRI Technology Committee (DRITC) became its own entity due to the increase in use of DRI in modern steel mills. The DRITC will focus on the emerging market and technological trends for the production, handling and use of DRI and hot briquetted iron products, as well as present and future technology for alternative iron production. Mark Rosi will serve as the AIST staff engineer for the DRITC.

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Check out AIST’s interactive, online steel manufacturing process AIST has collaborated with Purdue University Calumet’s Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) and the Colorado School of Mines’ Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center to create a unique, online and interactive view of the steel manufacturing process with The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel® Wheel. This one-of-a-kind module allows users to click on each phase of steelmaking to gain a deeper understanding of the process through videos and images. Each section provides detailed explanations of the functions, equipment and materials used. The experience starts in the center of the wheel with the three fundamental ingredients (iron, carbon and calcium) used to produce elemental iron. The iron is mixed with recycled steel scrap in a steelmaking furnace to create liquid steel. The liquid

steel is formulated to precise chemical compositions during secondary refining. The refined steel is then solidified via a number of casting processes into a variety of solid shapes, depending on the finished product application. The solidified shapes require further shaping and treating into finished goods that meet customer specifications. The Steel Manufacturing Process is available on AIST.org/Resources. Please submit any feedback or suggestions to steelwheel@aist.org.

New sales manager Jon J. Roman has joined AIST in the newly created role of sales manager. He has an electrical engineering background and has been Roman employed in the steel industry for 28 years, with positions at Mannesmann Demag, Kvaerner Metals, voestalpine and Siemens Energy. Most recently, he was vice president — sales at Danieli Corp., where he was responsible for key account management activities within North America for all of Danieli’s global operating divisions. He has been an active AIST member and recently served as vice chair for the Pipe & Tube Technology Committee.

AIST Member Chapter staff changes Jill Liberto has been named AIST’s new Member Chapter administrator. Liberto started at AIST in March 2015. Her enthusiasm and cusLiberto tomer service skills in her time at AIST, combined with her professional background in working with diverse groups, make her an ideal candidate to continue to develop and grow AIST’s 22 Member Chapters.

On 30 November 2015, Nicole Mattern hung up her hat as AIST’s Member Chapter advisor to pursue a job as a technical specialist with Mattern SAE International. Mattern was the focal point for the success of AIST’s Member Chapters for the past nine years, and for many people was their main contact within AIST. Her efforts were recognized by many of our chapter leaders. We congratulate Nicole on her new opportunity and wish her every success in her new endeavor.

I&ST has a new look As AIST president George Koenig mentioned on page 7, Iron & Steel Technology is unveiling a streamlined layout starting with this issue! Some items have moved to their permanent homes on AIST.org, such as new AIST members, new AIST Technology Committee members and the AIST Employment Board. Along with an updated layout, we are gearing up to deliver more technical content in each issue of I&ST, expand our coverage of the AIST Foundation and its activities, and offer more in-depth reporting on today’s steel industry.

AIST president switches gears On 7 December 2015, George Koenig, AIST pres­ident, took on a new role as director — global iron and steel business and technology developKoenig ment at Hatch Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. Prior to that, he held the position of president of Berry Metal Company, Harmony, Pa., USA, since 2004. Koenig joined Berry Metal Company in 2000 as vice president of sales and marketing. F


Industry Statistics

15

World Crude Steel Production as of October 2015 (in thousand metric tons)

133,640

137,942

Note: The countries included in this table accounted for approximately 98% of total world crude steel production in 2014. e = estimate

Change (103) (17) (1) 7 (5) (5) (310) 96 5 0 (176) 0 (7) 57 (12) (35) (12) 0 (40) 41 (46) (562) 14 (5) (1) 24 54 86 3 (76) 43 (140) 124 (12) (57) (80) 2 (2) 2 129 (24) (652) (624) (9) (70) (7) 16 12 0 18 0 (61) (100) (94) (64) (26) (22) (62) (143) 0 47 (240) (2,116) 348 (359) (345) 26 (365) 19 (2,793) (16) 3 (13)

% (14.3) (2.6) (2.7) 80 (1.1) (1.4) (20.9) 2.7 4.8 0 (8.6) (0.2) (1.2) 7.6 (6.0) (10.4) (2.8) 0.5 (3.1) 10.5 (4.8) (3.8) 128.0 (24) (2.0) 39.1 2.0 3.0 1.7 (22.8) 216.4 (2.4) 6.4 (21.2) (0.7) (7.2) 10.5 (14.6) 5.1 8.0 (66.7) (8.8) (6.1) (1.8) (2.3) (7.4) 14.2 21 5.4 19.4 2.7 (38.0) (2.5) (19.0) (4.4) (63.2) (41.9) (22.3) (26.3) 0.0 20.7 (6.7) (3.1) 4.9 (3.8) (5.6) 12.1 (17.6) 5.9 (3.0) (3.6) 5.1 (2.5)

2015 6,387 6,311 523 127 4,467 3,355 12,827 36,208 857 1,434 18,593 1,841 5,927 7,971 1,680 2,794 3,965 520 12,612 3,674 9,514 141,586 672 110 479 819 26,554 28,633 2,209 2,984 375 59,307 19,148 544 84,568 10,534 222 96 319 15,873 266 67,243 94,553 4,252 28,236 900 1,040 587 38 949 76 1,205 37,281 4,735 13,611 256 456 2,204 4,867 6,334 2,494 34,957 675,104 75,075 87,815 57,672 2,351 18,289 3,236 919,542 4,118 717 4,835

Year to date 2014 Change 6,598 (211) 6,195 116 512 10 159 (33) 4,440 26 3,183 172 13,647 (820) 36,095 113 857 0 918 516 20,397 (1,804) 1,869 (28) 5,770 157 7,179 793 1,692 (12) 2,605 189 3,866 99 532 (12) 12,080 532 3,754 (81) 10,272 (758) 142,620 (1,034) 650 22 188 (78) 494 (16) 454 365 28,520 (1,966) 30,306 (1,673) 2,055 154 3,102 (118) 303 72 59,413 (105) 23,439 (4,290) 631 (87) 88,943 (4,375) 10,666 (133) 211 11 96 0 313 6 16,030 (157) 418 (152) 73,748 (6,505) 101,483 (6,929) 4,581 (329) 28,606 (370) 905 (5) 1,035 5 556 31 37 1 893 56 73 3 1,195 10 37,880 (599) 5,246 (511) 13,510 101 636 (380) 433 23 2,535 (331) 5,205 (338) 5,490 844 1,939 554 34,995 (39) 690,290 (15,186) 72,668 2,407 92,492 (4,677) 59,847 (2,176) 1,940 411 18,977 (688) 3,420 (184) 939,635 (20,093) 3,902 217 713 4 4,615 221

(4,302)

(3.1)

1,345,955

1,380,476

(34,521)

% (3.2) 1.9 2.0 (20) 0.6 5.4 (6.0) 0.3 0.0 56.2 (8.8) (1.5) 2.7 11.0 (0.7) 7.3 2.6 (2.2) 4.4 (2.1) (7.4) (0.7) 3.4 (42) (3.2) 80.4 (6.9) (5.5) 7.5 (3.8) 23.9 (0.2) (18.3) (13.8) (4.9) (1.2) 5.3 (0.4) 2.0 (1.0) (36.3) (8.8) (6.8) (7.2) (1.3) (0.5) 0.5 5.6 3.1 6.2 4.3 0.8 (1.6) (9.7) 0.7 (59.7) 5.2 (13.1) (6.5) 15.4 28.6 (0.1) (2.2) 3.3 (5.1 (3.6) 21.2 (3.6) (5.4) (2.1) 5.6 0.6 4.8 (2.5)

Source: World Steel Association. Data as of 19 November 2015.

I

Total

October

I

2014 722 657 51 8 426 332 1,480 3,542 105 145 2,047 205 612 753 197 335 439 54 1,291 394 959 14,754 51 20 58 61 2,720 2,909 183 334 20 5,818 1,931 55 8,341 1,110 23 12 38 1,621 37 7,391 10,231 478 3,052 92 114 58 5 92 10 161 4,061 494 1,444 42 52 278 543 525 225 3,603 68,240 7,152 9,362 6,175 214 2,070 316 93,530 446 67 513

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Total – European Union Bosnia-Herzegovina Macedonia Norway Serbia Turkey Total – Other Europe Belarus Kazakhstan Moldova Russia Ukraine Uzbekistan Total – C.I.S. (6) Canada Cuba El Salvador Guatemala Mexico Trinidad and Tobago United States Total – North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Total – South America Egypt Iran Libya Morocco Qatar Saudi Arabia South Africa United Arab Emirates Total – Africa/Middle East China India Japan South Korea Pakistan Taiwan, China Thailand Total – Asia Australia New Zealand Total – Oceania

2015 618 640e 50e 15e 421 327 1,170 3,638 110e 145 1,871 205e 604 810e 185 300 427 55 1,251 436 913 14,191 65e 15e 57 85 2,774 2,996 186 258 63 5,678 2,055 43 8,284 1,030e 25e 10e 40e 1,750e 12 6,739 9,606 469 2,983 85e 130e 70e 5e 110e 10e 100e 3,961 400e 1,380 15 30 216 400 650e 272 3,363 66,124 7,500e 9,003 5,830e 240e 1,705e 335e 90,737 430 71 501


Industry Statistics — Monthly production

82%

1,850

77%

8,400

80%

1,800

75%

8,200

78%

8,000

76%

7,800

74%

7,600 7,400

72% 71% 70%

73%

Overall, U.S. mills produced approximately 7.22 million tons of steel in October 2015, 12% less than in the same

Monthly imports (’000 tons)

I I

Jun-15

Sep-15

Dec-14

Mar-15

Sep-14

Jun-14

Mar-14

Sep-13

Dec-13

28%

0

26% Sep-15

500

Jun-15

30% 812

Mar-15

32% 31%

1,000

Dec-14

34%

1,500

Sep-14

2,000

Jun-14

36%

Mar-14

38% 2,834

2,500

Dec-13

40%

3,000

Sep-13

3,500

Jun-13

42%

Mar-13

44%

4,000

Dec-12

During the week, the Great Lakes region produced 555,000 tons of raw steel, followed by the Southern region, which produced 523,000 tons. The Northeast region produced 194,000 tons, and Midwest mills made 205,000 tons. The Western region’s output was 85,000 tons.

4,500

Sep-12

Compared to the previous week, which ended 13 November 2015, production fell 2.4%, declining from 1.6 million tons.

Monthly steel imports and exports (’000 tons)

— Monthly imports — Monthly exports — Monthly imports as % of apparent supply

U.S. Production — U.S. mills produced approximately 1.56 million tons of steel in the week ending 20 November 2015. Production declined nearly 16% on a year-overyear basis, falling from 1.87 million tons in the same week last year (Fig. 1). Capacity utilization fell as well, dropping to 65%. In the same week last year, U.S. mills ran at 78% of capacity.

Canada Mexico Brazil Japan Korea China Taiwan India Turkey EU Russia Ukraine Other Total imports

Jun-13

Figure 2: U  .S. monthly steel production and capability utilization. Source: Platts.

U.S. Production Capability, Imports and Inventories

Country/Region

Mar-13

Sep-12

Dec-12

20-Nov-15

64%

23-Oct-15

6,800

25-Sep-15

66%

63% 28-Aug-15

7,000

1,500 3-Jul-15

1,550

31-Jul-15

7,228 68%

5-Jun-15

7,200

1,562 65%

8-May-15

67%

10-Apr-15

1,600

13-Feb-15

69%

13-Mar-15

1,650

16-Jan-15

71%

19-Dec-14

1,700

21-Nov-14

Weekly production (’000 tons)

1,750

Monthly production (’000 tons)

8,600

Figure 1: U  .S. weekly steel production and capability utilization. Source: Platts.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

— Capability utilization %

79%

Capability utilization %

— Capability utilization %

1,900

Figure 3: U  .S. imports and exports. Source: Platts.

month last year (Fig. 2). Compared to September 2015, production declined 0.2%. Imports and Exports — The amount of steel imported into the U.S. fell 27% on a year-over-year basis, dropping

Sep’15

Aug’15

Sep’14

m-o-m (’000 tons)

m-o-m (%)

y-o-y (’000 tons)

y-o-y (%)

479 241 374 208 279 144 67 48 151 494 243 15 90 2,834

508 217 519 243 303 157 113 60 171 407 198 3 162 3,061

530 367 452 176 389 328 102 67 174 651 496 11 158 3,900

(29) 24 (145) (35) (24) (13) (46) (12) (20) 87 45 12 (72) (227)

(5.7) 11.1 (27.9) (14.4) (7.9) (8.3) (40.7) (20.0) (11.7) 21.4 22.7 400.0 (44.4) (7.4)

(51) (126) (78) 32 (110) (184) (35) (19) (23) (157) (253) 4 (68) (1,066)

(9.6) (34.3) (17.3) 18.2 (28.3) (56.1) (34.3) (28.4) (13.2) (24.1) (51.0) 36.4 (43.0) (27.3)

Table 1: U.S. imports by country/region. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Monthly imports as % of apparent supply

— Weekly production

Capability utilization %

16


17 Monthly imports (’000 tons) Product

Sep’15

Aug’15

Sep’14

m-o-m (’000 tons)

m-o-m (%)

y-o-y (’000 tons)

y-o-y (%)

Wire rod Structurals Bars Rebar Pipe and tube OCTG Plates Flat rolled HRC CRC Other finished Finished imports

136 68 261 112 399 96 350 849 291 245 164 2,225

151 79 351 186 465 112 298 1,015 397 228 118 2,478

145 84 291 108 721 327 442 1,161 419 332 112 2,955

(15) (11) (90) (74) (66) (16) 52 (166) (106) 17 46 (253)

(9.9) (13.9) (25.6) (39.8) (14.2) (14.3) 17.4 (16.4) (26.7) 7.5 39.0 (10.2)

(9) (16) (30) 4 (322) (231) (92) (312) (128) (87) 52 (730)

(6.2) (19.0) (10.3) 3.7 (44.7) (70.6) (20.8) (26.9) (30.5) (26.2) 46.4 (24.7)

Ingots Blooms, slabs, billets Semi-finished imports

2 607 609

3 580 583

3 942 945

(1) 27 26

(33.3) 4.7 4.5

(1) (335) (336)

(33.3) (35.6) (35.6)

Total imports

2,834

3,061

3,900

(227)

(7.4)

(1,066)

(27.3)

Table 2: U.S. imports by product category. Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Note: Monthly imports are rounded to the nearest integer.

Monthly average exchange rate comparisons

Country

Currency per U.S. dollar

Sep’15

Aug’15

Sep’14

m-o-m change

m-o-m (%)

y-o-y change

y-o-y (%)

Japan Korea China Taiwan India Turkey EU Russia Brazil Mexico Canada

Yen/$ Won/$ CNY/$ TWD/$ INR/$ TRY/$ €/$ RUB/$ Real/$ MXN/$ CAD/$

120.04 1,185.98 6.37 32.68 66.19 3.01 0.89 66.77 3.91 16.85 1.33

123.17 1,179.51 6.31 32.17 65.07 2.85 0.90 65.15 3.51 16.54 1.31

107.23 1,033.87 6.15 30.13 60.87 2.21 0.78 37.87 2.33 13.24 1.10

(3.13) 6.47 0.06 0.51 1.12 0.16 (0.01) 1.62 0.40 0.31 0.02

-2.54 0.55 0.95 1.59 1.72 5.61 (1.11) 2.49 11.40 1.87 1.53

12.81 152.11 0.22 2.55 5.32 0.80 0.11 28.90 1.58 3.61 0.23

11.95 14.71 3.58 8.46 8.74 36.20 14.10 76.31 67.81 27.27 20.91

Table 3: Monthly average exchange rate comparisons. Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and X-Rates.

to 2.83 million tons in September 2015 (Fig. 3). Steel imports were also down on a month-on-month basis, falling 7.4% from 3.06 million tons in August. Exports of American-made steel also fell in September 2015, declining approximately 22% to 812,000 tons on a year-on-year basis. From September to October 2015, exports declined by about 14,000 tons, a 1.7% decrease.

2014 was a peak year for imported steel, with 32.57 million tons having been shipped in from foreign producers. Import levels have shown consistent decline since the beginning of 2015. The American Institute for International Steel said in a statement that drop is a cause for concern.

I “The decline in steel imports we note here tracks with reports from across the American business sector, particularly the industrial sector, indicating that quarterly profits and revenues are declining. The Wall Street Journal reports that business profits and revenue are falling in tandem for the first time in six years,” the organization said in a statement.

I

Table 2 provides a breakdown of imports by selected products. During September 2015, imports of selected finished products were generally down from the same month last year. Hot rolled coil imports, for example, declined 31% to 291,000 tons. Cold rolled coil imports, meanwhile, fell 26% to 245,000 tons. Oil country tubular goods (OCTG) imports were down 71% to 96,000 tons. However, rebar imports rose 3.7% to 112,000 tons.

Through the first nine months of the year, the U.S. imported 30.96 million tons. In comparison, the U.S. imported 25.69 million tons through the first nine months of 2012. Through the first nine months of the following year, it imported 23.95 million tons.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Table 1 provides a breakdown of imports by country of origin. In September 2015, Chinese imports declined 56% to about 144,000 tons on a year-over-year basis. Meanwhile, imports from Russia fell 51% to 243,000 tons. Imports from NAFTA countries also were down, collectively falling 20% to 720,000 tons.

Although the monthly total was down on year-over-year basis, imports are still above previous cumulative totals.


Industry Statistics

— Inventories

— Shipments

— Supply on hand

— Avg. daily shipments

145

-5%

135

-10%

125

-15%

Figure 4: Service center inventory, shipments and supply on hand.

Figure 5: Service center daily shipments.

Source: Metals Service Center Institute.

Source: Metals Service Center Institute.

-4%

change and U.S. automobile sales. Source: Automotive News.

— Highway construction 15% 13% 699

650

10%

550

5%

450

0% 399

350

-5%

— y-o-y % change 15%

95

92

Highway construction (US$bn)

750

Year-on-year % change

90

10%

85

5%

80

0%

75

-5%

70

-10%

Figure 8: Infrastructure spending.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Sep-15

Jun-15

Mar-15

Dec-14

Jun-14

Figure 7: Non-residential trailing 12-month construction spending.

Sep-14

Mar-14

Dec-13

Jun-13

Sep-13

Mar-13

Sep-15

Jun-15

Mar-15

Dec-14

Sep-14

Jun-14

Mar-14

Dec-13

Sep-13

Jun-13

Mar-13

Dec-12

Sep-12

-10%

Dec-12

300 250

Sep-12

Non-residential construction spending (US$bn)

— Public construction — y-o-y % change

I

I

On a month-on-month basis, shipments increased 3.2% from September, rising from 3.26 million tons. Inventories, meanwhile, fell 3% from 9.19 million tons. Average daily shipments were down 10% on a year-overyear basis, falling to 153,000 tons/day during October.

Figure 6: North American automobile production, year-on-year %

— Private construction — Total construction

Inventories — U.S. service centers shipped 3.36 million tons of steel in October 2015 (Fig. 4). Compared to the same month last year, shipments were down 8.1%. Over the same period, inventories fell 4.6% to 8.92 million tons, as months’ supply on hand dropped from 2.8 to 2.7 months.

Year-on-year % change

3,300 Oct-15

-1.4% -2%

Jul-15

0%

3,450

Apr-15

2%

3,600

Jan-15

4%

3,750

Oct-14

3,900

Jul-14

4,098 6%

Apr-14

4,050

Jan-14

8%

Oct-13

4,200

Jul-13

10%

Apr-13

12% 4,469

4,350

Jan-13

14%

4,500

industrial economy are not building and expanding at the rate needed for healthy and sustained growth.” Table 3 provides an overview of the monthly average currency exchange rates to complement the data in Tables 1 and 2.

— Production y-o-y % change

Production year-on-year % change (’000 T3M)

— Production T3M

4,650

Oct-12

Auto production and sales (’000 T3M)

— Sales T3M

Oct-15

Oct-12

Oct-15

Jul-15

Apr-15

Jan-15

Jul-14

2 Oct-14

2,000 Apr-14

3,364 2.2

Oct-13

3,000

Jan-14

2.4

Jul-13

4,000

Jan-13

2.6

Apr-13

5,000

Year-on-year % change

0% 153

Jul-15

155

2.7

Apr-15

2.8

Oct-14

6,000

Jan-15

5%

Jul-14

165

Apr-14

3

Oct-13

7,000

Jan-14

10%

3.2

Jul-13

175

8,000

Apr-13

3.4 8,919

Jan-13

15%

9,000

Average daily shipments (’000 tons)

185

“The industrial-oriented scope of these reports suggests that businesses that comprise important elements of the

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

— y-o-y % change

3.6

Oct-12

Monthly inventories and shipments (’000 tons)

10,000

Months’ supply on hand

18


19

1,600

New orders (US$ bn)

1,400 1,200 1,000 800

76

10%

72

5% 69 0%

68

-1.2% 64

-5%

60

-10%

U.S. Demand Automotive — Trailing three-month auto production declined 1.4% in October 2015 to about 4.47 million units on a year-over-year basis (Fig. 6). Trailing threemonth sales were quite flat, ticking downward by only 0.2% to 4.1 million units. Construction — Non-residential construction spending grew to a seasonally adjusted annualized rate of US$699 billion in September 2015, a 13% year-over-year increase (Fig. 7). Spending dipped 0.6% on a month-on-month basis, declining from US$703 billion in August 2015. Infrastructure — U.S. infrastructure spending rose 10% year-on-year to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of US$92 billion in September 2015 (Fig. 8). Spending inched up from the previous month, increasing 0.3%. Energy — For the week ending 20 November 2015, there were 757 drill rigs running in the U.S. (Fig. 9). The count fell from 1,929 rigs in the same week last year, a

ISM Index — The manufacturing sector expanded in October 2015, marking the 34th consecutive month of growth, according to the Institute for Supply Management’s monthly Report on Business. The institute’s

55%

50%

50.1%

45%

Contraction 40%

35%

Oct-15

Oct-14

Oct-13

Oct-12

Oct-11

Oct-10

Oct-09

Oct-08

Oct-07

30% Oct-05

-20%

Institute of Supply Management (ISM) Index

80

Year-on-year % change

-15%

Oct-15

85

Oct-14

-10%

Oct-13

90

Oct-12

-5%

Oct-11

95

Oct-10

0.5% 0%

Oct-09

100

I

5%

Expansion

60%

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

105

Oct-08

Jul-15

Industrial Production Index — The October 2015 industrial production index — a broad-based proxy for steel demand — stood at 107 points, up 0.5% from the same month last year (Fig. 11). The score, which excludes the high-tech index, fell slightly from September 2015, declining from 107.5 points.

65%

107

Oct-07

Oct-15

Non-Defense Capital Goods — New orders for non-defense capital goods, excluding aircraft and parts, stood at US$69 billion in October 2015 (Fig. 10). Orders declined 1.2% from October 2014, falling from US$70 billion. Orders also were down from September 2015, falling by 5.2% from US$73 billion.

10%

Oct-06

Apr-15

Oct-14

decline of 61%. The count also was down 3.8% from the same week in the previous month, dropping from 787 rigs in October.

— y-o-y % change

110

Oct-05

Jan-15

Jul-14

Apr-14

Oct-13

Jan-14

Jul-13

Figure 10: Monthly non-defense capital goods. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Source: Baker Hughes.

— Industrial production

Jan-13

Oct-12

Nov-15

Aug-15

May-15

Feb-15

Nov-14

Aug-14

May-14

Feb-14

Nov-13

Aug-13

May-13

Feb-13

Nov-12

Figure 9: U.S. oil and gas rig count.

Apr-13

757

600

Industrial production (Index 1997=100)

15%

Oct-06

U.S. oil and gas rig count

1,800

— y-o-y % change

80

Year-on-year % change

— New orders

2,000

I

Figure 11: Industrial production index. Source: U.S. Federal Reserve Board.

Figure 12: ISM Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). Source: Institute for Supply Management.


Industry Statistics — Wide flange beam — Cold rolled coil — Plate — Hot rolled coil

— Rebar

— USA, ex-works Midwest mill

900

700

850

650

680

650 600 555 555 515

450

400

393

350 298

Figure 13: U.S. steel prices.

Figure 14: U.S. prices compared to China and the EU.

Source: Platts.

Source: Platts.

U.S. Pricing and Costs

Oct-15

400 350 300 250 205 205

200

170

Spreads between U.S. prices and both EU and China HRC prices narrowed on year-on-year basis (Fig. 14). The spread between the U.S. price and the China price shrank

HRC CRC Galv Plate Beam Wire rod Merchant bar Rebar Auto bundles/busheling No. 1 HM

450

Oct-15

Jul-15

Apr-15

Jan-15

Oct-14

Jul-14

Apr-14

Jan-14

Oct-13

Jul-13

Apr-13

Oct-12

150

Steel Pricing — October 2015 prices for selected domestic steel products declined on a year-over-year basis. Hot rolled coil prices dropped nearly 32% to US$435/ ton (Fig. 13). Cold rolled coil prices were down 28% to US$555/ton. Plate prices decreased 38% to US$515/ton. Rebar prices dropped 16% to US$555/ton. Wide flange beam prices declined about 17% to US$680/ton. More pricing data is shown in Table 4.

Product

— Auto bundling/busheling — Shredded scrap composite — No. 1 heavy melt

Scrap prices (US$ per ton)

Purchasing Managers Index stood at 50.1%. An index score above 50% indicates that the manufacturing sector is generally growing; a score below 50% indicates that it is generally contracting. Growth, however, slowed slightly from September 2015, when the score stood at 50.2%. Comments from the institute’s manufacturing business survey committee reflect on the high price of the dollar and the continuing low price of oil, mixed with cautious optimism about steady to increasing demand in several industries.

Jul-15

Apr-15

Jan-15

Oct-14

Jul-14

Apr-14

Jan-14

Oct-13

Oct-12

Jul-13

250

Oct-15

Jul-15

Apr-15

Jan-15

Oct-14

Jul-14

Apr-14

Jan-14

Oct-13

Jul-13

Apr-13

Jan-13

Oct-12

450

300

435

400

I

500

Apr-13

550

450

I

— China, export

550

Jan-13

700

500

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

— Europe, ex-works

600

750

Hot rolled coil (US$ per ton)

Steel prices (US$ per ton)

800

Jan-13

20

Figure 15: U.S. scrap price. Source: Platts.

about 35% in October 2015, settling at a difference of US$137/ton. In October 2014, the spread was US$209/ton. The spread between the U.S. price and the EU price was US$42/ton in October 2015, down from US$146/ton the previous year.

Oct’15 ($)

Sep’15 ($)

Oct’14 ($)

m-o-m ($)

m-o-m (%)

y-o-y ($)

y-o-y (%)

435 555 620 515 680 515 673 555 205 170

455 575 645 520 680 520 668 565 245 208

640 765 850 835 815 655 788 663 405 345

(20) (20) (25) (5) 0 (5) 5 (10) (40) (38)

(4.4) (3.5) (3.9) (1.0) 0.0 (1.0) 0.7 (1.8) (16.3) (18.3)

(205) (210) (230) (320) (135) (140) (115) (108) (200) (175)

(32.0) (27.5) (27.1) (38.3) (16.6) (21.4) (14.6) (16.3) (49.4) (50.7)

Table 4: Steel prices in U.S. dollars per ton by product category. Source: Platts.


21 — Rebar vs. No. 1 heavy melt — Plate vs. No. 1 heavy melt — HRC vs. auto bundling

Iron ore fines spot price, 62% Fe (CFR China Port)

500 160

80

23-Nov-15

31-Aug-15

8-Jun-15

22-Dec-14

16-Mar-15

7-Jul-14

29-Sep-14

14-Apr-14

28-Oct-13

20-Jan-14

— Middle East — Asia — North America — Africa — South America

4,000

6,000

5,025 5,000

3,000 2,500

2,192 2,000

4,000

1,500

1,460

1,000

3,000 703

500

347 323 2,000 Oct-15

Oct-14

Oct-13

0

Total monthly world production (’000 MT)

3,500

I I

This took place against a backdrop of record operational figures from the major mining companies in Australia and Brazil. Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton and Vale all reported record production for the third quarter. Significant tonnage remains in the supply pipeline of all three. And Roy Hill, a new mining project in Western Australia’s

— World

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

News of steelmakers in northern China shutting blast furnaces or facing bankruptcy weighed on market sentiment. According to one report by the Reuters news service, which cited research by the consultancy CRU, more than 50 million metric tons of annualized steelmaking capacity in China has come off-line so far this year. Later in November, heavy snow in northern China disrupted the flow of iron ore from ports to mills, meaning several mills slowed purchases — instead relying on existing inventory — or simply halted production.

Oct-12

Iron Ore Market — Iron ore prices continued their descent through November as the increasingly troubled Chinese steel sector struggled to absorb rising iron ore supplies (Fig. 17). By 24 November 2015, The Steel Index (TSI) reference price for 62% Fe fines imported into China had sunk to a series low of US$43.80/dry metric ton (dmt) CFR Tianjin.

Global DRI Production — On a year-over-year basis, global direct reduced iron (DRI) production decreased 1.6% to 5.03 million metric tons in October 2015 (Fig. 18). The Middle East produced the most, making 2.19 million metric tons. Asia produced 1.46 million metric tons, and North America production accounted for 703,000 metric tons.

Oct-11

Global Pricing Benchmarks

TSI’s 62% Fe iron ore benchmark slipped below US$50/ dmt CFR on 28 October 2015 and continued to trend downward as November progressed. Toward month’s end, iron ore spot prices were languishing at all-time lows. Looking to the futures market, the iron ore forward curve on Singapore Exchange (SGX), where the majority of iron ore derivatives are cleared against TSI’s 62% Fe index, showed investors pricing in a fall below US$40/dmt in the second quarter of next year.

Oct-10

U.S. metal spreads narrowed on a month-on-month basis. The difference between HRC and auto bundling declined 2.1% to US$230/ton (Fig. 16). The difference between No. 1 heavy melt and plate fell 30% to US$345/ton.

Pilbara region, is due to start shipping in early 2016. It is expected to produce 55 million metric tons/year.

Oct-09

Scrap Prices — Domestic scrap prices were down on a year-over-year basis. The price for auto bundling fell 49% to US$205/ton in October 2015. Shredded scrap composite prices fell 43% to US$205/ton (Fig. 15). No. 1 heavy melt prices dropped 51% to US$170/ton.

Figure 17: Iron ore spot price (62% Fe content). Source: The Steel Index (www.thesteelindex.com).

Oct-05

vs. No. 1 heavy melt. Source: Platts.

Monthly regional production (’000 MT)

Figure 16: Metal spread, HRC vs. auto bundles, rebar and plate

$43.80 26-Nov-12

Oct-15

Jul-15

Apr-15

Jan-15

Oct-14

Jul-14

Apr-14

Jan-14

Oct-13

40

Jul-13

150 Apr-13

60

Jan-13

200

5-Aug-13

230

Oct-08

250

100

13-May-13

300

120

Oct-07

345

18-Feb-13

350

Oct-06

385

US$ per dry metric ton

140

400

Oct-12

Price spread (US$ per ton)

450

Figure 18: DRI production by region. Source: World Steel Association.


22

Industry Statistics WSD USA, China, Western Europe and World Export

WORLD

STEEL

DYNAMICS

®

(WSD’s PriceTrack data, January 2000–March 2006; SteelBenchmarker data begins April 2006) 26 October 2015

1300

Hot rolled band price per metric ton

1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500

417 346 276 238

400 300 Nov-15

Nov-14

Nov-13

Nov-12

Nov-11

Nov-10

Nov-09

Nov-08

Nov-07

Nov-06

Nov-05

200

Figure 19: SteelBenchmarkerTM HRB price. Source: World Steel Dynamics, American Metal Market, Metal Bulletin.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Hot Rolled Band (HRB) Pricing — Global HRB prices declined on a year-over-basis in November 2015, according to World Steel Dynamics’ biweekly Steel Benchmarker™ (Fig. 19). For the week ending 23 November 2015, the average U.S. price was US$417/metric ton, FOB mill, down 42% from the same week in the previous year. The

WSD

Iron & Steel Technology wishes to thank Platts, SteelBenchmarker™, The Steel Index and World Steel Dynamics for sourcing the data presented above. Information is compiled by Jaime Beddings, AIST staff engineer, and Sam Kusic, AIST news editor.

WORLD

STEEL

DYNAMICS

average ex-works price in China was US$238/metric ton, down 43%. Meanwhile, the Western Europe ex-works fell 33% to US$346/metric ton. For comparison, the world average export price, FOB port of export, stood at US$276/metric ton, down 46% from November 2014. F

®

Comments are welcome. Please send feedback to: industrystats@aist.org. Please include your full name, company name, mailing address and email in all correspondence.


Strategic Insights From WSD

Current death spiral is wreaking havoc on the global steel industry The current pricing “death spiral” appears to be the longest and carries the lowest price on record relative to the steel mills’ operating and marginal costs. Normally, the pricing death spiral phenomenon, whereby prices decline to the marginal cost of many steel mills lasts only a few months. This one started about April 2015, as can be seen in Fig. 1. The current death spiral is showing few signs of ending (which, of course, it will). Why? • Sticky production on the downside because of mills’ low profit margins makes any production cutback quite painful financially. • Competitive currency devaluations versus the U.S. dollar. • Limited potential for a sizable rise in apparent steel demand when user inventory liquidations end. • Massive rise in Chinese exports to a 120-million-metric-ton

annual rate in August 2015 versus 41–47 million metric tons per annum as recently as 2010–2011 — a huge gain in market share for them in a 365-million-metric-ton-peryear market. • A rise in the number of steel mills deciding they must battle the Chinese mills for market share on the world market, including Pacific Basin steelmakers in coastal locations. • A rapidly declining and flatter WSD monthly World Cost Curve. • Steel pricing anomalies, such as: »» Slab versus billet pricing. »» Home market versus export prices (Fig. 1). »» Steel scrap prices versus the export prices of steel slab and billet. »» Steel scrap prices versus the prices of iron ore and metallurgical coal delivered to China.

WSD

23

WORLD

STEEL

DYNAMICS

®

is a leading steel information service in Englewood Cliffs, N.J., USA WSD’s steel experience, steel database and availability of steel statistics are the principles for performing steel forecasts, studies and analysis for international clients. WSD seeks to understand how the “pricing power” of steel companies the world over will be impacted by changes in the steel industry’s structure. The views and opinions expressed in this article are solely those of World Steel Dynamics and not necessarily those of AIST.

Authors Peter Marcus (left), managing partner, World Steel Dynamics pmarcus@worldsteeldynamics.com +1.201.503.0902

Figure 1 1200 1100

John Villa (right), research strategist, World Steel Dynamics jvilla@worldsteeldynamics.com +1.201.503.0911

900 800 700 600 500 World Export FOB port of export

300 200

Jan-00 Jul-00 Jan-01 Jul-01 Jan-02 Jul-02 Jan-03 Jul-03 Jan-04 Jul-04 Jan-05 Jul-05 Jan-06 May-06 Aug-06 Nov-06 Feb-07 May-07 Aug-07 Nov-07 Feb-08 May-08 Aug-08 Nov-08 Feb-09 May-09 Aug-09 Nov-09 Feb-10 May-10 Aug-10 Nov-10 Feb-11 May-11 Aug-11 Nov-11 Feb-12 May-12 Aug-12 Nov-12 Feb-13 May-13 Aug-13 Nov-13 Feb-14 May-14 Aug-14 Nov-14 Feb-15 May-15 Sep-15

100

I

400

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Dollars per metric ton

1000

I

World export hot rolled band price for 16 September 2015 (WSD’s PriceTrack data, January 2000–March 2006; SteelBenchmarker data begins April 2006).


24

Strategic Insights From WSD Chinese steel production: Is production a reality? Chinese steel production in 2015 can be broken down into five categories, two of which seem to be positioned to continue to rise, and three of which seem to plummet by 2018 (Table 1). The categories are as follows: • EAF steelmakers that are Indian Council of South America (CISA) members. • Smaller blast furnace/BOF steelmakers. • Small EAF non-CISA steelmakers. • CISA steelmakers in coastal locations. • CISA steelmakers located inland.

Overall by 2018, gross capacity will decline by 20% to 850 million metric tons from 1,065 million metric tons in 2015; and ECO capacity declined 17% from 940 million metric tons to 780 million metric tons in 2015. ECO capacity is economic, efficient and ecological capacity. It’s the level of steel production that can be attained, when production is rising, before there’s a sizable rise in the cost to produce the last metric ton. Meanwhile, gross capacity is engineered capacity.

Non-Chinese steel production: What’s in store by 2018? The following is WSD’s assessment of the possible changes in ECO capacity for the advanced countries, and the developing world ex-China:

Advanced country ECO capacity This group currently has about 637 million metric tons of gross capacity, based on WSD data for 2015, and is engaged in perhaps 20 million metric tons of

capacity additions through 2018 (Table 2). The ECO capacity to gross capacity ratio is estimated to be 0.88. Hence, if ECO capacity by 2018 is to decline to 480 million metric tons (Case B) from 562 million metric tons in 2015 (a reduction of 82 million metric tons), we need to identify 114 million metric tons of capacity reductions when taking current expansions into account.

Table 1 Chinese Steel Production, Gross and Effective Capacity in 2015 and 2018 (million metric tons) 2015 steel production

2015 gross cap

2015 ECO capacity

2018 steel production

2018 gross cap

2018 ECO capacity (change)**

Small EAF non-CISA

15

35

25

5

10

5 (–20)

EAF CISA

45

60

60

55

70

60 (0)

Small BF/BOF Non-CISA

105

150

130

45

70

60 (–70)

Year

CISA coastal

120

140

125

145

165

155 (+30)

CISA inland

515

680

600

450

535

500 (–100)

Total

800

1,065

940

700

850

780 (–160)

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

** = Case B. Source: WSD Estimates/CISA.

Table 2 Advanced Country and Non-Chinese Developing World Steel Production, Gross and ECO Capacity in 2015 and 2018 (million metric tons) Year Advanced countries

2015 steel production

2015 gross cap

2015 ECO capacity

2018 steel production

2018 gross cap

2018 ECO capacity (change)**

452

637

562

470

540

480 (–82)

Non-Chinese developing world

359

492

435

405

460

405 (–30)

Total

811

1,129

997

875

1,000

885 (–112)

** = Case B. Source: WSD Estimates.


25 Developing world ex-China ECO capacity This group currently has about 492 million metric tons of gross capacity, based on WSD data for 2015, and is engaged in perhaps 30 million metric tons of gross capacity additions through 2018, including a large coastal steel plant in Vietnam. The ECO capacity to gross capacity ratio is estimated to be about 0.88. Hence, if ECO capacity by 2018 is to decline to 405 million metric tons from 435 million metric tons, we need to identify 65 million metric tons of

capacity reductions when taking current expansions into account. The focus on ECO capacity permits the analyst to better foresee when pricing power starts to return to the hands of the seller in a rising steel market. WSD forecasts that a fairly moderate rise in non-Chinese steel production by 2018, along with lower Chinese steel exports, will boost the ECO capacity operating rate sufficiently for the steel mills outside of China to significantly boost steel prices in both the home and export markets.

This report includes forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations about future events and are subject to uncertainties and factors relating to operations and the business environment, all of which are difficult to predict. Although WSD believes that the expectations reflected in its forward-looking statements are reasonable, they can be affected by inaccurate assumptions made or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, changes in prices, shifts in demand, variations in supply, movements in international currency, developments in technology, actions by governments and/or other factors. F

24TH

BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING COURSE May 8 - 13, 2016 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON Canada

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TRAINING.MCMASTER.CA

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

It is an in-depth, week-long course held every second year. It covers every aspect of blast furnace ironmaking, making it invaluable for managers, operators, engineers, researchers and suppliers of equipment, refractories and raw materials. It is officially recognized by the American Iron and Steel Institute. The lecturers in the course are acknowledged experts in their fields and the delegates come from diversified industrial backgrounds. The week-long course consists of 25 lectures given by experts in the field, supplemented by a computer game, and plant tours.

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26

Personnel Spotlight

Personnel Spotlight is a free service featuring news of recent appointments, promotions, retirements and obituaries relevant to the steel industry. To submit material for consideration, please email a press release and high-resolution photo(s) to khickey@aist.org.

AK Steel Corp. The board of directors of AK Steel Corp. announced the following executive promotions:

Vasquez

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Hoffbauer

• Jaime Vasquez has been named vice president, finance and chief financial officer (CFO). He will report to Roger K. Newport, chief executive officer (CEO) and member of the board of directors. • Gregory A. Hoffbauer has been named vice president, controller and chief accounting officer. He will also assume oversight of risk management. • David E. Westcott has been named vice president and treasurer. He will also assume responsibility for information technology.

Vasquez joined AK Steel in 2014 as director, finance with 30 years of finance, investor relations and sales management experience. Prior to joining AK Steel, he was vice president, CFO for the Performance Engineered Products Group of Carpenter Technology Corp. Westcott From 2001 to 2014, he served Carpenter Technology Corp. in positions including: vice president, corporate development; president, Asia Pacific; and vice president, treasurer and investor relations. He also served as a member of the board of directors of Kalyani-Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. Vasquez also previously held positions as: vice president, treasurer and investor relations for Pillowtex Corp.; assistant treasurer and investor relations at Guilford Mills Inc.; research analyst for GZ-Vienna; and credit analyst in corporate banking for Credit Suisse. Vasquez holds a B.A. degree in economics from Rutgers University and an M.B.A. from the University of North Carolina. Hoffbauer joined AK Steel in 2011 as assistant controller. He was named controller and chief accounting officer in 2013. Prior to joining AK Steel, he was director of accounting for NewPage Corp. He served in a variety of accounting positions for Deloitte & Touche, including audit senior manager and professional development director. He was also controller for Day International Inc. Hoffbauer holds a B.S. degree in business administration (accounting) from the University of Dayton, and he is currently pursuing an M.B.A. from the University of Notre Dame. Westcott joined the company in 1980 as an associate accountant. He advanced to accountant and senior accountant and transferred to the treasury department in 1989. He was named supervisor, accounting services in 1994. He progressed through a number of assignments,

including senior administrator, financial planning; and systems manager and supervisor, accounts payable for the financial planning and analysis department. In 2001, he was named manager, treasury operations. He advanced to assistant treasurer in 2004, and he was named treasurer in 2005. He holds a B.S. degree in accounting from Indiana University and an M.B.A. from Xavier University.

Esmark Inc. Esmark Inc., a diversified holding company and parent company of Esmark Steel Group, announced that Michael J. Bush, a principal of Esmark Steel Group, has been named vice president of commercial sales for Esmark Inc. Bush will report to Esmark Inc. and Esmark Steel Group Bush chairman and CEO, James P. Bouchard. In his new role, Bush will continue to serve select original equipment manufacturer (OEM) accounts across the Midwest while leading Esmark Inc.’s corporate efforts to expand its national accounts footprint across sectors including automotive, building/construction, appliances, metals fabrication and the storage/shelving industries. He will also work in collaboration with the company’s Esmark Industrial Group subsidiary in building its national account base. Bush brings more than 30 years of diversified experience across the steel services industry to his expanded role in national commercial sales. He has played an integral role in the formation and growth of Esmark Steel Group since the group acquired his and his partners’ firm North American Steel LLC in 2005. His experience building OEM business throughout the Midwest region will help expand Esmark’s national commercial footprint.

IMS Systems Inc. IMS, a leading manufacturer of x-ray, isotope and optical measuring systems for hot mills, cold mills and service centers, hired Steve Devorich as a sales engineer. Devorich is responsible for developing new business opportunities in the cold sheet production sector throughout Devorich North America, and for helping customers maintain their gauges. Prior to joining IMS, Devorich worked for EMG USA, serving as president and manager of quality assurance and sales. In those capacities, he was responsible for the company’s profitability in North America and for the sales and service of capital equipment to


27

metals industry customers. Earlier in his career, he held sales management positions with Fives North American Manufacturing Co. Devorich holds a B.S. degree in business management from Barrington University and an associate’s degree in electrical engineering technology.

Kalenborn Abresist Corp.

Ovako The board of directors of Ovako has appointed Marcus Hedblom as new president and CEO with immediate effect. Hedblom joined Ovako in 2011 as CFO. His previous career includes executive positions such as deputy CFO for SAS Group, CEO at Spanair and a management consulting career at McKinsey. Hedblom holds an M.S. degree in industrial engineering and management from Linköping University.

Hedblom

Kalenborn Abresist Corp. has named Daniel Holthaus as field sales manager. Holthaus will provide customer support and on-site field service for abrasion-resistant linings, corrosion control coatings, steel fabrication services and pipe installation. Holthaus comes to Kalenborn Holthaus from the spray foam insulation and coatings side of the industry. His 20 years of knowledge and experience has led him to specialize in working with production management, training, equipment procedures and estimating.

Russel Metals Inc. Russel Metals Inc. announced the promotion of John G. Reid to president and chief operating officer of the company. Reid has more than 22 years of industry experience and has served as the company’s chief operating officer since 2013. Reid will report directly to Brian R. Hedges, CEO of the company. Reid started with JMS Metals Services in 1991 and was promoted to president

Reid

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Personnel Spotlight

of JMS in 1994. Russel Metals acquired JMS in 2007, and since then Reid has been given additional responsibilities within Russel Metals’ operations.

United States Steel Corporation United States Steel Corporation announced that vice president — industrial solutions Joseph R. Scherrbaum Jr. informed the company of his intention to retire effective 31 December 2015 after more than 36 years with the company. Scherrbaum began his career with Scherrbaum U. S. Steel in 1979 at the LorainCuyahoga Works outside of Cleveland, Ohio, USA, where he held several supervisory positions in production and business planning. Throughout his tenure with the company, Scherrbaum moved through increasingly responsible positions within the commercial organization, leading to his appointment as vice president — sales in 2005. On 1 January 2015, U. S. Steel realigned its commercial organization to become closer to customers. Scherrbaum assumed his current role with responsibility for commercial efforts in the company’s North American flat rolled operating segment related to pipe and tube manufacturing, agricultural and industrial equipment, and the industrial container markets. Scherrbaum earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, in 1979 and an M.B.A. from Baldwin Wallace College in 1984. Additionally, he attended the Executive Program at the University of Michigan Business School.

Associations

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) The executive committee of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) announced several executive appointments. David McDonald will serve as president and CEO of the institute, while James L. (Pete) Diggs has been appointed chairman of the board. McDonald was appointed interim president of CRSI in July 2015; he will continue to oversee daily operations as well as direct future progress of the institute in his new role. Previously, McDonald was managing director of the Epoxy Interest Group of CRSI, where his efforts included steering technical and marketing efforts. McDonald’s prior experience was as a senior research associate at a Fortune 500 organization, where he had both personnel and financial responsibilities, and as a consulting engineer specializing in construction materials. McDonald obtained both his bachelor’s and doctorate degrees in civil engineering at the University of Sydney. McDonald has participated in many technical committees, including those within CRSI, ACI, ASTM and


29

NACE. He has published many peer-reviewed documents on durability of construction materials and is well known in the concrete industry. He is a licensed professional engineer in Illinois and has participated in management classes from Kellogg Business School at Northwestern University and the American Management Association. Diggs serves as vice president of reinforcing steel for Gerdau Long Steel North America. In this role, he is responsible for overall management and administration of the reinforcing steel facilities’ operational activities, including business strategies, policies and annual objectives. Diggs has 30 years of industry experience, including more than 25 years with Gerdau. Additionally, CRSI appointed four new officers to guide the institute through its next two years of operations. New officers on CRSI’s board include: • Brad Cotrell, Commercial Metals Company, has been appointed secretary/treasurer. • David Rosene, Gerdau, has been appointed at-large director. • C hris Stowers, Commercial Metals Company, has been appointed at-large director. • K evin VanDeven, Nucor Corp., has been appointed at-large director.

Obituaries

The industry portal of the metal industry The 'Quick finder' for your industrial demand: Discover products, companies and news.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Edwin J. Muccillo, 84, passed away 12 November 2015. He was born on 18 January 1931 in Smokey Hollow on the east side of Youngstown, Ohio, USA. Muccillo was a 1953 graduate of Youngstown State University, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical Muccillo engineering. After graduating, he went to work at Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co.’s seamless tube mills as a management trainee. He worked his way up the ranks at the company’s Campbell works, becoming a foreman and a general foreman of the hot mills before being named as assistant superintendent of both the hot and finishing sections. In 1975, he was named the superintendent of the Campbell works’ seamless mills. He worked for Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. and LTV Steel for 40 years, retiring in 1993. After the mills were idled, he was asset manager during his last five years of work. Muccillo was a Life Member of AIST, having joined AIST’s predecessor organization, the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE), in 1956. He served on AISE’s board of directors in 1977 and also served as a district section director. He is survived by his wife of 50 years, Rosemary; three children, Gina, Lisa and Ed; and four grandchildren.  F

metsearch.net

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20.10.15 14:13


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AIST Foundation Update Annual Corporate Gift Clubs 2015–2016 Carnegie Circle US$50,000+ • A IST Southeast Member Chapter

Annual Fund 2015–2016 The Annual Fund is the AIST Foundation’s yearly campaign to strengthen the Foundation’s programming through unrestricted contributions from AIST members, corporations and other supporters. The Annual Fund year begins 1 July and ends 30 June. To learn more about the charitable work of the AIST Foundation, visit AISTFoundation.org.

Frick Society US$25,000–$49,999 • ArcelorMittal* • G erdau Long Steel North America* • Hatch Associates Consultants Inc.* • Nucor Corp.* • SSAB North America* • Steel Dynamics Inc.*

Oliver Council US$10,000–$24,999 • A IST Philadelphia Member Chapter • Cliffs Natural Resources* • CMC Americas* • United States Steel Corporation*

Schwabe Associates US$5,000–$9,999 • AKJ Industries Inc.* • Berry Metal Company* • CBMM North America* • HarbisonWalker International • MCC International Inc.* • Riverside Refractories Inc.* • Showa Denko Carbon Inc.* • SMS USA LLC* • Tube City IMS • Vesuvius US$1,000–$4,999 • A.H. Tallman Bronze Co.* • D. Martin Enterprises Inc.* • Edw. C. Levy Co.* • ELG Haniel Metals Corp.* • Graycor • Hickman, Williams & Co.* • MINTEQ International Inc.* • Nalco Co. • Paul Wurth Inc. • Primetals Technologies • S&B Industrial Minerals • Xtek Inc. • Zircoa

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Morgan Guild

AIST Foundation Friends US$500–$999 • Magneco/Metrel • Missouri Refractories Co. • MMFX Technologies Corp. • Stevens Engineers and Constructors • Yates Cylinders *These companies have made multi-year pledges.

Multi-Year Corporate Pledges The AIST Foundation thanks the following companies that have pledged a multiyear donation, payable in annual installments, in support of the Foundation’s programs. Through this exceptional industry support, the AIST Foundation awards more than US$600,000 in scholarships and grants annually.

US$100,000

• ArcelorMittal • G erdau Long Steel North America • Nucor Corp. • SSAB North America • Steel Dynamics Inc.

US$60,000

• United States Steel Corporation

US$50,000

• Cliffs Natural Resources • CMC Americas • Hatch Associates Consultants Inc.

US$20,000

• AKJ Industries Inc. • Berry Metal Company • CBMM North America • MCC International Inc. • Riverside Refractories Inc. • Showa Denko Carbon Inc. • SMS USA LLC

US$6,000

• D. Martin Enterprises Inc.

US$5,000

• Edw. C. Levy Co. • ELG Haniel Metals Corp. • Hickman, Williams & Co. •M  INTEQ International Inc.

Make your pledge or donation today online at AISTFoundation.org or contact Lori Wharrey at lwharrey@aist.org or +1.724.814.3044. Your support is greatly appreciated!


To ensure the iron and steel industry of tomorrow will have a sufficient number of qualified professionals.

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Student Activities The AIST Foundation sponsors an array of activities for students. Below are photos from recent student activities.

Pizza Grants Students at universities and post-secondary trade/technical schools that offer coursework relevant to the steel industry are eligible for funding from the AIST Foundation to cover the cost of snacks and refreshments at a meeting. The funding is available for student meetings during which the Steel to Students Program, AIST scholarships and the T.C. Graham Prize will be promoted. Up to US$50 is available each semester per school.

Student Plant Tours As a key to promoting student interest in the industry, plant tours are encouraged. AIST staff will assist university professors and/or students in scheduling a steel plant tour in their region. The AIST Foundation will reimburse for transportation expenses (gas and/or rental) associated with plant tours up to US$300.

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1–2. Students at Michigan Technological University were awarded a pizza grant for their meeting on 28 October 2015. 3. Students from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee visited Charter Steel – Saukville on 9 October 2015. 4. Students from Colorado School of Mines visited EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel on 3 November 2015. 5–6. Students from McGill University visited ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur on 30 October 2015.


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AIST Foundation Update University-Industry Relations Roundtable

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The purpose of the AIST Foundation University-Industry Relations Roundtable is to foster communication between our university network (professors and career services representatives) and the steel industry (human resources personnel and operations representatives). The committee objective is to increase the number of professors teaching a steelrelated curriculum, and to increase the number of students interested in a career in the steel industry. The AIST Foundation University-Industry Relations Roundtable (UIRR), chaired by Kelly Dallas from ArcelorMittal USA, met on 5 October 2015 during MS&T15 in Columbus, Ohio, USA. There were 21 in attendance, representing university faculty, industry The AIST Foundation University-Industry Relations Roundtable met on 5 October 2015 operations, industry human during MS&T15 in Columbus, Ohio, USA. resources, AIST Member Chapters and national laboratories. Laura Bartlett from Texas State University provided an Bryan Webler from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) update on her second year as a recipient of the Kent D. provided an update on the progress of his two grants — the Peaslee Junior Faculty Award. Steel Research & Applications Grant and the first year as a Dallas and Webler then provided an update on K–12 recipient of the Kent D. Peaslee Junior Faculty Award. Both outreach by the AIST Midwest and Pittsburgh Member grants will bring a steel industry presence to CMU. Chapters. Dallas also provided an update on the “Real Steel” • The project for the Steel Research & Applications Marketing Video Challenge. The contest is now entering its Grant dealt with process optimization during ladle fourth year, and the theme this year is “Going Green for refining. It was originated by a senior capstone project 2016.” team in the fall of 2014. These students were able to Alan Druschitz from Virginia Tech discussed the need visit the industrial partner, Vallourec Star, during that for “student skill sets for metallurgy.” He also recommended time. They also worked closely with a process engineer. improvements to the AIST Foundation website to help make The grant was used to fund research in summer 2014 the connection between students and the steel industry. A by an undergraduate student who characterized nonvideo for various disciplines of engineering is needed to metallic inclusions from ladle samples. A second help students understand what engineers do in the industry. undergraduate researcher is currently working on the In addition, the student resume board will be updated in project. Results from the project will be reported at order to assist the industry in their search for qualified job AISTech 2016. candidates. Continued discussions regarding employment needs, • The Kent D. Peaslee Junior Faculty Award activities recruiting, identifying research needs of the industry, and are just beginning. Plans are under way to bring an connecting with university research were held. AIST presence to an upcoming event at the Carnegie The next UIRR will be held on Monday, 16 May 2016 in Science Center in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA, in March 2016. conjunction with AISTech 2016 in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. F Award funds are supporting materials and services for one undergraduate working in the fall 2015 and spring 2016 semesters. The award will be used to support undergraduate research during summer 2016. Plans are beginning to develop for CMU students to tour a local steel company in early 2016.


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Interview With Ted Lyon, AIST Foundation Trustee The activities, properties and affairs of the AIST Foundation are managed by a Board of Trustees consisting of 12 members of AIST, appointed by the AIST Board of Directors. Iron & Steel Technology spoke with Ted Lyon, a longtime member of AIST and Honorary Member of AIME, who serves on the AIST Foundation Board of Trustees. Lyon is managing director for Hatch Associates’ Iron and Steel Business Unit and president of Hatch Associates Consultants Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., USA — the U.S.-based unit of the Hatch Group, headquartered in Mississauga, Ont., Canada. He is responsible for client development, project operations, and business performance associated with Hatch’s technical consulting, engineering and project delivery services to the iron and steel industry worldwide. In addition, Lyon leads Hatch’s U.S. business, including metals and mining, infrastructure and energy.

Ted Lyon managing director — Iron & Steel

When did you first hear about AISE/ ISS and how? I first heard of both the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE) and the Iron & Steel Society (ISS) in 1989 when I moved to Pittsburgh from the Gulf Coast, where I had worked for Conoco. I entered the service side of the steel industry, providing technical consulting, engineering and project delivery services. I had very good mentors back then, who encouraged me to join both AISE and ISS. I joined both organizations in 1993.

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How has membership benefited you in your career? A career is multi-faceted — it involves vocation, education, employment, engagement with peers in the

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

What was your first level of involvement in the organization? I worked closely back then with George Knepshield, who was the original treasurer of ISS and still served in that capacity at the time. He was approaching retirement and nominated me as a candidate for treasurer of ISS. So I went straight from the general membership ranks of ISS to treasurer of the society and the ISS Foundation and member of the ISS executive committee in 1993.

How did your involvement progress over the years? I have been actively engaged in both ISS and subsequently AIST continuously since 1993. I served as treasurer of ISS and the ISS Foundation until the merger with AISE. I stayed on in the new AIST as treasurer and began three consecutive two-year terms as treasurer for both AIST and the AIST Foundation until I rotated off. When that ended, I received a call from the AIST Foundation asking me to join as a Trustee. This engagement also gave me the opportunity to serve on the AIME Board of Trustees, where I had the opportunity to engage with the Society of Petroleum Engineers; the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration; and The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. I am now in the first year of my last term as a Foundation Trustee. When that is over, I will have had 23 years of service to the combined organizations.


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industry and continuous learning. To fully exploit his or her career opportunities, one must consider and engage in all these facets. I found that ISS/AISE and now AIST afford a tremendous network and venue for advancing my career in the iron and steel industry in a way that is complementary to my education and employment. AIST provides a mechanism to stay technically current, interface with our peers, and connect the producers with the supplier, service and academic community. AIST is a forum where operations, technology, and management can all meet and address the challenges and opportunities of the industry. The most important aspect of all this is the tremendous network of skilled and talented people that I have been associated with. Belonging to AIST has been fundamental to my overall professional career — as important as education and employment. I would be remiss if I didn’t acknowledge Hatch Associates for its unwavering support of AIST and its programs. Hatch recognizes the importance of technological innovation, education and collaboration in advancing industrial processes and as such is an enthusiastic supporter of AIST and the Foundation. We encourage all our employees engaged in the industry to be active in AIST. If you were to recommend AIST to a new graduate just coming into the industry, what would you tell him/her? The key is involvement. Many of our young engineers and mid-career professionals, as well as our seasoned veterans, are very active on Technology Committees and routinely participate in the planning of AIST events. So, active and impactful involvement is the message. Membership is not about a wallet card and a subscription to a magazine; it is about active involvement, planning events, writing and delivering technical papers, and collaboration with your peers, customers and suppliers with a common interest in the industry. That is where the value, professional development and stimulation come from.

In your opinion, what can we do to attract young people to the steel industry? This is the million-dollar question and the one that we, as Foundation Trustees, spend the most time on. I think the general answer is simple: if the industry can provide technically stimulating work to young engineers, coupled with sustainable and reliable career paths, we can attract the best and brightest to the industry. We have to define the industry for new graduates based on what we see in the future, not based on what we’ve done or where we’ve been in the past. There are about 2 billion tons/year of steel production capacity in the world — more than all other metals combined. Demand growth will continue as the world population grows, and as new and more sophisticated steel products are developed. So, to be successful in attracting the talent that the industry demands, we must update our message, develop branding and messaging that focus on the future, and communicate the opportunities and forward-thinking technological development involving ferrous metallurgy and products. How has the AIST Foundation helped your company attract young people to the industry? Hatch views the AIST Foundation as a conduit through which we can support technical education focused on the steel industry and establish a pipeline of talented new graduates. The AIST Foundation is part of our annual educational support portfolio, and will continue to be based on its success in fulfilling this mission. F


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AIST Foundation 2016–2017 AIST Scholarships Call for Applications AIST scholarships are awarded on an annual basis to talented and dedicated students to encourage them to pursue careers within iron and steel-related industries. Scholarships are offered through the AIST Foundation and AIST Member Chapters, some offering opportunities for internships. For more information on AIST’s scholarship program, including application deadlines, scholarship award amounts, guidelines and applications, visit AIST.org/students-faculty/scholarships.

AIST Member Chapter Scholarships AIST Baltimore Member Chapter Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

AIST Birmingham Member Chapter Scholarship One US$2,000 one-year scholarship

• Tom Cipich Non-Engineering Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

• Midwest Member Scholarship One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Computer Technology Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

AIST Detroit Member Chapter Scholarship • Judith A. Quinn Scholarships Two US$2,500 scholarships and two US$5,000 scholarships

• Material Advantage Scholarship One US$1,000 one-year scholarship

• Member Chapter Technology Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

AIST Globe-Trotters Member Chapter Scholarships Up to four US$2,500 one-year scholarships

AIST Mexico Member Chapter Scholarships

AIST Northeastern Ohio Member Chapter Scholarships • Alfred B. Glossbrenner Scholarship Up to US$2,000 in four-year scholarships

For more information, visit AISTmexico.org.mx.

• John Klusch Scholarship

AIST Midwest Member Chapter Scholarships

• University of Akron Scholarship

• Betty McKern Scholarship One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Mel Nickel Scholarship

Up to US$2,000 in four-year scholarships One US$1,000 one-year scholarship

• Youngstown State University Scholarship One US$1,000 one-year scholarship

One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Jack Gill Scholarship One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Western States Award One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Don Nelson Scholarship

AIST Northern Member Chapter Scholarships • Northern Member Chapter University Scholarship One CA$1,000 one-year scholarship

• Northern Member Chapter College Scholarship One CA$1,000 one-year scholarship

One US$3,000 one-year scholarship

• Engineering Scholarships Two US$1,500 four-year scholarships

• Non-Engineering Scholarships

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Two US$1,500 one-year scholarships

AIST Northwest Member Chapter Scholarship One US$3,000 one-year scholarship


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To ensure the iron and steel industry of tomorrow will have a sufficient number of qualified professionals.

AIST Ohio Valley Member Chapter Scholarships

AIST Southeast Member Chapter Scholarship

Up to two US$1,000 one-year scholarships

• Gene Suave Scholarship One US$3,500 one-year scholarship

AIST Pittsburgh Member Chapter Scholarships AIST Southern California Member Chapter Scholarships

• Lawrence G. Maloney Scholarship One US$2,500 one-year scholarship

•S  outhern California Member Chapter Engineering Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

• Pittsburgh Member Chapter Scholarships Up to two US$2,500 one-year scholarships

• Southern California Member Chapter Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

AIST San Francisco Member Chapter Scholarships Up to two US$1,500 one-year scholarships

AIST St. Louis Member Chapter Scholarship One US$1,500 one-year scholarship

F

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Safety First

39

Wired Glass for Industrial Applications

Hazards are ever-present in the steel plant environment, and a heightened awareness and emphasis on safety is a necessary priority for our industry. This monthly column, coordinated by members of the AIST Safety & Health Technology Committee, focuses on procedures and practices to promote a safe working environment for everyone.

Author Jane MacPherson, sales engineer, MacPherson & Co., Berea, Ohio USA sales@macphersonglass.com

I Comments are welcome. If you have questions about this topic or other safety issues, please contact safetyfirst@aist.org. Please include your full name, company name, mailing address and email in all correspondence.

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the last few decades has been safety codes for wired glass. In an April 2011 article by Diana San Diego, director of marketing for Safti First, the author notes that in 2003, the International Builders Code (IBC) removed the 1977 exemption for traditional wired glass.1 In the 2004 IBC supplement and the 2006 IBC code, restrictions were taken a step further — traditional wired glass is no longer exempt from meeting safety standards when used in any potentially hazardous location. This applies to all new construction and in all types of occupancies. (Note: IBC targets code for residential and commercial buildings. Currently, there are no separate building codes cited for industrial use applications.) The new safety wired glass produced today claims to be economical and meets all the commercial fire-protective glazing and safety standards. New safety wired glass, such as Safti First’s SuperLite™ I-W brand, meets Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) impact safety requirements, while traditional wired glass (non-safety) cannot meet this impact standard and is no longer used throughout the majority of the United States. This new safety wired glass incorporates a safety film and meets both fire and CPSC impact safety requirements. The IBC’s code history does not entirely ban traditional (non-safety) wired glass; it is still used in fire windows in non-hazardous locations but is limited to 25% of the wall area. However, the data, testing and ratings used for these standards are for commercial glazing applications and do not include industrial use. One issue in using commercial safety wired glass in hot mill industrial applications that is not

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

In recent years, there has been an increased usage of large, wired glass windows in hot mill applications, with the presumption that it is “safety glass” for hazardous conditions. In this article, the history of wired glass safety testing and standards will be discussed, as well as the unique challenges presented by applying wired glass as a safety precaution in industrial scenarios such as a hot mill. The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Safety Commission first tested wired glass in the late 1970s. The test simulated a 150-lb. man running through the wired glass in a door. Testing indicated a high fatality rate due to an effect the investigators referred to as “rebound.” Rebound can be defined as a reflexive reaction that jerks a hand or other body part back through the glass after penetration, which greatly increases the severity of trauma. Based on the investigators’ findings, the federal government established restrictions in 1979 on the usage of traditional wired glass to a maximum of 100 square inches in doors. Today, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires safety glass to be installed toward the operator in all manned enclosures. This safety glass can be tempered glass that breaks in a dice pattern or a laminated glass that prevents shards of glass from penetrating the opening. OSHA has also instituted the “42 inch rule,” which requires a safety bar or sash mullion approximately 42 inches from the floor for application above ground level for fall protection. Along with these stricter standards, there have been many improvements in the manufacturing of wired glass since the Safety Commission testing of the 1970s. One area of change in


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Safety First addressed in current research is the thermal properties of glass and wire. Glass and metal have different expansion coefficients, and this adversely affects the product as it rapidly heats and cools. This dissimilar expansion rate greatly increases the likelihood of the wired glass breaking at a higher rate than tempered safety glass due to thermal stress. The typical meltshop experiences extreme heating and cooling environments not tested by OSHA or CPSC. Additionally, a typical molten metal application may produce an excessive force during a reaction well over the test rating for commercial glazing. Every cited research on codes for “new” safety wired glass is based on the

Figure 1

published information on wired glass testing for residential and commercial applications. No testing was found for hot metal industrial applications. This is of little help when designing for protection for an operator in a molten metal explosion, such as that associated with steel furnaces. Industrial wired glass also requires stricter testing than commercial applications. As San Diego wrote in her 2011 report, “In 1977, the CPSC developed 16 CFR 1201 to protect people from injuries due to accidental impact with glazing in certain locations. This meant that glazing used in hazardous locations such as doors and sidelites had to meet a minimum Category I impact test that stipulated 150 ft-lbs of impact and limited glazing area to 9 square feet (1,296 square inches). A more stringent Category II impact test that stipulated 400 ft-lbs of impact also was established for glazing areas that exceeded that size, such as patio doors.” In contrast, MacPherson & Co. tests industrial impact glass in thousands of foot-pounds, not hundreds. For example, a 7/8 -inch industrial impact composite glass is tested for at least 3,000 ft.-lbs. The tests used a 42-lb. dart with a 1-inch diameter nose dropped from heights ranging from 28 to 80 ft. An 80-ft. drop generates 3,360 ft-lbs of impact force. Figure 1 illustrates this test on commercial-grade laminated safety glass, commonly referred to as “bullet-resisting” glass. The dart easily and cleanly goes through the glass on the first drop. As long as the dart did not directly hit the operator, he or she would survive this impact, unlike traditional wired glass where the shards of glass could make this kind of impact a

Impact testing on commercial laminated impact safety glass.

Figure 3

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Figure 2

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Operator-side layer view of the industrial composite impact safety glass following testing.

Testing on industrial composite impact safety glass.


41 fatality. The “new” wired glass with lamination has been tested for 400 ft-lbs. Figure 2 depicts the same test with industrial-grade composite impact safety glass. Here, the dart crumbles the dart-side layer of glass, but the dart does not penetrate completely. Figure 3 shows the same test glass from the operator-side layer. The operator-side layer remains intact. Although the new wired glass is laminated to correct the issues of the traditional wired glass, MacPherson and Co. still does not recommend wired glass to be used in or near hot metal industrial applications.

Acknowledgment This article was written in conjunction with Bruce M. MacPherson, who had years of experience, combined with experience working with the previous generation crane cab designers.

Reference 1. D. San Diego, “Wired Glass Still a Misunderstood Product,” www.glassmagazine.com/article/commercial/wired-glass-stillmisunderstood-product-118017, published 22 April 2011. F

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Legal Perspectives

43

Protecting Intellectual Property in an Age of 3D Printing

3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is a method for making 3D objects by successively applying thin layers of material. The technology can be used to print a variety of products from children’s toys to human tissue. By eliminating the need for traditional molding, the technology is a perfect fit for rapid prototyping and limited runs of customized products. Although 3D printing technology has been around since the 1980s, it has only recently made its way into the mainstream. As 3D printing technology becomes more affordable and widely available, it is critical that manufacturers ensure their intellectual property assets are protected. This article provides practical advice that can be implemented by manufacturers to update their intellectual property strategies in an age of 3D printing.

Patents

U.S.C. § 271 U.S.C. § 101

335

U.S.C. § 171

Kristin Biedinger, attorney, Tucker Arensberg Attorneys, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA kbiedinger@tuckerlaw.com

If you have any questions about this topic or any other legal topics, contact attorney Thomas P. Peterson at +1.412.594.3914 or tpeterson@tuckerlaw.com. Please include your full name, company name, mailing address and email address in all correspondence. Views expressed in Legal Perspectives do not necessarily reflect those of Iron & Steel Technology.

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Copyrights protect original works of authorship fixed in a tangible means

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Copyrights

The law firm of Tucker Arensberg contributes this quarterly column focused on the legal issues that may impact our readers. Tucker Arensberg is a full-service law firm headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. Servicing the legal needs of the iron and steel industry, Tucker Arensberg has also provided legal counsel to the Association for Iron & Steel Technology.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Patents give their owners the right to exclude others from making, using, selling or importing into the United States their patented invention.1 Utility patents protect novel machines, methods and manufactures, and have long been used to protect novel inventions developed or applied in traditional manufacturing.2 While utility patents will continue to play a key role in protecting novel inventions, it is critical that manufacturers adapt their patent strategies to ensure these inventions are adequately protected in light of 3D printing. To establish a claim of patent infringement, a manufacturer must show that the allegedly infringing device or method meets all of the limitations of at least one claim in the

manufacturer’s issued patent. Claims drafted solely for traditional manufacturing methods typically do not include limitations that provide for creating a product using 3D printing techniques. This leads to a gap in claim scope that may enable otherwise would-be infringers to avoid liability. Manufacturers must expand the scope of their claims to ensure any such gaps in claim scope are closed and to ensure that their patents are enforceable against others using 3D printing techniques. For example, manufacturers should consider including limitations that provide for manufacturing a product using computer-implemented methods in new utility applications. For applications that are pending, manufacturers should consider filing continuations or continuations-in-part to expand the scope of the originally filed claims to include 3D printing techniques. Another way manufacturers can expand the scope of their patent rights is through design patents. Design patents protect ornamental features of a product, rather than the product’s utility.3 By protecting the way a product looks, manufacturers can prevent others from 3D printing goods that copy the product design, even if the 3D printing goods do not copy all of the functionality of the product. Design patents also give manufacturers additional claims of design patent infringement against manufacturers of counterfeit goods that copy design features in addition to utility features.


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Legal Perspectives of expression.4 Manufacturers have historically used copyrights to protect literary and pictorial works such as product manuals or training materials. However, copyrights can also be used to protect graphic, sculptural and architectural works.5 Considering the ease in which products can be copied using 3D printing technology, manufacturers must ensure these types of works are adequately protected. Copyrights can serve as a complement or an alternative to design patents and add another layer of intellectual property protection to a manufacturer’s products. With lower filing costs and faster processing times than patent applications, copyright registrations provide an efficient means for securing protection in the event a manufacturer is frequently changing the design of a particular product or intends to manufacture a limited run of a customized product. Copyright protection exists upon creation of the work. However, the work must be registered with the U.S. Copyright Office before these rights can be enforced.6 Damages that can be awarded in a copyright infringement case, such as statutory damages and attorney’s fees, also depend on whether or not the infringement occurred before the work was registered.7 Therefore, manufacturers should register their copyrighted works as early as possible to ensure they can recover the maximum amount of damages possible in case of infringement. Manufacturers should also provide notice to the public of their rights in copyrighted works by marking these products with a copyright notice. Copyright notices must include the “©” designation, the owner of the work, and the year the work was first published. It is important to note that providing a copyright notice alone is not sufficient for manufacturers to enforce their rights. The works must still be registered.

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Trademarks and Service Marks Trademarks and service marks (“Marks”) are any words, phrases, symbols or logos that are used to identify the source of a product or service.8 Marks prevent confusion in the marketplace by enabling consumers to identify products and services as originating from a particular manufacturer and distinguishing these products and services from those of other manufacturers. 3D printing raises a number of potential trademark issues, including potential infringement by those manufacturing counterfeit goods. The test for trademark infringement is whether or not there is a “likelihood of 417

U.S.C. § 102 U.S.C. § 102 617 U.S. Code § 411 717 U.S. Code § 412 815 U.S.C. § 1127 517

confusion” as to the source of a good or service.9 A number of factors are considered in determining whether or not a likelihood of confusion exists. These factors include the similarity of the Marks themselves and the similarity of the products sold under the Marks. Whether or not the products are sold to the same types of customers and travel in the same channels of trade will also lead to a likelihood of confusion. In a 3D printing setting, this likelihood of confusion may arise in different ways. For example, a manufacturer of 3D printed goods may start using a Mark that is similar to a competitor with an established brand. Or a manufacturer of counterfeit goods may directly copy the Marks of a genuine manufacturer in attempt to pass the counterfeit goods off as genuine products. Consumers seek out products from certain manufacturers because of the quality associated with these brands. Often, for aesthetic purposes, trademarks are affixed to product packaging rather than the product itself. This approach enables consumers to identify products purchased in a store, through a reliable vendor or from the manufacturer. However, this approach may not be sufficient for consumers to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit goods. Consumers who obtain products from resellers or foreign distributors may not be able to rely solely on the product packaging. To aid consumers in identifying their products, and to further distinguish their products from counterfeits, manufacturers must update their trademark strategies. Placing a word or symbol on the product itself can serve as a two-step approach to authenticating the manufacturer’s product and aid consumers in distinguishing between genuine and counterfeit products. Manufacturers should also use the appropriate designation in conjunction with their Marks to provide the public with notice of their rights. The “®” symbol indicates that a Mark is federally registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office while the “TM” symbol indicates that the Mark is registered at the state level or that the rights have been acquired under the common law without registration. As technology continues to develop rapidly, manufacturers cannot rely on old intellectual property strategies. Manufacturers must seek new ways to protect their intellectual property assets and prevent competitors and infringers from violating these rights. As a first step to expanding the scope of patent, copyright and trademark rights, a manufacturer should conduct an intellectual property audit. The audit should assess the scope of any patent claims, copyright registrations, and trademark registrations and set forth a plan for closing any identified gaps. The recommendations provided in this article can serve as a foundation for conducting this audit and strengthening the manufacturer’s intellectual property portfolio. F 915

U.S.C. §§ 1051 et seq


Technical Article

45

Detection and Resolution of Adverse Meltshop Conditions Through the Use of the GrafTech ArchiTech System

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• The external service technician needed to be made available, and travel to the customer’s site had to be arranged. • It took a great deal of time to safely connect test equipment during periods of nonproduction (for safety reasons, always with the assistance of the shop’s electrical personnel, which took them away from their regular duties). • In order to collect a statistically meaningful amount of data, the test equipment needed to remain connected for, in some cases, several days. • Shop management, furnace operators and technicians needed to be available for commentary and willing to cooperate with the investigation. • Time needed to be afforded to the technician to allow for data analysis.

Authors Theodore Kurela (left), director, customer technical services – Americas, GrafTech International Holdings Inc., Brooklyn Heights, Ohio, USA theodore.kurela@graftech.com Nicolas Lugo (right), senior EAF technologist, GrafTech International Holdings Inc., Brooklyn Heights, Ohio, USA nicolas.lugo@graftech.com

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Historically, this type of technical response was very time-consuming and resulted in a delay between reporting the problem and presenting a potential solution or recommendations for corrective action. Furthermore, the very nature of this approach forced addressing the problem after the symptoms had subsided — problems which may not be occurring during the technician’s visit. Because of the size of the market, the number of requests for technical assistance and the relative geographical location of some EAF shops in relation to available technical resources, a solution had to be developed that reduced the amount

The GrafTech ArchiTech System is helping EAF shops solve problems faster by combining continuous analysis of information with statistically based alerts of process deviations. After one year of system implementation, a number of cases have been detected and communicated to meltshops worldwide. The objective of this paper is to examine a few of these cases, including the early detection, statistical analysis, deviation reporting and the resulting countermeasures implemented.

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he electric arc furnace (EAF) is a complex system made up of a host of electrical, mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic components designed to melt scrap steel and other ferrous materials as quickly, efficiently and safely as possible. Keeping this “melting system” in optimum operating condition can be a daunting task and involves many different technical disciplines, some of which may not be internally available to the meltshop. For this reason, the EAF market has traditionally solicited the input of both external contractors and trusted suppliers when needing to make adjustments to their furnaces in the pursuit of increased productivity, lower energy consumption and efficient operation. The knowledge base of these external sources has been garnered not only through formal training but also from tacit knowledge gained through the historic servicing of a vast number of different types of EAF shops throughout the world. Analysis of adverse technical issues has traditionally relied on a snapshot of the state of the operation complemented with both the meltshop’s archived data and eyewitness accounts of adverse events. Data collection equipment was connected, heat sheets were reviewed and operators were interviewed to gather eyewitness accounts. All of this information was then analyzed off-line, and a report was generated containing a summary of data and recommendations for corrective action. This approach, while normal and customary in its day, was fraught with inefficiencies:

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This article is available online at AIST.org for 30 days following publication.


46

Technical Article of time taken between problem and solution. This solution needed to: • Reduce or eliminate travel time between the technical resource and the meltshop. • Create the ability to continuously collect data so that the problem is captured. • As a bonus, continuously monitor the data to create process alerts and predictive data analysis. From a historical perspective, there have been several attempts at streamlining this operation, including UCAR’s Furnace Operating System (a dial-up modembased solution), Virtual Meltshop (in cooperation with AMIGE, the first comprehensive Internet-based monitoring system) and a host of others.

Methods of Data Acquisition Field Equipment Overview — In general, the components that make up any EAF data acquisition system include:

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• Field connectivity. • Signal conditioning. • Data recording. • Data storage. • Statistical presentation of data. • Subsequent data analysis.

Traditionally, EAF monitoring was done by means of a portable apparatus consisting of a data acquisition front end and a computer (desktop or laptop) to store the data for off-line analysis. This type of equipment — a revolutionary approach at the time of its inception — provided the customer with “punctual” EAF operational data, usually collected for a short period of time (two to three days). Further manual analysis of the data would provide the information necessary for the production of the customer’s technical reports. This two-step monitoring system also had some intrinsic disadvantages associated with its use: the need for the EAF’s qualified electrical maintenance personnel to physically connect the equipment to the EAF each time the analysis was to be performed, and the slow response time between the data collection time and the actual report generation. In addition, a certain level of data analysis skills was required to be able to “read the data” and transform it into useful information for the customer. Portable Data Acquisition — The introduction of portable data acquisition equipment into the EAF industry came first from suppliers and contractors who wanted to extend their existing service offerings to customers.

One of the first was launched in the early 1970s — the UCAR Furnace Operating System (FOS), a cumbersome assembly of electronic boxes, dials, switches and cables. It required a Herculean effort to bring this equipment to the shop and spend the better part of a day positioning, connecting and tuning the equipment. While a breakthrough idea, this solution was in need of simplification. The UCAR Portable Arc Furnace Analyzer (PAFA): Coming from a long lineage of portable data monitoring systems, GrafTech’s Phoenix PAFA (Fig. 1) relies on off-the-shelf hardware components and proprietary software to collect and categorize electrical and process data, allowing for the performance of several types of traditional analyses of the EAF. Depending on specific customer requirements, other studies may be performed, including electromechanical vibration, regulation performance, power balance analyses and others. While the PAFA platform helped to reduce the portability footprint, it still suffered from the aforementioned list of shortcomings (travel, connectivity, duration of data collection, etc.). What was needed was not a smaller footprint of the existing system but a new idea that directly addressed these limitations. ArchiTech: One of the major disadvantages associated with the traditional way of servicing a meltshop is that, as shown in Fig. 2, it includes a great deal of non-value-added time in the form of data collection and travel to the customer. These activities are major contributors to delaying data analysis and recommendations for changes or corrective action. One simple and efficient way to eliminate the problem associated with taking time to collect data is to already have the equipment on-site and to gather data on a continuous basis. This, however, does not address the time needed to travel to the customer. If one could combine this idea of continuous data collection with transmitting this data for off-site analysis, data analysis could begin almost immediately. There have been a limited number of attempts to develop this type of data collection/remote data transmission with some success. Some perform the data collection and transmission, but do not offer much in the way of data analysis, alerts, etc. This is not to say that this method of data acquisition is the ultimate solution. Until external (Internet) networks can greatly increase their broadband frequencies, the transmission of data will be restricted. In order to capture a statistical representation of continuous operations, data fields transmitted over the Internet will have to be averaged over time (say, five seconds); this is sufficient for analysis of long-term trends or general operations, but any analysis of highfrequency transient problems is not possible.


47 Figure 1

UCAR Portable Arc Furnace Analyzer.

The ArchiTech Monitoring System does not displace the PAFA or other portable highspeed analysis equipment, but rather complements its reach, covering the main drawback of the portable approach — short time studies that may reflect only the very specific operating conditions related to the moment of the observation. Simply stated, ArchiTech is a 24/7 data monitoring system permanently installed in a customer’s EAF shop that collects electrical and process data and sends it to a secure, cloud-based website. Once there, the data is presented in graphical form and can be interpreted to help troubleshoot issues or provide a host of valuable information, including:

Figure 2

Timeline of portable equipment solution.

Figure 3

Single-line diagram of the ArchiTech platform.

Figure 4

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• Remote data storage and monitoring. • Trend analysis. • Alarm generation. • Internet-based data presentation. • Monthly summaries generated by CTS experts. • Historical data stored for long-term analysis. • Customized reports. This type of system helps to eliminate or alleviate some of the inherent time-delay issues associated with traditional portable systems. Notice in Fig. 4 the tasks made redundant by the installation of a permanent local data collection system.

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Timeline of the ArchiTech solution.


48

Technical Article Figure 5

immediate use. The data provided showed a large MW imbalance caused by disproportionate current levels. Also, the resultant power curve indicated that the furnace was operating past the optimum power point due to high current levels. As shown in Fig. 5, current levels were reduced, which helped to reduce electrode consumption while retaining the magnitude of melting power levels.

Resulting power curve.

Figure 6

Arc imbalance and phase current levels.

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Data Analysis Over the years, the use of ArchiTech has been paramount in helping hundreds of customers troubleshoot thousands of technical issues and optimize furnace performance. The uniqueness of the system allows for the discovery of conditions and issues that could not have been revealed through the traditional use of a portable furnace monitoring system. While most of these cases can be classified under the guise of “traditional/seen it before,” there were a number of instances in which detection would not have been possible without 24/7 monitoring and alert generation, as discussed in the following case studies. Case Study No. 1: ArchiTech System Revealed Historic Performance Issues — This particular customer had no inherent furnace monitoring system and, therefore, no way to determine the long- and short-term effectiveness of current melting practices, and no way to compare historical and existing furnace performance. ArchiTech was installed in 2013 and was placed into

Case Study No. 2: An ArchiTech Alert Led to a Large Cost Avoidance and Averted a Safety Issue — An ArchiTech alert was automatically generated by the website and the customer was notified about an increase in secondary currents (kA). Based on this report, the customer examined their hydraulic control system and discovered a malfunction in one of the pressure accumulators that is responsible for maintaining electrode mast pressures. Because pressure was not holding, the weight of the electrode columns was causing the mast arms to slowly drift downward. This caused secondary current levels to increase, causing a considerable rise in temperature which, in turn, produced excessive erosion in the refractory. The customer had to repair the floor of the furnace, but it could have been much worse. If left undetected, the arc could have burned through the bottom of the furnace, creating a safety issue. This would have taken the customer at least two full days to repair, causing a loss of production and possible personal injury. A repair was made to the customer’s pressure accumulator, and the hydraulic system was now maintaining pressure, allowing the mast arms to maintain their set position. Case Study No. 3: ArchiTech Provided Data to Reduce Excessive Electrode Breakage and a Long-Term Trend Toward High Electrode Consumption — High Electrode Consumption: A complete ArchiTech analysis of the shop’s production and electrical parameters for 2013 and 2014 was generated in order to compare historic performance. From this analysis, a continuous shift in the electrical power balance was discovered, denoted by the downward trend on the red line (see Fig. 7 prior to 04/02/2014). An investigation into the regulation and power settings revealed no readily apparent issues, but when examining the hydraulic system, a faulty hydraulic valve was discovered. This was replaced and the power imbalance returned to normal. The result was a return to normal electrode consumption and furnace performance.


49 Figure 7

Power balance.

Excessive Electrode Breakage: After correcting the power balance issue, the electrode breakage situation was examined. When performing this investigation, a recurring situation was detected in which one of the phases reached the EAF bottom before the

other two phases on almost every first bucket. It was also detected that, during some of these events involving electrode breaks, there was a sudden drop in hydraulic pressure but an expected reaction from the regulator was absent. This adverse condition was addressed by adjusting the nonconductor current (NCC) settings also set through the regulation system. After confirming a reduction in the frequency of electrode breaks, a recommendation was made to create a special scrap mix for charging the first heat of each week; this will help to provide a better environment to help warm up the furnace and further help to reduce the number of electrode breaks. After replacing the faulty valve, modifying the NCC settings and the scrap composition of the “first heat”

Figure 8

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Power balance.


50

Technical Article Figure 9

Single phasing.

Figure 10

Power balance.

bucket, this customer reduced the frequency of breaks from five breaks per month down to less than one break per month (average). Electrode consumption was also reduced by 0.2 ppt (0.1 kg/t). Case Study No. 4: Detection of Premature Ladle Failure and Power Balance —

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Single Phasing: After analyzing the data relevant to this imbalance alert, both GrafTech and customer personnel proceeded to adjust the kA balance setpoints for all three phases. During the follow-up, GrafTech personnel made the observation that this customer was also experiencing an unusually high number of single-phase occurrences that were being caused by short columns. This condition, if not corrected, can contribute to premature transformer failure. The suggestion of adding an electrode before the mast reaches the low-limit mast position has also led to less single phasing. Power Balance: Continuous ArchiTech monitoring of this customer’s ladle metallurgy furnace (LMF) resulted in the automatic generation of imbalance alarms, which were sent via email to GrafTech and shop personnel. These alarms alerted of large power (MW) and current imbalances that were accelerating the wear of refractory material and causing premature ladle failure. This, in turn, was causing an increase in downtime and a reduction in production. After making an adjustment to the secondary current levels, the electrical balance improved (see Fig. 10 before and after the 8:37 time stamp) and the refractory failures have been eliminated. Note that, because of aggressive stirring, the currents are not as consistent as one would expect.

Case Study No. 5: Pressure Transducer Feedback Discrepancy — During commissioning of the ArchiTech system, a procedure was used to check the integrity of the external signals, including hydraulic mast pressures. When each phase was checked, it was discovered that only one phase was providing accurate pressure feedback. Note in Fig. 11 how the B- and C-phase mast pressure signals are erratic, while A-phase is predictable. This condition was suspected of causing a recent rash of electrode breaks during the boredown stage of the heat. After first confirming a match between the physical electrode columns and the input signals, further investigations were conducted, and it was discovered that two pressure transducers were reading the wrong side of the cylinder. This was also causing a bypass of the non-conductor settings of the regulator. The signal wiring error was corrected and, as shown in Fig. 12, the hydraulic pressure signals were behaving as expected. As a result of all of these changes, the events related to electrode breaks are almost non-existent. Case Study No. 6: Oscillating Tap Changer — During a routine examination of ArchiTech data, a situation was discovered in which the system showed an unusually high number of tap changes early in the heat. Examination of the power program showed no such instruction, but when examined more closely it was revealed that one of the taps that the power program called for was not configured (no setpoint). In this case, because the program could not match the feedback current to the setpoint, the system was incurring excessively high current spikes, triggering the overcurrent protection and forcing a tapping down. After several minutes following initial power-on, the oscillating between tap settings was alleviated when the program


51 Figure 11

Hydraulic pressure signals (before).

Figure 12

called for a tap setting that was configured properly in the regulator. Case No. 7: Loss of Yard Transfomer — A major change in incoming voltage was detected by the ArchiTech system and showed a restriction to their incoming MVA. The customer had one of their yard transformers off-line for maintenance, which resulted in lower available melting power, lengthening power-on times. In an attempt to maximize electrical power during this temporary situation, a combination of ArchiTech data and the methodology garnered from a paper by Holmes and Stafford1 was used in order to first analyze the “total circuit.” Because the customer was about to enter a period during which maximizing production was not their priority, the goal was to minimize the impact of the loss of the transformer and attempt to create a “single-transformer solution.” A power program based on analysis of ArchiTech data was proposed during which the furnace would operate at a lower voltage/lower input power, resulting in a loss of productivity (not a priority during this market period) and lower energy consumption. Adjustments to the single-transformer configuration have been ongoing, but the customer continues to operate at significantly lower power levels with the revised electrical program as compared with their standard twotransformer melting operation.

Conclusion Hydraulic pressure signals (after).

Figure 13

EAF shops experiencing adverse operating conditions require recommendations for corrective action that are both accurate and timely. While portable data acquisition systems have historically been the norm, GrafTech’s ArchiTech autonomous, continuous data collection system captures data and turns this into information around the clock. This system allows for safer, faster resolution of acute shop issues as well as providing a means for long-term data trending and analysis.

References

ArchiTech™ is a trademark of GrafTech USA LLC. PAFA™ is a trademark of GrafTech International Holdings Inc. To nominate this paper for the AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award, visit AIST.org/huntkelly.

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1. M. Holmes and P. Stafford, “Replacement Transformer Selection for TATA Aldwarke — Key Parameters and Benefits,” AISTech 2014 Conference Proceedings, Vol. I, 2014, pp. 973–981. 2. Internal customer ArchiTech reports.  F

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Tap setting feedback (note oscillation).

I This paper was presented at AISTech 2015 — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and published in the Conference Proceedings.


52

Technical Article Improvement of EAF Process and Refractory Consumption by Advanced Slag Modeling A new and comprehensive slag model is presented in order to assess slag analysis data. MgO saturation figures based on complex thermochemical calculations are easy to interpret and make common over-simplifying projections and restrictions obsolete. These diagrams allow the visualization of current control of MgO, SiO 2 and FeO and give hints for improved use of slag formers, slag conditioners, carbon and oxygen injection. Case studies are presented.

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Authors Marcus Kirschen (top row, left), head of PM purging systems & process technology (BOF, EAF), product management primary metallurgy, RHI AG, Vienna, Austria marcus.kirschen@rhi-ag.com Ashraf Hanna (top row, right), head of product management primary metallurgy Americas, RHI Canada, Burlington, Ont., Canada ashraf.hanna@rhi-ag.com Karl-Michael Zettl (bottom row), head of product management primary metallurgy, RHI AG, Vienna, Austria karl-michael.zettl@rhi-ag.com

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igh availability of the electric arc furnace (EAF), i.e., long lifetime of the EAF refractory lining at maximum safety conditions and minimum specific costs, is the main target of the collaboration of steel plant management, production engineers and refractory supplier. The lifetimes of the MgO-C materials for EAF sidewalls and the MgObased ramming mixes for the EAF hearth are, however, restricted to various wear mechanisms due to the operation of electric arcs, oxygen burners, lances and injectors, and the process slag: 1. Short-term events of high arc radiation increase heat load to the banks and refractory sidewall. High thermal gradients in the MgO-C brick lining result in unfavorable stress patterns, formation of cracks and weakening of the microstructure. 2. High oxygen levels in the steel melt, highly oxidizing conditions of the gas phase, or high FeOx in the slag lead to decarburization of the MgO-C bricks, loss of carbon binders and increased formation of oxide liquids in the refractory due to formation of trivalent Fe oxides. 3. Chemical corrosion of the MgO-based refractory by MgO-undersaturated slag destabilizes the microstructure of the MgO material. Chemical corrosion of the MgO refractory vanishes if the slag is MgO-saturated. The basicity xCaO/xSiO2 = “CaO/SiO2” = “C/S” of the

slag and the FeOx content have an important impact on the MgO saturation concentration. All three mechanisms contribute to wear of the banks and sidewalls in the EAF in varying portions. Fig. 1 shows an example of a typical wear pattern of the slagline near hot spot No. 2 due to corrosion by EAF slag at high temperature. MgO-saturated slags are also helpful in order to achieve efficient foaming slag, as the apparent viscosity of the slag increases at saturation to the required levels.1–3 Pretorius1,2 explained these chemo-physical principles of slag operation and refractory wear in a comprehensive and detailed manner, and his operation guidelines and iso-stability diagrams have become widely accepted tools in the steelmaking community worldwide.

Simplified but Precise Saturation Figures for EAF Slags EAF slag compositions are described largely by the main components CaO-SiO2 -FeO-MgO. Additional secondary components are in a typical range of 3–7% MnO, 2–5% Al2O3, 0.5–2% TiO2 and 0.1–1.5% Cr2O3. Other slag components such as S, P2O5, BaO, etc., are lower than 1%, provided that steel scrap or direct reduced iron (DRI) is charged. These secondary components have little effect on the MgO activity or the MgO saturation concentration due to low concentration or activity coefficients near 1. It has been found that the basicity C/S has

This article is available online at AIST.org for 30 days following publication.


53 Figure 1

Extensive corrosion at the slagline due to (1) dissolution of MgO material to the slag and (2) high heat load by arc radiation.

Figure 2

MgO saturation surface5 in the CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO composition tetrahedron at 1,600°C (2,912°F). Other stability fields of olivine/forsterite, calcium-silicates or lime are rarely covered by EAF slags and are not shown (for simplicity).

Figure 3

The Role of FeOx — The FeOx content of the slag generally increases the lower the carbon level is at tap. The reason is the increased oxygen level in the steel melt required for decarburization to low values (Fig. 3) and non-optimum mixing and mass transfer in the steel melt. High FeOx levels in the slag not only decrease foaming behavior due to its low viscosity at undersaturated conditions and indicate increased Fe losses, but also increase the wear rate of MgO and MgO-C lining material. Injection of carbon fines into the slag is the state of the art to control FeOx in the slag. Improved mixing of the melt by EAF gas purging also improves the control of FeO.4

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Basicity in Composition Space — At C/S >2, the EAF slags are saturated and good slag foaming is therefore very likely. Good foaming is due to appropriate slag viscosity, not too liquid at low C/S and not too stiff at high C/S (Fig. 4b).3 An illustration of the proximity of slag compositions with basicity >2 to the saturation is given in Fig. 4. The saturation line is calculated using the FactSage software and databases at the 5% MgO plane in the CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO composition

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FeO concentration of the slag increases with decreasing carbon level at tap due to increased oxygen levels in the steel melt.

the most important influence on an appropriate EAF slag composition. Wear of the refractory is minimized and foaming of the slag is best at B2 = C/S values ≥2. Slightly different basicity values, e.g., B3, B5 or the V ratio, account for more complex chemical compositions, balancing “basic” oxides CaO and MgO with “acid” oxides SiO2, Al2O3, FeOx, CaF2. Particular ranges for these ratios served as valuable and practical guidelines when multi-component phase diagrams or calculations were not available. The chemical compositions of EAF slags were beyond the investigated and published phase diagrams 20–30 years ago due to the oxide components considered here. Projections were a common method to extrapolate the information from investigated diagrams to multi-component compositions and to derive useful diagrams for daily application by steel plant engineers. Today, thermochemical programs have proved to be stable and reliable tools in order to determine saturation status of slags by the thermochemical equilibrium or the Gibbs energy minimization method. The related databases were significantly improved, enlarged, optimized and tested. The system CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO-Al2O3 is now one of the best investigated and optimized oxide systems (below 1,700°C and 50% FeO). The most important advantage of this approach is that phase assemblages are precisely determined in multi-composition and temperature space (e.g., Fig. 2). FactSage software and databases5 were applied in order to derive saturation compositions at typical EAF slag compositions and tap temperatures.


54

Technical Article Figure 4

(a) (b) Slags with basicity xCaO /xSiO >2 are saturated or close to saturation (EAF No. 1) resulting in low corrosion potential and good 2 slag foaming performance, as indicated by the foaming index in (b).3

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Figure 5

Slag samples are remarkably close to MgO saturation due to the use of dololime as a slag former (EAF No. 2).

tetrahedron. Slag compositions with basicity xCaO/ xSiO = 2 are represented by the red line in Fig. 4. It is 2 also visible that basicity of the slag was increased during the year in order to increase the saturation level of the slags. Whereas the control of basicity is very good for this example, it is also obvious that slags are undersaturated at high FeO content even at C/S = 2; foaming of slag will decrease and corrosion of the lining will increase at high FeO. The slag analyses in Fig. 4 clearly indicate some problems with C/O injection, and the recommendation follows to work on better control of FeOx. The “FeO problem” in this case is clearly indicated by the well-defined scatter of the slag data toward FeO in this pseudo-ternary plot. MgO Saturation in Composition Space of EAF Slags — Most important for minimum chemical corrosion potential is the MgO saturation. MgO-undersaturated slags always have a corrosion potential relative to MgO-based lining material due to the chemical potential difference between the lining and the slag. The chemical potential difference vanishes at MgO saturation. Therefore, it would be best to start the EAF process with slag formers at MgO saturation, but some MgO losses from the lining into the slag always occur in the EAF due to mechanical damage, thermal shocks and overheating of the lining by arc radiation. In practice, it is reasonable to start the slag operation with slag formers close to MgO saturation, but slightly undersaturated in order to avoid oversaturation of the slag, which represents inefficient and unnecessary waste of MgO material. MgO saturation is achieved in


55 Figure 6

Slag samples are very close to MgO saturation due to the use of blends of lime/dololime as a slag former (EAF No. 3: 9.8 kg/t lime and 20.6 kg/t dololime; EAF No. 4: 16.0 kg/t lime and 13.4 kg/t dololime; saturation lines at 30% CaO).

Figure 7

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Slag samples are close to MgO saturation due to the use of blends of lime/dololime as a slag former (EAF No. 5: 10.0 kg/t lime and 18.1 kg/t dololime; saturation lines at 30% CaO).

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the range from 6 to 14 % MgO depending on FeO and CaO content or CaO/SiO2. The first four examples show slag samples from EAFs where dololime of good quality and sufficient quantity is used as a slag former (Figs. 5–7). A high share of slag samples is saturated in MgO. The corrosion potential of a large portion of the EAF slags is low or even zero. Oversaturation in MgO of some slags is due to variation of the amount or composition of slag formers, material losses during fettling and gunning, or from the MgO lining due to other erosion processes. Scatter of FeO is varied in these three examples, indicating different control of FeO due to input materials, scrap or DRI, and carbon and oxygen injectors. The next two examples show slag samples from EAF No. 6 with blends of lime, dololime and an MgO carrier as a slag conditioner and EAF No. 7 with lime as the only slag former (Fig. 8). Almost all slags in EAF No. 5 are saturated or oversaturated in MgO, indicating waste of MgO material by the chosen composition of slag formers and additional MgO loss from gunning and fettling mixes. In contrast to EAF No. 6, the slags based on lime in EAF No. 7 are clearly undersaturated in MgO. As the MgO content of the lime applied as a slag former is only 1%, another 3% MgO in the slag are eroded from the hearth and sidewall lining for each single heat. The MgO losses from the lining and the related wear rate of the lining in this


56

Technical Article Figure 8

Slag samples of EAF No. 6 are all MgO-saturated whereas the samples of EAF No. 7 are all undersaturated with respect to MgO due to use of 32.2 kg/t lime as the only slag former (saturation lines at 35% CaO).

Figure 9

case are a consequence of minimized costs of the lime as the only slag former. The following example from EAF No. 8 shows a high scatter in slag compositions (Fig. 9), both toward MgO undersaturation at higher SiO2 levels and toward MgO oversaturation, whereas the mean value indicates slag composition close to MgO saturation. The high scatter of the slag composition indicates low capacity of the slag to compensate varying input of SiO2 with the scrap to the EAF on one hand and input of MgO by increased material losses during gunning on the other hand. The share of dololime was increased from quarters 1–3, resulting in saturated and oversaturated slags, but lime and dololime were added only with 16.5 kg/t in total. In this case, an increase of slag former is recommended in order to avoid high shares of undersaturated, aggressive EAF slags that increase wear of the lining and require even more gunning to achieve the required lifetime of the lining.

Use and Benefit of MgO Mass Balances for Slag Analysis Besides the analysis of chemical compositions of slag samples in the diagrams of the prior section, analysis of the MgO mass balances is useful in order to derive information about the particular corrosion processes in the EAF. The total mass of slag per heat, mSlag, is calculated from the chemical analysis of the slag, lime, dololime, xCaO,I, and the input masses of lime, dololime and other basic slag formers, mi, with the CaO mass balance of the EAF: xCaO,LimemLime + xCaO,DolomDolo + ... (+ xCaO,DRImDRI) = xCaO,Slag mSlag

Loss of CaO with the dust to the filter systems and CaO input from refractory wear is neglected in Eq. 1. With the resulting slag mass per heat, mSlag, the MgO content of the slag, mMgO,Slag, is determined from the slag analysis, xMgO,Slag: mMgO,Slag = xMgO,Slag mSlag

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(Eq. 1)

(Eq. 2)

Slag samples of EAF No. 8 show a rather high scatter in chemical composition toward SiO2, FeO and MgO due to low buffer capacity of the slag at low specific input of slag formers (7.2 kg/t lime and 9.3 kg/t dololime; saturation lines at 35% CaO).

The amount of MgO per heat contributed as MgO material loss from the refractory lining and repair mixes to the slag is the difference between the analyzed MgO content of the slag, mMgO,Slag, and the


57 Figure 10

(a) (b) The amount of MgO loss to the slag over specific input of slag formers at two EAFs shows two different trends due to different corrosion mechanisms: undersaturated corrosive slag in large amount (a) and the amount of slag is too low (b).

MgO input with the slag formers. There is no other contribution to the MgO content of the slag. The MgO loss from the lining to the slag follows from the MgO mass balance of the EAF: mMgO loss to Slag = mMgO,Slag – mMgO,Lime – mMgO,Dolo – ... (– mMgO,DRI) = xMgO,SlagmSlag – xMgO,LimemLime – xMgO,Dolo mDolo – ... (– xMgO,DRImDRI) (Eq. 3)

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By applying thermochemical calculations of phase equilibrium assemblages to compositions in the

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Summary

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Analysis of the amount of MgO loss to the slag with EAF process data for each particular heat gives valuable insight into the main reasons for MgO loss and wear of the lining. The MgO loss to the slag per heat is correlated to the slag mass for EAFs No. 7 and 9 in Fig. 10. The MgO loss from the lining increases with the slag mass, i.e., with the amount of lime as slag former for EAF No. 7 (Fig. 10a), whereas the MgO loss to the slag decreases with the input of slag formers at EAF No. 9 (Fig. 10b). In the first case, EAF No. 7, the positive correlation of MgO loss with slag mass is a clear indication of chemical corrosion of the MgO lining by an undersaturated slag. Increasing slag mass by increasing the input of lime as a slag former greatens the MgO loss by chemical corrosion. The negative correlation between MgO loss and slag mass in the second case, EAF No. 9, indicates that MgO loss to the slag increases with decreasing slag mass and slag former input, e.g., by increasing arc radiation to the banks and lining at low slag mass or

by increasing corrosion potential of the slag at lower input of slag formers, i.e., at lower basicity. In both cases, recommendations for improved slag operation can be derived from the slag analysis in order to decrease the MgO loss from the lining to the slag: lower corrosion potential of the slag by increasing the input of MgO with the slag former for EAF No. 7, i.e., addition of doloma, dololime or another MgO carrier. For EAF No. 9, the sufficiently high input of slag formers is recommended, e.g., >22 kg/t. The assessment of slag analysis data with EAF process data results in other correlations (Fig. 11) that may be used in order to decrease wear and MgO loss from the refractory lining to the slag, to decrease fettling and gunning material consumption, and finally to improve the refractory lining lifetime. Examples are given in Fig. 11 for EAF No. 9. The MgO loss from the lining to the slag is correlated with the basicity of the slag and increases with decreasing metal yield and specific electrical energy demand. There is no correlation with the oxygen input and a weak correlation with power-on time in this case. These findings are consistent with the explanation that the slag is not very aggressive due to the use of a lime/dololime blend, but the total input of the slag formers tends to be too low, resulting in insufficient slag volume and likely inadequate shielding from electric arc radiation.


58

Technical Article Figure 11

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

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(e) (f) Correlations of MgO loss from the lining into slag with various process parameters provide information about the main corrosion mechanisms of the lining: increased wear with decreasing basicity due to low input of slag formers (EAF No. 9).


59 CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO tetrahedron, a series of simple diagrams were derived in order to investigate the saturation behavior of EAF slag samples with high precision. The calculated saturation lines are very close to the chemical compositions of EAF slags, so projections of chemical compositions of the EAF slags to phase diagrams of lower order are obsolete. Besides the assessment of chemical compositions of slags with respect of MgO saturation, analysis of MgO losses by CaO and MgO mass balance and process parameters of the EAF is a very informative tool in order to obtain information about the reasons for wear of the refractory lining by a particular EAF process. By combination of these analysis tools, EAF steelmakers gain additional information about and insight into the EAF process and impact on wear of the refractory lining from slag samples.

GUNNING ROBOTS

FOR IMPROVED

HOT REPAIR of EAF, Ladle, RH

References 1. E.B. Pretorius and R.C. Carlisle, “Foamy Slag Fundamentals and Their Practical Application to Electric Furnace Steelmaking,” 51st Electric Furnace Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, La., USA, 15–18 November 1998, pp. 275–292. 2. E.B. Pretorius, “Slag Fundamentals,” An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of EF Steelmaking, Iron & Steel Society, 1998. 3. J.A.T. Jones, B. Bowman and P.A. Lefrank, “Electric Furnace Steelmaking,” The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel  ®, Steelmaking and Refining Volume, AIST, Warrendale, Pa., 1998. 4. M. Kirschen, A. Hanna, R. Ehrengruber and K.M. Zettl, “Latest Developments in Gas Purging Systems for EAF,” AISTech 2015 Conference Proceedings, Vol. II, 2015, pp. 1974–1983. 5. C.W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, I-H. Jung, Y-B. Kang, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, C. Robelin and S. Petersen, “FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases — Recent Developments,” Calphad, Vol. 33, 2009, pp. 295–311. F

To nominate this paper for the AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award, visit AIST.org/huntkelly. This paper was presented at AISTech 2015 — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and published in the Conference Proceedings.

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VELCO GmbH Haberstraße 40 42551 Velbert (Germany) info@velco.de • www.velco.de Tel (011) 49 2051 2087 0


Technical Article

61

Start-Up and Commissioning of the DRI Handling System for Nucor Hertford’s EAF

T

he direct reduction process involves the reduction of iron oxides to metallic iron below the melting point of iron. The product of such solid-state processes is called direct reduced iron (DRI).1 During the reduction process, iron ore experiences a chemical change as it is heated to high temperatures and comes into contact with a reducing gas. DRI is produced from different sizes such as lumps, pellets, fines or briquettes. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) refers to DRI with temperatures higher than 650°C (1,200°F) that has been compressed into a pillow-like shape after the reduction process.1 Table 1 shows a range of physical properties of DRI and HBI. The physical characteristics of DRI are dependent on the type of direct reduction process, as well as the feed material, that is used.

Direct reduced iron has four main chemical characteristics: metallization, carbon content, gangue content and impurities.3

Introduction Metallization — Metallization is defined as the degree of reduction of DRI, and it is expressed as a percentage. It is the ratio of metallic iron divided by the total iron of the product. The degree of metallization is greatly dependent on the type of reduction process that is implemented to produce DRI. The following values are common for different direct reduction processes:

%Metallization =

Fe O ×100 Fe t (Eq. 1)

Table 1 Sizes and Densities for Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI)2 Size DRI pellets HBI

Apparent density

Bulk density

(mm)

(in.)

(g/cm3)

(lb/ft3)

(g/cm3)

(lb/ft3)

4–18

0.15–0.70

3.4–3.6

212–224

1.6–1.9

99–118

<100 x 50 x 25

<3.9 x 1.9 x 0.9

5.0–5.5

312–343

3.4–3.8

212–237

Figure 1

Nucor Steel–Hertford County recently installed and commissioned a direct reduced iron (DRI) material handling system for its DC electric arc furnace (EAF). This paper reviews the unloading and proper storage of DRI, minimizing fines production and handling of such fines, and the philosophy of DRI feeding into an EAF.

Figure 2

Authors Bryson Trumble, melting and casting manager, Nucor Steel–Hertford County, Cofield, N.C., USA bryson.trumble@nucor.com Travis Greene, melting mechanical supervisor, Nucor Steel–Hertford County, Cofield, N.C., USA travis.greene@nucor.com

Direct reduced iron (DRI) pellets.

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Hot briquetted iron (HBI).

Kyle J. Shoop, vice president, Tenova Core Steelmaking, Tenova Core Inc., Coraopolis, Pa., USA kyle.shoop@tenova.com

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Sergio A. Guzmán, process engineer, Tenova Core Inc., Coraopolis, Pa., USA sergio.guzman@tenova.com

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Francesco Memoli, executive vice president, American commercial operations, Tenova Core Inc., Coraopolis, Pa., USA francesco.memoli@tenova.com


62

Technical Article Table 2 Metallization Values for Difference Direct Reduction Processes3 Average (%)

Lower limit (%)

Upper limit (%)

Batch processes

87

85

90

Rotary and shaft processes

93

90

95

where FeO = the metallic iron of the DRI and Fet = FeO+FeO. An increase in metallization reduces the overall gangue material during melting. Carbon Content — The carbon content present in the DRI is dependent on the type of direct reduction process used. When DRI is produced using a coalbased process, it yields a low carbon content (<0.5%), which is characteristic of the process itself.3 On the other hand, when using a gas-based process, the carbon level can be adjusted, within a certain level, to a desired value. Carbon contents for gas-based processes vary between 1.0 and 4.0% and can reach values up to 6.0% in certain conditions.4 FeO(s) + C(s) = Fe(s) + CO(g) (Eq. 2)

Gangue Content — Gangue defines the minerals with no added value that surround the ore, such as SiO2, Al2O3, etc. DRI contains all the gangue of the ore as it is fed through the reduction process. Typically the iron ore contains <2% SiO2 and <1% Al2O3.3 Iron ore pellets are coated with additions such as lime and dololime prior to their reduction process. This results in a decrease in bonding interaction between pellets, and therefore some lime and magnesia are found in DRI.

Coal- and Gas-Based Direct Reduction Processes — The DRI production processes are divided into two categories: coal-based and gas-based technologies. The coalbased process mixes non-coking coal, which is the reducing agent, with lumps of iron ore. Typically the reduction reaction occurs in an inclined rotary kiln that rotates at a set speed. The rotary kiln contains a burner at the end of the discharge that burns coal with excess air for initial heating and also contains air tubes along its length. The desired temperature profile is maintained by controlling the volume of air through these tubes. Both coal and iron ore are fed on the same side of the kiln. The kiln is divided into two temperature zones: the pre-heating zone and the reduction zone. The preheating zone covers about 40–50% of the length of the kiln.5 In this zone, the combustion air reacts with coal, releasing temperatures up to 800°C (1,472°F). As the kiln rotates, the lining transfers the heat to the charge, which can reach temperatures up to approximately 1,000°C (1,832°F) before entering the reduction zone.5 In the reduction zone, the feed material moves forward due to gravity as the iron ore is reduced. A temperature range of 1,050–1,100°C (1,922–2,030°F) is maintained, which is appropriate for reduction of iron oxide to metallic iron, through the volume of air introduced to the kiln via the air tubes.5 The discharge from the rotary kiln contains hot sponge iron and semi-burnt coal. The following reactions take place within the rotary kiln: 6,7 C(s) + O2(g) = CO2(g) ∆HOrxn = –393.8 kJ (Eq. 3) CO2(g) + C(s) = 2CO(g) ∆HOrxn = 172.6 kJ (Eq. 4)

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The carbon content in DRI aids in reducing FeO, as given by Eq. 2. Excess carbon provides chemical energy, which reduces the electrical energy requirements. The excess carbon can either be mixed with the DRI (in iron carbide or graphite) or injected via carbon lances.

gas to be desulfurized so it does not affect the reduction process from a productivity standpoint. The phosphorous content found in DRI is equivalent to that which is contained in the iron ore. The phosphorus contents in DRI vary between 0.01–0.04%.3

Impurities — Impurities that can be found in DRI consist of alkalis (Na2O, K 2O), titanium oxide, sulfur and phosphorous.3 Quantities of the alkalis and titanium oxide are not large enough to have a major impact on the steelmaking practice. Iron ore with low sulfur content, typically less than 0.01%, is preferred for DRI production. Higher concentrations of sulfur in the iron ore would require the process

3Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) = 2Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g) ∆HOrxn = –24.9 kJ (Eq. 5) Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) = 3FeO(s) + CO2(g) ∆HOrxn = 22.6 kJ (Eq. 6)


63 FeO(s) + CO(g) = Fe(s) + CO2(g) ∆HOrxn = –12.6 kJ

Figure 3

(Eq. 7) In a gas-based reduction process, natural gas is used as the reducing agent. There are two well-established gas-based processes: the HYL and MIDREX® processes. The HYL ZR process, which stands for Zero Reforming, is based on the reduction of iron ore with reducing gases that result from the partial combustion and in-situ reforming of natural gas.8 The following reactions take place during the HYL process scheme: Partial Oxidation and Reforming Reactions:7,8 2H2(g) + O2(g) = 2H2O(g) 1∆HOrxn = –483.9 kJ (Eq. 8)* 2CH4(g) + O2(g) = 2CO(g) + 4H2(g) ∆HOrxn = –71.4 kJ (Eq. 9) CH4(g) + H2O(g) = CO(g) + 3H2(g) ∆HOrxn = 206.3 kJ (Eq. 10) CO(g) + H2O(g) = CO2(g) + H2(g) ∆HOrxn = –41.2 kJ

HYL Zero Reforming (ZR) process flow diagram.

metallization and carbon can be achieved by adjusting the reduction gas composition.8 The reactor operates at a pressure of about 6 bar (87 psi), which enhances productivity to 9 tons/hour per square meter while minimizing dust losses.8 Other technologies use an external reformer in order to produce the reducing gases. One of the main differences of other technologies, when compared with the HYL process, is their inability to do in-situ reforming at the reactor. Another difference is in regard to the reactor — other technologies’ reactors tend to operate at a lower pressure compared to the HYL.

(Eq. 11)

DRI Reactivity and Transportation

Reduction and Carburization Reactions:7,8 Fe2O3(s) + 3H2(g) = 2Fe(s) + 3H2O(g) ∆HOrxn = 105.1 kJ (Eq. 12) Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) = 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) ∆HOrxn = –18.5 kJ (Eq. 13) 3Fe(s) + CH4(g) = Fe3C(s) + 2H2(g) ∆HOrxn = 98.7 kJ (Eq. 14)

I

rxn = takes place under “standard” conditions, meaning that the reaction takes place at 25°C and 1 atm.9

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*∆HO

DRI Reactivity Potential — Special considerations have to be taken into account when transporting and storing DRI. It has been found that DRI has a propensity to undergo corrosion and oxidation reactions, leading to self-ignition. In other words, a pile of DRI will begin to oxidize as it comes into contact with moisture or air. There are three stages involved in the self-ignition of DRI. Stage 1 is rust formation, which begins as moisture enters the pile of DRI from the top, reacting with its upper layer, thus forming rust under oxygenated conditions that involve both exothermic and endothermic reactions.11 The following reactions occur when DRI comes into contact with moisture or air:7,12

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Natural gas undergoes partial combustion with oxygen before being introduced into the reactor. This aids with the additional energy requirement for natural gas reforming in-situ and metallic iron carburization. As the reduction gases enter the reactor, further methane reforming in-situ occurs due to the catalytic effect of the metallic iron.8 Different levels of

By nature, DRI is very reactive with water and oxygen. The DRI reactivity depends on the iron ore origin, reduction and the ambient temperature. DRI pellets are susceptible to reoxidation; thus, if not stored properly, they could self-ignite.10


64

Technical Article Fe(s) + H2O(g) = FeO(s) + H2(g) ∆HOrxn = –28.6 kJ (Eq. 15) Fe(s) + C(s) + 2H2O(g) = FeO(s) + 2H2(g) + CO(g) ∆HOrxn = 102.8 kJ (Eq. 16) Fe(s) + C(s) + O2(g) = FeO(s) + CO(g) ∆HOrxn = –381.2 kJ (Eq. 17)

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Eq. 15 shows what occurs chemically at the top of the DRI pile. At the top layer, an exothermic reaction occurs when water is consumed by the reaction and the temperature increases. In the meantime, excess water vapor reacts with the lower portion of the DRI pile to produce hydrogen under a low-oxygen environment, as explained by Eq. 16. Although Eq. 16 is endothermic, hence needing to absorb energy for the reaction to happen, the DRI pile acts as an insulator, preventing heat from escaping to the surrounding environment and providing the energy needed for the reaction to occur.11 Stage 2 is reduction, which involves hydrogen gas emanating from the bottom of the pile. As the hydrogen gas rises through the pile, it leads to the formation of water vapor, which reacts to form additional rust and hydrogen. As the cycle repeats, the hydrogen will be capable of reducing the rust to a very finely divided metal, since the ratio of H2 to H2O is in equilibrium with iron and its oxide at higher temperatures.11 Stage 3 is ignition, which involves the oxidation of reduced iron particles on the top layer of the DRI pile. As the reduced iron particles meet the oxygen in the air, the reaction itself delivers heat, which is in agreement with Eq. 17. Temperature increases at the top layer and thus self-ignition is achieved.11 DRI Transportation — Nucor Steel–Hertford County receives DRI from its Nu-Iron Unlimited plant in Trinidad and Tobago. The shipping of DRI B is regulated by the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargo (IMSBC) code. DRI B is defined as cold molded briquettes that have been molded at a temperature of under 650°C or which have a density of less than 5,000 kg/m3.12 DRI is transported via vessels to the port of Morehead City in North Carolina. Once the vessels arrive at the port, the DRI is transferred to barges headed to their final destination at Nucor Steel– Hertford County. As previously explained, DRI is very reactive by nature, so certain measures are taken to keep DRI reactivity to a minimum. Nu-Iron’s policy is to store the cargo in enclosed silos. Before the DRI is loaded onto the vessel, it has to go through a passivation procedure. Once the silos are filled with DRI, an inert gas containing 0.7–3%

oxygen by volume is introduced through the top and bottom cones for a minimum of 72 hours.12 Once the passivation process is completed, the DRI is kept under a nitrogen blanket. Each silo contains gas analyzers that continuously monitor O2 and H2 within the silo and also contain thermocouples that monitor the temperature. During cargo loading to the vessel, temperature is measured in order to prevent the possibility of high-temperature material being loaded onto the vessel. Once all the DRI has been loaded, the cargo holds are sealed and nitrogen is injected into the hold until the oxygen content drops below 3%.12 During sailing, vessel conditions such as oxygen, carbon monoxide and hydrogen are monitored three times a day. These results are then shared with both Nu-Iron and the vessel itself. Once the vessel arrives at the port in Morehead City, the DRI is unloaded onto barges with a capacity of approximately 2,700 tons. Once the DRI arrives at the plant, it is transported to and stored in silos.

Equipment Overview One of the reasons DRI is used in electric arc furnaces is that it dilutes undesirable contaminants that are present in the scrap, making it easier to produce high-quality and low-nitrogen steels. Residuals such as Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu and Sn, which vary between 0.15 and 0.75% based on the type of scrap, have negative effects on the mechanical properties of the steel.3 DRI is also used in cases where there is a limitation on scrap, which therefore increases the cost to buy high-quality scrap. With the installation of the DRI material handling system, which successfully started up in May 2014, Nucor started to see a more controlled liquid steel chemistry among various steel grades. The DRI material handling system consists of the following major equipment: • One barge unloading station (with receiving hopper). • Two Tenova Takraf pipe conveyors. • Two 6,000-short-ton DRI storage silos (with inert gas purge and gas analysis). • Two 2,000-cubic-feet DRI day bins (with load cells and inert gas purge). • Two reversing trough belt conveyors. • One inclined trough belt conveyor. • One flat-flex wall conveyor. • Three dust collectors (on the main transition points). • One enclosed pivoting vibratory feeder. • Motor control centers (MCCs), automation and controls.


65 Figure 4

DRI handling flow schematic.

Process Overview — Fig. 4 is a flow diagram of the DRI material handling system at Nucor Steel–Hertford County. The diagram shows how the DRI is unloaded via a barge unloading station and transported through a pipe conveyor to the two silos. The DRI is then transported via a pipe conveyor and trough belt conveyor arrangement to the day bins. Then the DRI is conveyed to the EAF via an enclosed pivoting vibratory feeder.

Figure 5

Fig. 5 shows how the DRI arrives at the facility via barge and is unloaded into a receiving hopper. The DRI travels to the storage silo area via a pipe conveyor (conveyor No. 1), as seen in Fig. 6. Upon exit from pipe conveyor No. 1, the DRI heads to a diverter into either a reversing horizontal trough belt conveyor (conveyor No. 2) or into one silo bypass chute, which leads to one diverter that dumps the DRI either directly onto a reversing horizontal trough belt conveyor

Figure 6

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DRI barge unloading with dust collector.

Pipe conveyor to DRI storage silos station.


66

Technical Article Figure 7

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6,000-short-ton DRI storage silos.

Figure 8

Pipe conveyor to DRI day bins.

(conveyor No. 3) or into one bad Figure 9 batch chute. Conveyor No. 2 feeds either storage silo No. 1 or No. 2, depending on their respective current fill capacity. The DRI then exits either storage silo and proceeds to conveyor No. 3, or if the DRI went through the silo bypass chute initially, it will already be on conveyor No. 3. At the end of conveyor No. 3, the DRI will proceed onto a pipe conveyor (conveyor No. 4). Then via diverter at the end of conveyor No. 4, the DRI heads into one of two 2,000-cubic-feet-capacity day bins that are equipped with load cells. Upon exit from the day bins, the DRI heads onto an inclined trough belt conveyor (conveyor No. 5) and via chute onto a hori6,000-short-ton DRI storage silos schematic. zontal flat flex-wall belt conveyor (conveyor No. 6). From the horizontal flat flexwall belt conveyor, DRI dumps into one chute and proceeds via one enclosed pivoting • Gas analysis (monitors oxygen, carbon monoxvibratory feeder and into the EAF through the EAF ide and hydrogen). roof chute. • Temperature indication (122–392°F or 50–200°C). DRI Storage Silos — There are different ways to store • Nitrogen purge gas header. DRI, including: piles underneath a building, domes • O2 detector. and silos. Nucor Steel–Hertford County selected • Vibratory feeder. silos to store DRI. There are two 6,000-short-ton silos equipped with the necessary instrumentation Storage Silo Gas Analysis Equipment — Given the size to achieve an inert atmosphere. These silos were of the DRI storage silos, each is equipped with a designed according to National Fire Protection Tenova Gas Analyzer (NOVA 870). The purpose of Association (NFPA) code standards. this gas analyzer is to continuously verify the integEach storage silo is equipped with the following: rity of the inert atmosphere by measuring oxygen (0–25%), carbon monoxide (0–3,000 ppm) and • Isolation gate at the top. hydrogen (0–5.0%) gas levels. The Nova 870 utilizes • DRI radar level indicator. high-stability infrared detectors for simultaneous


67 measurement of the gases. All sensors and detectors are temperature-controlled for maximum analytical stability. The system is capable of autocalibration without user intervention. The DRI storage silos are purged from the bottom up with nitrogen (see Fig. 10). The gas analyzer verifies the atmosphere by extracting a gas sample from headspace at the top of the silo. A probe and heated filter are installed near the top of each silo (see Fig. 11). The filter removes dust from the sample, which is sent to the auto sequencer for analysis. The auto sequencer, seen in Fig. 12, pulls multiple samples from the silos and sends them one at a time to the gas analyzer. The Nova 870 analyzes the oxygen in order to verify that the nitrogen purge system is operating correctly. In addition, it analyzes the carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas for combustion potential. Tenova Takraf Pipe Conveyors — Pipe conveyors No. 1 and No. 4 are mono-directional. The pipe conveyors are sized to transport DRI from the dock unloading station to the storage silos and days bins at rates in excess of 500 short tons per hour. After the loading point at the tail, pipe-forming idlers roll the belt into a tube. At the head station, the belt will open and will discharge the DRI through a chute. After the discharge, the belt will remain open through a vertical take-up system and then be rolled up again into a tube on the way back. Pipe conveyor drives use a variable frequency controller for smooth acceleration as well as speed control. Each pipe conveyor is equipped with sensors and switches that ensure safe operation. Fig. 13 shows

Figure 10

Figure 11

pipe conveyor No. 1 for the transport of DRI into the storage silos. Dust Collector Design — The DRI material handling system is equipped with dust collection ports at all transition points in order to handle the dust/fines generated by the DRI. These points are located at the barge unloading area, storage silo area and at the day bin area. The dust collection system allows Nucor Steel– Hertford County to reach the required 99.9% efficiency of removing the dust particles. The dust collection system is designed to handle DRI fines and includes a filter ventilation system to evacuate the filter. This minimizes any hydrogen gas buildup and keeps any residual dust in the filter cool to minimize any chance for DRI dust to heat up and possibly catch the polyester, grounded, snap-type filter bags on fire. The grounding of the bags and cages will minimize any chance of a static spark or discharge. The dust collectors are self-contained, with the media-cleaning air provided via the positive displacement blower package. Chemical explosion isolation valves are located on the inlet of the filters to prevent a flashback to the hoods in the event of an explosion in accordance to NFPA 484 code.

Operation Steel mills adopt different ways to continuously feed DRI, although they rely on the same basic feeding principles. On average, depending on the

Figure 12

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Gas sample probe.

Gas auto sequencer.

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Silo N2 purge.


68

Technical Article Figure 13

DRI characteristics and specific energy requirements, feedrates vary between 28 and 33 kg/min-MW (60–73 lbs./minMW) throughout the feeding time.3 It is essential to maintain a bath temperature between 1,570–1,630°C (2,858–2,966°F) for good performance and slag fluidity.3 If the desired tapping temperature is greater, which could be the case for low-carbon steels, the DRI feedrate is lowered at the end in order to get that increase in bath temperature. Lime and carbon feedrates are kept constant and adjusted accordingly in proportion to the DRI feeding rate. If the DRI feeding rate is too fast for the Tenova Takraf pipe conveyor No. 1 DRI transport to storage silos. furnace, large, solid clumps of DRI, otherwise known as “ferrobergs,” will begin to float around the furnace. The feeding rate should be cut back as soon as these start to appear in order to allow the melting to occur. References Power input and DRI feedrate should be maintained in order to reach an appropriate kg/min-MW, which 1. F. Grobler and R.C.A. Minnitt, “The Increasing Role of Direct Reduced Iron in Global Steelmaking,” The Journal of The South African Institute was previously mentioned. of Mining and Metallurgy, March–April 1999, pp. 111–116. When DRI constitutes a high percentage of the total 2. G. Dressel, “Use of DRI in EAFs,” Dressel Technologies, accessed on charge, greater than 80%, it is necessary to keep a 14 February 2015, http://www.dresseltech.com/dripart1.pdf. hot heel ranging between 15 and 30% of the tapping 3. C.R. Taylor, “The Use of Direct Reduced Iron in the Electric Arc Furnace,” weight.2 A good foaming slag is essential when using Electric Furnace Steelmaking, Iron & Steel Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985. DRI, as it will cover the arc and protect the refractory 4. F. Memoli, J.A.T. Jones and F. Picciolo, “The Use of DRI in a Consteel from arc flash. EAF Process,” Iron & Steel Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2015, pp. 72–80. Nucor Steel–Hertford County utilizes mainly DRI 5. “Products — Sponge Iron — Direct Reduction Plant,” Gagan Building for copper dilution. Since Nucor Steel–Hertford Tomorrow, accessed on 14 February 2015, http://gagansteel.com/ County has a Consteel DC EAF, its feeding practice spongeiron. is different than that of most steel mills. Due to the 6. “Sponge Iron — Manufacturing Process,” ElectroTherm Steel Divison, accessed on 14 February 2015, http://ns12.jinfo.net/steel/sponge_ Consteel furnace characteristic of having a large iron_mfg_process.php. amount of hot heel, DRI can be fed sooner in the 7. R.H. Perry, “Physical and Chemical Data,” Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ heat. Nucor Steel–Hertford County also operated at Handbook, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 1997. different feedrates during the initial start-up phase of 8. J. Becerra and P. Duarte, “HYL ENERGIRON — The Most Economical the project until eventually finding the feedrates that Way to High-Quality DRI,” Arab Iron & Steel Union Conference, 1 March 2007. worked best with its furnace operation.

Nucor Steel–Hertford County had a successful startup of its DRI material handling system. Preliminary engineering and computational fluid dynamics modeling proved to be successful for the location of the DRI into the furnace, as DRI has been fed at feedrates without causing instability of the arc. The DRI material handling system has also given Nucor Steel–Hertford County better control over its liquid steel chemistries among various steel grades.

To nominate this paper for the AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award, visit AIST.org/huntkelly.

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Conclusion

9. “Heat of Reaction,” UC Davis ChemWiki, accessed on 14 February 2015, http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Thermodynamics/ State_Functions/Enthalpy/Heat_of_Reaction. 10. I. Alvarez, “Handling and Use of DRI in the EAF,” accessed on 14 February 2015, http://www.market-ing.com.mx/anexos/DRI_ Handling_and_Charge.pdf. 11. N. Birks and A.G.F. Alabi, “Mechanisms in Corrosion Induced Auto Ignition of Direct Reduced Iron,” IIMA International Iron Metallics Association, accessed on 14 February 2015, http://metallics.org.uk/ mechanisms-in-corrosion-induced-auto-ignition-of-direct-reducediron. 12. N. Noel and C. Moore, “Shipping of DRI — The Nu-Iron Experience,” AISTech 2014 Conference Proceedings, Vol. I, pp. 823–829. F

This paper was presented at AISTech 2015 — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and published in the Conference Proceedings.


70

Technical Article Performance Experience of the MultiROB at BSW – How Safety, Productivity and Accuracy Go Hand in Hand In 2013, BSW produced more than 2.6 million tons of steel with two EAFs, leading to tapto-tap times on average of 40.1 minutes. The faster the furnaces become, the more dangerous the work environment. In 2012, the development of a six-axis robot — the MultiROB — was approved. The first automated cartridge changer was installed at a customer site in August 2014. This paper describes the current fields of application and future plans, including the availability and operational experience at BSW.

Patrick Hansert (top row, left), vice president sales North America, BSE America, Charlotte, N.C., USA patrick.hansert@bse-kehl.de

he Badische group is known in the industry for its steel mill in southern Germany. Badische Stahlwerke GmbH (BSW) has, since 1968, operated two 110-ton electric arc furnaces (EAFs) with to tapto-tap times averaging 40.1 minutes. The faster-paced the furnaces become, the more dangerous the work environment. BSW always considered its workforce the most important asset and the key to its success. To strive for the top level of safety is every steelmaker’s task. The question is how to achieve it. There is another aspect that has to be considered: most Western societies, not only Germany, are facing the problems of an aging workforce. Today, the Baby Boomer generation is over 50 years old, and soon these experts will retire. The younger generation likes to work in a clean and safe working environment and looks at this topic through different eyes. It is already difficult to hire people willing to work under the severe conditions of the meltshop environment. On top of this, governmental regulations as well as union rules are

Defintion and History of Robots In 1920, the term robot — derived from “robota,” which means “subordinate labor” in Slavic languages — was first introduced by Czech playwright Karel Capek. The early robots built in the 1960s stemmed from the confluence of two technologies: numerical control machines for precise manufacturing and teleoperators for remote radioactive material handling. Then, during the mid-to-late 20th century, the development of integrated circuits, computers and

Figure 1 1965

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Ralf Stech (top row, right), Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Kehl, Germany Mariana Quant (bottom row), Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH, Kehl, Germany

starting to be enforced in most of the industrialized world. Soon it might be restricted by law to enter the furnace platform during operation, which is already implemented in France. Sweden is moving in a similar direction as well. Based on these realities, Badische Stahl-Engineering GmbH (BSE) decided in 2010 to start evaluating the option of implementing a robot technology in steel plants with the aim of increasing safety dramatically.

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Baby Boomer development in Germany. Source: German Federal Census Bureau. Graphics: FAZ.

600


71 Figure 2

(a) (b) Hand lancing (a) and the first lance manipulator from 1985 (b).

miniaturized components allowed for the development of computer-controlled robots with the ability to be custom-designed and programmed. These robots, termed “industrial robots,” became essential components in the automation of flexible manufacturing systems in the late 1970s. In the 1980s, robotics was defined as the science that studies the intelligent connection between perception and action. In the 1990s, research was boosted by the need to resort to robots to address human safety in hazardous environments (field robotics), to enhance the human operator ability and reduce his/her fatigue (human augmentation), or else by the desire to develop products with wide potential markets aimed at improving the quality of life (service robotics).1

door. This was a huge improvement in safety for the operators. Before this, oxygen and carbon were injected by a simple hand lance. This first version was very basic with very limited capabilities. It had no option for lowering or lifting, and most movements were performed pneumatically. Shortly after this, in 1992, a temperature and sample manipulator (TSM) was developed. The same concept was then used in 2008 for an installation at the ladle furnaces. Not one accident related to temperature or sample taking has been reported since. However, TSMs have their limitations, particularly in confined spaces and when it comes to automated tasks like cartridge changes.

History of Manipulators at Badische

The installation of a robot at the furnace platform increased the safety, but new risks arose. The investigators worked with the Fraunhofer Institut and BSE’s

In 1985, BSE designed and installed the first lance manipulator (LM) for the EAF through the furnace

Safety Features and Possibly New Risks

Figure 4

Figure 3

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(a) (b)

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Temperature and sample manipulator (TSM) for EAFs at Badische Stahlwerke GmbH (BSW) equipped with two guides (a) and a banana lance (b).

Safety zones with different speed limits at BSW EAF No. 2.


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Technical Article Figure 5

were created. The robot can move the tool up to 330 feet/second (100 m/second); therefore, a safe speed limit on the furnace platform of 3.3 feet/second (1 m/second) (walking speed) was implemented in Area B. In the human/robot cooperation area (Area A), the speed limit was set to 1.65 feet/second (0.5 m/ second).

Discussion

Kuka KR500 foundry robot.

Table 1 Comparison of Two Robot Options (courtesy of Kuka AG)

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safety engineers to find a solution for a safe installation of a robot in a steel plant. A robot is stronger and faster than any human. Due to its flexibility, the movement logic can vary. The installation of a fence, like in the automotive industry, for the personnel protection on the furnace platform, was not an option. A fence can be a handicap if one has to escape from danger coming from the furnace. The possible risks caused by the furnace are much higher than being hit by a slow-moving robot, so virtual fences and areas

First Steps — Soon the limitations of the traditional manipulators became clear. A list of possible applications was assessed. Then in 2010, a team from BSW and BSE visited several robot suppliers to identify what options were available. At that time, robots were already used in foundries and manufacturing places, and some were also used at continuous casters and in the downstream area. But no robot supplier had a plant-ready unit. In December 2010, BSW and BSE developed its own version in cooperation with Kuka, a leading German robot manufacturer located in Augsburg, Bavaria. The initial size of the robot purchased was a 1,100-lb. (500 kg) version. A larger size than necessary was chosen to allow more flexibility for later use. The investigators had to learn the programming of the unit, and it was clear from the beginning that it needed to be simplified. It had to not only be able to work in the meltshop environment, but also must be easy to repair and program. In the first phase, the functions of the TSM were replicated. The accessible position of the TSM and a good visual exposure provided a perfect opportunity for proper implementation and tuning. In this pre-phase, a similar “banana” lance already in use at TSMs and LMs was designed in parallel. It was a proven technology and therefore was easy to adapt. The investigators were already familiar with the maintenance required and, in the case of an emergency, a quick exchange could be performed without re-training.

Weight Max. MultiROB length Max. power consumption Max. ambient temp. MultiROB

MultiROB (big) 5,236 lbs. (2,375 kg)

8 feet, 2 inches (2.5 m)

11 feet, 3 inches (2.825 m)

7.3 kVA

13.5 kVA

176°F (80°C)

176°F (80°C)

356°F (180°C for 10 seconds)

356°F (180°C for 10 seconds)

Max. load

660 lbs. (300 kg)

1,100 lbs. (500 kg)

Accuracy

±0.025 inch (0.06 mm)

±0.003 inch (0.08 mm)

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Max. ambient temp. MultiROB arm

MultiROB (small) 2,470 lbs. (1,120 kg)


73 Figure 6

Robot in casting industry at GF Mettmann.

Figure 7

Manual cartridge change position at BSW.

In February 2011, the standard version of a foundry robot was received.

Second Generation — The robot was then positioned on a 20-inch (500-mm)-high platform for convenient maintenance access to all parts. Metal heat shields were used instead of silver suit, and they could now be taken off easily by hand, with no need for a tool for dismantling. The lifetime of these protective shields turned out to be nearly infinite. A switch was implemented that enabled the operator to pull the lance out of the furnace by hand in case of a blackout or other failure. The second helper, who performed the cartridge change, still had to be relatively close to the EAF door. Due to the flexible robot movement, the helper can now be more than 23 feet (7 m) away from the furnace door and is protected by a shield. Fig. 7 shows the actual design installed at the EAF 2 in December 2012. After successful operation of more than six months, it was decided to give the robot a name. Due to its versatile functionality, it was named MultiROB. The next target was to increase safety with a fully automatic operation of the cartridge changer. For these capabilities, the initial 1,100-lb. (500-kg) robot was not necessary. But in order to use a smaller robot, the relatively heavy water-cooled lance had to be redesigned. The 660-lb. (300-kg) robot is more flexible and has a greater variety of movements, which made the banana shape of the lance no longer necessary. Compressed air cooling reduced weight and increased safety by eliminating the water entirely. In August 2014, the first robot was installed at Outokumpu Avesta in Sweden. The plant had to comply with the regulation that no one is allowed on the EAF platform during furnace operation. The fact that this plant is a stainless steel producer brought a real test to MultiROB: the slag is much tougher than what was customary at BSW. This new, lighter lance held up under these conditions. The Cartridge Rack — Requirements of the rack:

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• Easy maintenance. • Good accessibility for refill. • Availability to contain a minimum of 40 cartridges. • Small footprint. • Positioning on a furnace platform with quickrelease couplings. • Enable MultiROB to mount cartridge on the lance tip without additional drives.

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First Generation — The robot was protected with a “silver suit” at first. This test resulted in a damaged robot after a few hours. The silver suit protection was so poor that even the standard (as delivered) cables below the suit got burned by slag splashes. This led to designing a heat shield for the robot in the region of the first three axes. A silver suit was used once again for the complicated axes 4–6. The original equipment manufacturer’s (OEM’s) cable tree was replaced with a new one that had a heat resistance of up to 356°F (180°C). On top of this, the new cable tree was protected with a metallic and fiberglass hose. This protection was acceptable. Problematic, however, was the fact that due to the excessive weight of the protective shielding, a forklift truck or a crane had to be used to lift the heat shield. Also, the initially designed service openings were simply too small to provide good access.

The robot was mounted on the furnace floor. Troubleshooting had to be performed on the floor right in front of the hot furnace. The silver suit on axes 4–6 were damaged by slag splashes, and the metallic dust took its toll very quickly on this basic suit protection.


74

Technical Article Figure 8

Outokumpu Avesta rack. Courtesy of Avesta Outokumpu, Sweden.

• Minimal protection needed, no special housing. • Capability of re-bending the lance. Fig. 8 shows the latest rack design installed at Outokumpu Avesta. The cartridge is stripped off on

Programming, Operations and Service Philosophy — Robots came from mainly the automotive industry, where they are maintained by dedicated teams of expert technicians. In a steel plant, such a setup is not available, and an ordinary electrician without special training must be able to handle everything from the crane at the scrap yard to maintenance at the rolling mill. Therefore, the programming was simplified to

Figure 10

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Figure 9

one of the two V-shaped shear blades on top of the rack’s roof. It rolls down the roof and falls into a coaster wagon for disposal. The gap between the lance tip and the cartridge is 1 mm. The lance tip is off the proper position due to thermal expansion or collisions inside the EAF. Therefore, in order to properly insert the tip into a cartridge, the precise position of the lance tip and the angle of the lance need to be known. The unit has the capability to adjust the lance shape back to normal. This is done using openings at two swing plates. The first swing plate detects that the lance needs to be bent back to normal. The second swing plate determines if the lance tip needs automatic re-alignment. Only after both plates are passed can the cartridge be picked up again. The gripper holding the cartridge is the only driven part at the rack. The bending is done at the cone in the upper part of the rack. The robot movement bends the lance tip back to normal if necessary. Misalignment can be handled in the range of ±2.75 inches (70 mm). If the lance is bent beyond this range, the melter is able to use a service position that moves the lance tip to a target range. After lance adjustment, the system can be re-activated by pressing the start button. The system takes care of the rest.

MultiROB at Outokumpu Avesta. Courtesy of Outokumpu Avesta, Sweden.

Junction box connections. Courtesy of Outokumpu Avesta, Sweden.


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160 140 120 100 80 60

89.4 93.2 Temp and Sample Manipulator 97.8 100.4 103.2 102.2 101.9 108.6 118.5 124.8 129.7 137.7 139.7 142.1 146.3 147.7 155.0 158.4 158.9 LF #2 TSM 157.0 LF #1 TSM 159.4 161.9 MultiROB 169.0 170.0

180

59.7 63.2 First Lance Manipulator 64.3 66.9 74.6 77.7 86.4

• Who am I? • Where do I want to go? • How fast would I like to get there? • How much energy am I willing to spend to get there? • What shall I do if I fail? What is my plan B?

Figure 11

Average Tons/Hour

the point that the programmer speaks “the same language” as the melter. Due to the versatility of a robot, programming steps are similar to real life:

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1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

The programming was modi0 fied in such a way that the robot operating interface was not be affected. The high reliability of Performance development at BSW, 1984–2014. the robot created a problem in that the electrician may forget the troubleshooting procedures. To keep the electrician’s knowledge current, Web-based training via • Daily: Skype is available. – Check compressed air cooling (it can be seen Due to the high flexibility of the system, the poswhen the lance moves out of the EAF). sible combination of the movements is almost infinite. – Check heat shield for any damage. Repair if Therefore, the basic setup was limited to following: required. – Check plunger rod protection. Twist 180° if dam • Three measurement positions inside the EAF aged and order a new one. (e.g., left, center, right). – Check wedges at lance and MultiROB platform. • Three different heights (up, regular, down) – Clean the Heraeus contact block with a copper (e.g., to handle different refractory status). brush. • Three different parking positions. – Try to shake the lance tip. If it is moving, then • Eight different service positions. tighten the nut. • Monthly: When the robot is removed from the furnace – Check accumulator pressure. Order a new one platform, e.g., due to yearly maintenance or furnace if pressure is less than 150 bar. Change it if presshell exchange, there is nothing left on the furnace sure is less than 100 bar. platform. All junction boxes are mounted on 0 m – Check hose at automatic grease unit. If it has elevation. All cables from 0 m elevation to the furnace been damaged, that area may need to be cleaned platform elevation are heat resistant. to avoid fire when next time something hot drops A five-day on-site personnel training during the facin. tory acceptance test was sufficient to cover all fields. – Check the cable tree for any damage. Change if The system includes 23 feet (7 m) of service cabling. required. The robot can be shifted by crane or forklift. The • Every year: cabinet comes on wheels and can be moved by fork– A nalyze an oil sample of axes 1 and 6. Change the lift or crane as well. BSW tries to avoid maintenance oil based on the result but at least every second or troubleshooting in front of a running furnace. year. Easy dismantling via wedges and quick couplings is – Change automatic grease unit. provided. A robot reliability of 99.8% and a rack reliability of Performance — The MultiROB at BSW has been run98% were achieved over the course of 24 months. ning for more than three years. Since the upgrade The maintenance recommended for Outokumpu to the latest version in 2014, no major failures Avesta included the following: have occurred. All of the target parameters for precision and lifetime have been exceeded so far.

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Technical Article Figure 12

equipment would be too short and maintenanceintense operating at or in the EAF. If there is failure, the melter needs to have the opportunity to attach (hang) the tool manually. Fig. 12 shows the design of the tool changer. It will be commissioned in conjunction with a camera tool. The electrician will be able change tools between temperature and sample taking and a thermal camera. This camera will be able to scan the refractory status of the EAF and search for cooling panel leakages. Also a visual bath level measurement will be made possible.

Tool changer.

Conclusion and the Future of MultiROB Implementation of new safety equipment and measures has not slowed down the performance at BSW, as can be seen in Fig. 11. Similar accounts have been experienced at the plant in Sweden. Outokumpu Avesta is not only a stainless steel producer with much harder slag, but also its EAF is equipped with an electromagnetic stirrer. Even under these tough conditions of much more movement and electromagnetic noise, it turned out to be a trouble-free operation since the start-up in August 2014.

Multi-Tool Functionality The next step is to give the MultiROB additional functions by using a tool changer. Several possible suppliers have been evaluated for this task. Since no simple and rigid solution could be found on the market, BSE will build its own tool changer. As already stated, the robot has to handle multiple tasks. No pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder for clamping is needed. Also no limit switches indicating the tool readiness need to be implanted. The reason is the same as with the cylinders: the lifetime of such

Robots will enter all steel plants in the future. Initially they will help to improve safety, but also performance enhancements will come into focus. The fully automated steel plant will not be science fiction; robots will be part of it. They are highly reliable if designed correctly for the steel plant environment, and they will start a new understanding of maintenance-free operation. Robots will be able to perform jobs in very confined spaces since their footprint is small. By improving working conditions, the steel industry will become more attractive. The shift from standard labor to more sophisticated automation technicians has already taken place with most equipment. A robot will make life easier and might perform tasks one cannot even think of today. In the near future, BSW and BSE are looking to create step-by-step implementation of the additional functionality for the steelmaking robots such as: door burner, oxygen injection, gunning with remote control, automatic taphole opening, cleaning and filling.

Reference 1. Springer Handbook of Robotics, B. Siciliano and O. Khatib, eds., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. F

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To nominate this paper for the AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award, visit AIST.org/huntkelly. This paper was presented at AISTech 2015 — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and published in the Conference Proceedings.


Technical Article

77

Flexibility in EAF Operations at Nucor Steel– Arkansas With DRI

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Nucor Steel–Arkansas has two 150-ton DC EAFs, both equipped with roof feed systems that are capable of conveying up to 40% DRI of the total charge weight into the furnaces. The operators have been tasked over the years to operate the EAFs between 10 and 40% DRI through the roof. Each operator had his/her own method, thereby creating inconsistencies between crews. This paper will present an operator’s perspective of the challenges experienced during the addition of the AMI GE Smart Furnace technology.

Authors Tim Tirabassi, furnace lead/operator, Nucor Steel– Arkansas, Blytheville, Ark., USA tim.tirabassi@nucor.com Jason Hicks, furnace lead/operator, Nucor Steel– Arkansas, Blytheville, Ark., USA jason.hicks@nucor.com Danny Pantello, furnace lead/operator, Nucor Steel– Arkansas, Blytheville, Ark., USA danny.pantello@nucor.com

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ucor Steel–Arkansas (NSA) has optimizing performance when using two 150-ton DC electric arc varying levels of DRI. furnaces (EAFs) that operate in a range of 500–950 volts and 140 kA. In early 2012, NSA started increasDiscussion ing the direct reduced iron (DRI) percentage in its scrap mix from Furnace Description — Both furnaces 12% to as much as 50%, replacing have a 26-foot diameter and 150mainly pig iron. The main chalton tap capacity while maintaining lenge was to adapt to the continuous a 75-ton hot heel. The capacity of changes in the scrap mix, for the the transformer is 81.496 MVA. The main purpose of deciding when to EAFs are limited to a potential of efficiently start feeding DRI and at 950 V and a current of 140 kA. Each what flowrate. furnace is equipped with a top feed AMI GE’s Smart Furnace system with a capacity of 300 tons/ Technology for DC furnaces was hour, which is used for DRI, carbon, installed to help optimize EAF operlime and dolomitic lime.1 ations. The Smart Furnace control The furnaces are equipped with system includes Smart Arc (power four PTI burners with a maximum control), burner control and DRI flow capacity of 2,000 scfm of oxycontrol. Before the Smart Furnace gen and 300 scfm for natural gas. was installed, there was a large variFig. 1 shows the position of the burnation between furnace operators’ ers and the roof feed. performances, including but not limited to average voltages, electriciSmart Furnace System Description — ty usage, power-on times and consisThe Smart Furnace system is an tent slag chemistry. These variations integrated system designed to conwere highly dependent on the DRI trol all the furnace consumables as profiles defined by each operator. The Smart Furnace sysFigure 1 tem was installed to analyze inputs and to “learn” the best operating practices. This technology helped to optimize furnace operations and allowed the operator to adapt more quickly to changes in the scrap market. The system was first installed on EAF No. 2 in November 2011 and then on EAF No. 1 in August 2013. Results indicate flexibility while No. 1 electric arc furnace (EAF) layout diagram.


Technical Article

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• Roof and sidewall panels/spray-cooled shell protection. In DC furnaces, it is critical to take into account the panel/ spray-cooled heat transfer. The main concern is the natural hot spot caused by arc deflection. The system takes into account the temperature change of the water in this area and its rate. If the area is getting hot then the voltage and current will be reduced so it doesn’t continue to damage this area. It is possible to adjust the sensitivity of the temperature sensor outputs on the power profile selection, which is one of the selected settings in the master profile selection. • Bore-in stage control by energy and electrode position. Adding the electrode position as one of the control

Average Cu Value

Average Sulfur Value 0.035

0.150 0.140 0.130

0.030

Cu

0.110

0.025

0.100 0.090

Sulfur

0.120

0.020

0.080 0.070

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0.060 0.050 <10

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20–29

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>50

0.010

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Copper and sulfur content at different percentages of direct reduced iron (DRI).

Figure 3 Average Phosphorus Value

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0.0080 0.0075

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0.0060 0.0070

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Phosphorus and nitrogen content at different percentages of DRI.

Figure 4 Average Pig Iron

Average DRI

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

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Smart Arc Module — The concept behind the power profile is to provide the capability to start with a very simple program and then add more flexibility and functionality as needed. Several features in the system allow it to modify its operation to adapt to process variations such as scrap density, slag coverage and MW losses. The system monitors arc stability by monitoring electrode column hydraulics. This has provided a great advantage in helping to identify the heat stages and slag conditions during the heat, including:

Figure 2

Phos

well as the electric power input. The system is divided into three main modules: the Smart Arc (electrical power input control), the burner and the DRI optimizer. The main idea behind the Smart Furnace control system is that each module must be optimizing the operation of the equipment it controls independently from the settings of other control modules. For example, if a power input profile is designed to produce a faster heat, the burner optimizer will change the operation of the burners in order to arrive with the correct carbon at the end of the heat. The DRI optimizer will modify the DRI flowrates based on how fast the furnace is running in order to finish feeding the DRI on time. This system is designed to optimize each part of the process with minimal changes required by the operator. This system also allows the flexibility to become adaptable for different variations throughout the process.

%

78

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2013

EAF DRI and pig iron percentage in the scrap mix.

2014


79 variables enables the system to be more precise and more aggressive in terms of the arc length used during the melting stage. It also helps to enhance the opportunities to start using longer arcs for scrap melting after the initial bore-in.

Figure 5

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Burner Optimizer — Two Smart Furnace modules control the automatic DRI feedrate and the oxygen/gas and carbon injection. The goal is to fully automate the DRI feeding operation and achieve tap temperature and oxyManual DRI feed. gen aims for a heat. This allows operational-friendly changes to occur automatically. The operator Figure 6 doesn’t have to think it through. The optimizer will adjust on the fly. The burner optimizer is designed to provide a robust control system capable of providing flexibility and adaptability toward furnace conditions, scrap mixes, practice changes, grade changes, steel chemistry changes and DRI percentage changes for heel management. The main difference from a conventional burner program (based only on energy steps) is that the optimizer has several submodules with specific functions to determine the difAutomatic DRI control with Smart Furnace. ferent requirements for process optimization. The system simultaneously predicts temperature of the steel and the carbon content based on consumables information. In turn, it conof the heat stages and plays a significant role in the trols the carbon injection for slag foaming in order to DRI feedrate selection during the heat. An added achieve optimal results. feature to provide flexibility is the input of the DRI quality to compensate automatically for chemistry DRI Optimizer — The DRI optimizer design has two variations within a certain range if data isn’t available. main goals for the automatic DRI feed control: optimize the time to start the DRI and control the steel Benefits From Using DRI in the EAF — NSA products temperature to avoid accumulation of unmelted DRI include but are not limited to: hot band, pickled and in the furnace. Positive trends have been observed oiled, cold rolled and hot-dipped galvanized steel. with the bottom temperatures on the DC furnaces. Recently added in 2011 was a vacuum tank degasser The DRI optimizer automatically starts the DRI feed (VTD) to increment the list of grades. Depending on based on energy consumption and arc stability. the grade, tap aims can go from 600 to 900 O2 ppm The DRI optimizer has several automatic functions and 2,970 to 3,050°F. that are considered during process variations. The There are many advantages of using DRI in the module takes into consideration the chemical energy scrap mix. NSA has two types of scrap recipes it runs input and the energy losses due to delays. The system during normal operating conditions. Operators are incorporates the use of arc stability for the detection able to switch from a 0.10% to 0.16% Cu aim with


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Technical Article Figure 7

Bottom electrode temperature trend for EAF No. 1.

Figure 8

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Bottom electrode temperature trend for EAF No. 2.

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the assistance of DRI usage. Since the addition of the VTD, the focus for nitrogen control became more important and is part of the practice to increase DRI usage if there is a need to reduce nitrogen for certain grades. In general, DRI has helped reduce the residuals content in all the grades produced. Challenges During Commissioning — Since April 2012, NSA began to implement the usage of DRI in the

furnace from 12% to as much as 50%. At the beginning, there were many problems with bottom electrode temperatures, refractory life and furnace performance in general. Furnace campaigns were limited to 1,000 heats to as low as 600 heats, due mainly to excessive bottom electrode wear and refractory life. Before fully commissioning the Smart Furnace technology, AMI GE technicians ran the system in “shadow mode.” This gathered information from the current practice NSA was running at the time of commissioning. Since this was the first DC furnace to have this technology installed, the decision was made to start with the commissioning of the burner and DRI optimizers to assist with furnace performance and efficiencies. NSA was experiencing problems with clumping of the DRI, material feed timing and endpoint control. The furnace was out of balance, and the roof and sidewalls were seeing elevated temperatures. Even the baghouse temperature would increase on occasion. The furnace operators knew an increase in voltage was necessary without negatively impacting furnace conditions. This was a challenge because, with a DC furnace, voltage and slag balance is the driving factor for optimal energy efficiency. NSA operators worked together with AMI GE technicians. The EAF operators demonstrated boring-in manually to show how the furnace should operate. Adjustments to the kilo-amps and voltage were made to maintain energy efficiency without raising shell temperatures. AMI GE tweaked the DRI optimizer to allow the DRI feedrate to match the power input of the furnace and adjust the start times based on the charge weight and volume of the scrap. The furnace operators started to gain confidence with the system. One senior furnace operator explained the experience of utilizing this technology: “No one wants to give up their individuality, especially a 12-year senior furnace operator. At first this


81 Figure 9

kWh/ton per Crew EAF2

kWh/ton per Crew EAF1

seemed to be what was going to happen 370 with Smart Arc. After many months and 365 realizing what the benefits were, was I 366 ever wrong. Smart Arc is not some profile made up and forced upon you; it is 364 the very best ideas from all of you rolled 362 into one and enhanced by Smart Arc. 360 The electrical, oxygen, DRI, carbon, flux, 358 etc., profiles are ours, controlled and 356 monitored under one program. With the 354 exception of a few variables such as heel 352 control, scrap mixes, etc., the EAF should 350 A B C D operate as if the same operator is in the 2013 2014 chair 24/7.” Trials were conducted to find the start time and flowrate of DRI. The DRI modEnergy consumption per crew for EAF No. 1. ule made this task much easier, requiring only minimal adjustments to go from 15% to 50% DRI usage. The old DRI practices Figure 10 and the new automatic practice are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. The original practice was 370 defined by the operator in the HMI. The operators would decide when to start feed365 ing the DRI and when to stop, depending on furnace conditions and percent DRI in 360 the scrap mix. The Smart Furnace uses the arc stability and the chemical energy 355 input from the oxygen lances to decide the start of the DRI feed and flowrate. 350 The scrap density has a great impact on finding the optimal time to start the DRI 345 feed, and the arc stability helps to identify A B C D variations in scrap density. If the DRI is 2013 2014 fed too early in the heat, accumulation and melting problems would exist. After Energy consumption per crew for EAF No. 2. several discussions between operators and AMI GE technicians, the start time of the DRI feed was adjusted and made dynamic. This process has worked well and provides flexibility for the operators to run any percentage of mix and injection carbon usage. The Smart Furnace DRI with only minimal changes required. program can adjust the oxygen input to hit the carbon Several benefits were quickly achieved by automatrequirements for each steel grade without operators ing the DRI feed into the furnace. The two most running in manual mode. Inputs for aim tap temperaimportant results were the significant reduction of ture oxygen ppm were also implemented as required DRI accumulation in the feeding area (clumping) for the grade being produced. As a result, increased and a reduction in the bottom temperature. Fig. 7 performance in bottom electrode and furnace refracshows how the bottom anode temperature trends tory conditions extended furnace campaigns to more have improved since the adjustments were made. than 1,100 heats. Maintaining a good hot heel practice was also critical, To maintain cost advantages, scrap mixes are conas Smart Furnace doesn’t recognize heel size. tinuously changing, making it difficult to have fixed The burner optimizer also posed a challenge durprofiles for the electrical energy, chemical energy ing this phase. Identification of some opportunities and DRI. The addition of Smart Furnace allowed the helped to increase bottom electrode life and reduce operators to adapt more quickly and be more consisbrick wear. Oxygen lances were used too early into tent between crews. Figs. 9 and 10 show some of the the charge, with the objective to start foaming as soon improvements regardless of the DRI percentage levels. as possible. One of the features that were added to the new profile was the carbon content of the scrap

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Technical Article Figure 11

Results

35.0

370

34.5

365 33.8

kWh/ton

360

33.5

355

33.1

32.8

350

33.2

33.0 32.5

32.5

32.0

345 31.6

31.5

340

Power-On Time (minutes)

34.0

31.0 335

30.5

330

0.10–0.15

0.15–0.20

0.20–0.25

0.25–0.30

0.30–0.35

30.0

0.35–0.40

% DRI Average Electrical Energy Input (kWh/ton)

Average Power-On Time (minutes)

Furnace performance at different DRI% (January 2012–January 2014).2

Table 1 kWh/ton Consumption for 2012–2014 and DRI% Used EAF No. 1 Year

kWh/ton

EAF No. 2 DRI%

kWh/ton

DRI%

2012

358.9

18.2

351.8

18.6

2013

365.6

20.5

361.4

19.8

2014

360.6

33.0

358.8

32.3

Conclusion

Figure 12 95

40 34.8

34.1

35

33.7

32.6

93

Yield

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31.9 28.6 91.6%

91.7% 91.6%

91.3%

91%

91

91%

30 25

90

20

89

15

88 10 87 5

86 85 0.10–0.15

0.15–0.20

0.20–0.25

0.25–0.30

0.30–0.35

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% DRI Average Yield

Yield and FeO% at different DRI%.

Average FeO% in Slag

0.35–0.40

FeO% in Slag

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NSA operators can maintain furnace performance when running 15–40% DRI with minimal increased energy and power-on times, as shown in Fig. 11. Table 1 shows kWh/ton consumption for years 2012–2014 and the DRI% used during that year. The Smart Furnace system was implemented during the second half of 2013 in EAF No. 1. Energy consumption is decreasing to levels experienced in 2012 while the percentage of DRI used has increased. DRI requires approximately 10 kWh/ton more energy than scrap and 145 kWh/ton compared to pig iron. The NSA operators have demonstrated that effective and efficient operation can be maintained with elevated DRI percentages. Fig. 12 shows the NSA operators’ capability of sustaining a consistent yield and slag practice during varying amounts of DRI percentages.

Flexibility comes from being able to handle the adversity that market conditions dictate. DRI is the main component in accomplishing this task. NSA empowers teammates to “do the right thing” and make decisions that can have an impact on profitability. There are many contributors to being flexible. Consistency and standardization have a great impact on seeing positive results. NSA’s implementation of the Smart Furnace technology provides the core area of flexibility. It allows NSA operators to have an impact on NSA’s profitability by sustaining a competitive advantage through the use of DRI.

0

Reference 1. I. Valdez, G. Fernandez and J. Hicks, “Experiences Standardizing Optimal Operational Practices at Nucor Steel–Arkansas EAFs,” AISTech 2014 Conference Proceedings, Vol. I, 2014, pp. 935–945.  F

To nominate this paper for the AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award, visit AIST.org/huntkelly. This paper was presented at AISTech 2015 — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and published in the Conference Proceedings.


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The AIST Road Show Visits Steel Dynamics Inc. – Engineered Bar Products Division

Sponsored by

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ANDRITZ Metals sponsored the Road Show visit, offering a tabletop display for plant employees. Similar to the first stop on the Road Show, AIST staff was energized by this visit and looks forward to upcoming events. The Road Show enables AIST to accomplish its mission of advancing the technical development, production, processing and application of iron and steel by visiting facilities, interacting with and providing support to the people who make up the industry and our association. Thank you again to Dan Keown, Greg Hoefgen, Sherrie Dickerson and the entire SDI team in Pittsboro for their support in making the second Road Show another success. If your company is interested in hosting the AIST Road Show, or would like to become a sponsor at an upcoming visit, please contact Bill Albaugh at balbaugh@aist.org or +1.724.814.3010. We hope to see you soon!

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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The AIST Road Show couldn’t wait to get on the road again, and visited the Steel Dynamics Inc. (SDI) – Engineered Bar Products Division plant in Pittsboro, Ind., USA, on 4 November 2015. The AIST Road Show was created to directly promote the value of AIST membership while on-site at individual plants, with an emphasis on training programs and networking activities that will benefit any AIST member. Information on these opportunities is displayed during the Road Show visit, with AIST staff available to identify specific programs that might suit the plant’s employees. The second AIST Road Show followed up a successful inaugural event at SDI – Flat Roll Group Columbus in July. The temperatures were significantly milder in Pittsboro in November compared to the 105° heat in Columbus, Miss., USA. The Engineered Bar Products Division was extremely supportive of the Road Show visit. During breakfast and lunch, more than 140 SDI employees stopped by to learn about improving their skill sets and increasing their plant’s efficiency. The ability to create new networks, as well as re-establish prior ones, and to solve problems related to individual sections of the steelmaking process was highlighted. SDI employees were able to discuss their personal and professional development, and how it can be advanced through AIST activities, including Technology Training courses, 30 Technology Committees and 22 Member Chapters.

“The AIST Road Show exposed our employees to the training opportunities and networking resources available through AIST,” said Dan Keown, operations manager, SDI – Engineered Bar Products Division. “We had great attendance at the show, and the AIST crew did a wonderful job communicating the available resources to our employees. Overall, the experience was great for our division, and we would recommend visiting or scheduling an AIST Road Show for the benefit of your employees.”


Photos courtesy of Tenaris


85 Hosted by

Endorsed by

AIST Italy

SteelForum2015 by Sam Kusic

AIST’s annual Euro-NAFTA steel forum was held at the TenarisDalmine seamless tube mill in Dalmine. The conference brought together industry executives and technology experts who shared their insights into a diverse array of socioeconomic issues and technical perspectives. Here’s what they had to say.

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corporate manager of research for AK Steel Corp.; and Giorgio Romanelli, production manager at Acciaierie Venete. They touched on a variety of issues related to the economics of and engineering behind steelmaking, but the abundance of Chinese exports was at the forefront. Speaking during the forum’s town hall discussion, executives said China absolutely must curtail production, sooner rather than later. Vigorous enforcement of trade laws already on the books could help drive home that message, Longhi told the audience. Longhi stated that with exports impacting domestic markets throughout the world, not just in Europe and the U.S., there is much shared pain and, therefore, an opportunity for the world to take a stance that, if well-coordinated, could help the situation. However, while Europe is certainly feeling the pressure, the European Union is considering granting market economy status to China, said Robert Jan Jeekel, head of European Affairs for ArcelorMittal. China, under its WTO ascension agreement, argues that it is due market economy status upon the agreement’s expiration in December 2016. Others don’t see it that way, including Jan Jeekel, who cautioned that, were the EU to recognize China as a market economy, it would embolden Chinese producers to dump even more of their excess production in the EU. And, he added, the status would make it virtually impossible to impose meaningful trade actions against China.

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To be sure, the flood of low-cost exports China has let loose upon the international markets is a problem — a big problem. Just how big? As Jay Henderson, chief operating officer of Duferdofin – Nucor, Nucor Corp.’s long products joint venture in Italy, pointed out, China was on pace to export more than 100 million tons in 2015, an amount that exceeds the overall demand of the United States. “This is an imminent threat to the steel industry. It’s a foe that we’ve got to deal with. It’s a very critical situation,” Henderson said. But these days, this is merely one of several critical situations the steel industry finds itself contending with. Among them: evolving carbon emissions policies; loss of market share to competing materials, especially aluminum; a broad perception that steel is antiquated; and the need to maintain high-quality production under non-steady-state conditions. Those challenges are daunting, but they are not insurmountable, said Henderson and others during AIST’s annual Italy Steel Forum, held 22–23 October 2015 at the TenarisDalmine seamless tube mill in Dalmine within the Province of Bergamo in northern Italy. The forum drew 115 attendees from Europe and North America. In addition to Henderson, attendees heard from a dozen industry executives and technical experts, including United States Steel Corporation president and chief executive officer, Mario Longhi; Tenova Thermprocess managing director, Roberto Pancaldi; Johannes Schade,


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AIST’s executive director, Ronald Ashburn, provided attendees with a global steel industry overview.

Longhi told attendees that he believes a date shouldn’t determine when a country attains market economy status; rather, it should be based on economic behavior. And clearly, he said, China hasn’t acted as a free market economy. Many of its steelmakers are state-owned and are motivated by things other than revenue, Longhi added.

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Andrea Rocca, CEO, Metals Division, Tenova S.p.A.; Mario Longhi, president and CEO, United States Steel Corporation; and Sergio Tosato, vice president and managing director, TenarisDalmine

The situation is particularly infuriating, given that underlying demand is, more or less, healthy in Europe and the U.S., the executives said. Domestic steelmakers should be seeing some benefit. Instead, they’re idling capacity and laying off workers. “We do see growth, not only in Italy but throughout Europe,” Henderson said. “There’s certainly growth this year, and we’re seeing continued growth in 2016. But I have to tell you, we’re a little nervous about if we’re going to see (the benefit) of any of that growth.” Some of the growth in demand is being driven by a backlog in public infrastructure projects. Longhi observed that in the U.S. alone, there’s a US$3-trillion tab to be paid if the country is to improve its infrastructure from a D– to a B+. “The market eventually will come. The business and projects will come, but who’s going to be able to take it if the present condition of unfair trade remains? We may just see a bigger repeat of what we’re seeing now,” Longhi said. China aside, panelists stated that carbon emissions, and the public policies being created to manage them, are another overarching problem, especially for an industry that collectively generates as much carbon dioxide as all of

Industry Leader Town Hall Forum panelists (left to right): George Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc., and president, AIST; Jay Henderson, general manager and chief operating officer, Duferdofin – Nucor S.r.l.; Robert Jan Jeekel, head of EU Institutional Affairs, ArcelorMittal; Mario Longhi, president and CEO, United States Steel Corporation; Roberto Pancaldi, managing director, Tenova Thermprocess, and COO, Tenova Metals; and Ronald Ashburn, executive director, AIST (moderator).


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Robert Jan Jeekel (speaking), head of European Affairs for ArcelorMittal, responded to a question during the Industry Leader Town Hall Forum.

France on an annual basis, as noted by Jean-Pierre Birat, a researcher and president of the IF Steelman consultancy. Delivering the forum’s keynote address, Birat said a consortium of nearly 50 European companies and organizations from 15 European countries has been working on the problem. The consortium, named Ultra-Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking (UCLOS), has been exploring four sets of steelmaking technologies and processes, looking at their potential for reducing carbon output. Of those, the one that has advanced the farthest is a process that involves recycling blast furnace top gas during steelmaking, Birat said. Lab results have been encouraging, he said, noting not only that they were able to achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions through recycling, but also that the process requires less coking coal. According to Birat, the consortium was preparing to move into real-world trials by modifying a small, but operating blast furnace in France. The furnace, however, was mothballed before the project was carried to fruition. Birat reported their early findings show that the technology works. The problem, however, is that it is cost-prohibitive.

“It costs more than the margin that steelmakers make today. We cannot run this technology; otherwise we would go bankrupt in a short time,” he commented. On the energy side of the equation, Birat said that blast furnaces are, thermally, highly efficient, even though they consume a great deal of energy. He said there is room for the

Johannes (Hans) Schade, corporate manager – research, AK Steel Corp., presenting “Key Issues in Flat-Rolled Caster Slab Quality” during the Continuous Casting Experts Panel.

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Continuous Casting Experts Panel presenters (left to right): Carlo Mapelli, Politecnico di Milano, and president, AIM (moderator); Giorgio Romanelli, production director, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.; George Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc., and president, AIST; Johannes (Hans) Schade, corporate manager — research, AK Steel Corp.; Cristiano Tercelli, head of metallurgy, SMS Concast; Pietro Traini, industry process senior technologist, TenarisDalmine; and Ronald Ashburn, executive director, AIST.

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AIST Italy Steel Forum attendees visited the TenarisDalmine facility.

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industry to improve collectively on that front, simply by bringing the plants lagging in efficiency more in line with others. That could lead to a 10–15% decrease in consumption. But as time goes on, the industry will likely need to undertake other efforts, such as harvesting renewable energy on a massive scale at steel production sites and employing new production methods, such as making steel through electrolysis. Ensuring that there are people around who can help develop those new methods is yet another problem. Executives said the industry’s recruiting efforts are hindered by perceptions that steelmaking is an antiquated industry and out of pace with the 21st century. And the industry hasn’t helped itself much in that regard, Longhi said. “Our industry in general has not marketed itself as a truly, profoundly scientific organization. It starts with the images that we still use today. The first thing people see is a crucible spitting fire,” he said. Roberto Pancaldi agreed.

“Young people don’t perceive our industry as something sexy,” said Pancaldi. Yet, he said, there is an enormous of amount of technology behind steelmaking. “There is a lot of technology in our industry. Probably people cannot see it. It is our duty to show people how much there is.” For that to happen, the industry must change its messaging, Longhi commented. He recalled that when he first came to U. S. Steel, there was an effort under way to hire 400 engineers. The effort struggled — hiring officials barely received 400 applications, he said. As a result, the company set about to change its message and worked to have it delivered by people who understand social media and speak the language of the younger generation. The effort was successful, Longhi reported. It was so successful that when the company undertook a second round of hiring, looking to bring aboard another 400 engineers, the company received 6,000 applications. To help encourage people to consider the opportunities in steel, AIST this year established the T.C. Graham Prize,

Pipe and Tube Experts Panel presenters (left to right): Massimiliano Fantuzzi, research and development manager, Tenova Italimpianti (moderator); Fabio Lacapruccia, senior technical sales, SMS Innse; George Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc., and president, AIST; Dave Rintoul, senior vice president — Tubular Business, United States Steel Corporation; Renato Spelgatti, regional quality director, TenarisDalmine; and Ronald Ashburn, executive director, AIST.


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Sergio Tosato, vice president and managing director, TenarisDalmine, presented an overview of TenarisDalmine.

made possible by a donation from longtime steel executive Thomas C. Graham Sr. A team of government and university researchers in Canada, led by newly minted Ph.D. Elisa Cantergiani, who is from Italy, won the inaugural T.C. Graham Prize. Cantergiani attended the forum and was on hand to accept the team’s US$20,000 prize. Cantergiani opined both universities and the industry need to do more to demonstrate that there remains plenty of room for innovation in steel. In fact, she said that in Canada, some researchers are having trouble securing funding for steel-related research because the perception is that there isn’t much left to explore. “Apparently most people think steel has already reached its maximum (in terms of development),” she said. “I was very happy that we won this award so we can say, ‘Look, we did a good job, and there is room for improvement.’” One area that producers have been working to improve is the quality of steel being cast. They have certainly made big strides, but as Giorgio Romanelli, production manager at Italy’s Acciaierie Venete, told the audience, continuous casting requires diligence to achieve good results.

Romanelli was one of four technical experts who provided insights during the continuous casting experts panel, moderated by Carlo Mapelli, AIM president. Recalling his company’s experience with its newest caster, which is capable of making 420-, 500- and 600-mm rounds, Romanelli said it was able to produce almost immediately a deliverable product, but only through proper setup. He told attendees that proper steelmaking practice — which includes the right measures and right choice of materials — is essential when fulfilling orders with demanding expectations. Johannes Schade, corporate manager of research for U.S.based AK Steel Corp., echoed those comments, reminding the audience that there are a number of things that can spur the formation of inclusions. Among them are turbulent mixing, leaky gas lines, unintended reactions with refractories and misaligned ladle shrouds. “The point I want to make here is it would be great if you could wave a magic wand…and make (these issues) disappear. But there is no single solution that addresses all of the issues that you have to fight in terms of keeping the steel

(Left to right): Bill Albaugh, general manager — sales, AIST; Stacy Varmecky, general manager — membership services, AIST; Rossana Maffioletti, communications Europe, Tenaris; Lydia Stromei, general manager, Pomini Tenova; Francesca Pisa, communications Europe manager, Tenaris; and Ronald Ashburn, executive director, AIST.

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AIST Steel Forum attendees visited the TenarisDalmine facility.

clean,” he said. “It is only through attention to detail in many areas that clean steel can be produced.” Of course, cleanliness isn’t the only consideration in continuous casting. Cristiano Tercelli, head of metallurgy for SMS Concast, reminded the audience that there are other factors, such as thermal imbalances, which can lead to the formation of internal cracks, and high casting speeds, which can cause material segregation. He said that Asian steelmakers, particularly those in China, have been leading the way in recent years in investing in new casters for large blooms and rounds. Equivalent investments from European steelmakers have lagged, he said, adding that his company has seen none from American steelmakers. Having invested in some of the best and most modern casters, Asian steelmakers now have a distinct quality advantage, he stated. While arguments can be made that those steelmakers don’t have the experience or process knowledge to make the most of them, those producers, at the end of the day, are in possession of some of the most modern machines. Therefore, Tercelli said, they have an advantage. He also said SMS has noted an evolution toward combinedsection casters for billets, blooms, rounds and beam blanks. “I think this is because of a quest for quality and flexibility, especially here in Europe,” he said. “A lot of steelmakers are under pressure from cheap imports, and there is the move toward occupying higher niches in production, so our customers need to be able to change between beam blanks, billets and blooms within the same week of production,” he said. The need for greater flexibility is prompting U. S. Steel to change the way it makes steel. The company historically has been an integrated producer, but it is now installing an electric arc furnace at its Fairfield Works in Alabama. The US$230-million furnace is to come on-line later this year. Some of its production will help support the company’s tubular operations.

Speaking during a panel discussion focusing on pipe and tube production, David Rintoul, senior vice president of U. S. Steel’s tubular business, said the technology behind electric arc furnaces has improved dramatically and can produce a product that meets tubular market demands. “The technologies associated with electric steelmaking are very significant and have evolved dramatically, especially in the last 10–15 years. The degree of automation and robotics involved is really quite impressive.” In producing tubular goods for the deep shale wells in the U.S., it is especially important to have a product that can withstand harsh environments, Rintoul said. Not only are those wells usually more than a kilometer deep, but they bend and then run out horizontally for another one to two kilometers, he said. “The last thing anyone wants to have happen is to get near the end of that (string) and have a problem.” He said the U.S. uses more electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe in downhole applications than do other countries. So, to ensure that the pipe performs, U. S. Steel heat treats it through a process called full-body normalization. Through the process, a full length of welded pipe is heated, ensuring a homogenous microstructure 360° around the tube. Rintoul said the EAF and full-body normalization are just two of many technologies the company is working with. “There is no shortage of things in our industry to look at and try to improve,” he said. With that in mind, making investments that improve technology and efficiency is a way to survive the downturn, Fabio Lacapruccia, sales manager for SMS Innse, told attendees during the pipe and tube panel discussion. “With the right investment, you can be the first out,” he said. AIST would like to extend a special thank you to all of our event supporters: TenarisDalmine, AIM, Tenova, Tamini Group and Berry Metal Company. F


91 STEEL’S PREMIER TECHNOLOGY EVENT

16–19 May David L. Lawrence Convention Center Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Registration and Housing Open Now!

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AISTech.org


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STEEL’S PREMIER TECHNOLOGY EVENT

EDUCATION 500+ Technical Presentations Learn about cutting-edge processes and technological advances that power today’s progressive industry. The Technology Conference is the perfect opportunity to learn from the best minds in the business.

Plant Tours See the latest technology and industry processes up close. Currently scheduled: • Ellwood Group Inc. • Steel Dynamics Inc. – The Techs Division

Visit AISTech.org for the most up-to-date list of available tours. Reserve your spot early!

REGISTRATION

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Full Conference Member Non-Member

US$650

US$850

One-Day Conference Member Non-Member

US$475

US$675

Exposition Only Member FREE Non-Member

US$50

Register by 31 January 2016 and save US$100 on full conference registration. Only one discount per registrant.


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OPPORTUNITY 313,400 sq. ft. (29,115 m2) of Exhibit Space Put your company on display at the AISTech Exposition. Meet qualified individuals who specify, purchase, design and operate a variety of plants and facilities all over the world. The exposition also offers exciting features and a chance to win a Chevy™ truck! Contact sales@aist.org to reserve your exhibit space today.

Housing AIST has reserved a block of rooms at several hotels in downtown Pittsburgh. We strongly encourage you to reserve your hotel room well in advance. The block sells out quickly!

NETWORK 8,000 Global Industry Professionals With more than 40 countries represented, AISTech provides you with the opportunity to strengthen your network and interact with your steel industry peers during numerous events, programs and the exposition.

Visas AIST provides letters of invitation to registered international attendees and exhibitors. Visit AIST.org/aistech/visa to request a letter of invitation.

Tuesday, 17 May

Show Floor: 9 a.m.–6 p.m.

Show Floor: 9:30 a.m.–6 p.m.

Welcome Reception: 5–6 p.m.

Welcome Reception: 5–6 p.m.

Wednesday, 18 May Show Floor: Noon–4 p.m.

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Monday, 16 May

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

EXPO HOURS

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BRIMACOMBE LECTURE Monday, 16 May 2016 (8–9 a.m.) The AIST J. Keith Brimacombe Memorial Lecture Award was established in 1999 to honor Dr. J. Keith Brimacombe’s outstanding accomplishments in the area of process metallurgy, his dedication to the steel industry and his profound effect on people in the industry. The 2016 Brimacombe Memorial Lecturer is Peter Hodgson, ARC Laureate Fellow, Alfred Deakin Professor, Pro Vice Chancellor (Strategic Partnerships), Deakin University. His lecture is titled “Engineering Steels at the Nanoscale for Improved Performance.”

PRESIDENT’S AWARD BREAKFAST Tuesday, 17 May 2016 (8–9:45 a.m.) Recognizing steel industry excellence, the President’s Award Breakfast program consists of the presentation of prestigious AIST Board of Directors Awards, including AIST’s Steelmaker of the Year, followed by a keynote presentation from Mario Longhi, president and chief executive officer of United States Steel Corporation. The breakfast will be held on Tuesday, 17 May 2016 from 8 to 9:45 a.m. Tickets can be purchased when you register for AISTech. Advance single tickets are US$40. A table of 10 is US$350.

TOWN HALL FORUM

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Wednesday, 18 May 2016 (10 a.m.–Noon) The Town Hall Forum provides an insider’s view into today’s business climate from the people who know: a panel of respected leaders from some of the steel industry’s best-regarded companies. The Town Hall Forum’s moderated discussion format gives attendees a deeper understanding of the factors that help determine the direction of not just an individual company, but also the steel industry at large. The Town Hall Forum is open to all exhibitors, students, full conference registrants and one-day registrants for Wednesday, 18 May 2016. Please note the Town Hall Forum will take place at a new time for 2016: 10 a.m. to noon.


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PLANT TOURS Thursday, 19 May 2016 Ellwood Group Inc. Ellwood City Forge has more than 100 years of forging experience coupled with the latest innovations in open-die forging. Ellwood Mill Products, a division of Ellwood City Forge (ECF), has forging, heat treatment and machining capabilities to handle the largest forgings that are produced by ECF — up to 110,000 lbs. EMP’s close proximity to Ellwood Quality Steels (an Ellwood Group Inc. (EGI) business unit), allows the receipt of ingots hot via an in-house transfer car, thus eliminating the need for outside transportation. North American Forgemasters (NAF), a joint venture between Scot Forge and EGI, is also located on-site. NAF is expected to start up a new 10,000-ton open-die forge press in early 2016. Tour attendees will visit Ellwood City Forge, Ellwood Quality Steel, Ellwood Mill Products, and North American Forgemasters, and can expect to see melting, refining, casting of ingots, open-die forging on 5,000- and 10,000ton presses, a heat treating operation including water and polymer quenching, rough machining of the large open-die forgings, and non-destructive testing and extracting of destructive tests samples.

Steel Dynamics Inc. – The Techs Division

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

I

Steel Dynamics Inc. – The Techs Division in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA, consists of three galvanizing lines: MetalTech, NexTech and Galvtech. The Techs is the largest domestic supplier of hot-dipped galvanized steel sheet in the United States. The Techs Division specializes in galvanizing specific gauges and widths of flat roll carbon steel, and is currently the only domestic supplier of Galfan®, an alternative steel coating that has a higher corrosion resistance. The facilities also offer regular, medium and extra-smooth spangle. MetalTech, The Techs’ flagship facility, began production in 1984 and specializes in the hot-dip galvanizing of both hot rolled and cold rolled heavier-gauge steel sheet in thicknesses from 0.040 to 0.160 inch and in widths from 24 to 52 inches. The plant has an annual capacity of 375,000 tons. NexTech is a state-of-the-art facility established in 1990 that specializes in the hot-dip galvanizing of cold rolled lightgauge steel sheet in gauges from 0.007 to 0.020 inch and in widths of 28 to 43 inches. NexTech has an annual production capacity of 170,000 tons. Opened in 1996, GalvTech is a state-of-the-art hot-dip galvanizing facility with an annual capacity to finish 475,000 tons of cold rolled steel sheet in gauges from 0.015 to 0.045 inch and in widths of 24 to 61 inches.


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16

2016 GOLF CLASSIC Sunday, 15 May 2016 Chartiers Country Club The Willie Park–designed championship golf course at the Chartiers Country Club facility in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA, features 6,562 yards of golf. The course rating is 71.3 and it has a slope rating of 129 on bent grass. The Chartiers golf course opened in 1919, and the master plan was updated in the 1990s by Arthur Hills, ASGCA. www.chartierscc.com

Schedule of Events Morning

Afternoon

Registration, Breakfast and Practice: 7–8 a.m.

Registration, Lunch and Practice: Noon–1 p.m.

Golf: 8 a.m.–1 p.m.

Golf: 1–6 p.m.

Lunch and Awards: 1–2 p.m.

Dinner and Awards: 6–7 p.m.

Pricing Cost per golfer

US$250

Cost per foursome Golf club rental

US$1,000

US$35

Contact Lori Wharrey at lwharrey@aist.org or +1.724.814.3044.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Become a Sponsor!

Register Today!


97

SCHEDULE OF EVENTS Sunday, 15 May AIST Foundation Golf Classic – Morning: 7 a.m.–1 p.m.

AIST Foundation Golf Classic – Afternoon: Noon–6 p.m.

Student Plant Tour:

Noon–4 p.m.

Young Professionals’ Plant Tour:

1–4 p.m.

Conference Registration:

Noon–5 p.m.

Young Professionals’ Reception:

5–6 p.m.

Author/Chair Introductions:

7:15 a.m.

Graduate Student Poster Contest Display: 9:30 a.m.–5 p.m.

Conference Registration:

7:30 a.m.–5 p.m.

Technology Committee Meetings:

Monday, 16 May Noon–1:30 p.m.

J. Keith Brimacombe Memorial Lecture: 8–9 a.m.

University-Industry Relations Roundtable: Noon–1:45 p.m.

Exhibit Floor Open:

9 a.m.–6 p.m.

Technical Sessions:

AIST Service Center Open:

9 a.m.–6 p.m.

AIST Welcome Reception – Exhibit Hall: 5–6 p.m.

Student Project Presentation Contest:

9:30–11:30 a.m.

Steel to Students Reception:

6–8 p.m.

Technical Sessions:

9:30 a.m.–Noon

2–5 p.m.

Tuesday, 17 May Author/Chair Introductions:

7:15 a.m.

Technical Sessions:

10 a.m.–Noon

President’s Award Breakfast:

8–9:45 a.m.

Exhibit Hall Lunch:

11:30 a.m.–1:30 p.m.

Conference Registration:

8:30 a.m.–5 p.m.

Technology Committee Meetings:

Noon–1:30 p.m.

Graduate Student Poster Contest Display: 9 a.m.–5 p.m.

Technical Sessions:

2–5 p.m.

Exhibit Floor Open:

9:30 a.m.–6 p.m.

Reception – Exhibit Hall:

5–6 p.m.

AIST Service Center Open:

9:30 a.m.–6 p.m.

Wednesday, 18 May

New Schedule!

7:15 a.m.

Exhibit Floor Open:

Noon–4 p.m.

Conference Registration:

7:30 a.m.–3 p.m.

AIST Service Center Open:

Noon–4 p.m.

Technical Sessions:

8–10 a.m.

Truck Giveaway – Exhibit Hall:

2:30–3 p.m.

Town Hall Forum:

10 a.m.–Noon

AIST Prize Drawings:

3:30–4 p.m.

Town Hall Lunch – Exhibit Hall:

Noon–2 p.m.

Technology Committee Meetings:

3:30–5:30 p.m.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Author/Chair Introductions:

Thursday, 19 May Plant Tours:

7:30 a.m.–Noon

Ellwood Group Inc.

I

Steel Dynamics Inc. – The Techs Division


98

HOUSING To take advantage of the AISTech convention rates, be sure to book your reservation by 1 April 2016. After 1 April, changes can be made only to existing reservations.

1. The Westin Convention Center Pittsburgh

US$205 Sold Out!

1000 Penn Avenue

2. Hampton Inn & Suites Pittsburgh-Downtown

US$189

1247 Smallman Street

3. Omni William Penn Hotel

US$195

530 William Penn Place

4. DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel & Suites Pittsburgh Downtown

US$189 Sold Out!

One Bigelow Square

5. Pittsburgh Marriott City Center

US$179

112 Washington Place

6. Renaissance Pittsburgh Hotel

US$199

107 Sixth Street

7. Wyndham Grand Pittsburgh Downtown

US$175

600 Commonwealth Place

8. Courtyard by Marriott-Pittsburgh Downtown

US$199

I- 2

945 Penn Avenue

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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GOLF FEATURE

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sponsored by

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Aisle 2100 Sponsored by AustralTek LLC

1359 1458 1057 1156

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January Floor Plan

WOMEN

CONCESSION

Aisle 1900 Sponsored by GrafTech

WOMEN

MEN

= OVERHEAD WALKWAY HEIGHT RESTRICTION 19'

= HEIGHT RESTRICTION 19' AND NO HANGING POINTS

To reserve exhibit space, or for advertising and sponsorship opportunities at AISTech 2016, contact sales@aist.org or +1.724.814.3000.


101 WOMEN

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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2727

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2129

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5

2139

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AISTech 2016

PRELIMINARY LIST OF EXHIBITORS # 3tn Industriesoftware GmbH

A ABB ABP Induction LLC Ace World Companies Acuity-vct Inc. Advanced Process Optimization Inc. Aeromet Industries Agellis Group AIC Capitanio Automation AIM Machinery Air Products AirStream Systems Inc. Ajax TOCCO Magnethermic Albarrie Environmental Services Allor Mfg. Inc./Plesh Industries Altra Industrial Motion AMEPA America Inc. American Chemical Technologies Inc. American Roller Bearing Co. American Sensors Corp. AmeriFab Inc. AMETEK • AMETEK Factory Automation • AMETEK LAND •A  METEK Newage Testing Instruments • AMETEK Process Instruments AMI GE ANDRITZ Herr-Voss Stamco Inc. ANDRITZ METALS Inc. Andronaco Industries ANT Automation LLC Applied Fluids LLC Armstrong Kover Kwick Inc. ASB Industries Inc. ASKO Assisteel Co. Ltd. Atlantic Track – Crane Runway Division Atlas Machine & Supply Inc. AustralTek LLC

B.S.A. s.r.l. Babcock & Wilcox MEGTEC Baltimore Aircoil Co. Bearing Service Co. BEDA Oxygentechnic USA Belt Conveyor Guarding

C C & E Plastics Inc. C.R. Cylindrical Roller Bearings Cableform Inc. Caldwell Group Inc., The Can-Technologies Inc. Carolina Strapping & Buckles Co. CASTELLINI Officine Meccaniche S.p.A. CCR Technologies Cervis Inc. CGThermal CH2M ChemTreat Chiz Bros. CID Associates Inc. CITGO Petroleum Civil & Environmental Consultants Inc. Cleveland Gear Co. CMI Heavy Industries Cobra Wire and Cable – GCG COH Inc. Columbia Machine Works Inc. Comesa Work Rolls Conductix-Wampfler Contractors & Industrial Supply Inc. (CIS) Control Chief Corp. Corewire Ltd. CTS Inc.

D D & L Inc. D&S Hoist and Crane Dana Holding Corp. – GWB Driveshafts Danieli

Datapaq Inc. Delta Railroad Construction Inc. Delta USA DESHAZO LLC Deublin Co. Dialight Diamond Power International Inc. DIAS Infrared Corp. Die Craft Machining & Engineering Doerrenberg Edelstahl GmbH Dover Hydraulics Inc. Drafto Corp. Duraloy Technologies

E EAFab Ebner Furnaces Inc. EC&M Co. LLC Edwards Vacuum Elementar Americas Elettrotek Kabel North America Inc. Elster Thermal Solutions EMPCO EMSCO Inc. ENERGOPROM Group Enprotech Ergolines Lab srl ERIEZ Extrel CMS

F Falk-PLI Fedmet FEI Co. Ferrex Engineering Ltd. Filtertech Fives Flame Tech FLANDERS Flow In Motion FLSmidth Inc. – AFT Operations Foerster Instruments Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies FrigorTec LP Fuchs Lubricants Co.

G G.W. Becker Inc. Gantrex Inc.

Please note: Includes all exhibitors confirmed as of 3 December 2015. For the latest updates, visit AISTech.org. Denotes AISTech 2016 sponsor

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

B

Belzona Inc. Berry Metal Company Berthold Technologies USA LLC Bi-State Rubber Inc. Blaschak Coal Corp. Bloom Engineering Co. BM Group Holding SpA BRAUN Machine Technologies LLC Brilex Inc. Brokk Bruker BSE Bulk Transport Corp. Busch International Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems Butech Bliss

The official housing company for AISTech 2016 is Passkey. This company will NOT call exhibitors for their hotel reservations. Please be aware of this in case you receive any request from another company.


103

Gauss Magneti Srl GES Graphite Gexpro Gigasense AB Gleason Reel Global Gauge Corp. Global Maintenance LLC GP Strategies Graebener Reika Inc. GrafTech Graphite Cova GmbH Guild International

H HarbisonWalker International HARSCO HASTEC Engineering Inc. HASTEC Rebs Inc. Hatch Hausner Hard-Chrome Inc. HBC-radiomatic Inc. HDT Global HEF Groupe USA HEG Ltd. Heraeus Electro-Nite Co. LLC Hickman, Williams & Co. HMC Gears Hohl Industrial Services Hose Master Houghton International Hubbell Inc. Hubbell Industrial Controls Huebner Giessen Hunger Hydraulics USA Hutchinson Industries Hydro Inc. Hyson Industrial Hyster Co. HYTORC

I

J J.C. Steele & Sons Inc. J.R. Merritt Controls James Walker Mfg. Janus Automation JNE Consulting Jordan Transformer JVCKENWOOD USA Corp. JW Hicks Inc.

K Kalenborn Abresist Corp. Kalmar USA KAMAG Transporttechnik GmbH & Co. KG Kastalon Polyurethane Products Kerry Co. Inc. KettenWulf USA L.P. Key Bellevilles Kidde Fire Systems KME America Inc. Kocsis Brothers Machine Co. Konecranes Inc. Kress Corp. Kubota Materials Canada

L

M

Nalco, an Ecolab company NCCM Co. NDC Technologies (Beta LaserMike Products) NDC Technologies Inc. NEXTSENSE Nidec NILCO Nokra GmbH North American Crane Bureau Inc. Northrop Grumman Information Systems NSD Corp. NSK Americas

O Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum USA Ohio Magnetics Inc. Oil Skimmers Inc. Orival Water Co. Osborn OTC Services Inc. Oxylance

I

M. Brashem Inc. Mack Mfg. MAE-Eitel Inc. Magaldi Power S.p.A.

N

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Lagun Engineering Solutions Laird Controls North America LAKOS Separators and Filtration Solutions Lamiflex LAP Laser LASE GmbH Laser Distance Spectrometry Lechler Inc. Lehigh Heavy Forge Corp. Lenox Instrument Co. Inc. Lintern Corp. LISMAR Inc. Lokring Great Lakes Loveman Steel Inc. Ludeca Inc. Lumar Metals North America LumaSense Technologies

Magid MAGNA Magneco/Metrel Inc. Magnetech Industrial Services Magnetek Maina Power Transmission Management Science Associates MAS Air Systems LLC Maxcess (Webex, Fife, Tidland, MAGPOWR) McKeown Group Measurement Systems International, a Rice Lake Weighing Systems Brand Melter Merford Cabs MERMEC Messinger Bearings Metal Products and Engineering MFC Resources Inc. MICRO-EPSILON America Middough Midrex Midwesco-TDC Filter Midwest Industrial Supply Inc. Mi-Jack Products Inc. Mobil Industrial Lubricants Moffitt Corp. Molyneux Industries Monroe Environmental MORE s.r.l. Morgan Advanced Materials Morgan Engineering Systems Inc. Motion Industries MSI Universal Shafts MTUS Technology Inc.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

iba America LLC IKEUCHI USA Inc. IKUSI USA Inc. Illinois Electric Works Imerys Metalcasting Solutions IMS Systems Inc. Inductotherm InfoSight Innerspec Technologies Innovative Analytical Solutions In-Place Machining Co. Inc. Integrated Power Services IntelliSchematic IRCON Inc. Irwin Car and Equipment Itipack Systems

ITR IVC Technologies


104

AISTech 2016 P Pannier Corp. PCI Gases Penn Fan Co. Perfection Servo PhyMet Inc. Pintsch Bubenzer USA PKG Equipment Inc. Polyonics Inc. Polytec Inc. POSCO E&C Powerclean Industrial Services Powerohm Resistors Praxair Precisioned Components Primetals Technologies Prince International Corp. ProcessBarron Proco Products Inc. ProMinent Fluid Controls Inc. Pruftechnik Service Inc. PSI Metals North America Inc. PT TECH Purdue University Calumet – Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium Pyrotek

Q Quaker Chemical Corp. Qual-Fab Inc. QuinLogic LLC

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

R RAD-CON Inc. Ramon Science & Technology Co. Ltd. Ravagnan S.p.A. REA JET RECO Equipment Inc. REDEX Regal Power Transmission Solutions Reichard Industries LLC Renold Torque Transmission Rexnord Industrial Services RF System Lab RHI (RHI US Ltd.) Riise Inc. Robinson Engineering Co. Robinson Fans Inc. Ross Controls RotaDyne RoviSys Russula RustX USA

S S.I.T. America Inc. Samuel Strapping Systems

SANGRAF International Sarclad North America L.P. Sarralle USA Schenck Process Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH Schust Engineering Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc. SD Myers Inc. Searchlight LLC Seifert Companies Selinsky Force LLC SenTek Corp. SES LLC SGL Carbon SGM Magnetics Corp. Shanghai Gongxiang Shanghai Special Metal Co. Ltd. Shapeline Shinagawa Showa Denko Carbon Inc. Shuttlelift Sichuan Yuanfang High-Tech Equipment Parts Co. Ltd. Sideridraulic System S.p.A. Signal Metal Silvent Intech SKF USA Inc. SKW North America Slingofer Srl SlipNOT® Metal Safety Flooring SMS group Solenis Spraying Systems Co. Spuncast Inc. SRI Quality System Registrar Starex Inc./Nantong Carbon Stoody, An ESAB Co. Stucchi USA Inc. Superior Graphite Superior Industries Superior Machine Co. System Seals Inc. The Systems Group

T T. Bruce Sales Inc. Tallman Bronze Tamini Transformers Taylor Machine Works Inc. Taylor-Winfield Technologies Inc. Tebulo NA Ltd. Technical Weighing Services Inc. TECO-Westinghouse Tekleen Automatic Filters Inc. Tele Radio LLC Temtek Solutions/MSSI Refractory Tenova TES – Transformer Electro Service Srl ThermalMax Inc. Thermo Scientific Thermocast S.p.A. Timkan Tech (Symeo)

TMEIC Tokai Carbon Group Transformers and Rectifiers (India) Ltd. TransTech Tribco Inc. Tri-Chem Tube City IMS Tube-Mac Piping Technologies Turtle Plastics TYHS

U UE Systems Inc. UKCG Group Ltd. UMECC Unigen Steel Engineering Srl Unilux Union Electric Steel Corp. United Rolls U-S Safety Trolley

V Vail Rubber Works Inc. Velco GmbH Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Vesuvius USA Voith Turbo Inc. Vollmer America Inc. VUHZ a.s.

W W.L. Gore & Associates Inc. Walker Magnetics West Virginia Development Office WHEMCO Inc. WHEMCO Ohio Foundry WHEMCO Steel Castings Inc. Whiting Corp. Whiting Equipment Canada Winkle Industries Inc. Franz Wolfer Elektromaschinenfabrik Osnabruck GmbH WS Thermal Process Technology Inc.

X–Z Xtek/Bradley Lifting Yates Cylinders YorkHoist

F


D e d i c a te d to K e n t D . Peaslee

The AIST Digital Library provides the power of your virtual library for access anytime, anywhere. Free for AIST Members.

Digital.Library.AIST.org Subscription packages are available for university, institutions and corporations. Visit digital.library.aist.org for more information or contact Kurt Edwards, +1.724.814.3038, kedwards@aist.org.


106

AISTech 2016

AISTECH SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES A sponsorship is a cost-effective way to reach a new audience at Steel’s Premier Technology Event for 2016. Be seen. Get noticed. Boost your business today!

Global Event Sponsor Sponsorship includes:

2 available or exclusive at TBD

• Company logo on all major event signage, including Exhibit Hall entrance • R  ecognition as global event sponsor on AISTech 2016 website, e-blast promotions and plenary event PowerPoint presentations • R  ecognition at President’s Award Breakfast, Town Hall Forum, and President’s Reception and Dinner • Unlimited passes for the Exhibit Hall • Ten AIST memberships for 2016 (new members only) • Exhibit Hall booth • F  ull-page color ad in show issues (April, May) and post-show issue (August) of Iron & Steel Technology • F  ull-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • A  dditional items for a complete marketing campaign, including a video display near entrance

President’s Award Breakfast 

5 3 available at US$15,000

President’s Reception and Dinner

5 2 available at US$15,000

Vehicle Giveaway Feature 

Unlimited at US$1,000 each

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany logo or name on all President’s Award Breakfast signage, including the breakfast program and the slideshow presentation prominently displayed on two large video screens • Company logo on breakfast tickets • V  erbal acknowledgment from the AIST president at the conclusion of the event • Tickets for one table of 10 at the breakfast • T  wo registrations to attend the AISTech technical conference, including the Town Hall Forum • F  ull-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Full-page 4-color ad in the August issue of Iron & Steel Technology • Five AIST memberships for 2016 (new members only)

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Sponsorship includes: • Company logo or name on all President’s Reception and Dinner signage • Introduction as a sponsor at the President’s Reception and Dinner • Cocktail napkins with logo • Name recognition on the dinner menu • Two invitations (including spouses) to attend the reception and dinner • T  wo registrations to attend the AISTech technical conference, including the Town Hall Forum • F  ull-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Full-page 4-color ad in the August issue of Iron & Steel Technology • Five AIST memberships for 2016 (new members only)

See page 99 for sponsor logos

Sponsorship Includes: • Company logo on backdrop • Company logo on AISTech 2016 website and in Iron & Steel Technology

Monday Welcome Reception

Sponsorship includes: • B&W company logo on the napkins • Premium signage at reception • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

4 1 available at US$3,500


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Tuesday Reception

4 available at US$3,500

Sponsorship includes: • B&W company logo on the napkins • Premium signage at reception • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Town Hall Forum Coffee Service

4 2 available at US$3,500

Town Hall Forum Lunch

6 3 available at US$3,500

Sponsorship includes: • Company name or logo on the signage at coffee service location • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Table to supply logoed cups as giveaways (optional)

Sponsorship includes: • B&W company logo on the napkins at lunch stations • Signage on lunch tables • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Town Hall Forum

4 available at US$3,500

On-Site Program

SOLD US$7,500

On-Site Program Bookmark

SOLD US$2,500

Exhibitor Guide

SOLD US$4,000

Sponsorship includes: • Signage and recognition at the Town Hall Forum • I nclusion of one 15-second commercial message in the PowerPoint presentation before the event

Sponsorship includes: • Company  logo on the front cover of the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Full-page 4-color ad on the back cover of the On-Site Program

Sponsorship includes: • 4  -color ad on the front and back of a 2 x 9-inch perforated bookmark in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Sponsorship includes: • Company name or logo on the front and back of the Exhibitor Guide distributed to all conference attendees

Hotel Room Keycards

3 1 available at US$5,000

Sponsorship includes: • Company logo and message on hotel room keycards • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

FAMOUS

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THRACIT

SOLD US$7,500

Sponsorship includes: • Company logo featured on the desktop screens of PCs with Internet and email access • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Giveaway TBD • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

READIN G N

AIST Service Center Internet Café Feature and Giveaway: TBD 

Sport Feature and Giveaway: TBD

SOLD US$7,500

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Sponsorship includes: • Company name and logo on signage at the feature • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Company logo on the sign hung directly above the feature • Giveaway TBD • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials


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AISTech 2016 Feature and Giveaway: TBD

1 available at US$5,000

Show Floor Internet Café

1 available at US$4,000

Sponsorship includes: • Company name and logo on signage at the feature • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Company logo on the sign hung directly above the feature • Giveaway TBD • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany logo featured on the desktop screens of PCs with Internet and email access • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • E  ight-foot table to display marketing materials

Massage Feature and Large-Screen TV Giveaway

SOLD US$5,000

Putting Contest Feature and Golf Clubs and Bag Giveaway

SOLD US$5,000

Pens

SOLD US$4,000

Event Bags

SOLD US$4,000

Sponsorship includes: • Company name or logo on signage at the feature • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Company logo on the sign hung directly above the feature • Large-screen TV giveaway • Display of company’s new products and services on the TV • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials

Sponsorship includes: • Company name or logo on signage at the feature • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • Company logo on the sign hung directly above the feature • Golf clubs and bag giveaway • Daily putting contests for a chance to win a putter • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany-supplied pens staged at all registration tables for attendee use (AISTech Show Management must approve pens prior to distribution) • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany-supplied bags (no plastic) placed in the AISTech registration area for attendee utilization (AISTech Show Management must approve bags prior to distribution) • Half-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Lanyards

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany-supplied lanyards placed at the AISTech registration counter for attendee utilization (AISTech Show Management must approve lanyards prior to distribution) • Half-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Online Registration Page

SOLD US$4,000

2 available at US$3,500 per position

Sponsorship includes: • T  op Position sponsorship includes company banner at the top of six online registration pages and AISTech.org registration home page • B  ottom Position sponsorship includes company banner at the bottom of six online registration pages and AISTech.org registration home page

Magazine and Online Floor Plan Banner Ad

Sponsorship includes: • Company banner ad placed at the bottom of online floor plan • Company logo placed on the floor plan page of Iron & Steel Technology

3 1 available at US$2,000


109 AISTech 2016 Smartphone App

SOLD US$7,500

Sponsorship includes: • C  ompany logo on the home page of the smartphone app, with exposure prior to and during AISTech 2016 – App will be promoted on AIST.org, AISTech.org and numerous marketing pieces – Available for iOS and Android • Half-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Plant Tour and Coffee

2 available at US$3,000

Sponsorship includes: • Coffee station from 6:30 to 7:30 a.m. on day of tour • E  ight-foot table with four feet available for promotional brochures (sponsor can provide logoed cups) • Signage at bus area and on bus • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Airport Shuttle/Baggage Check Area

2 available at US$4,000

• Shuttle will be available Wednesday, 18 May • Baggage Check will be available Wednesday, 18 May Sponsorship includes: • Eight-foot table for promotional brochures • Company name and logo on signage in specific areas • H  alf-page B&W ad in the On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees

Phone Charge Kiosk

10 available at US$3,000

• One located in Technical Session area • Two located in the Exhibit Hall Sponsorship includes: • Inclusion of one 30-second commercial message on a 30-inch monitor at each charging station; commercials will loop continuously during the conference and exhibit hours

AISTech Proceedings on Flash Drive SOLD US$3,500 Sponsorship includes: • Logo on the flash drive distributed to all Technology Conference registrants • Banner ad on flash drive main menu linking to the company website

NEW! Remote Control Racing Booth Feature and GoPro Camera and Gas Card

Sponsorship Includes: • Company name and logo on signage at the feature • Company name and logo on scoreboard • Company logo on one remote control race car • Half-page B&W ad in On-Site Program distributed to all conference attendees • GoPro Camera and Gas Card • Eight-foot table to display marketing materials

NEW! Remote Control Racing — Individual Remote Control Race Cars

US$5,000

5 available at US$2,000

Sponsorship Includes: • Company logo on one remote control race car

Aisle Signage

34 24 available at US$2,500 per aisle

Sponsorship includes: • Company logo on the bottom of selected aisle sign 1200 Available

1300 Available

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2000 Available

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2300 Available

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

1000 Available

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Innovation in Steel Applications:

THE 2015 T.C. GRAHAM PRIZE RECIPIENT On 1 October 2015, a winner was named for the inaugural T.C. Graham Prize. The winning team consisted of Elisa Cantergiani, Ph.D. student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa; Colin Scott, research scientist, CanmetMATERIALS; Benjamin Lawrence, Ph.D. student, Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia; and Chad Sinclair, associate professor, Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia. Cantergiani and team won US$20,000 for their proposal, titled “High-Strength, Interstitial-Free Steel Obtained Using FeC Amorphous Films and Induction Heating for Packaging Applications and Cladding With Lighter Metals for Auto Body Panels.”

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

In 2014, Mr. Thomas C. Graham Sr. donated US$100,000 to establish the T.C. Graham Fund for Innovation in Steel Application, which encourages and recognizes

innovative applications for steel that may lead to the development of new markets. Individuals or groups of individuals are encouraged to submit proposals articulating innovation, performance, marketability and sustainability of their ideas. Sustainability initiatives include profitability, energy intensity, safety, environmental impact and overall life-cycle assessment. Now in its second year, the spirit of this Fund is to encourage steel companies to take an active role in supporting the market development initiatives of their employees.

Elisa Cantergiani was presented with the T.C. Graham Prize on 23 October 2015 (left to right): Ron Ashburn, AIST executive director; George Koenig, director — global iron and steel business and technology development, Hatch Associates Inc., and 2015–2016 AIST president; Cantergiani; and Mario Longhi, president and chief executive officer, United States Steel Corporation, and T.C. Graham Contest Jury member.


111

Graham Prize Contest Jury

Jim Baske

John Ferriola

Mario Longhi

Thomas C. Graham Sr. is widely known as one of the steel industry’s most successful and innovative executives. A 60-year Life Member of AIST, Graham is the former president of Jones & Laughlin Steel, United States Steel Corporation, Washington Steel and Armco Steel, and was the first chairman of AK Steel Corp. Mr. Graham feels strongly that absolute market growth should be the focus of major efforts within each steel company as a matter of supreme urgency.

Mark Millett

James Wainscott

The other team captains presenting during the video conference were Cheng-Chieh Li, with “Innovative Application of Thermoelectric Generators With FeBased Bonding Layers for Recovering Industrial and Automobile Waste Heat Into Renewable Energy,” and Alan Druschitz, who presented “Copper-Clad Steel for Products With Anti-Microbial Properties,” along with individual applicant Thomas David Burleigh, with “Anodized Steel Structures and Tools.”

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Ron Ashburn, AIST execuTwenty-three teams (representtive director; George Koenig, ing 45 individuals) submitted AIST president and president proposals for the inaugural of Berry Metal Company; T.C. Graham Prize competiCantergiani said she is glad and Mario Longhi, T.C. Gration. After the proposals were to have the won the award ham Prize Jury member and reviewed, 10 semi-finalists because it demonstrates that president and chief execuwere announced on 5 May at there is still much to explore tive officer of United States AISTech 2015 in Cleveland, Steel Corporation, presented Ohio, USA. The group of semiin steelmaking. “Canadian Elisa Cantergiani with the finalists was narrowed down to universities have a lot of US$20,000 award at the AIST four finalists, who presented problems in justifying more Italy Steel Forum in Dalmine, their proposals via live video research related to steel. Italy, on 23 October 2015. conference to the Contest Jury on 30 September 2015. As Apparently, most people think Chad Sinclair said, “It is an team captain, Cantergiani presteel has already reached its honor to receive this award, sented her team’s proposal and developmental limit.” particularly considering the explained their new approach strong group of finalists. As it to diffuse carbon into interstibecomes tougher and tougher tial-free steel to obtain a higher to justify steel research in universities in the West, the increase of yield stress in relation to the automotive value of such awards can’t be measured by their monand packaging sectors. The team’s proposal appears etary value alone. Indeed, this award will, I hope, help on pages 112­­–116 of this issue. convince colleagues and administrators of the continThe Contest Jury consisted of Jim Baske, chief execu- ued value of ferrous research in universities.” tive officer, ArcelorMittal North America Flat Rolled Operations; John Ferriola, chairman, president and The AIST Board of Directors wishes to express their chief executive officer, Nucor Corp.; Mario Longhi, sincere appreciation and gratitude to Mr. Graham for his generosity to the Association. president and chief executive officer, United States Steel Corporation; Mark Millett, president and chief executive officer, Steel Dynamics Inc.; and James L. For more information about the T.C. Graham Prize, and to apply for the 2016 prize, visit AIST.org. The Wainscott, chairman, president and chief executive deadline for entry is 31 January 2016. F officer, AK Steel Corp.


112

2015 T.C. GRAHAM PRIZE WINNER

High-Strength Interstitial-Free Steel Obtained Using FeC Amorphous Films and Induction Heating for Packaging Applications and Cladding With Lighter Metals for Car Body Panels

STATE OF THE ART

Steel is commonly used in engineering applications for its versatility and for the wide range of mechanical properties that can be obtained depending on the heat treatment and on its chemical composition. However, one of the most challenging sectors where steel companies have to prove their ability to invent new solutions is the automotive field. Recently, aluminum started to be considered a good alternative to steel for car body panels of high-volume vehicles. The substitution of steel with aluminum is influenced mainly by the demands that car manufacturers must meet in terms of fuel efficiency by reducing vehicle weight. Even if aluminum is considered to be competitive in terms of density and recycling, its applications have several drawbacks. It is five times more expensive than steel, its use to manufacture car body panels requires higher tooling costs since aluminum has higher spring-back compared to steel, and it tends to split if stamping rates are too fast or if angles are too sharp.1 Moreover, it offers a lower dent resistance compared to steel. One solution to keep steel competitive for car manufacturers in order to save weight is to increase its strength so that the thickness of the steel sheets can be decreased

A simple way to increase strength is by carburization. For bulk parts, the most commonly used processes include pack carburizing, liquid or gas carburizing, but all of these require temperatures higher than 800°C for several hours. These processes are not easily applicable to thin steel sheets, which need to be strengthened very quickly to comply with the high production rates of steel industry. Moreover, steels for outer panels have to be very ductile (for formability reasons), and this is achieved by reducing the free carbon content. However, this causes the steels to be very soft; so to increase their strength without losing formability, the carbon has to be introduced as late as possible in the production cycle (after continuous annealing) or eventually even after forming. Nowadays, steel sheets (especially partially stabilized ultralow-carbon steels (ULC)) are strengthened by performing a bake-hardening treatment, which, however, limits the increase of yield stress to 50–60 MPa. Higher-strength steel can be obtained by tailoring the chemical composition and performing multiple heat treatment steps, which are more timeconsuming and require more elaborate processes.

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OCT 2015    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Authors

to values lower than the 0.7 mm currently used for outer panels. However, in order to meet the rigidity requirements for the outer panels, these strengthened steel sheets thinner than 0.7 mm should be coupled with other metals. Other markets could also potentially benefit from the idea presented in this proposal since the price of the proposed steel should be affordable.

Colin Scott

I

Elisa Cantergiani

Ben Lawrence

Chad Sinclair

INNOVATION

Starting from this background, a new solution to strengthen interstitial-free (IF) steel is proposed. The main innovation is to use FeC films to diffuse carbon into the IF substrate. This film can be applied on one side or on both sides of the steel sheet by using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process, as shown


113

Figure 1 – Physical vapor deposition (PVD) process to deposit carbon films.

schematically in Fig. 1. Once the coating has been applied to the steel, it can be annealed to diffuse carbon into the substrate. Depending on the heat treatment, on the carbon amount present in the FeC film and on its thickness, the mechanical properties can be properly tailored. The main advantage of these films is their versatility. The carbon content inside the FeC film can be regulated and even 100% carbon films could potentially be used as well. The main role of this coating is to act as a carbon reservoir for the carburization of the substrate, but it also has the advantage of offering some protection of the IF steel from oxidation due to moisture in the environment. The both-sides-coated configuration can be used to obtain higher final strength, while the one-side-coated

steel can be used for middle or lower strength. Once the specimen is coated, it can undergo the heat treatment to obtain the diffusion from the carbon coating. If middle yield strength (between 200 and 320 MPa) is required, an annealing at temperatures lower than 800°C for 1 hour in a high-vacuum furnace can be used. However, if higher strength (such as yield stress above 350 MPa) is required, induction heating has to be used to diffuse carbon from the film, followed by quenching. Thanks to the fast heating rate of induction heating, carbon can be diffused into the substrate quickly and the carbon concentration through the IF sheet thickness can be non-uniform, and will be higher closer to the coated surfaces. It is believed that these zones containing a higher carbon amount could potentially form martensite or bainite during

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Figure 2 – Possible configurations that can be obtained by applying carbon coating and induction heating on interstitial-free (IF) steel.


114

Figure 3 – Profile of hardness for a one-side-coated IF steel sheet after induction heating for 30 seconds.

quenching. However, this would require experimental investigations to be proven. The formation of martensite or bainite would increase markedly the strength of the steel sheet and would also improve the hardness surface of the IF sheet. Since the carbon diffusion at grain boundaries is faster, the formation of bainite or martensite at grain boundaries could potentially suppress the presence of Lüder’s plateau. A schematic view of the possible obtainable configurations is shown in Fig. 2. For the one-side-coated steel, it is easier to obtain a carbon gradient through the thickness of the sheet. The main advantages and innovations of this idea are: - T  he amount of carbon that can be diffused into the steel sheet can be easily varied by changing carbon content in the film or film thickness or annealing parameters, such as temperature and time. - M  any different microstructures are potentially obtainable, depending on the heat treatment. Induction heating allows obtaining yield stresses above 350 MPa with just 2 minutes of heat treatment. As a result, the process is very time efficient.

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OCT 2015    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

- P  VD could potentially be used to apply other types of films, not only FeC or 100% carbon coatings. - P  otentially, FeC films could be used to diffuse carbon inside other materials, since carbon as interstitial atom can easily diffuse compared to substitutional atoms. Furthermore, PVD and induction heating are very versatile and easy to assemble in the line production of steel companies. Regarding cladding, the one-sidecoated steel sheet could be induction heated to obtain a gradient of microstructure as shown in Fig. 2 and then it could be coupled with a thin sheet of aluminum, obtaining a metallic composite that could satisfy weight reduction but still optimal dent resistance thanks to the outer steel sheet and good rigidity. Possibilities of

cladding of these carbon-graded IF steel sheets with other materials include: - I F graded steel sheet with Al. - I F graded steel sheet with other steel sheets; for example, stainless steel. - R  oll bonding with polymers for packaging applications.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION

IF steels are already used in the automotive sector since they have excellent drawability and good dent resistance. This type of steel can undergo various forming steps to obtain components with complex shapes as a single piece. This allows companies to save time by reducing the use of welding and, consequently, productivity is increased. From a feasibility point of view, it is important to point out that PVD is a wellimplemented technology, as is induction heating. Preliminary analyses on FeC films were made in the past by Bauer-Grosse et al.2 However, the idea of applying these films as a carbon reservoir and using them to diffuse carbon by an induction heat treatment followed by quenching is completely new.

PERFORMANCE

IF steel containing an ultralow amount of carbon has a yield stress of 100 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 260 MPa. These are the mechanical properties before applying the carbon coating and performing the induction heating followed by quenching. Preliminary laboratory tests, by performing PVD carbon coating on IF steel followed by induction heating and quenching, were conducted. The coated IF steel was brought above 1,000°C for just 1 second to austenitize the structure, after which the temperature was lowered at 820°C. It was shown that with the one-side-coated configuration with an induction heating at 820°C for just 30 seconds, a graded structure is obtained through the thickness of the coated IF sheet. Vickers hardness was assessed applying a 25 g load for 10 seconds and it


Configuration

Induction heating time (820°C)

Yield stress [MPa]

Increase of Yield stress [MPa]

UTS [MPa]

Increase of UTS [MPa]

Raw IF steel

No heat treatment

100

260

One side coating

30 seconds

160

60

260

0

One side coating

2 minutes

230

130

320

60

Both sides coating

1 minute

244

144

340

80

Both sides coating

2 minutes

363

263

446

186

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Table 1 – Mechanical Properties of the Coated IF Steel After Induction Heating for Different Times

ranged from 240 MPa (close to the coated face) down to 150 MPa (close to the uncoated face), as shown schematically in Fig. 3. A tensile test performed on this configuration measured an increase in yield stress of 60 MPa, but no increase of UTS was recorded. Similar experiments were performed on the bothsides-coated configuration in which the IF steel was induction heated at 820°C for 1 minute and in another test for 2 minutes before a rapid quenching. The obtained mechanical properties are summarized in Table 1. These mechanical properties would locate the 2 minute-strengthened IF steel at the same level of highstrength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels (which have yield stresses ranging from 325 ÷ 385 MPa and UTS from 415 ÷ 470 MPa). The reduction in area measured during these tensile tests was ranging between 87.5 and 93.5%, proving that ductility is preserved in the strengthened IF steel, thereby preserving a resistance of the strengthened IF steel.

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The same configuration of coated steel could be used for structural applications. In particular, it could be used to produce sandwiched materials (SMs), where the high-strength interstitial-free steel obtained after induction heating and quenching are applied on the outer surfaces of a softer core (for example, a polymer or aluminum) to sustain bending stresses but still ensure some weight savings. The thickness of each sheet used to produce SMs is around 0.5 mm,3 but again, obtaining stronger IF steel would allow reducing the thickness from 0.5 mm to 0.2–0.3 mm, which would result again in a weight reduction.

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It is important to note that the heat treatment was done in vacuum since the presence of oxygen would decarburize the film. However, the decarburization of steel could happen as well in high vacuum for high temperatures; for this reason, in order to implement this idea, optimization of the induction heat treatment would be necessary by finding the right level of vacuum

MARKETABILITY

Two main sectors could benefit from the production of this type of steel. The first comprises automotive applications, where high strength is required. IF steel coated on both sides with a film containing a high amount of carbon, after induction heating and quenching, could potentially develop a graded structure containing martensite or bainite. This would result in high mechanical properties, which would allow reducing the thickness of the actual steel sheets used for automotive applications from 0.7 mm to 0.2–0.3 mm. This would translate to reduced consumption of raw materials and consequently weight savings in the final product. However, in order to comply with the rigidity requirements that the car body panels have to meet, this strengthened IF steel sheet would need to be cladded with other metallic sheets, for example aluminum. The side of the strengthened IF steel would have high dent resistance compared to the softer core of aluminum. The main components of a car where this type of steel could be used include panels, doors and roofs.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Again, it is important to point out the versatility of the process. Depending on the carbon content of the PVD coating, higher strength could be obtained; or by controlling the induction heating treatment and quenching, graded microstructures made of martensite could potentially be obtained. However, this has not yet been proved.

and the right annealing time to obtain the maximum carburization.


116 The one-side-coated configuration could be used in packaging applications, where only one side of the steel can be coated with the carbon film while the other side will be properly treated to be in contact with beverages and food. Even for this application, reducing the thickness of cans would translate in reducing their weight and lowering the carbon footprint due to transportation.

SUSTAINABILITY

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OCT 2015    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

In the design of high mass-production goods (such as cars and packages), it is strictly demanded to take into account during the design and the production of the product the environmental impact in terms of used resources and in terms or recyclability. Moreover, in order to lower the cost of the final product, it must be assured a high productivity by optimizing the time of the production process. The idea of using FeC or fully carbon films to carburize steels with an induction heat treatment has high flexibility and ensures high productivity and sustainability. First of all, as previously shown, it is flexible since different microstructure and final mechanical properties could potentially be obtained from the same coated steel sheet (graded and uniform carbon concentration through the thickness of the steel sheet). Second, even though PVD and induction heating are both expensive, they have high time efficiency and low impact on the environment. Induction heating ensures a high uniform heating of the parts, low distortion of the steel, low downtimes and low maintenance. Moreover, for the heat treatment of steel sheets, no complex geometry of the coils is necessary, which would result in lower cost of the equipment. The main advantage of induction heating coupled with FeC film is that, in just 2 minutes of heat treatment, it would be possible to obtain a high-strength IF steel by starting from the usual composition of IF steel without any addition of chemical alloying element. The time of heat treatment depends on the carbon content of the film. It is believed that if the carbon content of the film is increased for the same 2 minutes of induction heating, the obtained mechanical properties will be higher. The idea presented in this proposal will allow energy savings because the amount of carbon required to strengthen the steel to obtain acceptable mechanical properties can be diffused in minutes, compared to the hours required by the traditional pack carburizing treatment. Induction heating is particularly advantageous in terms of energy savings when compared with traditional furnaces. In order to reach the annealing temperature, furnaces require some start-up time, while induction heating can be used immediately without reaching the proper temperature in the chamber. For PVD, the diffusion of carbon can be obtained from

graphite and the process is quite fast depending on the film thickness that needs to be obtained. The final coated steel can be fully recycled. IF steel remains magnetic even after the coating and the induction heat treatment, so it is easy to separate from other materials during recycling and it can be molten and recycled. The investment required to develop this idea would include a physical vapor deposition and an induction heating plant, which could be included in-line after the final step of cold rolling of the IF sheet. For the steel company implementing this production process, the cost of investment in terms of PVD technology could be covered by using PVD not only to deposit FeC films, but also other films to obtain better surface finish or to apply protective corrosion coatings. The same consideration applies to the cost of installing induction heating. First, coils used to induction heat steel strips do not require complex geometry, which ensures that the cost will not be very high. Moreover, induction heating could be used not only to heat treat the IF steel proposed here, but also other types of steels, ensuring that the equipment is 100% used. Finally, the composition of the IF steel would be “standard,” so it will not require the addition of chromium, niobium or vanadium that would increase the price of the raw material.

NOTE

The idea of using FeC films as carbon reservoir originated from ArcelorMittal, and research on this field has been carried out during the first two years of Elisa Cantergiani’s doctoral work. Further investigations of diffusion of carbon from these films by using induction heating are still ongoing. The research work has been funded by an NSERC/ANR Franco-Canadian R&D Initiative.

REFERENCES

1. A. Kelkar, R. Roth and J. Clark, “Automobile Bodies: Can Aluminum Be an Economical Alternative to Steel?” JOM, Vol. 53, 2001, pp. 28–32. 2. E. Bauer-Grosse, “Thermal Stability and Crystallization Studies of Amorphous TM-C Films,” Thin Solid Films, Vols. 447–448, 2004, pp. 311–315. 3. A. Carradò, J. Faerber, S. Niemeyer, G. Ziegmann and H. Palkowski, “Metal/Polymer/Metal Hybrid Systems: Toward Potential Formability Applications,” Composite Structures, Vol. 93, 2011, pp. 715–721. F

More information about the inaugural T.C. Graham Prize can be found on pages 110–111 of this issue of Iron & Steel Technology.


Enter Today!

Full details and information at AIST.org

AIST is proud to announce the second annual

T.C. GRAHAM PRIZE

A unique contest to recognize new innovative applications for steel that may lead to the development of new markets.

The winning entry will receive

US $20,000 The deadline to enter is 31 January 2016.


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R E V I E W

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The MS&T15 program coordinating committee members deserve special recognition for their hard

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Following up MS&T’s Columbus debut in 2011, MS&T15 featured 281 technical sessions and 2,195 technical presentations. The strong technical

program was the result of hard work from the MS&T partner societies: The American Ceramics Society (ACerS), the Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST), ASM International, and The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS), along with their programming partner, NACE International, the Worldwide Corrosion Authority.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Materials Science & Technology 2015 (MS&T15) returned to the Greater Columbus Convention Center, in Columbus, Ohio, USA, for a second time on 4–8 October 2015. More than 3,180 people attended, including a growing number of AIST members.


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work to bring the technical program together: Amar De, ArcelorMittal (AIST); Greg Hilmas, Missouri University of Science & Technology (ACerS); Judy Schneider, Mississippi State University (ASM); Amy Clarke, Los Alamos National Laboratory (TMS); and Raul Rebak, GE Global Research (NACE). Changes to the MS&T15 schedule gave attendees more time to explore the exposition, including a Welcome Reception and Exhibition Grand Opening on 5 October. The exposition featured 109 companies. Thank you to all of the MS&T sponsors for their outstanding support, including AK Steel Corp., American Elements, ArcelorMittal, AgentHR Recruiting Group, Houghton, Nanovea, Nucor Corp. and Thermo Scientific. The expo floor also featured the always popular ceramic mug drop and ceramic disc golf contests and a materials camp designed to give high school students an introduction to materials science. AIST’s demonstration, “Steel Rocks,” featured a 3D theater presentation. MS&T provides numerous networking opportunities for attendees, including student mixers. AIST’s Steel to Students Reception gave students the opportunity to talk with representatives from AK Steel Corp., ArcelorMittal, Gerdau, Nucor Corp., SSAB and Steel Dynamics Inc. The MS&T Women in Materials Science Reception also had a robust

attendance. Representatives from each of the MS&T partners provided their perspectives and relevant programming. The plenary session was moved to Tuesday morning to allow all MS&T attendees the opportunity to attend. This year’s plenary session featured three distinguished lecturers speaking on individual topics: • T  he ACerS Edward Orton Jr. Memorial Lecture was given by Sylvia M. Johnson, chief materials technologist, Entry Systems and Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Center. Johnson spoke on materials science challenges and, naturally, the wonders of space travel. While providing examples of the innovations that have allowed NASA to reach Mars, Johnson said that challenges remain, with further materials development needed to find solutions for the complex problems of space exploration. • T he recently knighted Sir Harry Bhadeshia, Tata Steel professor of metallurgy and director, SKF Steel Technology Centre, University of Cambridge, delivered the AIST Adolf Martens Memorial Steel Lecture, “A Complete Theory for Martensitic Transformations.” Bhadeshia discussed the response of the martensitic


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transformation to variables including stress, elastic, and plastic strain and mechanical stabilization, among others. • V  incent J. Russo, FASM, executive director (retired), Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC), Wright-Patterson AFB, presented the ASM/ TMS Joint Distinguished Lecture in Materials and Society. Russo’s topic differed from the first two lecturers, instead working to demonstrate a leadership framework for engineers that can be applied to every level of an organization. Russo identified the framework’s four pillars — behavior realities, leadership tenets, essence of leaders and life balance — in hopes of giving engineers the opportunity to become more effective leaders.

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MS&T16 will venture west of the Mississippi for the first time on 23–27 October 2016, at the Salt Palace Convention Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. MS&T16’s technical program will include additive manufacturing, biomaterials, ceramic and glass materials, electronic and magnetic materials, energy, fundamentals, characterization and computational modeling, iron and steel (ferrous alloys), materials– environmental interactions, nanomaterials, and processing and manufacturing. The MS&T16 Call for Papers has been issued. Abstract submissions are due by 15 March 2016. Information on the technical program and abstract submission can be found at matscitech.org.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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The MS&T 2015 Technical Program featured more than 2,000 presentations on a wide variety of materials-related subjects, including biomaterials, ceramics and glasses, electronics, energy, modeling, nanomaterials, and processing and manufacturing. The iron and steel-related presentations accounted for more than 300 presentations. Of those, 122 presentations were included in the symposia developed by the AIST Metallurgy — Processing, Products & Applications Technology Committee: Advanced Steel Metallurgy; The Shaping, Forming

and Treating of Advanced High-Strength Steel; Steel for Oil and Gas Sector; and Failure Analysis of Steel Components. A special Phase Stability, Diffusion Kinetics and Their Applications (PDSK) symposium was organized to honor AIST Distinguished Member and Fellow John Speer, who received ASM International’s J. Willard Gibbs Phase Equilibria Award for his innovative application of fundamental phase transformation principles in ferrous systems, development of quenching and partitioning process (Q&P) and contributions to phase equilibria education.


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Student Wrap-Up More than 900 students attended the MS&T15 conference. In addition to the technical sessions, students had the opportunity to participate in and attend many Material Advantage activities.

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Student programs kicked off with the Material Advantage Chapter Leadership Workshop on Sunday, 4 October 2015. More than 60 chapter leaders learned about the four partnering societies and the major benefits each organization offers. They learned how to manage a Material Advantage chapter and shared ideas on how to increase membership and raise funds. The final activity on Sunday was the Material Advantage Student Mixer, which is always a highlight for the students. More than 475 students, many wearing their school colors, enjoyed the festivities. On Monday, 5 October 2015, ArcelorMittal Columbus hosted a plant tour for students attending MS&T. A total of 31 students and staff toured the facility. Also on Monday, the AIST Foundation hosted the University-Industry Relations Roundtable (UIRR). Representatives from industry and university staff participated in the discussion. On Monday evening, the AIST Foundation hosted the Steel to Students Reception, which featured recruiting representatives from six steel companies. Students enjoyed a variety of appetizers and networking with staff and fellow

students. In all, more than 175 students attended the reception to learn more about what the industry has to offer. The AIST Foundation wishes to thank the following corporations that sponsored the event:

On Tuesday and Wednesday, the AIST Foundation sponsored a demonstration in the ASM Education Foundation’s Materials Camp. Approximately 430 Columbus-area high school and middle school students participated in the camp. Riverside Refractories once again sent their staff members to work the AIST demonstration “Steel Rocks,” which is a 3D tour of the steelmaking process. Representatives from Riverside Refractories who staffed the demonstration were cousins William and Parker Morris. The 3D video was created for the AIST Foundation by the team at Purdue University Calumet’s Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation. Student awards were presented on Tuesday, 6 October 2015, including recognition of some of the 2015–2016 AIST Foundation scholarship winners. AIST Foundation president Steve Hansen offered congratulations on behalf of the Foundation. F


RELIABILITY ACHIEVEMENT AWARD

SPONSORED BY AIST’S MAINTENANCE & RELIABILITY TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE

HISTORY AND PURPOSE

The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Committee established the AIST Reliability Achievement Award to recognize iron and steel producing companies for reliability improvements and achievements that can be demonstrated as unique or first in the industry. The AIST Reliability Achievement Award recognizes those organizations and the individuals within them that have developed, applied, and proved a new practice, policy or procedure that significantly improves iron- and steelmaking reliability. The award will be given on three levels — gold, silver and bronze. Only iron and steel producers can receive these awards. Reliability improvements or achievements must be documented using some acceptable form of measurement. Award finalists will be invited to present papers on their achievements at the annual AIST Maintenance conference.

ENTRY PROCESS Steel producing companies and suppliers to the industry are invited to submit an entry in accordance with the format established. Entries do not require substantial documentation to support the net results, but the effects must be verifiable. Entries can be submitted at AIST.org by clicking on Technology Committees then Committee Awards and Recognition.

QUALIFICATIONS To be considered for an award, the reliability improvement or achievement should be unique or be a first in the industry. It may result from “outside the box” thinking. Effects must be verifiable in terms of improved product quality, customer satisfaction, production throughput, cost per ton produced, worker productivity, or other measurable result that has positively influenced profitability, image, customer satisfaction or similar factors important to a company’s competitive standing. The achievement should be worthy of consideration by others inside or outside the iron and steel industry interested in attaining a similar outcome. When considering the award, the selection committee will want to know and be able to verify:* • The practice, policy or procedure. • Metrics used to determine the positive outcome. • Why and how the improvement was implemented.

• Enablers used to ensure its success. • Results achieved to date. • Whether it has potential for broad-based application throughout the industry.

DEADLINE FOR ALL ENTRIES IS 31 MAY 2016. *Audit expenses for travel outside North America may be incurred and would be the responsibility of the applicant company, not to exceed US$2,500.

AIST CONGRATULATES THE 2015 WINNERS GOLD Steel Dynamics Inc. – Structural and Rail Div. EAF Offgas and Baghouse Systems Upgrade

SILVER ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. Transition Flap Hose Reliability Improvements

BRONZE ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Cleveland Thermography Program — C6 Blast Furnace Campaign Extension


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9th North American Steel Conference 2015 Review North American producers are being pounded by low-cost imports, but there are some positives in the market, industry leaders said. by Sam Kusic

As Nucor Corp. chief executive officer John Ferriola sees it, American steelmakers don’t have anything to fear from imports. After all, he says, the domestic industry has several advantages: a local supply of raw materials and ready access to capital markets, reasonably priced energy, and a skilled workforce. “I have every bit of confidence that the American steel industry can compete very successfully against fairly traded imports,” Ferriola said.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

The key there, though, is fairly traded. And much of the steel imported into the U.S., and North America for that matter, isn’t, he said. “We must work with our government to enforce our trade laws,” Ferriola told attendees of CRU’s 9th North American Steel Conference, held 26–27 October 2015 in Chicago, Ill., USA. Ferriola was joined by more than a dozen industry leaders and CRU analysts at the conference. Through two days of panel discussions and Q&A sessions, participants attempted to paint a picture of the North American steel market. Low-cost imports figured prominently into the discussion. China’s domestic steel industry is built to feed demand that is no longer there, and excess production is washing up on overseas shores.

CRU research manager Chris Houlden told participants that Chinese demand will likely resume growth, albeit it at a much slower pace, sometime after 2020. Houlden explained that CRU bases the argument on several factors. Among them, he said, is that the drawdown rate of housing stock, which is holding back new construction, is expected to slow in the next several years. Meanwhile, urbanization will support new projects. At the same time, the demolition cycle will support replacement demand, Houlden noted, as buildings erected in the 1980s are retired. All told, Houlden’s firm projects Chinese demand growth of 1% — about 85–90 million tons of new demand — past 2020. “China’s demand growth, we believe, is not yet a dead dog,” Houlden said. In the meantime, North American steel prices and sales remain in the gutter. There are, however, some bright spots, commented EVRAZ North America president and chief executive officer, Conrad Winkler. Winkler said that demand for rail continues to be strong despite some challenges, particularly low commodities prices. Railroads are, nevertheless, investing in their networks. They have to, he said, because the rail corridors are so heavily utilized, and to keep the freight trains running, the railroads need to be diligent in maintaining them.


125

He also said the outlook for large-diameter pipe is strong. “This is a significant bright spot even in the days of US$45 per barrel of oil,” he said. Winkler said his company sees a continuing build-out of North America’s transportation pipelines. As it is, oil moving from western Canada and the Bakken shale fields are paying an extreme penalty to move by rail, he explained. On another demand front, construction appears to be healthy, observed Christopher Graham, president of Steel Dynamics Inc.’s New Millennium Building Systems. “We’re quoting an enormous amount of work. There’s a lot of pent-up money out there ready to be invested,” said Graham. He also said non-residential construction remains especially strong, driven in part by Internet retailers who are commissioning large distribution centers built from steel. But he cautioned that projects related to rebuilding and repairing America’s public infrastructure might not be the huge market opportunity some believe it to be. The company estimates that even a 10% increase in infrastructure spending would boost nationwide steel demand by 1.6 million to 2.4 million tons annually, based on company estimates.

Nucor has a history of investing in lean times, and although Ferriola didn’t say there was a deal in the offing, the company would consider opportunities that present themselves, even if overseas. “If we find those opportunities in other countries, and we feel it’s a good opportunity at a good price, we’ll be all over it,” Ferriola said. North American EAF-based producers are generally sitting in a better position on the cost curve than their integrated counterparts, according to CRU senior consultant Adrian Doyle. The American integrated mills now sit toward the top of the cost curve, based on CRU models.

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The U.S. EAF-based mills, meanwhile, fall in the middle, he said. Doyle said other factors, including falling scrap prices, devalued currencies, fixed costs associated with the integrated mills and lower capacity utilization rates, also have contributed to changes in the curve. The integrated mills need to be running at 90–100% of capacity to have pricing power, but CRU projects that they will run well below that over the next several years. F

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Steel producers aren’t only struggling against imports; they’re facing competition from alternative materials, especially in the automotive sector. But Ferriola told conference attendees that he believes there remains a compelling case for steel.

Among North American producers, Nucor finds itself in a relatively solid financial position. Ferriola said the company has access to more than US$3 billion in cash and credit at the moment, which gives it the ability to make opportunistic acquisitions, including overseas.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

“We don’t think it’s necessarily the savior that some folks believe,” he said. “Buy American” provisions in government contracts could boost the estimate, but even then, there’s no guarantee that domestic producers would share in any increase, considering the level of imports into the U.S.

“I’m very confident about steel’s future, particularly in automotive. Steel provides a very safe environment at a good price point. And at the end of the day, when you look at the life cycle footprint of steel versus alternative materials, I think we’re going to be in the game for a long time,” he said. “Having said that, we need to continue to work with our customers to develop that next generation of steel and make sure we understand what their needs are. (Alternative materials) are a threat to steel, but I feel very confident that we can handle that threat well into the future.”


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Industry Roundup

AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup Roundup data is based on information submitted in the third quarter of 2015.

Original furnace manufacturer

Equipped with

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Aceros Angeletti SA Burzaco, Buenos Aires

1

1990

EME Argentina

180

9

No

2.4

Aceros Zapla SA Palpala, Jujuy

2

SMS Siemag

150

24

No

2.9

Company and location

Argentina

1

2007

Tenova

60

105

Yes

6.8

1

2007

Tenova

60

105

Yes

6.8

1 (#4)

1995

Tenova

55

80

5.3

1 (#5)

SMS Siemag

45

80

Yes

5.8

2

1971

Danieli

120

30

No

Arrium Molycop Newcastle, New South Wales

1

2000

Danieli

77

57

P

P

Yes

4.9

OneSteel Laverton Steel Mill Melbourne, Victoria

1

1982

Fuchs

55

83.5

P

Yes

5.5 x 4.55

OneSteel Sydney Steel Mill Sydney, New South Wales

1

1992

Danieli

55

83

P

Yes

5.5

ArcelorMittal (Acindar SA) Provincia de Santa Fe Tenaris Siderca SAIC Campana, Buenos Aires Votorantim Acerbrag SA Bragado, Buenos Aires

Australia

Brazil 1

1953

USSC

240

32

No

4.1

1

1959

SMS Siemag

130

29

No

4.4

1

50

24.5

No

Aços Finos Piratini Charqueadas, Rio Grande do Sul

1

1973

SMS Siemag

80

59

Yes

4.9

Cearense Maracanaú, Ceará

1

1982

SMS Concast

60

20

No

3.9

Guaira Araucária, Paraná

1

1972, Rev. 1982

Tenova

75

73

Yes

5.4

Rio Grandense Sapucaia, Rio Grande do Sul

1

1997

SMS Concast Konus

43

21

No

3.4 x 3.9

Usiba Simóes Filho, Bahia

1

1994

Danieli

102

90

No

6.4

Villares Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo

2

1980

SMS Siemag

150

82

No

6

Aperam South America Timóteo, Minas Gerais

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Gerdau Açonorte Recife, Pernambuco

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


127 Sponsored by AIST Roundup data is intended for reference information only. No warranty is implied. Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

2.5

Consumptions

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

250

530

Low and high alloy, stainless

8

4

300

Carbon, low alloy, tool

120

600

40

60

480

32

No

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

800

120

600

40

60

480

32

No

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

800

60

550

60

40

480

Baghouse

OCTG

90

550

60

40

480

Yes

Baghouse

OCTG

15

100

0

No

Wire rod, rebar

75

36

500

100

0

415

22.5

5.9

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

333

10

77

600

100

0

407

32

6.5

Baghouse

Carbon

750

72

550

100

0

420

26

3.2

Baghouse

Carbon

660

15

7.5

350

56

44

517

No

Baghouse

Stainless

72

20

400

56

44

398

No

Baghouse

Stainless

138

25

400

100

0

44

9

Baghouse

Rebar

11

54

500

75

25

410

40

7

Baghouse

Tool, stainless, mechanical

280

18

18.8

350

90

10

475

34

No

Baghouse

Low, medium carbon

28

0

75

550

90

10

440

56

7.8

Baghouse

Low, medium, high and microalloyed

500

15

26

400

80

20

507

49

No

Baghouse

Carbon

430

13

76

600

23

77

563

25

No

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

550

16

45

550

90

10

500

39

No

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

200

Type(s) of steel produced

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

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MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


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Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Original furnace manufacturer

Gerdau (cont'd) Villares Anhanguera Plant Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo

1

1976

Tenova

105

72

Yes

Vallourec & Sumitomo Tubos do Brasil Jeceaba, Minas Gerais

1

2010

Tenova

Consteel

65

140

Yes

6.7

Villares Metals SA Sumaré, São Paulo

1

1978

SMS Concast

130

23

No

3.6

1

1980

SMS Concast

140

23

No

3.6

1 (#3)

1978 Rev. 1985, Siemens VAI 1994, 2002

70

141

Yes

6.7

1 (#4)

1978 Rev. 1985, Siemens VAI 1994, 2003

70

141

Yes

6.7

Company and location

Canada ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur East Montreal, Que.

Contrcoeur West Montreal, Que.

1

1990

SMS Siemag

85

98

Yes

6.4

ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. Hamilton, Ont.

1

1996

Fuchs

Twin shell

180

Yes

8.2

Arrium AltaSteel Edmonton, Alta.

1

1974

IHI

91

68

P

P

Yes

5.5

Idle

1963

Canadian Vickers Birlefco Lindberg

250

64

No

5.5

1

1912

AMAK

Spout

960

45

No

4

1

1912

Heroult

Spout

960

23

No

3

1

Spout

960

5

No

2.1

1

1958

Lectromelt

90

9

No

2.7

Atlas Stainless Steels Tracy, Que.

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Canadian Steel Foundries Ltd. Montreal, Que.

ESCO Ltd. Port Coquitlam Foundry Port Coquitlam, B.C.

1

2007

Siemens VAI

130

133

Yes

6.1

1

1981

EMPCO

132

133

Yes

6.1

Idle

1998

EMPCO

56

38

Yes

4.6

Selkirk, Man.

1

1990

SMS Siemag

60

54

Yes

4.8

Whitby, Ont.

1

2000

Superior

EBT

60

122

Yes

6.6

EVRAZ Regina Steel Regina, Sask. Gerdau Long Steel North America Cambridge, Ont.

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


129 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

38

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

80

20

395

80

550

60

40 (PI)

16/19

350

80

20/24

350

130

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

40

7

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

271

410

27

2

Baghouse

OCTG

800

36

20

420

1

No

DE

Tool, high speed, low alloy

6

60

40

450

1

No

DE

Stainless

6

600

45

55

510

24

No

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloys, AK and SiK

900

130

600

45

55

515

24

No

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloys, mostly AK

900

110

600

94

6

480

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

600

120

600

100

0

410

40

16

Baghouse

Carbon, LCAK, HSLA structural

1,350

54/60

500

100

0

425

23

8.6

DE

Alloy, SBQ, carbon

360

24

500

100

0

520

44

0

Baghouse

Stainless

130

12

400

50

50

520

32

7.1

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, stainless heat-resistant

63

12

350

50

50

620

31

6.9

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, stainless heat-resistant

63

12

250

50

50

700

17

3.5

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, stainless heat-resistant

63

7

250

550

Canopy

Low alloy, Mn

9

62

600

100

0

400

40

4.5

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

520

10

67

600

100

0

420

40

11.5

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

680

10

33

450

100

0

420

44

4.8

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

360

14

54

500

100

0

480

21

4.8

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

360

13

120

600

100

0

400

27

3.8

Baghouse

Carbon

950

19

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Type(s) of steel produced

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

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MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


130

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Original furnace manufacturer

Hamilton Specialty Bar Inc. Hamilton Specialty Bar Division Hamilton, Ont.

1

1997

Danieli

65

73

Yes

5.8

Ivaco Rollings Mills Ltd. L’Orignal, Ont.

1

2013

Lectromelt Rev.: Tenova

EBT, Consteel

50

69

Yes

4.8 x 5.4

MMFX Steel of Canada Welland, Ont.

1

1988

EMPCO

110

64

No

5.8

1

1976

Whiting

135

64

No

5.2

Port Hope Foundry Port Hope, Ont.

1

1977, Rev. 2007

Tenova

90

5

No

2.4

Sorel Forge Inc. Sorel, Que.

1

1940, Rev. 2008

Tenova

230

37

No

4.6

ESCO Elecmetal Ñuñoa, Santiago

1

2007

Whiting

8

Gerdau AZA Colina, Santiago

1

1996

Tenova

50

58

Yes

Proacer Til Til, Santiago

1

1978, Rev. 2011

ABB Tenova

70

15

No

1

1985

Tenova

70

30

Yes

Tocancipa, Cundinamarca

1

2011

Siemens

Yes

Tuta, Boyacá

1

60

50

Yes

Siderúrgica del Occiente (SIDOC) Cali, Valle del Cauca

2

1975

Tenova

90

34

Yes

3.8

Siderúrgica Nacional S.A. (Sidenal) Sogamoso, Boyacá

1

1988

Tenova

80

40

Yes

3.8

Ternium Acasa Manizales, Caldas

1

Whiting

60

32

No

3.8

Votorantim Paz del Rio, Boyacá

Tenova

No

Adelca Quito, Pichincha

1

Andec Guayaquil, Guayas

1

2012

Danieli

Consteel

50

35

Yes

3.9

Novacero Quito, Pichincha

1

2012

Tenova

Consteel

70

34

Yes

3.8

Company and location

Chile

Colombia

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Gerdau Diaco Cali, Valle del Cauca

Ecuador

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


131 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

55

Consumptions Type of fume collection system

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

500

100

0

400

38

9.5

Wheelabrator baghouse

SBQ, alloy

450

45

450

100

0

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

500

50

50

500

100

0

470

16

0

Canopy

Alloy, stainless tool

200

30

500

100

0

490

16

0

Canopy

Alloy, stainless tool

120

3.4

200

520

Baghouse

Low alloy, stainless

3.8

12.5

450

100

0

475

Canopy/ baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless

80

Alloy

45

500

90

10

390

38

6

Baghouse

Rebar

10

350

100

0

465

5

0

DE

Tool steel

19.5

400

100

0

450

30

4

Baghouse

Rebar

250

10

100

0

Baghouse

Rebar

28

500

100

0

420

50

9

Baghouse

Rebar

400

15

11.3

400

100

0

420

35

0

Baghouse

Carbon, rebar

160

10

40

450

100

0

420

36

0

Baghouse

Rebar

350

10

15

400

100

0

Baghouse

Rebar

200

10

Baghouse

Rebar

100

0

Baghouse

Rebar

200

12.2

450

100

0

Baghouse

Rebar

250

50

14

450

100

0

Baghouse

Carbon, rebar

180

10

Type(s) of steel produced

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.

I

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)


132

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Original furnace manufacturer

ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas Lázaro Cárdenas, Mich.

4

1988

NKK

Spout

77

222

Yes

7.9

Atlax S.A. Xalostoc, Tlax.

1

1998

Danieli

95

70

5.5

Deacero S.A. de C.V. Celaya, Gto.

1

1998

Danieli

50

102

Yes

5.5

1

1986

Danieli

55

54

Yes

4.5

Gerdau Sid. de Tulticlan S.A. de C.V. (Sidertul) Mexico City, Mex.

1

1985

Whiting

108

52

Yes

4.6

Grupo Simec Aceros DM San Luis Potosí, SLP

1

1993

Danieli

53

54

Yes

4.6

1

1973

Heroult

90

20

Yes

3.4

1

1979

Whiting

70

20

Yes

3.4

1

1986

Whiting

120

33

Yes

3.4

Talleres y Aceros S.A. de C.V. Ixtaczoquitlán, Ver.

1

1993

Danieli

63

50

Yes

4.3

TenarisTamsa Veracruz, Ver.

1

2012

Tenova

70

160

Yes

7.6

Ternium México Bar/Rod Division Apodaca, N.L.

1

1993

Danieli

60

100

Yes

5.8

Bar/Rod Division Puebla, Pue.

1

1998

Fuchs

DC shaft

60

132

Yes

7.1

1

1998

Danieli

DC

136

Yes

7.3

1

1995

Fuchs

DC

136

Yes

7.3

Corporación Aceros Arequipa Pisco, Pisco

1

2004

Danieli

45

36

Yes

Gerdau Siderperu Chimbote, Santa

1

2010

Tenova

60

32

Yes

4.3

2

1980

Demag

129

114

6.4

Company and location

Mexico

Saltillo, Coah.

Aceros San Luis San Luis Potosí, SLP

Peru

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Flat Products Division Monterrey, N.L.

Trinidad and Tobago ArcelorMittal Point Lisas Point Lisas, Couva

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


133 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

190

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

700

2

98 (DRI)

586

70

550

100

85

600

93

55

500

28

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

19

No

Baghouse

Carbon

950

430

29

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, free cutting

500

7

330

Baghouse

Low, medium carbon

1,120

93

7

345

Baghouse

Carbon

480

400

610

Baghouse

Carbon

200

60

500

100

0

410

31

Baghouse

Medium carbon, low alloy

400

12.5

350

100

0

480

20

10.1

Baghouse

Medium carbon

121

15

350

100

0

480

20

10.1

Baghouse

Medium carbon

145

15

350

100

0

480

20

10

Baghouse

Medium carbon

150

48

500

100

0

400

31

8.3

Baghouse

Carbon

310

120

600

70

30

390

30

10.2

Baghouse

OCTG

800

70

600

100

0

365

34

6.6

Baghouse

Medium carbon

600

140

650

50

50 (DRI)

570

Low and high carbon

1,330

208

30

70 (DRI)

435

45

Baghouse

HSLA, silicon, LCAK, low and medium carbon, API grades

825

44

156

700

50

50 (DRI)

Baghouse

Silicon, LCAK, low and medium carbon, API grades

825

60

40

500

0

0

Rebar

320

30

450

100

0

389

43

8.9

Baghouse

Rebar, MBQ

300

23

80

600

12

88 (DRI)

640

12

0

Baghouse

Drawing, welding wire, rebar

I

Type(s) of steel produced

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


134

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Company and location

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Original furnace manufacturer

1

2011

SMS Demag

58

75

Yes

5.8

3

1969

SwindellDressler

230

159

No

6.7

1

2010

SMS Demag

161

Yes

1 (#8)

1963

American Bridge

Spout

180

122

Yes

6.1

1 (#9)

1989

voestalpine

Spout

168

122

Yes

6.7

2

1954

Lectromelt

Spout

120

2

No

1.7

1

1954

Whiting

Spout

120

4.5

No

2.1

1

1954

American Bridge

Spout

150

14

No

3.3

1

2001

Demag

Contiarc

45

64

No

9.3

1

1985

American Bridge

Spout

86

150

Yes

6.7

United States A. Finkl and Sons Chicago, Ill. AK Steel Corp. Butler Operations Butler, Pa. Mansfield Operations Mansfield, Ohio

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. Birmingham, Ala.

ArcelorMittal Coatesville, Pa. Georgetown, S.C.

Indiana Harbor East Chicago, Ind. LaPlace, La.

El Paso, Texas

Demag 1969, Rev. Rev.: Superior 2008 Machine

EBT

78

77

No

5.8

Idle

Demag 1969, Rev. Rev.: Superior 2008 Machine

EBT

78

77

No

5.8

1

1970, Rev. 2001

Lectromelt Rev.: Fuchs

90

105

Yes

6.7

1

2006

Krupp Rev.: Danieli

EBT

55

70

Yes

5.5

1

1994

NKK-United

EBT, DC

60

127

No

7

1

2003

Fuchs

100

32

Yes

3.7

1

1967

Lectromelt

Spout

120

32

Yes

3.7

1

1994

Whiting

50

45

Yes

4.6

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Steelton, Pa.

Idle

Arkansas Steel Associates Newport, Ark.

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


135 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

75

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

350

100

0

446

56

600

100

0

170

700

100

28

500

49

600

1.2

2.8

150

200

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

Type(s) of steel produced

30

5.8

Baghouse

High alloy

410

15.5

451

14–32

3.2

Dust collector

275

0

0

Baghouse

Silicon steel

908

70

30

443

6

0

DE

Stainless

272

70

30

443

6

0

DE

Stainless

363

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, corrosion and heat resistant stainless, 12–16 Mn

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, corrosion and heat resistant stainless, 12–16 Mn

647

639

0

0

0

0

643

0

0

Baghouse

70

700

0

0

Baghouse

Ductile iron

67

600

100

0

418

35

9.5

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless

798

65

500

47

53

574

26

0

DE

Carbon

454

62

500

47

53

574

26

0

DE

Carbon

454

60

600

75

25

509

22

Baghouse

Carbon, resulf., low alloy

454

60

600

100

0

435

54

8.9

Baghouse

Carbon

620

0

120

750

87

13

441

29

0

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

998

20

350

100

0

459

28

4.2

Baghouse

Rebar, rounds, grinding balls

113

20

350

100

0

492

28

4.2

Baghouse

Rebar, rounds, grinding balls

113

33

450

489

DE, baghouse

Carbon

118

I

350

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

7.5

Carbon, low alloy, corrosion and heat resistant stainless, 12–16 Mn

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


136

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

1

2003

Danieli

Spout

140

100

6.1

Midland, Pa.

2

1980

Lectromelt

Spout

90

100

No

7.3

Bradken Atchison, Kan.

1

1958

Whiting

Spout

150

23

No

3.8

1

1940

Lectromelt

Spout

180

6

No

2.7

1

1946

Lectromelt

Spout

180

12

No

3.4

1

1981

Whiting

Spout

150

13

No

3.4

4

1955

SwindellDressler

Spout

15

No

3.4

1

1956

SwindellDressler

Spout

15

No

3.7

1

1982, Rev. 1990

Lectromelt

Spout

38

No

4.1

Idle

1963

American Bridge

Spout

210

23

No

3.7

1

1999

J.T. Cullen/ Swindell

Spout

160

32

No

4.1

1

2005

Fuchs

EBT, AC

55

100

P

P

Yes

6.36

Idle

1968

Wellman

Spout

240

5

No

2.6

1

2005

Danieli

EBT

60

70

Yes

5.2

1

1991

Fuchs

EBT, DC

78

91

Yes

5.2

Idle

1967

Lectromelt

Spout

140

29

No

3.8

1

1994

50

77

P

P

Yes

5.9

1

1992, Rev. 2012

BSE

EBT

59

86

P

P

Yes

5.5

1

2009

Danieli

EBT, Consteel

55

35

P

P

Yes

4.7

1

2008

Superior Machine

EBT

63

109

P

P

Yes

6.7

1

1965

SwindellDressler

Spout

120

34

No

4.1

1

1978

SwindellDressler

Spout

120

27

No

3.8

ATI Flat Rolled Products Brackenridge Pa.

Carpenter Technology Corp. Reading, Pa.

Latrobe Specialty Metals Div. Latrobe, Pa.

Cascade Steel Rolling Mills McMinnville, Ore. Champion Steel Orwell, Ohio Charter Manufacturing Cleveland, Ohio Saukville, Wis. Chicago Heights Steel Chicago Heights, Ill. CMC Steel Birmingham, Ala.

Cayce, S.C. Mesa, Ariz. Seguin, Texas

I I

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Original furnace manufacturer

Company and location

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Columbus Castings Columbus, Ohio

NKK-SE Rev.: Superior EBT, DC Machine

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


137 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

55

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

600

100

0

528

95.2

600

85

15

7.5

350

2.5

250

4

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

0

0

Baghouse

Stainless specialty

204

484

0

0

Baghouse

Stainless

363

500

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

64

758

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

64

350

563

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

64

6

350

582

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

64

4

350

480

Baghouse

Alloy, stainless

136

6

350

480

Baghouse

Alloy, stainless

136

16.8

400

442

Baghouse

Alloy, stainless

136

12.5

400

100

0

543

DE

Tool, alloy

14

15

400

100

0

591

DE

Tool, alloy

37

84

610

99

1

360

36

5

Baghouse

Rebar, low- and high-carbon wire rod

900

13

2.8

200

738

Tool, alloy, stainless, carbon

5

75

600

90

10

429

35

4.8

Baghouse

SBQ, high carbon

590

19

65

700

90

10 (HBI)

396

35

4.4

DE, baghouse

Carbon, alloy

467

12

400

552

Canopy, DE

Carbon, alloy

68

79.2

700

100

0

425

38

2.9

Baghouse

MBQ, structural, HSLA and alloy

635

80

550

100

0

447

42

10.9

Baghouse

Rebar, MBQ

726

7–11

30

450

100

0

350

31

2.7

Baghouse

Rebar

254

45

80

600

100

0

402

33

6.7

Baghouse, DE and canopy

Rebar, structural shapes, MBQ and SBQ

907

4–8

35

400

100

0

525

6

0

DE, canopy

Low/high carbon, alloy

113

21

400

100

0

522

6

0

DE, canopy

Low/high carbon, alloy

100

I

Type(s) of steel produced

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


138

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

Start-up year

1

1973, Rev. 1986

Lectromelt

Spout

135

36

No

4.6

1

1968

Lectromelt

Spout

23

Yes

4

Ellwood Quality Steels Co. New Castle, Pa.

1

1985

Concast

50

41

P

P

Yes

4.3

Ellwood National Steel Irvine, Pa.

1

1962

American Bridge

Spout

210

41

P

P

No

4.6

Idle

1966

American Bridge

Spout

150

68

No

5.5

Idle

1966

American Bridge

Spout

270

32

No

4.1

Idle

1966

American Bridge

Spout

60

68

No

1

1979

Lectromelt

Spout

90

7

No

2.9

1

1971

SwindellDressler

Spout

90

7

No

2.9

1

1942

Lectromelt

Spout

90

8

No

2.7

1

1949

Lectromelt

Spout

90

5

No

2.4

1

1956

Lectromelt

Spout

90

8

No

2.4

1

2007

Siemens VAI

90

127

No

6.7

1

1973, Rev. 1992

Siemens VAI

90

127

No

6.7

1

1976

Krupp Rev.: Superior Machine

120

113

Yes

6.7

1

1990

Demag Rev.: Superior Machine

EBT

54

104

P

P

No

6.7

46

37

P

P

No

5

Crucible Materials Corp. Crucible Special Metals Div. Syracuse, N.Y. Electralloy Ellwood City, Pa.

Erie Forge and Steel Inc. Erie, Pa.

Esco Corp. Newton, Miss.

Portland, Ore.

EVRAZ North America Pueblo, Colo.

Gerdau Long Steel North America Beaumont, Texas Cartersville, Ga.

Charlotte, N.C.

Jacksonville, Fla.

I I

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

No. furnaces

Company and location

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Original furnace manufacturer

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Knoxville, Tenn.

1

Fuchs 1989, EBT, Rev.: Superior Rev. 2011 Consteel Machine

1

2006

Danieli

EBT

71

83

P

P

Yes

5.8

1

2000

Techint

EBT, Consteel

51

59

P

P

No

5.4

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


139 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

20

350

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

544

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

Type(s) of steel produced

DE

Tool steel

45

Low alloy, tool, stainless, copperbased alloys, Ni-based alloys

82

543

42

450

100

0

472

21

4.1

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, tool, stainless

399

18

400

100

0

516

Sidedraft

Carbon to stainless

53

30

500

100

0

596

11

0

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless, tool

159

10

350

100

0

711

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless, tool

32

18

350

100

0

441

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless, tool

159

5

250

480

Baghouse

Low alloy and Mn

9

4.8

250

480

Baghouse

Low alloy and Mn

9

4

300

579

Baghouse

Low alloy, stainless

13

3

200

505

Baghouse

Low alloy

13

3

250

579

Baghouse

Low alloy

13

67

600

99

1

463

35

0

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

544

67

600

99

1

463

35

0

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

544

66

600

409

37

8

DE

Carbon wire rod

608

20

85

600

100

0

464

22

0

Baghouse

Carbon

771

13

40

500

100

0

370

37

2.9

DE

Carbon

408

80

65

600

90

10

427

35

6

DE

Carbon

544

27

60

500

100

0

400

33

0

Baghouse

Carbon

431

48

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.

I

400

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

12.5

Wet scrubber

I


140

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Company and location Gerdau Long Steel North America (cont'd) Midlothian, Texas

Petersburg, Va. Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. Sand Springs, Okla.

Sayreville, N.J. St. Paul, Minn. Wilton, Iowa Gerdau Special Steel North America Fort Smith, Ark. Jackson, Mich. Monroe, Mich. GKN Hoeganaes Corp. Gallatin, Tenn. Harrison Steel Castings Co. Attica, Ind.

Hensley Industries Dallas, Texas

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

1

1975

EMPCO, Rev.: Siemens VAI

Bottom tap

78

141

P

P

Yes

5.8 x 6.7

1

1981

EMPCO Rev.: Superior Machine

Bottom tap

60

141

P

P

Yes

6.7 x 8.5

1

Fuchs

Bottom tap, shaft

48

136

P

P

Yes

6.7

1

1996

Fuchs

75

104

P

P

Yes

6x7

Idle

1957

Lectromelt

Spout

90

75

No

5.5

Idle

1970

Lectromelt

Spout

90

75

No

5.5

1

1994

Demag

EBT, Consteel

52

77

P

P

No

6.4

1

1994

Voestalpine

EBT, DC

70

86

P

P

No

6

1

1976

Whiting

Spout

110

73

P

P

Yes

5.1

2

1984, Rev. 1998

Lectromelt

Spout

108

54

P

P

Yes

4.6

2

1974

Lectromelt

Spout

120

41

P

P

Yes

4.3

1

1980

Whiting

EBT

95

113

P

P

Yes

6.1

65

54

P

P

No

4.6

1

1980, Demag Rev. 1998 Rev.: Superior Rev. 2013 Machine

1

1951

Heroult

Spout

148

7

No

2.7

1

1974

Lectromelt

Spout

150

18

No

3.4

1

1992

Lectromelt

Spout

150

18

No

3.4

1

1948

Lectromelt

Spout

5

No

2.7

1

1963

SwindellDressler

Spout

80

14

No

3.4

1

1987

Lectromelt

Spout

70

4.5

No

2.1

1

1989

Universal

Spout

70

4.5

No

2.1

1

1978

Lectromelt

SAF

240

13

R

R

No

6.4

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Haynes International Inc. Kokomo, Ind.

Original furnace manufacturer

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Inmetco Ellwood City, Pa.

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


141 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

115

Consumptions

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

600

100

0

440

41

Baghouse

Structural shapes, rebar, MBQ

771

6

138

600

100

0

418

41

Baghouse

MBQ and structural, SBQ

1,043

10

120

600

100

0

347

38

12.8

Baghouse

Structural

1,089

13

100

600

100

0

498

26

0

Baghouse

Rebar

680

52

550

509

DE, canopy

Carbon, alloy

272

52

550

509

DE, canopy

Carbon, alloy

272

1

600

100

0

393

34

3

Baghouse

Carbon

680

53

1

700

95

5

29

DE, baghouse

Carbon, alloy

544

31

500

100

0

493

38

DE, canopy, baghouse

Carbon, alloy, HSLA

299

12

40

450

90

10 (PI, HBI)

439

14

2.5

DE, canopy

SBQ, carbon, alloy

227

0

27

450

100

0

521

12

2.2

DE, canopy

SBQ, carbon, alloy

136

0

75

600

100

0

32

8

DE, canopy

Carbon, alloy

544

12

45

450

100

0

467

Baghouse, DE

Powdered steel

300

7.5

250

509

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

15

10

350

467

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

36

12.5

350

533

Sidedraft

Carbon, low alloy

36

2.8

250

Baghouse

Ni, cobaltbased alloys

7.2

350

536

Baghouse

Ni, cobaltbased alloys

18

4

200

100

0

510

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, stainless and heat resistant

15

4

200

100

0

510

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, stainless and heat resistant

15

9

600

Baghouse

Stainless

25

Type(s) of steel produced

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


142

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

1 (D)

1973, Rev. 2007

Lectromelt

Spout

180

23

P

P

No

4

1 (E)

1973, Rev. 2008

Lectromelt

Spout

180

23

P

P

No

4

Kentucky Electric Steel Ashland, Ky.

2

1981, Rev. 1996

Lectromelt

Spout

60

47

P

P

Yes

4.6

Keokuk Steel Castings Inc. Keokuk, Iowa

1

1976

Whiting

Spout

72

9

No

2.7

Keystone Steel & Wire Co. Peoria, Ill.

1

1998

Amerifab, Siemens VAI

70

163

Yes

6.7

K.O. Steel Foundry & Machine San Antonio, Texas

Idle

1979

Whiting

Spout

55

5

No

2.4

Kobelco Metal Powder Seymour, Ind.

Idle

1989

Whiting

Spout

110

15

Yes

3.7

2

1981

Lectromelt

Spout

85

136

Yes

7.3

1

1971

Lectromelt

Spout

34

No

4

1 (#4)

1942

Lectromelt

Spout

150

5

No

2.4

1 (#5)

Whiting

Spout

120

5

No

2.4

1 (#6)

1962

Lectromelt

Spout

120

7

No

2.7

1 (#7)

1969

Lectromelt

Spout

180

18

No

3.4

NLMK Indiana Portage, Ind.

1

1997

Danieli

EBT

60

118

P

P

Yes

7

North American Höganäs Hollsopple, PA

1

2001

Lectromelt Rev.: Fuchs, NKK-SE

Bottom tap

45

P

P

Yes

3.8 x 4.6

1

2002

SMS Demag

Spout

60

140

P

P

1

2007

Siemens VAI

Spout

P

P

1

1996

Bottom Fuchs, tap, twin Rev.: Superior shell, Machine shaft

38

171

P

P

Yes

7.6

Idle

1996

Fuchs

DC, shaft

55

91

P

P

Yes

7.3

Nucor Steel–Arkansas Hickman, Ark.

2

1993

MAN GHH

DC

40

141

S

S

Yes

7.3

Nucor Steel Auburn Inc. Auburn, N.Y.

1

1975/2006

SMS Demag

EBT

48

64

Yes

5.3

Nucor Steel–Berkeley Huger, S.C.

2

1996

MAN GHH

DC

40

154

S

S

Yes

7.6

Lehigh Specialty Melting Johnstown, Pa. Latrobe, Pa. Maynard Steel Casting Milwaukee, Wis.

North American Stainless Ghent, KY North Star BlueScope Delta, Ohio

I

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Start-up year

Joy Global Longview, Texas

I

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

No. furnaces

Company and location

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Original furnace manufacturer

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Nucor Corp. Nucor Steel Arizona Kingman, Ariz.

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


143 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

9.5

Consumptions

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

350

100

0

489

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA, specialty, alloy, tool

56

6.3

350

100

0

489

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA, specialty, alloy, tool

56

25

450

95

5

465

26

11.5

DE

Carbon, alloy

272

5

250

556

Baghouse

Carbon and stainless

34

115

600

100

0

420

38

6.4

Canopy, DE

Carbon

907

4.1

250

50

490

4

0

Sidedraft canopy

Stainless

16

18

300

484

18

4.7

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

57

120

600

95

5

461

32

8.8

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

680

20

400

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy

54

2

250

600

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

6

3.5

250

600

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

6

4

250

571

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

8

10

350

556

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

16

120

600

80

20

435

35

8

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA

680

12

30

450

100

Powdered steel

300

10

155

Stainless

800

Stainless

800

140

600

78

22

372

50

Shaft

Carbon

1633

40

80

700

100

0

330

79

15.9

DE, canopy, baghouse

LCSK

454

2 x 81

750

70

30

368

42

4

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA

1,361

39

45

450

100

0

427

41

7

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy, resulf.

499

21

180

800

65

35

386

41

4.8

DE, baghouse

Carbon, structural, galvanized

1,588

47

Type(s) of steel produced

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


144

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

1

1998

Lectromelt

Spout

55

54

P

P

Yes

4.6

Nucor Steel–Decatur LLC Trinity, Ala.

2

1997

NKK-SE Rev.: SMS Demag

EBT, DC

52

150

P

S

7.3

Nucor Steel Gallatin Ghent, Ky.

2

1995

NKK-SE Rev.: SMS Siemag

Tandem shell, EBT, DC

60

172

P

P

Yes

7.9

Nucor Steel–Hertford County Cofield, N.C.

1

2000

MAN GHH

EBT, DC, Consteel

43

150

S

S

Yes

7.3

Nucor Steel–Indiana Crawfordsville, Ind.

2

1989

Brown-Boveri

EBT

46

118

S

S

Yes

6.7

Nucor Steel Jackson Inc. Jackson, Miss.

1

2009

Tenova

EBT

48

53

P

P

Yes

5.1

Nucor Steel–Kankakee Bourbonnais, Ill.

1

1990

Danieli

EBT

42

74

P

P

No

5.8

Nucor Steel Marion Inc. Marion, Ohio

1

1998

EMCI

Spout

45

48

P

P

Yes

4.7

Nucor Steel Memphis Inc. Memphis, Tenn.

1

2008

Danieli

EBT

50

91

P

P

Yes

6.7

1

1997

MAN GHH

EBT, DC, twin shell

45

95

Yes

6.3

Nucor Steel Seattle Inc. Seattle, Wash.

1

1995

Fuchs

EBT

53

100

P

P

Yes

6.6

Nucor Steel–South Carolina Darlington, S.C.

1

1993

MAN GHH

EBT, DC, Consteel

60

109

No

7.3

Nucor Steel–Texas Jewett, Texas

1

2005

SMS Concast

EBT

30

91

S

S

Yes

6.7

Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc. Tuscaloosa, Ala.

1

1996

MAN GHH

DC, twin shell

42

122

P

P

Yes

7.1

Nucor Steel–Utah Plymouth, Utah

2

1981

American Bridge Rev.: Fuchs

Spout

45

51

P

P

Yes

4.6

Nucor-Yamato Steel Co. Blytheville, Ark.

1

Demag 1988 Rev.: Superior Rev. 2015 Machine

EBT

36.8

109

S

S

Yes

6.7

1

Demag 1988 Rev.: Superior Rev. 2014 Machine

EBT

109

S

S

Yes

7.3

Nucor Corp. (cont'd) Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc. Birmingham, Ala.

Nucor Steel–Nebraska Norfolk, Neb.

I I

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Original furnace manufacturer

Company and location

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


145 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

45

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

450

100

0

461

2 x 75

750

65

35

2 x 75

750

60

88

750

2 x 90

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Reverse air

Carbon

454

3

360

40

5

Baghouse

Carbon

2,449

27

40

442

32

2.9

Baghouse

Carbon

1,361

95

5 (PI)

385

48

4.1

Baghouse

Plate

1,542

48

600

83

17

408

38

3.8

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA

1,179

46

48

450

100

0

476

35

6.6

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy

454

17

73

550

100

0

454

29

0

Baghouse

Carbon

726

18

45

450

100

0

530

32

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

399

4

120

600

100

0

401

45

6.4

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, SBQ

1,089

40

90

700

98

2

442

32

6.4

DE, baghouse

Carbon, alloy, HSLA, resulf., SBQ, AK

907

38

92

550

100

0

413

35

9.5

Baghouse

Carbon

762

5

2 x 33.7

700

100

0

352

38

Baghouse

Structural, SBQ

907

67

110

600

100

0

407

30

5.2

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

1,089

25

96

700

72

28

409

42

7.4

Reverse air baghouse

Plate, HSLA

1,089

15

35

500

100

0

439

32

6.2

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

454

2

110

600

90

10

396

45

6.3

Baghouse

Carbon

1,270

17

110

600

90

10

396

45

6.3

Baghouse

Carbon

I

Type(s) of steel produced

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


146

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Company and location Republic Steel Canton, Ohio

Start-up year

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

110

200

Yes

7.9

1

1995

SwindellDressler, Tenova, Danieli

2

1952

American Bridge

290

91

No

6.1

Lorain, Ohio

1

2013

SMS Concast

EBT

136

P

P

SSAB Americas Axis, Ala.

1

2001

Fuchs

Twin shell

48

159

P

P

Yes

7.6

1

1997

Demag

DC, twin shell

55

141

P

P

Yes

7.3

1

1956

Lectromelt

Spout

180

9

No

2.7

1

1966, Rev. 1993

Lectromelt

Spout

180

9

No

2.7

1

1962

Lectromelt

Spout

35

No

4.3

1

1965

American Bridge

Spout

35

No

4.4

1

1971, Rev. 2003

Lectromelt Rev.: Tenova

Spout

65

No

5.2

1

1998

Demag

EBT

75

91

P

P

Yes

6.1

1

1995

Fuchs EBT, twin Rev.: Superior shell Machine

40

150

P

P

Yes

7.3

1

1998

Fuchs EBT, twin Rev.: Superior shell Machine

40

150

P

P

Yes

7.3

Flat Roll Group Columbus, Miss.

2

2007

SMS Demag

EBT, DC

44

158

S

S

Yes

7.6

Roanoke Bar Div. Roanoke, Va.

1

1996

Danieli

EBT

72

83

P

P

Yes

5.5

Steel of West Virginia Inc. Huntington, W.Va.

2

1979, Rev. 1998

Lectromelt

Spout

150

59

No

4.6

Structural and Rail Div. Columbia City, Ind.

2

2002

Demag

EBT

48

109

P

P

Yes

6.7

Idle

1971

Lectromelt

Spout

195

336

No

9.8

1 (#8)

2000

Fuchs

100

331

Yes

9.8

Montpelier, Iowa Sandusky International Inc. Sandusky, Ohio

Standard Steel – Burnham Burnham, Pa.

Steel Dynamics Inc. Engineered Bar Products Div. Pittsboro, Ind. Flat Roll Group Butler, Ind.

I

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

No. furnaces

Original furnace manufacturer

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sterling Steel Co. LLC Sterling, Ill.

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


147 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

110

Consumptions

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

600

100

0

424

36

6

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, SBQ

953

20

500

100

0

615

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, stainless

272

100

0

OCTG, SBQ

907

140

600

100

0

358

41

5.2

DE, baghouse

Carbon

1,270

140

750

92

8 (PI)

407

40

9.5

Baghouse

Carbon

1,134

3

250

556

Canopy, baghouse

Carbon, iron, and stainless

4

3.1

250

556

Canopy, baghouse

Carbon, iron, and stainless

4

10

400

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy

54

15

400

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy, stainless

39

30

450

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy

116

80

600

100

0

440

19

7.1

DE, baghouse

SBQ, carbon, alloy

454

120

600

91

9

424

35

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA, galvanized, galvannealed

1,406

10

120

600

91

9

424

35

Baghouse

Carbon, HSLA, galvanized, galvannealed

1,406

10

160.0

750

80

20

392

27

8.1

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, galvanized, galvannealed

1,540

100

56

550

416

Baghouse

Carbon

499

25/28

450

551

Baghouse

Carbon, low alloy

91

120

600

95

5

413

38

9.5

Reverse air baghouse

Structural, rail

174.6

700

100

0

529

Wet scrubber, baghouse

Carbon

608

188

700

100

0

430

41

7.2

Baghouse

Carbon

1,270

Type(s) of steel produced

I

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

I

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


148

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 Electric Arc Furnace Roundup

Furnace type

Tapto-tap time (min.)

Equipped with

Avg. heat size (metric tons)

Sidewall refractory, panel, spray

Roof refactory, panel, spray

Oxy-fuel burners

Shell diameter (m)

No. furnaces

Start-up year

Original furnace manufacturer

TimkenSteel Corp. Faircrest Plant Canton, Ohio

1

1985

Krupp

70

171

Yes

7.3

Harrison Plant Canton, Ohio

1

1971

SwindellDressler

110

122

No

6.7

1

1976

SwindellDressler

110

122

No

6.7

TMK IPSCO Koppel, Pa.

1

1984

Krupp Rev.: Demag

EBT

72

77

P

P

Yes

5.8

Union Electric Steel Carnegie, Pa.

1

1966, Rev. 1999

Lectromelt

Spout

54

No

4.4

Idle

1976

Whiting

Spout

75

54

Yes

4.9

Spout

150

45

No

4.6

Company and location

United States Steel Corporation Lone Star Steel Inc. Lone Star, Texas Universal Stainless & Alloy Products Bridgeville, Pa.

1

1961

American Bridge Rev.: APT Technologies, SMS Siemag

Vallourec Star Youngstown, Ohio

1

1999

Fuchs Rev.: Superior Machine

EBT

52

92

P

P

Yes

6.1

Valbruna Slater Stainless Inc. Fort Wayne, Ind.

1

1942

Lectromelt

Spout

165

15

No

3.4

1

1995

Lectromelt

Spout

105

18

No

3.7

1

2006

Tenova

60

20

Yes

3.5

6

MAN GHH

200

5

MAN GHH

150

Uruguay Gerdau Laisa Montevideo

Venezuela

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Sidor Ciudad Guayana, Bolívar

AC = alternating current; AK = aluminum killed; D = delta; DC = direct current; DE = direct evacuation; DRI = direct reduced iron; E = elbow; HBI = hot briquetted iron; HSLA = high-strength, low-alloy; LCAK = low-carbon, aluminum-killed; LCSK = low-carbon, silicon-killed; Interested in becoming a member of the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee? Contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.


149 Sponsored by

Charge materials (% of charge)

Transformer max. operating capacity (MVA)

Electrode nominal diameter (mm)

120

Consumptions

Scrap

Alternative iron

Power (kWh/ metric ton)

Oxygen (Nm3/metric ton)

650

100

0

385

54

600

100

0

40

600

100

67

600

12.5

Total nominal capacity of Hot heel each EAF (% of (’000 metric the heat tons/year) size)

Natural gas (Nm3/metric ton)

Type of fume collection system

Type(s) of steel produced

36

3.1

DE

Carbon, alloy

807

30

542

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy, stainless

907

0

0

542

Sidedraft

Carbon, alloy, stainless

907

0

100

0

486

29

8

DE, baghouse

Carbon, alloy

499

400

100

0

589

Sidedraft

Alloy, tool

0

34.5

450

100

0

503

19

Baghouse

Alloy, carbon

240

30

450

544

Baghouse

Stainless, tool

95

0

70

600

92

8 (PI)

434

27

536

Baghouse

Carbon, alloy, OCTG

725

5

350

90

10

510

Baghouse

Stainless, alloy, tool, Ni-based

18

18

350

90

10

600

Baghouse

Stainless, alloy, tool, Ni-based

68

12

350

100

0

446

38

10.5

Baghouse

Rebar

85

14

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

MBQ = merchant bar quality; OCTG = oil country tubular goods; PI = pig iron; S = sidewall; SBQ = special bar quality; St = stack Data is supplied by the AIST Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org.

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150

Working for Your Future to Build a Sustainable Steel Industry

Stefano Maggiolino president and CEO

an opportunity to listen to customers and the market to understand their needs and enable us technology suppliers to adjust and evolve our offerings. Tenova has been a proud supporter of AIST for many years and always dedicated itself to provide the ironmaking market with the latest and most reliable technological development in the DRI sector, especially through Tenova HYL and its seasoned experts from across the world. We have found the DRITC to be a great window to establish new contacts and to maintain the flow of information among old and new peers in a more organized way. The committee is well organized, and we have a clear idea of what is going on throughout the year; plus, the committee meetings allow us to reinforce networking with other members. I am very happy to personally devote time and commitment to the AIST DRITC and invite anyone interested to join us in our open and productive discussions, to provide iron- and steelmaking with sustainable solutions for our future.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

HYL

Although the first direct reduced iron (DRI) plants have been operating at industrial level since the 1950s, DRI technologies have been gaining more and more attention from the steel and mining industries only in the last several years. The reason for the increasing success of DRI technologies is due to several factors, such as the necessity of a more flexible raw material market, necessity of purer sources of metallic, lower environmental impact and lower greenhouse gas generation, CO2 sequestration, higher efficiency in overall energy consumption, and the availability of new sources of energy such as shale gas. The mission of the newly formed AIST Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee (DRITC) is to share among its members the tremendous innovations achieved in DRI technologies and to allow all stakeholders, such as the suppliers, academia, research institutes, consulting companies and governmental agencies, to understand the benefits and increasing potential of direct reduction technologies as an alternative ironmaking process. It is then of utmost importance to use these meetings as

Interested in joining the Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee or any of AIST’s 30 Technology Committees? Contact Ken Landau at +1.724.814.3036, klandau@aist.org or visit AIST.org.


151

AIST/IAS MAINTENANCE,

LUBRICATION, HYDRAULICS AND FORENSIC ENGINEERING SEMINAR

The Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) and the Instituto Argentino de Siderurgia (the Argentine Institute for Iron & Steel, IAS) joined forces once again and held the Maintenance, Lubrication, Hydraulics and Forensic Engineering Seminar on 20–22 October 2015 at the Ros Tower Hotel in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina.

“Air-Oil Technology Lubrication at Rolling Mill Stands” SKF Latinoamerica

“Hydraulic Systems — Fluid Connector Technology” Parker Hannifin Argentina

“Reliability 101: Return to the Basics” ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor

“Lubrication Management” SKF Argentina

Shell

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“Low-Viscosity Lubricants and Their Influence on Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry”

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On Tuesday, 20 October, the discussion focused on issues related to lubrication. Presentations included:

Bijur Delimon International

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

This international seminar opened with an introduction by Oscar Simaro, technical director at IAS (pictured above). Over the course of three days, 30 presentations were given, along with three keynote speeches. A total of 157 industry professionals (103 from producer companies Tenaris, Ternium Siderar, Acindar Groupo ArcelorMittal, Gerdau, Ternium México and ArcelorMittal USA) from four countries (U.S., Argentina, Mexico and Spain) attended the seminar.

“Centralized Lubrication System Technologies”


152

“Improving Gear and Gearbox Reliability” Xtek Inc.

“Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for the Steelmaking Industry” IVC Technologies

“Environment Control Management in Maintenance of Ternium Siderar” Ternium Siderar

“Care, Handling, and Maintenance of Turret and Other Large Bearings” Messinger Bearings

“Process Troubleshooting and Optimization Using Computational Simulation and 3D Visualization” Purdue University Calumet

“Structures Verification Plan at Ternium Siderar” Ternium Siderar

“Monitoring, Diagnostics and Control of Hydraulic Oil in Large Processes” Parker Hannifin Argentina

“Failure Analysis and Material Characterization of a Shaft Used in Tube Forming Machine”

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Instituto Argentino de Siderurgia

The keynote lecture, “New Synthetic-Based Oil Technology Obtained From Natural Gas (GTL) and Its Application in Lubricants Used in the Steel Industry,” was given by Paolo Romorini, lubrication technical advisor from Shell Industries. This presentation demonstrated how features such as high oxidation stability, low friction, high purity, sulfur content of less than 5 ppm, low volatility and low pour point make it possible to obtain finished lubricants with higher levels of performance than those formulated with conventional-based oils. Real-world case studies from steel plant applications (turbine oils, electrical insulating oils for transformers and as washing oil in a byproduct coke plant) were used to showcase the results. On Wednesday, 21 October, the main focus of the day was forensic engineering. The presentations included:

“Failure Analysis of a Compressor Breakdown” Molysil

“Getting to the Root Cause of Bearing Failures” Messinger Bearings

“Gearbox Failure Forensic Analysis” Estudio Piña

“Boroscopy Predictive Technique That Generated Benefits in the BF2 at Siderar” Ternium Siderar

“Fastener Disassembling on HAGC Guide Shelf F2 at Hot Mill 3-Churubusco Plant” Ternium México


153

“A Way to Fight Against the Working Capital Increases” Ternium Siderar

“Process Safety Management Systems, Pathologies, Reinforcements, Recovery, and Intervention of Concrete and Steel Structures” Soluciones Constructivas

Wednesday’s keynote lecture, “Forensic Engineering: Root-Cause Analysis in Machinery Breakdown,” was given by José Manuel Herrero Sánchez of Investigación de Siniestros, Spain. This presentation introduced some concepts related to machinery breakdowns and covered terminology and degradation processes. It also covered forensic engineering methodology and special features related to forensic engineering, using illustrative examples. On Thursday, 22 October, a variety of case studies were presented that focused on key maintenance topics of interest for those who work in industrial facilities. These presentations included: “Reliability: Building a Culture for Sustained Success”

“3D Measurements Into Steel Works” Ternium Siderar

“Energy-Saving Maintenance — Replacing Traditional Combustion System of the TS Rolling 1 Intermediate Reheating Furnace by a System Using High-Efficiency Burners (Recuperative)” Tenaris Siderca

Thursday’s keynote lecture, given by Pablo Barassi, Integrar-RRHH, was titled “The Importance of a Conscious Leadership to Succeed in Maintenance Activities.” This dynamic presentation addressed leadership issues and best practices with common maintenance-related practices.

Georg Fischer

“Steelmaking Shop Bay Maintenance” Acindar Grupo ArcelorMittal

“How to Fight Rust and Paint New Technologies”

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Sherwin-Williams

A special thank-you goes out to our partners, the IAS staff, who worked hard to make this seminar a success.  F

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“Plastic Piping in the Steel Industry”

IVC Technologies

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor

“Technology-Based Crane Monitoring and Diagnostics”


154

Technology Committees

AIST’s nine Technology Divisions are comprised of 30 volunteer-based Technology Committees populated by AIST members with similar technical interests. These committees sponsor forums to facilitate discussion relative to the technical development, production, processing and application of iron and steel. Committee enrollment is free and open to any AIST member.

Recent Technology Committee Meetings Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee (DRITC) Meeting Details: 19–20 October 2015, Gonzales, La., USA Meeting Highlights: Joseph Poveromo and Mike Riley reviewed the DRI technical paper sessions for AISTech 2016. Potential collaboration with the International Iron

Metallics Association at AISTech 2016 was discussed by Angelo Manenti, DRITC chair. Mr. Poveromo outlined the 2016 Scrap Supplement and Alternative Ironmaking Symposium currently being planned for October 2016 in Chicago, Ill., USA.

To join one or more committees, contact: Ken Landau, technology programs manager (klandau@aist.org) or visit AIST.org.

“We have found the DRITC to be a great window to establish new contacts and to maintain the flow of information among old and new peers in a more organized way. The committee is organized well and we have a clear idea of what is going on throughout the year; plus, the committee meetings allow us to reinforce networking with other members.” — Stefano Maggiolino, Tenova HYL Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

See more from Stefano on page 150

The Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee toured the Nucor Steel Louisiana LLC DRI facility during its meeting on 19–20 October 2015.


155

The following technical presentations were given: • “D R-Grade Pellet Quality and Availability,” by Joseph Poveromo. • “ H igh-Carbon DRI and Zero Reformer DRI Plants,” by Teresa Guerra on behalf of Joel Morales.

The next day, Nucor Steel Louisiana LLC’s DRI facility provided a tour of its expansive facility in Convent, La., USA. This plant is the largest DRI production facility in the world, with an annual production of 2.5 million tons. The group was very grateful for the hospitality provided by the Nucor team.

Metallurgy — Processing, Products & Applications Technology Committee (MPPATC) Meeting Details: 6 October 2015, Columbus, Ohio, USA (during MS&T15)

Cokemaking & Ironmaking • Cokemaking • Ironmaking • Direct Reduced Iron Steelmaking • Electric Steelmaking • Oxygen Steelmaking • Specialty Alloy & Foundry Refining & Casting • Ladle & Secondary Refining • Continuous Casting Rolling & Processing • Hot Sheet Rolling • Cold Sheet Rolling • Galvanizing • Tinplate Mill Products • Plate Rolling • Rod & Bar Rolling • Pipe & Tube • Rolls Metallurgy • Metallurgy —Steelmaking & Casting • Metallurgy — Processing, Products & Applications Energy & Control • Energy & Utilities • Electrical Applications • Computer Applications Plant Services & Reliability • Project & Construction Management • Maintenance & Reliability • Lubrication & Hydraulics • Refractory Systems Material Movement & Transportation • Material Handling • Cranes • Transportation & Logistics

I I

• J erry Silver Award: “The Effect of Coiling Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Ultrahigh-Strength 700 MPa Grade Processed via Thin-Slab Casting,” by V.S.A. Challa, R.D.K. Misra, Ronald J. O’Malley and Steven G. Jansto. •G ilbert R. Speich Award: “Developing a Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel With Two-Stage TRIP Behavior,” by Scott T. Pisarik, David C. Van Aken, Krista R. Limmer and Julia E. Medvedeva. • R ichard J. Fruehan Award: “Application of Hot Rolling Lubrication on a Reversing Coil/ Plate Mill,” by Qiulin Yu and Amy Beard. • Adolf Martens Memorial Steel Lecture: “A Complete Theory for Martensitic Transformations,” by Sir Harry Bhadeshia.

Safety & Environment • Safety & Health • Environmental

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Meeting Highlights: An overview of the MS&T15 Iron & Steel program was provided by Amar De, the AIST Programming Committee representative for MS&T15. A total of 122 papers were presented during the Iron & Steel sessions, which included symposia on Advanced Steel Metallurgy; Shaping, Forming and Treating of Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS); and Steels for the Oil and Gas Sector. A special mention was made of the Phase Stability, Diffusion Kinetics and Their Applications (PSDK-X) Symposium given in honor of Dr. John Speer, the 2015 TMS John Gibbs Award Winner. A recap of the MS&T15 conference and exhibition is published on pages 119–122 of this issue of Iron & Steel Technology. Emmanuel De Moor provided an update for MS&T16 symposia, which are Advanced High-Strength Steel Design/Technological Exploitation; Advances in Zinc-Coated Sheet Steel Processing and Properties; Ferrous Metallurgy: From Past to Present; and Gas/Metal Reactions: Diffusion and Phase Transformation During Heat Treatment of Steel. MPPATC members were encouraged to submit abstracts for MS&T 2016 sessions. Matt Enloe, MPPATC papers chair, provided an update on the technical

session planning for AISTech 2016. Five sessions are being organized: AHSS for Auto Applications, Product Metallurgy — Steelmaking & Casting, Product Metallurgy — Hot Rolling and Downstream Processing, Surface Quality and Coatability, and Application of AHSS. Volunteers were sought for session chairs. Ron Radzilowski, awards chair, presented the 2015 AIST Metallurgy Division Awards:

Technology Divisions and Technology Committees


156

Technology Committees The last order of business was the succession plan for the MPPATC’s leadership.

Mr. De Moor gave a summary of the International Conference on Advances in Metallurgy of Long and Forged Products, which was held 12–15 July 2015 in Vail, Colo., USA. De Moor also laid out plans to hold an AHSS conference in 2017 as a continuation of the conferences held in previous years.

1

2

4

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

3

Next MPPATC Meeting: During AISTech 2016, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA.

5 1. Kester Clarke (left) and Ron Radzilowski (right) presented Amar De (center) with a plaque of appreciation for his service as AIST Programming Committee representative for MS&T15. 2. Ron Radzilowski (center) presented the Richard J. Fruehan Award to Qiulin Yu (right) and Amy Beard (left). 3. Ron Radzilowski presented the Jerry Silver Award at MS&T15 (left to right): V.S.A. Challa, R.D.K. Misra, Radzilowski and Steven G. Jansto. 4. Amy Clarke (left) presented the Adolf Martens Memorial Steel Lecture Award to Sir Harry Bhadeshia (right). 5. Scott Story (left), MSCTC vice chair, and Roger Maddalena (right), MSCTC chair, presented Tom Zorc (center), manager, TimkenSteel Corp., with a plaque of appreciation for hosting a tour of TimkenSteel Corp. – Harrison Steel Plant.


157 Metallurgy — Steelmaking & Casting Technology Committee (MSCTC) Meeting Details: 28–29 October 2015, Canton, Ohio, USA

The following technical presentations were given: • “ Seamless Pipe Steel Cleanliness,” by Rodrigo Corbari of Vallourec Star. • “Recent Technological Advancements at the Faircrest Steel Plant,” by Peter Glaws of TimkenSteel Corp. • “Potential Use of P-SEM for Quality Assessment of As-Cast Steel Prior to Rolling,” by Edward S. Szekeres of Casting Consultants Inc. • “Effect of Process Route on Inclusion Modification by Calcium Treatment,” by S.R. Story, Q.E. Liu, C.R. Cathcart and M. Molnar.

Meeting Highlights: The MSCTC reviewed the 2015 Steel Industry Fatalities Report, followed by a safety roundtable discussion. Shahrooz Nafisi discussed the AISTech 2016 MSCTC technical sessions: • Six sessions are scheduled, three of them being joint sessions with the Continuous Casting Technology Committee. • Session chairs were nominated. • An Inclusion Engineering and Clean Steel (IECS) session will be held on Wednesday morning. • An Internal Quality Rating System (IQRS) panel discussion is scheduled at the end of a Tuesday afternoon session.

Next MSCTC Meeting: 9–10 March 2016, Charleston, S.C., USA, including a plant tour of Nucor Steel–Berkeley

Refractory Systems Technology Committee (RSTC) Meeting Details: 8 October 2015, Memphis, Tenn., USA, in conjunction with Secondary Steelmaking Refractories — A Practical Training Seminar Meeting Highlights: Lionel Rebouillat reviewed the status of the RSTC’s AISTech 2016 session development. There will be 20 papers presented across four sessions, two of which will be joint sessions with the Ladle & Secondary Refining and Continuous Casting Technology Committees. Volunteers were solicited for session chairs. The responsibilities of the session chairs were reviewed with the group.

The group also finalized its AISTech 2017 Call for Papers topic. The initial feedback from Secondary Steelmaking Refractories — A Practical Training Seminar was discussed. The additional topics added concerning the tundish were deemed beneficial. There was a discussion of the time allotted to topics and modification of topics to better communicate the relevant information. This was tabled for a later discussion to include the Ladle & Secondary Refining Technology Committee members. Next RSTC Meeting: 10–11 February 2016, Mobile, Ala., USA (joint meeting with the Ladle & Secondary Refining Technology Committee)

Specialty Alloy & Foundry Technology Committee (SAFTC) Meeting Details: 21–22 October 2015, Bethlehem, Pa., USA

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• “Specialty Steelmaking,” by Raymond Monroe of Steel Founders’ Society of America. • “Innovative Refractory Gate Tile Products,” by Richard Kilgore of Schaefer Industrial Ceramics.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Meeting Highlights: The SAFTC reviewed the 2015 Steel Industry Fatalities Report, followed by a safety roundtable discussion. Andy Pinskey, papers chair, discussed the SAFTC’s AISTech 2016 technical sessions. Three sessions were scheduled and session chairs were nominated. Allen Chan and Raymond Monroe discussed the program outline for Secondary Steelmaking Refractories — A Practical Training Seminar and the changes needed for the next training seminar, which is tentatively scheduled for 20–23 February 2017 in Mobile, Ala., USA. The

seminar program will be reviewed at the next SAFTC meeting. John Middleton discussed the 2016 SAFTC and Steel Founders’ Society of America’s England Study Tour, which will be held 19–25 June 2016. The deadline for registration is 31 January 2016. The study tour will be limited to 25 participants. For more information contact Pat Philbin at pphilbin@aist.org. The following presentations were given:


158

Technology Committees • “New Refractory Spray Products,” by Aaron Ingalls of Emerald Refractories. On Thursday, 22 October 2015, the SAFTC toured the Minteq Research Center, Effort Foundry and the ATLASS Lab at Lehigh University.

Next SAFTC Meeting: 16–17 March 2016 at AIST headquarters. Plant tours of Universal Stainless’ North Jackson, Ohio, USA, plant and America Makes facility on 17 March 2016  F

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

1. Andy Pinskey (left) and Trevor Shellhammer (right) presented Richard Griffin (center), global director R&D, Minteq Research Center, with a plaque of appreciation for hosting the SAFTC’s tour of Minteq Research Center. 2. Raymond Monroe (left) and Trevor Shellhammer (right) presented Charles Hamburg (center), CEO of Effort Foundry Inc., with a plaque of appreciation for hosting the SAFTC’s tour of Effort Foundry on 22 October 2015.


159

2015 Emerging Leaders Alliance Conference Recap

The 2015 Emerging Leaders Alliance (ELA) conference was held on 8–11 November in Reston, Va., USA. In all, 91 young professionals participated in the leadership training, including 10 representatives from the steel industry (pictured at right), who were sponsored by AIST or AIME. The AIST delegates were selected from nominations submitted by AIST board members and AIST Foundation Trustees. These individuals were able to network with engineers and science-related professionals from a variety of other ELA partner organizations.

The AIST representatives included: (back row, left to right) Parker Morris, Riverside Refractories; Josh Stebbing, CMC Americas; Colin Meidell, Steel

Dynamics Inc. – Engineered Bar Products Div.; and Joseph Laughlin, SMS USA LLC (front row, left to right) Travis Fisher, Nucor Steel–Utah; Justin Ward, SSAB Americas; Tyler Botbyl, ArcelorMittal Burns

Harbor; Aaron Barredo, CMC Americas; Dan Coughlin, Los Alamos National Laboratory; and David Haushalter, ArcelorMittal

The ELA conference sessions included: • Personal Vision: Becoming an Indispensable Leader • Making the Transition From Technical to Management

• Global and Virtual Team Leadership • Global Leaders Embracing Inclusion for Success

• Social Styles: Building Highly • Engineering the Ideal Team Productive Relationships That Matter

• Managing Up — Part II: Communicate Your Needs and Ideas Assertively

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

• Recognizing and Managing Conflict

• Managing Up — Part I: Build a Solid Relationship With Your Boss

Sponsors:

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The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


160

Industry Roundup

AIST 2016 North and South American DRI Roundup AIST Roundup data is based on information submitted in the third quarter of 2015.

Start-up year

Module

Rated capacity MTPA

Technology

Reformer

Product type

Acindar Industria Argentina de Aceros Villa Constitucion, Santa Fe

1978

1

0.60

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

Tenaris Siderca Siderca Seamless Tubes Mill Campana, Buenos Aires

1976

1

0.40

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1994

1

0.30

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1973

I

0.40

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1977

II

0.60

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1997

I

1.20

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1988

II A

0.50

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1988

II B

0.50

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1991

III A

0.50

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1991

III B

0.50

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1995

2P5

0.61

HYL/Energiron

Yes

CDRI

1983

3M5

0.50

HYL/Energiron

No

CDRI

1998

4M

0.68

HYL/Energiron

No

HDRI

1980

I

0.42

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1982

II

0.42

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1999

III

1.36

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

2006

1

1.60

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

2013

1

2.50

HYL/Energiron

No

CDRI

2000

1

0.75

HYL/Energiron

Yes

HBI

2000

2

0.75

HYL/Energiron

Yes

HBI

Company and location

Argentina

Brazil Gerdau Usiba Salvador, Bahia

Canada ArcelorMittal Montreal Contrecoeur, Que.

Mexico ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas Lázaro Cárdenas, Mich.

Ternium Mexico S.A. de C.V. Puebla, Pue. Monterrey, N.L.

Trinidad and Tobago

NU Iron Point Lisas

United States Nucor Steel Louisiana LLC Convent, La.

Venezuela Briqven Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

ArcelorMittal Point Lisas Point Lisas

CDRI = cold direct reduced iron; HDRI = hot direct reduced iron; HBI = hot briquetted iron Interested in becoming a member of the AIST DRI Technology Committee? Contact Mark Rosi at mrosi@aist.org.


161 Sponsored by AIST Roundup data is intended for reference information only. No warranty is implied.

Product use

Reductants source

Type of process gas compressors

94.50

2.00

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

95.50

2.00

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

91.30

2.80

Captive

Natural gas

Screw

94.30

2.40

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

94.20

2.30

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

94.20

2.40

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

94.8

2.4

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

94.8

2.4

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

94.8

2.4

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

94.8

2.4

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

93.8

3.4

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

94.0

3.5

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

94.4

3.9

Captive

Natural gas

Centrifugal

95.10

2.20

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

95.10

2.20

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

95.90

2.70

Merchant

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

96

2.70

Merchant

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

96

3.80

Merchant

Natural gas

Centrifugal

93.5

2.0

Merchant

Natural gas

Centrifugal

93.5

2.0

Merchant

Natural gas

Centrifugal

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Avg. product carbon, %

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Avg. product metallization, %

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Data is supplied by the AIST DRI Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Mark Rosi at mrosi@aist.org.


162

Industry Roundup AIST 2016 North and South American DRI Roundup Start-up year

Module

Rated capacity MTPA

Technology

Reformer

Product type

Comsigua Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

1998

1

1.00

Midrex

Yes

HBI

FMO Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

1990

1

1.00

Midrex

Yes

HBI

Orinoco Iron Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

2000

1

2.20

Finmet

Yes

HBI

Sidor Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

1977

I

0.35

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1979

II A

0.40

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1979

II B

0.40

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1979

II C

0.40

Midrex

Yes

CDRI

1990

1

0.82

Midrex

Yes

HBI

Company and location

Venprecar Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar

CDRI = cold direct reduced iron; HDRI = hot direct reduced iron; HBI = hot briquetted iron Interested in becoming a member of the AIST DRI Technology Committee? Contact Mark Rosi at mrosi@aist.org.

G E T T H E I N F O R M AT I O N YO U N E E D W I T H

AIST INDUSTRY ROUNDUPS! C o m p r e h e n s i ve , a n n u a l d e t a i l s o n i n d i v i d u a l s te e l p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s :

• C O K E O V E N B AT T E R Y

• DRI

• COKEMAKING BYPRODUCTS

• G A LVA N I Z I N G L I N E S

• BL AST FURNACE

• ROD & BAR ROLLING

• ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE

• HOT STRIP MILLS

• B A S I C OX YG EN FU R N AC E

• P L AT E / S T E C K E L M I L L S

• CONTINUOUS CASTER

SPONSORSHIPS A V A I L A B L E ! P u t yo u r l o g o w h e r e yo u r a u d i e n c e w i l l s e e i t ! C o n t a c t t h e S a l e s Te a m a t s a l e s @ a i s t .o r g to s p o n s o r a n u p c o m i n g R o u n d u p.

C u r r e n t a n d p a s t R o u n d u p s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r m e m b e r s a t D i g i t a l . L i b r a r y. A I S T.o r g .


163 Sponsored by

Avg. product metallization, %

Avg. product carbon, %

Product use

Reductants source

Type of process gas compressors

Merchant

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Merchant

Natural gas

Centrifugal

Merchant

Natural gas

Centrifugal

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Captive

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Merchant

Natural gas

Rotary lobe

Data is supplied by the AIST DRI Technology Committee. Please send updates or corrections to Mark Rosi at mrosi@aist.org.


164

DANIELI:

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

YEAR IN REVIEW 2014–2015

The surrounding hill built by ABS, Italy for environmental protection.


165

I I

The second business (Steel Making) concerns the production of special steels through the companies of Acciaierie Bertoli Safau S.p.A. (ABS) and ABS Sisak d.o.o. (ABS Sisak). The steels produced in these facilities supply the automotive industry, heavy-duty vehicles, engineering, energy and petroleum industries.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

The Danieli Group runs two main businesses. The first (Plant Making) is in the field of engineering and manufacture of plants — including turnkey plants — for the production of metals. Its principal operating companies in the Plant Making segment are in Europe and Asia, with service centers in the U.S., Brazil, Egypt, Turkey and Ukraine. In the Plant Making sector, Danieli is one of the top three manufacturers in the world for metalmaking plants and machines. It is a leading company in meltshops and plants for the production of long products and in the manufacture of plants for flat products. These plants produce steel in electric arc furnaces — sometimes from direct reduced iron (DRI) — are competitive in terms of CAPEX and OPEX, and are also environmentally friendly.


166 For many years, Danieli has operated under two mottos: “The Reliable and Innovative Partner in the Metals Industry” and “We Do Not Shop Around for Noble Equipment.” To this the company has recently added: “Danieli: A Step Ahead,” which expresses its determination to improve its current performance. To do this, the company launched a program called “Metamorphosis 2,” signifying innovation to its operating methods/patterns and consequently to its organization in order to enhance technical and economic competitiveness, speed, quality and customer service. An even more recent twist on the motto, “A Step Ahead

in CAPEX and OPEX,” also expresses Danieli’s desire to transfer the same concepts to its partner customers. Danieli invited journalists from the international steel industry, including Iron & Steel Technology, to its headquarters in Italy for presentations and a press conference regarding the company’s performance in fiscal year 2014–2015. The presentations provided details on the main orders acquired in that time period for steelmaking, and for flat and long products casting, rolling and processing lines. Danieli has extended its reach to aluminum as well as steel, and has recently partnered with Alcoa to develop a micro-mill for aluminum casting and rolling. Danieli also entered the converter steel market, with 10 contracts for revamps in this past year.

2014–2015 Financial Results

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

The ribbon-cutting ceremony for the new Rotoforge at ABS (left to right): Carla de Colle, chairman, ABS; Debora Serracchiani, governor of FVG region; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Italy; Nicola Turello, mayor of Pozzuolo del Friuli; Gianpietro Benedetti, chairman and CEO, Danieli; Alessandro Trivillin, CEO, ABS.

On 17 October 2015, Danieli Group presented its results for fiscal year 2014–2015 (Table 1) to a gathering of employees and stakeholders as well as Italy’s Prime Minister, Matteo Renzi. The results show a decrease in sales both for the Plant Making sector and for the Steel Making sector.


167 Danieli executives presented the major achievements in each division of the company. Highlights from the year included: • The Group’s net financial position showed overall improvement.

the technological upgrade of the continuous casting machine CCM#3, and the start-up of the new Rotoforgia rolling mill in September. • Danieli also completed its acquisition of Corus and recently acquired FATA S.p.A.

• In the Plant Making sector, the development of workshops in China and Thailand was substantially completed, while production ramp-up of the new factories in India and Russia is under completion. • In the Steel Making sector (ABS), after the conclusion of the first phase of investments at Sisak in Croatia, investments occurred at Pozzuolo with the completion of the new reversing mills,

Both Gianpietro Benedetti, Danieli’s chairman and chief executive officer, and Prime Minister Renzi addressed the audience, covering topics related to economic growth. The Prime Minister concluded his speech by saying, “I wish to honor the professionalism of Danieli’s working women and men all over the world, who make us proud of our capacity to innovate, to solve problems and to create relationships with local authorities. These are the people who keep the Italian flag flying.”

2014–15 Group results

2015–16 Group forecast

2015–16 Forecast Steel Making

2015–16 Forecast Plant Making

Revenue

2,765.9

2,700/2,850

2,050/2,100

650/750

EBITDA

150.2

240/260

180/190

60/70

Order book

3,155

3,100/3,300

2,950/3,100

150/200

Table 1 — Danieli’s results for fiscal year 2014–2015, along with forecasts for 2015–2016 (in millions of euros)

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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168 Advantages of Rotoforge include: • High internal quality, comparable to that of a forged product. • Improved size quality and tolerances: high reduction ratio (>1to-3) for rounds up to 500 mm and equivalent squares. • High productivity: short lead time and fast response to market demand.

Danieli’s Rotoforge mill at ABS combines the strain of a forging mill with the efficiency of a rolling mill.

At the end of the ceremony, Mr. Benedetti presented the Prime Minister with a sculpture of a forger in the hope “that you will be able to forge the country.” Mr. Benedetti was then accompanied to ABS by Debora Serracchiani, the president of Friuli Venezia Giulia (a northeastern region of Italy), and Prime Minister Renzi. Mr. Renzi inaugurated the new Rotoforge plant for the production of long products, in which Danieli has invested 200 million euros. “This plant,” declared Alessandro Trivillin, chief executive officer of ABS, “will make a product representing the evolution and joining of the two traditional hot deformation techniques for long special steels.” A few minutes after the Rotoforge ribbon-cutting ceremony, the new plant was started so that all the guests could observe it in action.

As a result of the high drafting per pass, “Rotoforged” material has thin grain size and very low soundness (flat bottom hole (FBH) <2 mm), while the rolling process ensures excellent surface characteristics, high productivity and hence dramatic reduction of transformation costs (no additional turning is required).

In addition, ABS benefits from the feeding of Rotoforge with high-quality 850-mm-diameter blooms produced by the nearby continuous casting machine No. 3 (CCM #3).

Technological Packages Danieli offers more than 150 technological packages that can be installed on Danieli plants and also on most existing equipment from other suppliers. The goal is to have standardized, high-quality “mechatronic” packages — combining mechanics and automation — that are proven to be both financially and technically feasible. These packages for continuous improvement focus on the following main aspects: •R  educing conversion costs.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

• I mproving product quality.

Rotoforge The Rotoforge mill, the first of its kind, is a highly innovative concept developed and designed at Danieli and installed at ABS. The process is an alternative solution to the production of high-quality material via forging, with the efficiency and profitability of a rolling mill. Thanks to the newly designed “Rf” heavy-duty stand capable of impressing the same strain applied by a forge to the material, the plant is capable of providing the same internal quality achieved by forging.

• I ncreasing product ranges. •O  perator safety and environmental sustainability. •P  redictive and minimized maintenance procedures. •S  hort implementation and shutdown periods. Examples of technological packages for iron and steelmaking include: Q-Slag, a slag-free tapping


169 system; Ecogravel® for EAF slag recovery; and C-Watch, a leakage detection and power management system for the BOF cooling circuit. Technological packages are also available for long products, flat products, nonferrous as well as cross-products.

Danieli Academy: Empowering People With more than 60% of its personnel employed outside of Italy in Europe, Asia and the Americas, the Danieli Group saw a need to accelerate basic training and refresher courses in areas of management quality, vision, personnel management, finances, technical training, robotics, soft skills and much more. Hence the company recently founded the Danieli Academy. The Academy identifies critical areas of opportunity and carries out specific training through a network of experienced instructors. This tool has helped to forge structured partnerships with universities, polytechnic institutes and research centers. Through the Danieli Academy, new hires can effectively grow in their respective roles, and the results they achieve both personally and professionally can benefit the entire company.

A Step Ahead At Danieli, an international, multi-cultural team covers the full spectrum of technology, from iron ore to finished products. The company is a world leader for mini-mills and long products rolling mills, and its most recent achievements in flat products and the final acquisition of Danieli Corus in IJmuiden, The Netherlands, have solidified Danieli’s position as a reliable innovator in the field of integrated steelmaking plants.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Danieli set a new benchmark in continuous casting for large round sections with the 2014 revamping of the CCM#3 machine at ABS. The machine casts blooms up to 850 mm diameter.

I

According to Mr. Benedetti, the next 10–15 years will be ripe with opportunities in regional mini-mills: raw materials, local markets and competitive total cost. He said, “This is where technology comes into play: technology that allows steelmakers to achieve a competitive total cost (CAPEX + OPEX), even on small production volumes.” Danieli plans to keep its focus on innovation and remain “a step ahead” in order to enhance value for its customers and to continue to support its customers’ technological evolution. F


Technology Training Upcoming Technology Training Conferences February 2016 Modern Electric Furnace Steelmaking — A Practical Training Seminar 1–5 February 2016

171

Company Discounts Three or more individuals from the same facility attending any one seminar can receive a 10% discount per person. All registrations must be received together along with payment to qualify for the discount. Not applicable with any other discount.

Jacksonville, Fla., USA - The DoubleTree Hotel by Hilton Jacksonville Riverfront

More Information

Hot Rolling Fundamentals — A Practical Training Seminar in conjunction with Plate Rolling Fundamentals Training 2 1–25 February 2016 Birmingham, Ala., USA - The Hilton Birmingham Perimeter Park

Rod and Bar Rolling — A Practical Training Seminar 22–25 February 2016 San Antonio, Texas, USA - Hilton Palacio Del Rio

March 2016 The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: 101 8–10 March 2016 Huntsville, Ala., USA - Embassy Suites Huntsville Hotel

April 2016 Material Handling and Transportation Logistics — A Practical Training Seminar 11–13 April 2016 Nashville, Tenn., USA - Holiday Inn Nashville-Vanderbilt

21–23 June 2016 Indianapolis, Ind., USA - The Indianapolis Marriott Downtown

Through the Steel to Students Training Program, students can apply for assistance in attending AIST’s Technology Training Conferences. Students will need to complete the Steel to Students Training Program Application, which can be found online at AIST.org by clicking “Students & Faculty.” For more information, visit AIST.org or contact Chris McKelvey at cmckelvey@aist.org or +1.724.814.3076.

Sponsorships Every AIST Technology Training Conference has sponsorship opportunities. For more information, contact Jessica Yurko at jyurko@aist.org or +1.724.814.3070.

I

23rd Annual Crane Symposium

Steel to Students Training Program

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

June 2016

To register, find information about Professional Development Hours and the most up-to-date Technology Training Conference information, contact AIST at +1.724.814.3000, ext. 1 or visit AIST.org.

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Modern Electric Furnace Steelmaking A Practical Training Seminar

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

1−5 February 2016 - Jacksonville, Fla., USA - The DoubleTree Hotel by Hilton Jacksonville Riverfront

About the Course

Registration Fees

This course covers safety, the basics of electrical and mechanical features of electric arc furnaces, refractories, and the role of raw materials. The program will explore the fundamentals of electric furnace steelmaking technology, the use of energy inputs, the steelmaking process, electrodes and environmental concerns for electric steelmaking. Attendees will also have the opportunity to learn how their operation compares to industry benchmarks, and to hear about the latest developing technologies. The midpoint of the conference includes a plant tour followed by an expert roundtable and reception with an open forum to discuss questions and challenges.

Member US$1,095, Non-member US$1,310. Registration includes welcome reception Monday, continental breakfasts Tuesday through Friday, lunches Tuesday through Thursday, continuous breaks, reception Wednesday, plant tour, and a course workbook or flash drive including presentations.

Hotel Accommodations A block of rooms has been reserved at The DoubleTree Hotel by Hilton Jacksonville Riverfront. Please call the hotel at +1.904.398.8800 by 10 January 2016 to secure the AIST discount rate of US$109 per night for single/double occupancy.

Sponsored By AIST’s Electric Steelmaking Technology Committee.


173

Schedule of Events Monday, 1 February 2016 4–6 p.m.

Registration

5–6 p.m.

Welcome Reception

Tuesday, 2 February 2016 7 a.m. Registration and Continental Breakfast 8 a.m. Keynote Speaker  Bill Rider, Gerdau Long Steel North America Jacksonville Mill 8:30 a.m. Safety — Past/Present/Future John Panconi, BISCO Refractories Inc. 9:30 a.m. Break 9:40 a.m. Chemistry of EAF Steelmaking Lawrence Heaslip, Interflow Techserv Inc. 10:50 a.m. Break 11 a.m. Chemistry of EAF Steelmaking (cont’d) Lawrence Heaslip, Interflow Techserv Inc. Noon Lunch 1 p.m. Chemistry of EAF Steelmaking (cont’d) Lawrence Heaslip, Interflow Techserv Inc. 2:15 p.m. Break 2:30 p.m. Chemistry of EAF Steelmaking (cont’d) Lawrence Heaslip, Interflow Techserv Inc. 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p.m. Chemical and Electrical Energy Inputs and EAF Performance Sam Matson, CMC Americas

4:30 p.m. R  eception and Roundtable Discussion Moderator: Brett McGee, Mid-Continent Coal and Coke Co. Panelists: Harriet Dutka, Magnesita Refractories; Sam Matson, CMC Americas; Eugene Pretorius, Nucor; Jeremy Jones, CIX Inc.

Thursday, 4 February 2016 7 a.m. 8 a.m.

Registration and Continental Breakfast Importance of Scrap Residual Controls Dennis Rodal, ELG Haniel Metals Corp. 9 a.m. Break 9:15 a.m. Environmental Operations for the EAF Sam Matson, CMC Americas 10:15 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. Gas/Carbon Injection Systems Mike Grant, Air Liquide Global Management Services GmbH Noon Lunch 1 p.m. E AF Industry Perspective — Past and Future Raymond Monroe, Steel Founders’ Society of America 2:15 p.m. Break 2:30 p.m. Electrical Engineering 101 Fernando Martinez, AMI GE 3:45 p.m. Break 4 p.m. Tap-to-Cast Operations Harriet Dutka, Magnesita Refractories

7 a.m. 8 a.m. 9 a.m. 9:10 a.m.

7 a.m. Continental Breakfast 8 a.m. EAF Regulation Basics Reinzi Santiago, Tenova Core 9 a.m. E AF: Graphite Electrode Manufacture and Use 9:45 a.m. Break 10 a.m. EAF: Overview of the Refractory Technology From the Mini-Mill Application Perspective Tomas Richter, HarbisonWalker International 10:45 a.m. Break 11 a.m. Offgas Monitoring and Optimization Using EFSOP Doug Zuliani, Tenova Goodfellow Noon Conference Adjourn

I

Registration and Continental Breakfast Part I: EAF Designs and Operations Jeremy Jones, CIX Inc. Break Part II: EAF Technologies — The Path to EAF Optimization Jeremy Jones, CIX Inc. 10:20 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. Ladle Metallurgy Furnace (LMF) Helmut Oltmann, Nucor Steel–Berkeley 11:30 a.m. Boxed Lunch Noon Plant Tour of Gerdau Long Steel North America Jacksonville Mill 4 p.m. Return From Plant Tour

I

Friday, 5 February 2016

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Wednesday, 3 February 2016


Hot Rolling Fundamentals A Practical Training Seminar in conjunction with Plate Rolling Fundamentals Training

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

21−25 February 2016 - Birmingham, Ala., USA - The Hilton Birmingham Perimeter Park

About the Course

Registration Fees

This seminar provides a comprehensive overview of hot rolling of both strip and plate. The course covers fundamentals, metallurgical and quality requirements, equipment, rolling theory, control, rolls, temperature control, measurement, safety and new technology. Attendees will leave this course with a better understanding of the basic metallurgy involved; the different types of products and their attributes; the types of mills used and equipment involved with the mills; the theory of rolling; the latest technologies involved in hot rolling; safety aspects; production measures; and much more. There will be opportunities to discuss issues and solve problems during the question and answer sessions. A full-day parallel session will be devoted to discrete plate and Steckel rolling.

Advance registration by 11 January 2016: Member US$995, Nonmember US$1,210. Registration after 11 January 2016: Member US$1,095, Non-member US$1,310. Registration includes Monday through Thursday continental breakfasts, lunches, and continuous breaks, Sunday and Monday receptions, plant tour, and a course workbook or flash drive including presentations.

Hotel Accommodations A block of rooms has been reserved at The Hilton Birmingham Perimeter Park. Please call the hotel at +1.800.567.6647 by 6 February 2016 to secure the AIST discount rate of US$139 per night for single/double occupancy.

Sponsored By AIST’s Hot Sheet Rolling and Plate Rolling Technology Committees.


175

Schedule of Events Sunday, 21 February 2016

2:15 p.m.

4–6 p.m.

Registration

5–6 p.m.

Welcome Reception

2:30 p.m. The Reheat Furnace Paul Debski, ANDRITZ Inc.

Break

Monday, 22 February 2016

3:30 p.m. Roughing Mill Area Equipment Eric Thokar, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc.

7 a.m. Registration and Continental Breakfast

4:30 p.m. Question and Answer Session

8 a.m.

Introductions and Opening Remarks

8:30 a.m. Safety 9:45 a.m. Break 10 a.m.

Overview/History of Hot Rolling

11 a.m. Review of Metallurgical Basics John Speer, Colorado School of Mines Noon

Lunch

1 p.m.

 pplication of Fundamentals to Hot Rolled A Processing/Products John Speer, Colorado School of Mines

5 p.m.

Reception

Tuesday, 23 February 2016 7 a.m.

Continental Breakfast

8 a.m.

Introductions

8:15 a.m. Finishing Mill Equipment Frank Beddings, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc. 9:45 a.m. Break

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

I

le archab e s a s ure on d feat r a b a s ed o s B g t n n i t e s ly. ploym job po month e m d s E e w f i T o r IS br ve T he A ns are you to o i r t i o f s po a se ia. All r datab e t i r fc c speci


Everything you need for a successful start to your day.

AIST members receive FREE access to SteelNews, a daily source for news in the global steel industry, including updates from steel producers, service centers and industry suppliers. To share your companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s news with the industry, send your press release to Sam Kusic at steelnewseditor@aist.org. Not a member? Visit AIST.org/news/subscription to subscribe today.

SteelNews.com


177

Hot Flat Rolling Fundamentals Schedule of Events (cont’d) 10 a.m. Finishing Mill Equipment (cont’d) Frank Beddings, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc. 11 a.m. Flatness With Profile Control Eugene Nikitenko, U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center Noon Lunch Plant Tours of Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc. or Nucor Steel–Decatur LLC

1 p.m. 6 p.m.

Return From Plant Tours and Adjourn

Wednesday, 24 February 2016 7 a.m.

Continental Breakfast

Hot Sheet Rolling Track 8 a.m.

9:45 a.m. Break 10 a.m. Mini-Mills Ian Ward, Primetals Technologies USA LLC 11 a.m. Finishing Mill Operations and Temperature Control Ian Ward, Primetals Technologies USA LLC Lunch

1 p.m. Hot Rolling Defects Mark Blankenau 2 p.m.

Discrete Plate Rolling — Process Charlie Romberger, ArcelorMittal

11 a.m. Discrete Plate Rolling — Equipment Eric Thokar, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc. Noon Lunch 1 p.m. Plate Finishing Equipment  Eric Thokar, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc. 2 p.m.

Break

2:15 p.m. Practical Aspects of Plate Leveling Rich Smith, ArcelorMittal 3:30 p.m. Plate Heat Treating Thomas Bovalina, Tenova Core 4:30 p.m. Question and Answer Session

Introductions

8:15 a.m. Rolling Theory Debashish Chakraborty, TMEIC

Noon

10 a.m.

Break

2:15 p.m. Hot Rolling Defects (cont’d) Mark Blankenau 3:15 p.m. Continued Developments in Hot Rolling Mills Michael Peretic, SMS USA LLC 4:30 p.m. Question and Answer Session

8:15 a.m. Steckel Rolling — Process Emin Erman, ArcelorMittal Conshohocken

9:45 a.m. Break

8 a.m.

Introductions

8:15 a.m. Gauge and Width Control Wlodek Filipczyk, TMEIC 9:15 a.m. Descaling, Roll Cooling and Spray Issues in Hot Rolling Lesli Peterson, Spraying Systems Co. 10:15 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. Runout Table Cooling Technology Michael Peretic, SMS USA LLC 11:30 a.m. Lunch 12:30 p.m. H  ot Strip Mill Downcoilers — Practical Considerations for Operation and Maintenance Jose de Jesus, Xtek Inc. 1:30 p.m. Roll Design Kevin Marsden and Peter Carless, Whemco International Ltd. 2:30 p.m. Break 2:45 p.m. Roll Shop Practices and Equipment Ron Webber, Akers National Roll Co. 3:30 p.m. Managing Roll Surface Quality Ron Webber, Akers National Roll Co. 4:30 p.m. Question and Answer Session 5 p.m.

Conference Adjourn

I

9:15 a.m. Steckel Rolling — Equipment Blane Vines, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc.

Continental Breakfast

I

8 a.m. Plate Rolling Introduction Eric Thokar, Primetals Technologies U.S.A. Holdings Inc.

7 a.m.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Plate Rolling Track

Thursday, 25 February 2016


Rod and Bar Rolling A Practical Training Seminar

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

22−25 February 2016 - San Antonio, Texas, USA - Hilton Palacio Del Rio

About the Course

Registration Fees

This seminar will focus on key mill elements and how controlling these elements will positively affect hot rolled as-rolled quality, facility utilization and yield. The presenters will cover basic making of steel, readying a mill for its production cycles, reheat furnaces, work rolls and rolling practices that affect mill quality through final customer requirements. A technical look at rolling forces will increase one’s understanding of torque and how it relates to mill rolling equipment. In addition, the presentations will include a realistic approach to safety and the basic theory of rolling.

Advance registration by 12 January 2016: Member US$745, Nonmember US$960. Registration after 12 January 2016: Member US$845, Non-member US$1,060. Registration includes continental breakfasts, lunches, and continuous breaks Tuesday and Wednesday, reception Tuesday, continental breakfast Thursday, plant tour, and a course workbook or flash drive including presentations.

Hotel Accommodations A block of rooms has been reserved at the Hilton Palacio Del Rio. Please call the hotel at +1.843.577.2400 by 31 January 2016 to secure the AIST discount rate of US$169 per night for single occupancy.

Sponsored By AIST’s Rod & Bar Rolling Technology Committee.


179

Schedule of Events Monday, 22 February 2016

Wednesday, 24 February 2016

4 p.m.

7 a.m.

Registration

Continental Breakfast

Tuesday, 23 February 2016

8 a.m. Work Rolls William Posey, SinterMet LLC

7 a.m.

Registration and Continental Breakfast

9:30 a.m. Break

8 a.m.

Introduction

9:45 a.m. R  olling Forces: Spindles, Gearing, Torque Devices Kevin Barbee, Danieli Corp.

8:05 a.m. Welcome to CMC Steel Texas Ty Hall, CMC Steel Texas

10:45 a.m. Break

8:30 a.m. Changing the Mindset for a Safer Environment Matt Blitch, Nucor Steel–Nebraska, and Gary Henderson, Nucor Steel–Berkeley

11 a.m. Rolling Forces: Spindles, Gearing, Torque Devices (cont’d) Kevin Barbee, Danieli Corp.

9:30 a.m. Break

Noon

9:45 a.m. Rolling Mill Metallurgy Terry Rasmussen, Nucor Steel–Nebraska

1 p.m. Down-Cut Cold Product Shears Bob Bennett, Danieli Corp.

10:45 a.m. Break

2:30 p.m. Break

11 a.m. Reheat Furnace: Operations and Safety Dan Davies, Fives Group

2:45 p.m. Motors, Drives and Speed Control Steve Pegg, Russula Corp.

Noon Lunch

4 p.m.

1 p.m. Pass Design and Rolling Theory Joe Kennedy, Quad Engineering Inc.

Thursday, 25 February 2016

2:30 p.m. Break

7 a.m.

2:45 p.m. Rolling Mill Scale Bob Greuter, Danieli Corp.

8 a.m.

Plant Tour of CMC Steel Texas

Noon

Return From Plant Tour and Adjourn

Lunch

Panel Discussion and Seminar Review

Continental Breakfast

3:45 p.m. Break 4 p.m. Mill Costs: Applying Predictive Methods Dan Phillips, Equipment & Controls 5 p.m.

Reception

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: 101

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

8–10 March 2016 - Huntsville, Ala., USA - Embassy Suites Huntsville Hotel

About the Course

Registration Fees

The modern production of steel has evolved over many centuries, with many technological improvements during the last 25 years. The making, shaping, and treating of steel are critical to product design, application, cost and performance. It is essential that employees involved in producing iron and steel, operating rolling mills, supplying equipment and materials to the steel industry, designing products, engineering, sales and construction have an understanding of what steel is, how it is produced, and the effects of making, shaping and treatment on the final performance of steel products. This course provides essential knowledge to those who do not have a technical background in metallurgical engineering, rolling or quality-added downstream processing but have a need to understand more about the technical aspects of steel manufacturing, properties and applications.

Advance registration by 26 January 2016: Member US$745, Nonmember US$960. Registration after 26 January 2016: Member US$845, Non-member US$1,060. Registration includes Tuesday and Wednesday continental breakfast, lunch and continuous breaks, Tuesday reception, Thursday continental breakfast, plant tour, choice of The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel® CDROMs, which include the 10th edition or the following volumes from the 11th edition: Ironmaking, Steelmaking and Refining, Casting and Flat Products, and a course workbook or flash drive including presentations.

Hotel Accommodations A block of rooms has been reserved at the Embassy Suites Huntsville Hotel. Please call the hotel at +1.256.539.7373 by 14 February 2016 to secure the AIST discount rate of US$139 per night for single/double occupancy.


181

Schedule of Events Tuesday, 8 March 2016

9 a.m.

7 a.m.

Continental Breakfast and Registration

8 a.m.

 verview of the Making, Shaping, and Treating of O Steel and History of the Industry

9:15 a.m. R  olling — Incoming Material Defects and the Reheat Process and Steel Deformation Noon Lunch

10 a.m.

Break

1 p.m.

Break

Steel — Types and Properties

10:15 a.m. Ironmaking and Steelmaking

3:45 p.m. Break

Noon Lunch

4 p.m.

1 p.m.

Ladle Metallurgy, Slags and Refractories

3 p.m.

Break

3:15 p.m. S olidification of Steel, Casting Defects and Prevention and Continuous Casting of Steel

Downstream Processing

Thursday, 10 March 2016 7 a.m. 8 a.m. Noon

Continental Breakfast Plant Tour of Nucor Steel–Decatur LLC Return From Tour and Adjourn

Wednesday, 9 March 2016 7 a.m.

Continental Breakfast

8 a.m.

Introduction — Hot Rolled As-Rolled End Products and Product Applications

Conference Wrap-Up Steel Mill Combustion and Thermal Systems Conference Details: 13–15 October 2015, Indianapolis, Ind., USA Conference Highlights: Topics on the first day covered combustion fundamentals, flow metering, pipe flow and piping system design. The topic of combustion was further explored — from combustion safety standards utilizing burner management systems and troubleshooting, to maintenance of systems, combustion control components, and sensor and diagnostic tools.

I The conference also included two evening receptions where attendees had opportunities to network with others, as well as ask specific questions of the presenters/experts from the conference. The next Steel Mill Combustion and Thermal Systems conference will be in March 2017 and will tentatively be located in Birmingham, Ala., USA.

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The conclusion of the two-day training session included a questionnaire focusing on topics from the second day’s subjects as well as an interactive discussion on the topics covered over the entire course. The attendees received a very thorough overview of issues pertaining to steel mill thermal and combustion systems.

Attendees view a presentation at Steel Mill Combustion and Thermal Systems, which was held 13–15 October 2015 in Indianapolis, Ind., USA.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

The second day began with a questionnaire that focused on the topics from the first day. After that, the training continued, starting with an explanation of heat recovery systems, recuperaters and regenerative systems. The effects of oxy-fuel combustion were then explored, and topics of environmental emissions, furnace refractory energy efficiency and economics were presented in great detail to give a complete overview of factors to be considered. In addition to the presentations, actual combustion case studies were reviewed by the group.


Material Handling and Transportation Logistics

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11–13 April 2016 - Nashville, Tenn., USA - Holiday Inn Nashville-Vanderbilt

About the Course

Registration Fees

This seminar is a combined effort of the Material Handling and Transportation & Logistics Technology Committees. The program has been developed to address the complexities of moving steel safely, effectively and efficiently. The steel industry is changing at an alarming rate, and the focus of this seminar is to ensure that the movement of steel changes along with it. The program will address the development of advanced material handling methods and technologies for within and outside of the steel plant. A roundtable discussion and a question and answer session will feature five panelists in steel material handling. In addition to classroom instruction, attendees will be given a tour of the Bridgestone Americas Tire Manufacturing facility. The keynote address will be given by Myles Morgan, chief engineer, Off-Road Division for Bridgestone Tire.

Advance registration by 29 February 2016: Member US$695, Non-member US$910. Registration after 29 February 2016: Member US$795, Non-member US$1,010. Registration includes Tuesday evening reception, continental breakfasts, lunches, and continuous breaks Tuesday and Wednesday, plant tour, and a course workbook or flash drive including presentations.

Hotel Accommodations A block of rooms has been reserved at the Holiday Inn NashvilleVanderbilt. Please call the hotel at +1.877.327.4707 by 12 March 2016 to secure the AIST discount rate of US$169 per night for single/double occupancy.

Sponsored By AIST’s Material Handling and Transportation & Logistics Technology Committees.


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Schedule of Events Monday, 11 April 2016

4:30 p.m. Roundtable Discussion and Reception

4–6 p.m.

Registration

Tuesday, 12 April 2016

Moderator: Douglas Niksch, Mi-Jack Products Inc.

Panelists: Larry Guinn, Nucor Steel–Berkeley; George Price, Berg Pipe; Donald Spencer, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc.; and Malcom Dunbar, Edw. C. Levy Co.

7 a.m.

Registration and Continental Breakfast

8 a.m.

Keynote Speaker Myles Morgan, Bridgestone

5:30 p.m. Adjourn

9 a.m.

 racticing Safety Awareness Around Mobile P Equipment Malcom Dunbar, Edw. C. Levy Co.

Wednesday, 13 April 2016 7 a.m.

Continental Breakfast

9:45 a.m. Break

8 a.m.

Transloading Operations — Great Lakes Reloading

10 a.m. Today’s Forklift Operations — Taylor Machine Works

8:45 a.m. O  verhead Crane Operational Safety Ted Blanton, North American Crane Bureau Inc.

11 a.m.

Trucking Regulations

Noon Lunch 1 p.m.

Just-in-Time Logistics

2 p.m.

Break

2:15 p.m.

DRI Handling and Transportation

3:15 p.m. Break 3:30 p.m. Alternative Fuels 4:15 p.m.

9:30 a.m. Break 9:45 a.m. Technology and Automation in Steel Inventory 10:30 a.m. Railroad Safety Donald Spencer, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc. 11:15 a.m. Tire Safety Tony Femminella, Steel City Tire Inc. Noon 12:45 p.m.

Break 4 p.m.

Boxed Lunch P  lant Tour of Bridgestone Americas Tire Manufacturing Return From Tour and Adjourn

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Did You Know? Ponsse Wins Swedish Steel Prize 2015

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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This year’s winner of the international Swedish Steel Prize is Ponsse from Finland. The prize is awarded for the company’s new generation of forest harvester, the Scorpion. Ponsse has, with high-strength steel, realized a revolutionary design that improves both performance and comfort. “Ponsse has not only significantly improved operator ergonomics, but also enhanced functionality and safety, and increased productivity with this new design,” says Gregoire Parenty, chairman of the jury and executive vice president and head of market development for SSAB. For decades, forest harvesting machines have remained pretty much the same. They have traditional designs that focus on function and not on operation. Ponsse decided that, by building a new harvester around the operator, with a focus on ergonomics, they could improve both performance and comfort. The Scorpion features a symmetrical crane boom where the operator sits in the center point of all movements. It offers the operator total visibility and the ability to work comfortably and efficiently. By using Strenx 700 MC Plus high-strength steel in the crane arms, Strenx 700 in the chassis and Hardox 450 in the cutter head, the Scorpion has a lower overall weight, which helps maneuverability in rough terrain. Furthermore, fuel consumption has been reduced and boom movements are faster. The Swedish Steel Prize was awarded for the 17th time in conjunction with a three-day event at which 700 participants from around the world gathered to share the latest findings on high-strength steel. The other finalists included Facil System from Brazil, Milotek from South Africa and Terex Cranes from Germany. The Swedish Steel Prize was established by SSAB in 1999 to inspire and disseminate knowledge about high-strength steel and how it can be used to develop stronger, lighter and more sustainable products.


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Member Chapters AIST represents individual members in the iron and steel community from more than 70 countries around the world. Through active networking at the chapter level, AIST members benefit from the interchange of ideas and solutions with others from the local iron and steel community. Visit AIST.org to learn more about Member Chapters.

Recent Member Chapter Events Detroit Member Chapter On Tuesday, 13 October 2015, the Detroit Member Chapter hosted its DTE Energy Night dinner meeting at the Holiday Inn in Southgate, Mich., USA. There were 130 steel industry professionals in attendance. The keynote presentation was delivered by

Dave Andrea, senior vice president and chief economist for the Original Equipment Suppliers Association. His presentation was titled “The Top 10 Questions Facing Auto Suppliers,” which proved to be an interesting and well-received topic.

Midwest Member Chapter

Local Member Chapters Argentina Australia Baltimore Birmingham Brazil Detroit Globe-Trotters

The Midwest Member Chapter held its annual kickoff dinner meeting on Tuesday, 13 October 2015 at the Avalon Manor in Merrillville, Ind., USA. The event featured a keynote presentation by Graham Reid, chief technology officer for ArcelorMittal North America Flat Rolled. There were 439 attendees at the dinner. Rich Trzcinski of EQ Engineers was honored as the 2015 Midwest Member Chapter Outstanding Service Award winner. Paul M. Behnke of United States Steel Corporation was also

honored for his service as Midwest Member Chapter chair. The 8th annual AIST Midwest Member Chapter High School Engineering Seminar was held on Friday, 16 October 2015 at Purdue University Calumet. Twenty high schools attended for a total of 274 students and 28 faculty members. Also in attendance were members of the AIST Midwest Member Chapter committee, along with students and faculty volunteers from Purdue University Calumet.

Northern Member Chapter The Northern Member Chapter hosted a dinner meeting at the Holiday

Inn Burlington Hotel & Conference Centre in Burlington, Ont., Canada,

India Korea Mexico Midwest Northeastern Ohio Northern Northwest Ohio Valley 1

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Pittsburgh San Francisco Southeast Southern California Southwest St. Louis

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Philadelphia

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on Tuesday, 20 October 2015. The keynote presenter for the evening was Tony Valeri, vice president of corporate affairs, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. His presentation was titled “World-Class Games, World-Class Company,” and discussed ArcelorMittal Dofasco’s role as a supplier of

the games and replica cauldrons for the Pan American/ Parapan American Games. There were 61 in attendance, including AIST Northern Member Chapter’s David H. Samson Scholarship winner, Joshua Feather.

Pittsburgh Member Chapter On Monday, 2 November 2015, the Pittsburgh chapters of AIST and the Association of Women in the Metal Industries (AWMI) co-hosted a dinner meeting at the Sheraton Hotel Pittsburgh at Station Square in

Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. The event featured a keynote presentation by Dennis Oates, chairman, president and chief executive officer of Universal Stainless & Alloy Products. There were 157 attendees at the joint dinner.

Southern California Member Chapter The Southern California Member Chapter hosted a vocational student tour, California Steel Industries Inc. (CSI) electrical and mechanical intern roundtable discussion, and dinner on Thursday, 22 October 2015 at CSI in Fontana, Calif., USA. With students, vendors and CSI

personnel, there was a total of 82 for dinner in the new Steel Way Café. The student participants toured CSI’s hot mill, pickle line, 5-stand cold reduction mill and No. 2 galvanizing line. The roundtable discussion was

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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1. Rich Kritikos (right), Detroit Member Chapter chair, presented a plaque of appreciation to keynote presenter Dave Andrea (left) at the chapter’s October dinner meeting. 2. Love Kalra (left), Midwest Member Chapter chair, ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor, presented the 2015 Midwest Member Chapter Outstanding Service Award to Rich Trzcinski (right) of EQ Engineers. 3. Love Kalra (right) presented a plaque of appreciation to Paul Behnke (left), Midwest Member Chapter past chair, United States Steel Corporation, for his service to the Midwest Member Chapter. 4. Love Kalra (right) presented a plaque of appreciation to keynote presenter Graham Reid (left) of ArcelorMittal North America Flat Rolled. 5. Students attended the AIST Midwest Member Chapter’s 8th annual High School Engineering Seminar at Purdue University Calumet on 16 October 2015. 6. AIST Northern Member Chapter David H. Samson Scholarship Winner Joshua Feather (left) was recognized by Shannon Clark (right), AIST Northern Chapter scholarship chair, at the Northern Member Chapter dinner meeting. 7. Dennis Oates, Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, gave the keynote presentation at the Pittsburgh Member Chapter’s joint meeting with the AWMI Pittsburgh Chapter (left to right): Laura Miller, AWMI Pittsburgh Chapter president, Kallanish; Michelle Fearon, AWMI Pittsburgh Chapter vice president, United States Steel Corporation; Bernie Marrese, Pittsburgh Member Chapter chair, Universal Stainless & Alloy Products; Oates; George Koenig, AIST president, Hatch (formerly with Berry Metal Company); Gary Urso, Pittsburgh Member Chapter treasurer, Alcoa Inc.; Amanda Blyth, AWMI Pittsburgh Chapter newsletter chair, AIST; and Bob Conley, Pittsburgh Member Chapter secretary, Factory Source LLC.


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Member Chapters lively and informative, and touched on CSI’s mechanical internship program for 2016. Rod Hoover, human resources manager from CSI, opened the roundtable discussion with a history of the

intern program at CSI and some of the expectations of the people who may participate.

St. Louis Member Chapter On Wednesday, 4 November 2015, the St. Louis Member Chapter welcomed AIST president, George Koenig, Hatch (formerly president of Berry Metal Company), to a dinner meeting at the Sunset Hills Country Club in Edwardsville, Ill., USA. Rob Fyalka of

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U. S. Steel – Granite City Works was recognized for his service as chair of the St. Louis Member Chapter. There were 35 attendees at the dinner, including AIST executive director, Ron Ashburn.  F

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1. Rod Hoover, human resources manager at California Steel Industries, provided an overview of the intern program at the Southern California Member Chapter’s student event in October. 2. The St. Louis Member Chapter held a dinner meeting on 4 November 2015 (left to right): Michael Cook, St. Louis Member Chapter vice chair; George Koenig, AIST president, Hatch Associates Inc.; Anna Bretzke, student, Missouri University of Science and Technology; Steve Pappas, St. Louis Member Chapter secretarytreasurer, Rockwell Automation; Nathaniel Griffen, student, Missouri University of Science and Technology; and Ronald Ashburn, executive director, AIST. 3. Steve Pappas (right) presented a plaque of appreciation to Rob Fyalka (left) for his service as St. Louis Member Chapter chair.

Did You Know?

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Quality Assurance Method for Weld Joints Wins Swedish Steel Prize University Challenge 2015 Thomas Stenberg, a student at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, was declared the winner of the Swedish Steel Prize University Challenge 2015 with a quality assurance method for weld joints. “Good weld quality affects the fatigue strength of components, especially important for the use of high-strength steel. The winning application is a new method for assuring the high quality in the form of longer fatigue life of weld joints,” says Gregoire Parenty, chairman of the jury and executive vice president and head of market development for SSAB. Stenberg is a Ph.D. student in the department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. His work will contribute to the development of software and measuring equipment for use in future industrial production lines. The Swedish Steel Prize University Challenge is an international prize aimed at inspiring students to learn about steel and how to design and manufacture in high-strength steel. It can be won by a team of students at any university who has come up with an idea for a product that includes high-strength steels, construction or wear-resistant steels, or a suggestion for a method that expands the field of application for these steels. The Swedish Steel Prize University Challenge is being awarded for the fourth consecutive year. The winner receives a diploma and a meeting with one of SSAB’s specialists for a day.


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Member Chapters 2015–2016 Member Chapter Officers AUSTRALIA MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Paul James O’Kane, principal steel manufacturing technology officer, OneSteel Ltd., Sydney, NSW, Australia

Paul O’Kane has 30 years of experience in the steelmaking industry, starting as a metallurgy trainee with BHP in Port Kembla, NSW, Australia. He received his bachelor’s degree in metallurgy. He has held various positions at the BHP Port Kembla slab casters, including shift supervisor and superintendent — quality control. He then worked as operations superintendent — bloom caster at BHP Newcastle; manager of the meltshop at the Laverton Steel Mill, OneSteel; and general manager at Harsco. He returned to OneSteel (previously BHP) in 2005 as technical and development manager of the Sydney Steel Mill. O’Kane now oversees the technical development and continuous improvement programs for the Sydney meltshop, Sydney bar mill and Newcastle rod mill. He also coordinates the Steelmaking Best Practice Forum across OneSteel. This includes the Sydney Steel Mill, Laverton Steel Mill (Melbourne), Waratah Steel Mill (Newcastle), Alta Steel Mill (Edmonton, Alta., Canada) and Whyalla Steelmaking. O’Kane led the implementation of the polymer injection at Sydney Steel Mill and Laverton Steel Mill. In September 2013, he was appointed to oversee the rolling mill best practice at Arrium.

Vice chair

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Narendra Saha-Chaudhury, visiting fellow, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Narendra Saha-Chaudhury completed his education at the Jadavpur University, Kolkata, WB, India. He has been elected as a Fellow of Engineers Australia and also Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, India. He has more than 30 years of experience in engineering innovation and research work. He has been involved with research in the areas of waste plastics utilization in the steelmaking industry and new iron- and steelmaking technologies. He has jointly published many journal and conference papers and has jointly won several awards, including the 2006 AIST Environmental Technology Award for best paper and presentation, and the 2006 AIST Charles Briggs Award for Best Paper in Electric Steelmaking. He also received jointly an Engineering Excellence Award in 1998 from IEAust — Sydney Division with other researchers of the sustainable materials processing research team at University of New South Wales (UNSW) and UNSW Innovation Awards 2012. He was the manager of the SMaRT Centre at UNSW in Sydney, Australia, until his retirement in February 2015. He is now a visiting fellow at UNSW.

Secretary-treasurer

Len Woods, processing superintendent, New Zealand Steel – Taharoa, Te Kuiti, New Zealand

Len Woods is a metallurgical engineer with more than 25 years of experience in the steel industry. Woods commenced his career with BHP Steel, which later became BlueScope Steel, working in operations and technical roles in steelmaking, slab casting, strip casting, and alternative ironmaking processes. From 2012 to 2015, he was with HATCH as a supervising metallurgical engineer working on feasibility studies and in hot commissioning roles. He joined New Zealand Steel in 2015 as a processing superintendent. He has been a member of AIST since 2004.

BALTIMORE MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Calvin A. Keeney, retired, Queenstown, Md., USA

Calvin A. Keeney graduated in 1966 with a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park. He began his career with Bethlehem Steel at Sparrows Point in 1961 and became a management trainee in 1967. He advanced in various positions throughout the plant as electrical engineer, electrical manager, maintenance manager and plant reliability manager. Keeney has been a member of AISE/AIST since 1967 and served on several committees both locally and nationally, presenting and publishing a number of technical papers.

Secretary-treasurer

Arthur J. Hamm, retired, Baltimore, Md., USA

Arthur J. Hamm is a 1964 graduate of Lehigh University with a B.S. degree in metallurgical engineering. He received an M.B.A. in economics from Loyola College in 1975. Hamm began his career in the metallurgical department at the Bethlehem Steel Sparrows Point plant in 1964 as a management trainee. He progressed through positions of experimental engineer and metallurgical supervisor in the experimental, plate mill and steelmaking sections of the quality assurance department. He retired from his position as a quality improvement engineer at Severstal Sparrows Point. Hamm received a 2003 Iron & Steel Society Presidential Citation for his 15 years as secretary-treasurer of the Eastern Section of ISS-AIME and a Baltimore Member Chapter award in 2009. He joined AIST in 2004 and has served on the Baltimore Member Chapter executive committee since then. Hamm became an AIST Life Member in 2014.


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BIRMINGHAM MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

more than 23 years. He served as chief executive officer of O&S Consultoria e Serviços Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, and was CEO of Vallourec & Sumitomo Tubos do Brasil from 2007 through 2010.

Trevor Saunders, meltshop supervisor, Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc., Birmingham, Ala., USA Trevor Saunders graduated from Tuskegee University in 2009 with a B.S. degree in electrical engineering and a minor in physics. He began his career with Nucor as a meltshop intern in 2008 at Nucor Steel–Berkeley. Immediately after graduation, he joined the Nucor Steel– Berkeley team as a power systems engineer from 2009 to 2011. In 2012, he transferred to Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc. as a meltshop process engineer and transitioned into his current role as meltshop supervisor in 2013.

Vice chair

Edward Druschitz, process metallurgist, Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc., Birmingham, Ala., USA

Ed Druschitz graduated from The University of Alabama at Birmingham with his Ph.D. in materials science in 2013, and his master’s in metallurgy from Missouri University of Science and Technology in 2009. He began his metals casting career in 2000 at the age of 18, as an intern for Intermet Corp. at their research foundry in Lynchburg, Va., USA. He joined Nucor Steel Birmingham Inc. in 2012 as a process metallurgist in the quality assurance department.

Secretary-treasurer

Anna B. Voss, melt/cast metallurgist, Nucor Steel–Decatur LLC, Trinity, Ala., USA

Anna B. Voss graduated from Carnegie Mellon University in 2009 with a B.S. degree in chemical engineering. She started her career in the steel industry as an intern at Nucor Steel–Berkeley the summer of 2008, and upon graduation began her full-time career with Nucor Steel–Decatur LLC. At Decatur, her first role was hot mill metallurgist. She then moved up the process to the ladle metallurgy furnace as a melt/cast metallurgist in March 2011.

BRAZIL MEMBER CHAPTER

Vice chair

Ernesto Rheinboldt, engineer, Tallman Bronze Co. Ltd., Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil

Ernesto Rheinboldt has been providing technical services, commissioning services and sales support for A.H. Tallman Bronze Co. Ltd. in Brazil for more than 10 years. His focus is on applications and technologies for both BOF and EAF steelmaking and secondary refining. He graduated with a degree in metallurgy in 1989 from the Faculty of Industrial Engineering (Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial – FEI) at the Fundação Carlos Alberto Vanzolini – University of São Paulo, Polytechnic School. Prior to joining Tallman Bronze, Rheinboldt worked for Umicore (Degussa), Dow Corning (Camargo Correa Metais) and Alubar Metais e Cabos, amassing more than 24 years of experience, including 14 years in the production department/smelting of copper, silicon and other precious metals and the production of continuous casting aluminum rod using the Properzi process.

Secretary-treasurer

Ronaldo Santos Sampaio, CEO, RS Consultants Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Ronaldo S. Sampaio graduated with honors in metallurgical engineering from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1977. He holds advanced degrees in extractive metallurgy and engineering economics (1979), which he received from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, and M.Sc. (1985) and Ph.D. (1991) degrees in metallurgy and materials science from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. He has more than 37 years of professional, lecturer and management experience in the ferrous metals industry. He is a globally recognized expert in biomass utilization for metals production (charcoal). He is the CEO of RS Consultants Ltda. and WISE Technology, Business and Services and is wellknown as a leader in the training of young engineers.

DETROIT MEMBER CHAPTER

Chair

Otavio José de Moraes Sanabio, mechanical engineer, graduated in 1980 from Rio de Janeiro State University and began his career at Mannesmann Demag Hüttentechnik, Düsseldorf, Germany. He remained with the company for

Richard B. Kritikos, engineering site manager, U. S. Steel – Great Lakes Works, Ecorse, Mich., USA

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Otavio M. Sanabio, owner and director, O&S Consultoria e Serviços Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Chair

Vice chair

Doug Sheppard, project manager – PMP, Hatch Associates Inc., Clinton Twp., Mich, USA

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Member Chapters Secretary

Roger Kalinowsky, senior project manager and manager of environmental engineering, Sidock Group Inc., Novi, Mich., USA

Kyle D. Kingsbury graduated from McKendree University, Lebanon, Ill., USA, with a B.S. degree in mathematics and computer science in 1995. He received an M.B.A. from University of Missouri in 2000. He began his career in steelmaking with Premier Refractories/Services in 1997. In 2000, Premier was acquired by Vesuvius and he was promoted to district sales manager for the Midwest. In 2008, he became director of marketing technology for the linings division of Vesuvius. In 2009, he went to work for Duferco SA, Lugano, Switzerland, a leader in steel trading and raw materials, and is presently NAFTA director of business development for refractories and vanadium. He has been a member of AIST since 1997, and served as chair, vice chair and papers chair for the AIST Refractory Systems Technology Committee from 2010 to 2014.

Treasurer

Chair — Rolling mill

GLOBE-TROTTERS MEMBER CHAPTER

Vice chair — Rolling mill

Chair — Meltshop

Adam Horrex, melter/shift supervisor, Nucor Steel–South Carolina, Darlington, S.C., USA

Adam Horrex has been a member of AIST for nine years, having served the Globe-Trotters Member Chapter for the past five. He began his Nucor career in December 2006 at the Hertford County, N.C., USA, division as a process engineer at the EAF. During his time at the Hertford County plant, his responsibilities also included the position of caster process engineer. In 2011, Horrex accepted his current position as a melt/cast supervisor at the Darlington, S.C., USA, division. Prior to Nucor, he spent seven years with Commercial Metals Company in various roles throughout the meltshop at the Cayce, S.C., USA, plant. Horrex graduated from Purdue University West Lafayette with a B.S. degree in industrial engineering.

Vice chair — Meltshop

B. Gavin Noel, general manager, Amsted Rail Co., Bessemer, Ala., USA

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Kyle Kingsbury, NAFTA director of business development for refractories and vanadium, Duferco Steel Inc., O’Fallon, Mo., USA

Roger Kalinowsky received his B.S. degree in environmental engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his M.S. degree in chemical engineering from Wayne State University. He spent 21 years with the Great Lakes Division of National Steel in Ecorse, Mich., USA (now part of U. S. Steel), followed by 14 years as a consultant to the steel industry. He began his career with National Steel as an environmental engineer in 1978, and worked to become manager of environmental control in 1985. He became a manager in the engineering department in 1991 and was promoted to director of both the engineering and environmental departments at the Great Lakes Division in 1996. In 2000, he moved on to consulting, focusing on the steel industry. He is currently working for Sidock Group Inc. and serves steel, chemical and power industry clients.

William Sidock, president, Sidock Group Inc., Novi, Mich., USA

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Secretary — Meltshop

Gavin Noel has worked in the steel industry for 20 years. He began his career in mill operations and then gained experience with plant engineering, maintenance and eventually meltshop management. In July 2014, Noel became the general manager for Amsted Rail in Bessemer, Ala., USA. He holds a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Auburn University and an M.B.A. from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He received his Six Sigma Black Belt certification in 2008. He is a past chair of the AIST Birmingham Member Chapter and served on the AISE/AIST board of directors in 2003.

Neil Parker, production manager, Gerdau Long Steel North America Midlothian Mill, Midlothian, Texas, USA

Richard L. Wood, rolling mill manager, CMC Steel Alabama, Birmingham, Ala., USA

Secretary — Rolling mill

Stephen Pegg, general manager, Russula Corp., Dublin, Ohio, USA

INDIA MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Anand Sen, president, TQM and steel business, Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur, JH, India In his current role as president, TQM and steel business, Anand Sen is responsible for the steel business including marketing and sales and for the promotion of TQM across Tata Steel India. Sen graduated from IIT Kharagpur as a metallurgical engineer and joined Tata Steel as a graduate trainee in 1981. Subsequently, he completed his PGDBM (Marketing) from IIM, Kolkata and also has an Executive M.B.A. from CEDEP at INSEAD, France. Sen has worked across marketing and sales, strategy and business leadership, and operations and projects in his more than threedecade-long career. He led the company’s foray into branded steel from India’s first dedicated steel distribution channel and was associated with the development of specialized steel for the automotive industry. Besides serving as president, TQM and steel business, Sen chairs the Tubes Profit Centre Council. In addition, he is on the board of the following companies: TAYO Rolls Ltd. (chairman), Tata Steel Processing and Distribution Ltd. (chairman), Tata BlueScope Ltd., The Tinplate Co. of India Ltd., JCAPCPL, and NatSteel Holdings Pvt. Ltd. He is a board member of XIM, Bhubaneswar and also chairs the Jamshedpur School of Arts and Jharkhand Boxing Association.


191 Sen is vice president of the Indian Institute of Metals and also chairman of its ferrous division. He is a co-opted member of CII Eastern Regional Council and co-chairs the Logistics & Supply Chain Task Force of CII’s Eastern Regional Council. He is a member of the advisory committee of the Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology, IIT Bombay. He was awarded the Essar Gold Medal of the Indian Institute of Metals in 2004 and the IIM Tata Gold Medal in 2012.

Vice chair

Rajiv Kumar Bhatnagar, director – projects Hazira asset, Essar Steel Ltd., Surat, GJ, India

Rajiv Bhatnagar has a B.Tech. in metallurgical engineering from IIT Kanpur. Subsequently, he completed his post-graduate degree in industrial engineering from IIIE, Mumbai. He also completed an International Executive Programme (a condensed M.B.A.) from INSEAD, France. With 35 years of experience in the steel industry, Bhatnagar joined Essar Steel as the head of technology in August 2010 and took up the role of CEO of the Hazira facility from July 2011 to March 2014. Currently, he holds the position of director of projects, Hazira asset, and leads a multi-billiondollar Hazira re-configuration project. Prior to Essar Steel, he served ArcelorMittal Steel for nine years, starting as general manager (rolling mills) at Romania. He went on to take charge of the Macedonia unit as its CEO. Later, Bhatnagar served as director (tech. administration and strategy) at the Krivoy Rog unit of ArcelorMittal. Bhatnagar served in Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) for 22 years, starting from a junior manager in the plate mill of its Bhilai Steel Plant to assistant general manager in the rail and structural mill, where he handled key assignments in various areas of production. During his tenure in SAIL, he served in a high-value human resources role as a tutor of specially designed management modules for three years, and, in addition, represented SAIL in various national and international forums. He is ex-chairman of CII’s Southern Gujarat Council.

KOREA MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Sun Cheer Sheen, chairman, president and chief executive officer, Donghae Steeltech Corp., Seoul, Korea

Sun Cheer Sheen graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering from Inha University, and earned a master’s degree in accounting from Korea University. He has served as an advisor to the Korea Importers Association. He has also served as the first representative of Pfizer Quigley (Minteq), Korea. In addition to his responsibilities as chair of the Korea Member Chapter, Sheen is a director of alumni for Inha University.

Secretary-treasurer

Akira Asaka, president, IMTEX Corp., Yokohama City, Japan

Akira Asaka graduated from Waseda University, Tokyo, in 1968 with a B.S. degree in politics and economy. In the same year, he joined Kanto Special Steel Works Ltd., a rolling mill roll manufacturer. He worked mainly in international business, including the technical transfer projects to Doosan HIC, Korea, and Aços Villares, Brazil. From 2003 to 2005, he worked for Sumitomo Metals Industries (SMI). After his retirement from SMI, he became the president of IMTEX Corp. He has been a member of AIST since 1982. He is also a member of the South East Asia Iron & Steel Institute and the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan.

MEXICO MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Secretary-treasurer

Bimalendu N. Mukhopadhyay, Rajarhat, Kolkata, India

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Rafael Colás received a bachelor’s degree in metallurgical engineering in 1978 from Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, in Mexico City, and his M.Met. and Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield, England, in 1980 and 1984, respectively. He held the post of lecturer at the Faculty of Engineering at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México from 1984 to 1987. He was research manager at Hylsa S.A. de C.V. in Monterrey from 1987 to 1992. In 1992, was appointed professor at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. He was admitted to the Mexican Academy of Engineering in 1987 and to the Mexican Academy of Sciences in 2000. He was recognized as a Fellow of ASM International in 2004. He is author of more than 120 papers published in journals. He has supervised the research work of more than 100 students who have obtained their undergraduate and post-graduate degrees.

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Bimalendu N. Mukhopadhyay completed his secondary education in Shree Narayan Institution, Itachuna, Dist. Hooghly, WB, India, and then earned B.Tech. (honors) in metallurgical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, WB, India. Thereafter, he started his professional career at Central Engineering & Design Bureau of Hindustan Steel Ltd. (now MECON Ltd.) in 1972. He worked at MECON Ltd. for 36 years in various capacities and superannuated from there as general manager, Metals (Iron, Steel, Non-Ferrous and Metallurgical Wing) in 2007. He then served as chief metallurgical advisor of MECON Ltd. for two years. Following that, he worked in Essar Engineering Services Division for one year and Gharda Scientific Research Foundation for about a year. He has to his credit about a dozen technical papers on various iron and steel technologies and is twice the recipient of the M. Visvesvaraya Gold Medal. Mukhopadhyay is a life member of Indian Institute of Metals, Institute of Engineers (India) and Computer Society of India. He has been a member of AIST since 1980 and an executive member of its India Member Chapter since 2008.

Rafael Colás, professor, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico


192

Member Chapters Vice chair

Juan Carlos Rodrigues Goncalves, Gerente Areas Primariad y Calientes Guerrero, Ternium Mexico, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico Juan Rodrigues has worked in the steel industry for 26 years and is a graduate of the University Institute of Technology Capital Region in Caracas, Venezuela. He started his career in 1989, spending 10 years at Siderúrgica del Turbio S.A., Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela, a subsidiary of SIVENSA, where he held positions from EAF supervisor to meltshops operations superintendent. In 1998, he participated in the process of SIDOR’s privatization, where he held several positions from continuous casting superintendent to billets meltshop manager and later slabs meltshop manager. After that, he became part of Ternium Mexico as meltshop manager, and in January 2012 he was named manager of primary processes and hot areas and north long products. Now he is the long products operations manager for Ternium Mexico. Rodrigues studied management and accounting in the Accounting Center of Caracas, and production processes at Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración. He is an active member of the AIST Mexico Chapter, where he has held the positions of coordinator/ member of the meltshop committee and co-coordinator of the maintenance and safety committee.

Secretary

Homero Menchaca, general director, Nacional de Aceros (AHMSA Service Center), Monclova, Coah., Mexico

Homero Menchaca received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering and his M.B.A. from Tecnológico de Monterrey, and a master’s degree in metallurgy at Universidad de Navarra, Spain. He started his career as process engineer at HYLSA’s hot strip mill. After five years, he joined AHMSA to be process control manager, rolling operations for two years, and then was export manager for two years. He then transferred to Ryerson de Mexico (service center), where he held various managerial positions in operations, sales and purchasing. He returned to AHMSA in 2000 as industrial sales general manager, responsible for the automotive, home appliance and electrical steels markets. In 2001, Menchaca was promoted to assistant vice president for industrial sales, and in 2003 was given responsibility of Nacional de Acero, AHMSA’s wholly owned service center and distributor, where he has full P/L responsibility.

Treasurer

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Demetrio M. Velasco, sales director, AMI GE, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico

Demetrio M. Velasco has a B.S. degree in electronic and communications engineering from Tecnológico de Monterrey (1981) and has dedicated most of his professional life to the steel industry, first as electric design engineer at HYLSA Planta Monterrey (now Ternium México Planta Guerrero), where he contributed in several EAF automation projects. In 1993, he moved to the sales department of AMI (now AMI GE), where he held several positions and actively collaborated in the company’s globalization. He is currently AMI GE’s sales director. Velasco has been a member of the AIST Mexico Member Chapter for several years, and has participated in the meltshop and editorial committees.

MIDWEST MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Love Kalra, senior engineer, ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor, East Chicago, Ind., USA

Love Kalra received his bachelor’s degree in instrumentation and controls engineering in 2000 from Kurukshetra University, India. In 2006, he received his M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Lamar University, Texas, USA. He received his M.B.A. from Purdue University in 2010. Before coming to the U.S., Kalra worked in India and Bangkok, Thailand. He worked as an associate engineer at JSW Steel in Baytown, Texas, USA. He has been with ArcelorMittal since 2007, working in primary operations. His current title is senior engineer at Indiana Harbor’s steel producing facility. He received AIST Midwest Member Chapter Outstanding Service Award in 2014.

Vice Chair

Clifford Chatman, lead engineer, operating technology, ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor, Burns Harbor, Ind., USA

Secretary

Mario Munguia, Hammond, Ind., USA

Mario Munguia began his career in steel manufacturing in 1970 and spent 30 years at Inland Steel (now ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor East Works) in many different maintenance, supervision and project management capacities. He worked previously as vice president at the American Group of Constructors until 2013. He has been associated with AIST throughout his career, but became a Midwest Member Chapter executive committee member in 2011 and secretary of the Midwest Member Chapter in 2013.

Treasurer

Ron Smolen, principal, H.A. Smolen Co. Inc., Highland, Ind., USA

Ron Smolen has worked at H.A. Smolen Co. since 1993. He has been an AIST member since 1996. He enjoys working with his fellow executive board members, planning and implementing the Midwest Member Chapter’s vendor fair, dinner meetings, golf outings and other events.

NORTHEASTERN OHIO MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Larry A. Marks, manager, steel processing, TimkenSteel Corp., Canton, Ohio, USA Larry A. Marks holds a degree in management from Malone University, and an A.A.S. in electronics from Stark State University. He has been an active member of AISE/AIST


193 since 1986, and past chapter chair during 2004–2006. Marks started with The Timken Co. in 1981 and has managed many different areas of production and maintenance during his tenure. Marks currently holds the position of manager of Steel Processing at the Faircrest Steel plant in Canton, Ohio, USA, managing the rolling and finishing areas.

NORTHERN MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Wayne S. Thompson, account manager, Commercial Oil Co., Hamilton, Ont., Canada

Vice chair

Pete Rebeulta, sales specialist, MINTEQ International Inc., Canton, Ohio, USA

Pete Rebeulta has worked in the steel industry for 30 years. He started with Universal Refractories in 1985 as a steel mill service representative at Republic Steel and then at the Timken Faircrest plant. He worked for Fosbel Inc. from 1986 to 1988 in ceramic welding ladles at Republic Steel. He then took an opportunity with PC Campana in 1988 to do mold repair. In 1991, he started working with J.P.M Refractory Service as a steel mill service representative, repairing and maintaining top pour stools at LTV West in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. In 1992, he started working for Minteq International as a steel mill service representative, building tundishes at Timken’s Harrison plant. In 1993, Rebeulta started traveling to mills in Ohio and Michigan, including Rouge Steel (now AK Steel Corp. – Dearborn Works) and North Star Steel Youngstown, assisting with tundish trials. He moved to Myrtle Beach, S.C., USA, in 1995 to work at Georgetown Steel. Rebeulta ultimately ended up servicing the entire southeast region. He moved back to Canton, Ohio, USA, in 2003 to become supervisor with Minteq at Republic Steel and both of Timken’s mills. He has been in sales with Minteq International since 2009 and has been on the executive committee of AIST’s Northeastern Ohio Member Chapter since 2010.

Secretary

Donald M. Salsbury, senior project manager, R.E. Warner and Associates Inc., Westlake, Ohio, USA

Secretary-treasurer

Cameron Mitchell, manager, capital project delivery, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ont., Canada

Cameron Mitchell has 17 years of experience in the steel industry working at ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. in Hamilton, Ont., Canada. His background is in electrical engineering, and he graduated from Queen’s University in 1997. He began his career as a technology coordinator in the hot strip mill, working primarily in level 0/1 control systems. He also worked as project manager for numerous projects during the Hot Band Improvement Program in the late 1990s. In 2002, he was assistant general manager of Powerlasers, a tailor-welded blanking subsidiary in Ohio. That assignment lasted four years, and he managed the operations, maintenance and engineering aspects of the business. Upon returning from that assignment, he assumed the role of technology manager for the hot strip mill, where his teams’ responsibilities included product quality, process reliability and improvement, and business planning. While he was technology manager, he championed and initiated the throughput improvement program that is still under way. In 2013, he transferred to the engineering and maintenance technology department and now holds the role of manager, capital project delivery. His group is responsible for the capital investment process, file development and execution of capital projects for the site. He is a contributing member of the Construction Industry Institute and joined AIST in 2014.

NORTHWEST MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Charles R. Berrier, rolling mill assistant superintendent, Cascade Steel Rolling Mills Inc., McMinnville, Ore., USA

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Chuck Berrier began his career in the steel industry in 1972 at U. S. Steel – Gary Works as an apprentice roll turner. He graduated as a journeyman roll turner in May 1976 and moved into a roll shop manager’s position in 1977, where he remained until his departure in 1982. In 1983, he accepted a position as a journeyman roll turner at Cascade Steel Rolling Mills in McMinnville, Ore., USA. In 1989, he accepted the position of roll shop manager and began his studies in the field of roll pass design. Berrier became a member of the Institute of Roll Design and attended classes under Herman Mueller at Quad Engineering, where he received his associate’s degree in roll pass design in 1997. During the past 15 years at Cascade Steel, he has held the positions of roll pass designer and general foreman of mill operations, and has held his current

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Secretary-treasurer

Yvonne L. Vancamp, project administrator, Globex Corp., Canfield, Ohio, USA

Steve Gillgrass, Hamilton, Ont., Canada

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Don Salsbury graduated in 1973 from the University of Kentucky with a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering. He began his career with Armco Steel in Ashland, Ky., USA, in 1974 in the works engineering department, and then as a turn foreman in finishing operations. After a short time in the manufacturing and chemicals industries, he returned to the steel industry in 1982 with Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel in Wheeling, W.Va., USA, as a lead engineer building the two continuous casters in Steubenville and Monessen. He then worked on building the initial plant of Wheeling-Nisshin in Follansbee, W.Va., USA. In 1990, he joined Eichleay Engineers in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA, as a project manager, and then in 1993 he joined Middough as a project manager. In 2012, he joined R.E. Warner and Associates as a senior project manager. Salsbury has more than 40 years in steel and related industries and has been an AIST member for more than 20 years. He is a member of the AIST Project & Construction Management, Safety & Health, and Ladle & Secondary Refining Technology Committees.

Vice chair


194

Member Chapters position as assistant superintendent of mill operations for the past seven years. Berrier held the position of treasurer for the Institute of Roll Design from 2004 to 2007, vice president from 2008 to 2009, and president from 2010 to 2011. He is currently on the executive committee for the Institute of Roll Design.

Vice chair

James A. Peterson, day shift supervisor, Nucor Steel Seattle Inc., Seattle, Wash., USA Jim Peterson began his career in the steel industry for Northwest Steel Seattle in 1977 after attending Seattle University. He began his full-time employment in many operations roles in the rolling mill, working up to shift supervisor. In 1998 he move to the West Seattle site, working as guide shop lead for 10 years. In 2008, he was promoted to day shift mechanical supervisor at Nucor Steel Seattle Inc. for two years. In 2010, he was promoted to his current position of day shift supervisor for Nucor Steel Seattle Inc. He has been active in AIST as part of the Northwest Member Chapter since 2008.

Secretary-treasurer

Thomas G. Euson, vice president, 3S Inc., Harrison, Ohio, USA Tom Euson started his career in finishing as a development technician at Carboline Co. while in college at St. Louis University from 1964 to 1968. After college, he sold metal finishing chemicals to the steel and finishing industries while with Detrex Chemical Industries. In 1976, he was promoted to southwestern regional manager. In 1981, he joined Ransburg Corp., then a leading manufacturer of electrostatic painting equipment, as national sales manager. In 1987, he formed 3S Inc., a company specializing in providing custom-engineered, special hazard fire protection systems for high-risk, high-hazard industrial processes. Euson is currently chair of the National Fire Protection Association Technical Committee on Finishing Processes, NFPA 33 and 34.

PHILADELPHIA MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Secretary-Treasurer

P.K. Ghosh, Gerdau Long Steel North America Sayreville Mill, Sayreville, N.J., USA

Patrick Jablonski, environmental manager, Nucor Steel Seattle Inc., Seattle, Wash., USA

Patrick Jablonski began his career in the steel industry as a mechanical engineering co-op for LTV Steel in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, in 1999. Shortly after graduating from the University of Cincinnati in 2003, he began his full-time career as a shift manager at AK Steel Corp. in Middletown, Ohio, USA. In 2005, he moved to Nucor Steel Seattle Inc., working as a project engineer for the meltshop. He has worked as an environmental engineer and now holds the position of environmental manager at Nucor Steel Seattle Inc.

OHIO VALLEY MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Grant A. Thomas, research engineer, AK Steel Research, Middletown, Ohio, USA

Grant Thomas is currently a research engineer at AK Steel Research in Middletown, Ohio, USA. Prior to joining AK Steel Research, he earned a B.S. degree (2006) in materials science and engineering from Iowa State University, and an M.S. degree (2009) and a Ph.D. (2012) in metallurgical and materials engineering from the Colorado School of Mines and the Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center. His primary research interest is technology and product development for third-generation advanced high-strength steels for carbon steel in automotive applications.

Vice chair

Robert Hruskoci, president, Advanced Industrial Marketing Inc., Fishers, Ind., USA

P.K. Ghosh is a graduate in metallurgical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, and also holds a diploma in accounting from North Arkansas State University. He currently works for Gerdau Long Steel North America Sayreville Mill. He started his career in the steel wire manufacturing industry and subsequently in electric arc furnace steelmaking in India prior to his migration to the U.S. in 1994. He has experience in various types of electric arc furnace steelmaking with varied ranges of products in respect to shape and quality. He has presented many technical papers and worked on two innovative projects which led to patents. He has also worked as an energy consultant for some reputed steel companies in the U.S.

Vice chair

Byron Shinn, general manager, Hydro East Inc., Aston, Pa., USA

Secretary-treasurer

Jose M. de Jesus Jr., applications and engineering services, Xtek Inc., Bethlehem, Pa., USA Jose M. de Jesus Jr. received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Lehigh University and began his engineering career at Westinghouse Plant Apparatus Division, working in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion program. He joined Bethlehem Steel’s Sparrows Point Division in 1989 as project engineer in the technical services department, assigned to the hot strip mill modernization effort. He was maintenance engineer for the Sparrows Point hot mill from 1992 through 2002. He joined CHL Systems Inc. in May 2002 as a project engineer for steel-related business, leading various mill upgrade projects. He joined Xtek Inc. in October 2010 as engineering services manager to develop engineering and design solutions for Xtek’s clientele. He now serves Xtek in applications and engineering services.


195 PITTSBURGH MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Bernie Marrese, plant engineer, Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Bridgeville, Pa., USA

Bernie J. Marrese graduated in 1990 with a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont., Canada. He currently serves as the plant engineer for Universal Stainless & Alloy Products Inc., responsible for the implementation and completion of new plant projects, including budget development and capital project planning for the plant. Previously, he was a project manager at SMS Siemag LLC, responsible for the planning, execution and closing of projects related to the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry.

Vice chair

Steven Asseff, commodity manager – machining and fabrication, United States Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

Steve Asseff began his career in 1990 with LTV Steel Corp., Cleveland, Ohio, USA, as a trainee and then area supervisor at the LMF and continuous caster at Cleveland Works Steel Producing East. In 1995, he was promoted to process coordinator at the LS-E joint-venture electrogalvanize line. He moved to purchasing at LTV in May 1997, and was promoted to supervising commodity manager in 1999. Following the LTV bankruptcy, Asseff spent three years at General Electric and Rolls-Royce before taking a position with Timken Bearing Group in 2004. He moved to the Timken Steel Group in 2006, where he worked in corporate strategy and process improvement. In 2012, he took a position with AK Steel Corp. – Butler Works in melt operations as a section manager. He recently moved to U. S. Steel, where he serves as a commodity manager for machining and fabrication for all U.S. operations. Asseff holds a B.S. degree in aerospace engineering from The Ohio State University and an M.B.A. from Case Western Reserve University. He is also a drilling Navy Reservist with the rank of Lieutenant Commander. He has served in the Reserve since 2001 and is an Iraq War veteran.

Secretary

Robert T. Conley, representative, Factory Source LLC, South Park, Pa., USA

Gary M. Urso, senior director – strategic investments, Alcoa Titanium and Engineered Products, Niles, Ohio, USA

Gary M. Urso has more than 32 years of experience in the metals manufacturing, utilities and services businesses. He currently serves as senior director — strategic investments, capital projects and global engineering general manager — engineering, capital projects, quality, metallurgy and maintenance for Alcoa Titanium and Engineered Products (formerly RTI International Metals Inc.). Previously, he was vice president of TDI Group LLC, and prior to that regional general manager of Orbital Engineering Inc. for several years, directing the Pittsburgh corporate operation, and Philadelphia, Detroit, Houston and Serbia offices. Prior to joining Orbital, Urso provided senior consulting services to the steel industry at Hudson Global Resources, directing major project initiatives at both ISG and ATI, and served as vice president and general manager of Panelmatic Inc., Youngstown, Ohio, USA. From 1995 through 2002, he managed the successful design and implementation of the world’s first direct roll anneal and pickle line at Arcelor (J&L Specialty Steel Inc.) Urso also established and managed the first process control and automation department at J&L. He started his career with the General Electric Co. in 1983, advancing into leadership roles serving both the steel and general industries. Urso is a graduate of the University of Pittsburgh with a B.S. degree in electrical engineering. He has been an active member of AIST for more than 20 years.

SAN FRANCISCO MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Tom Anderson, general manager — North America, PSI Technics Ltd., Pleasant Hill, Calif., USA Tom Anderson has spent the past seven years as general manager of Positioning Solutions International (PSI Technics Ltd.), a company specializing in intelligent crane positioning and sensor protection. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry from St. Norbert College, DePere, Wis., USA, in 1986, and has spent most of his career in technology, introducing leading-edge software and hardware solutions to a broad range of markets and partners. Anderson’s career has spanned positions within the chemical industry, semiconductors, software and other industrial markets. He joined AIST in 2012 and is a member of the Cranes Technology Committee. He serves on the board of advisors for CBX Technologies, a provider of technology, staffing and security services to clients nationwide.

Vice chair

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Adam Krey, purchasing manager for tin and sheet div., USS-POSCO Industries Inc., Pittsburg, Calif., USA

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Bob Conley has been a member of AIST since 1976. He earned his B.S. degree from the Pennsylvania State University in 1974 and an M.B.A. from Duquesne University in 1992. Conley has worked for mill builders, mill equipment suppliers and roll makers, including Acutus Industries, Birdsboro Foundry, Blaw-Knox F&MM, Johnstown Corp., Mackintosh-Hemphill and SMS Millcraft. During his career, he has served as product manager, vice president — sales of engineered products and general manager of AGI’s East Pittsburgh facility. Currently, he is a representative with Factory Source LLC.

Treasurer

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196

Member Chapters Secretary-treasurer

Adrian Deneys, development associate, Praxair Inc., San Ramon, Calif., USA

Adrian Deneys joined AIST (formerly ISS) in 1996. He joined the AIST San Francisco Member Chapter in 2008 and was elected to the position of secretary-treasurer in 2015. Deneys completed projects on oxygen injection for electric furnace steelmaking, participated in two projects on oxygen injection for BOF steelmaking, and led one project on oxygen injection in ladle metallurgy. He has also worked on oxygen supply for steel mills. He completed a Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology (then University of Missouri–Rolla). Deneys has a B.Sc. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Cape Town and is also active in TMS and SME.

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Daniel Housel, mechanical planner, pickle line/ cold mill, California Steel Industries Inc., Fontana, Calif., USA

Dan Housel earned a B.S. degree in automated manufacturing and an A.S. degree in electronics, both from ITT Tech. His experience in the industry includes 24+ years in electrical and mechanical heavy industrial maintenance and 15 years in electrical construction. He joined AIST in 2002, and is a member of the Lubrication & Hydraulics and Maintenance & Reliability Technology Committees.

SOUTHEAST MEMBER CHAPTER

Vice chair

Liz Hunter, metallurgical engineer, pickle line and cold reduction mill, California Steel Industries Inc., Fontana, Calif., USA

Chair

Kyle Lysitt, rolling and finishing electrical supervisor, Nucor Steel–Hertford County, Cofield, N.C., USA

Kyle Lysitt became the rolling and finishing electrical supervisor at Nucor Steel–Hertford County in October 2012. Prior to that, he spent 11 years at the facility’s caster and vacuum tank degasser as a shift electrician and then lead electrician. His previous work history includes the Bureau of Engraving & Printing in Washington, D.C., USA, and a tour in the U.S. Navy’s submarine force.

Vice chair

Kevin Bort, metals industry segment leader, TMEIC Corp., Salem, Va., USA

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Kevin Bort joined TMEIC in early 2014, and currently holds the position of metals industry segment leader. Prior to that, he spent several years as engineering manager at the structural and rail division, and as plant electrical engineer at the flat rolled division of Steel Dynamics Inc., and served as the general manager at New Millennium Building Systems. Before joining SDI, Bort held engineering roles in the iron foundry, ferroalloy, and electrical utility industries. He has a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Gannon University, Erie, Pa., USA. Bort has participated as a board member of the Midwest and Southeast Chapters and has been a chair and vice chair of several AIST Technology Committees.

Secretary-treasurer

Michael P. Olson, roll shop planner, California Steel Industries Inc., Fontana, Calif., USA

Michael Olson graduated in 1993 from North Central College in Naperville, Ill., USA, with a B.A. degree in business administration. He began his career with Reynolds Metals Co. in McCook, Ill., USA, holding various positions in the roll shop from 1976 to 1998. In 1998, he joined California Steel Industries and is now the roll shop planner. Olson joined AIST in 1998 and has served on the AIST Southern California Member Chapter executive committee since 2004.

SOUTHWEST MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Wade Hedrick, mechanical engineer, Nucor Steel–Texas, Jewett, Texas, USA

Vice chair Secretary-treasurer

Michael D. Hutson, president, John Hutson Co., Kings Mountain, N.C., USA

Michael Hutson became the president of the family business, John Hutson Co., in 1994. He has a B.S. degree in business from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

Albert R. Wilkinson, Fort Smith, Ark., USA

Ross Wilkinson graduated with a B.S. degree in metallurgical engineering from Missouri University of Science and Technology in 2008. He then received an M.S. degree in operational management from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. After finishing his B.S. degree, he went to work for Gerdau Special Steel North America in Fort Smith, Ark., USA, as an operations engineer until 2015.


197 Secretary-treasurer

James E. Sigler, industrial account manager, Belden, Carrollton, Texas, USA

ST. LOUIS MEMBER CHAPTER Chair

Brian Young, electrical engineer, Olin Brass, East Alton, Ill., USA

Vice chair

N. Stephen Pappas, area manager, drives and power controls, Rockwell Automation, Maryland Heights, Mo., USA

Steve Pappas graduated from Purdue University in 1978 with a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering and joined Westinghouse Electric following graduation. He spent two years in engineering in Pittsburgh and then transferred into industrial sales in 1981. He also earned a master’s degree in business from the University of Pittsburgh in 1982. In 1982, he was transferred to St. Louis as an outside sales representative. In 1989, he joined Reliance Electric (now Rockwell Automation) as account manager and was promoted to senior account representative of control systems in 1999. In October 2012, he was named power and control area manager. He has been active in AIST as part of the St. Louis Member Chapter since 1983. He has been the chapter secretary since 1992. F

Brimacombe Continuous Casting Course, Billets, Blooms and Slabs This course is designed for people who are concerned with controlling and improving the quality and production rate of continuously cast steel shapes. This group includes operating personnel, quality control and research personnel, management personnel and individuals in support industries associated with continuous casting. Course Directors: I.V. Samarasekera, Univ. of Alberta E.S. Szekeres, Casting Consultants, Inc.

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Sponsored by The Brimacombe Continuous Casting Society

Topics to be covered include chemical interactions, steel cleanness, transfer operations, fluid flow, tundish metallurgy, mould design/behaviour, spray systems, heat extraction, solidification, segregation, crack formation and new technology such as strip/ thin slab casting. The course offers a practical understanding of the continuous casting process and quality, based on fundamental principles, and addresses problems commonly experienced in production. Personnel newly-assigned to strand casting find this course very beneficial. Course Coordinator: Mary Jansepar e-mail: info@brimacombecourse.org

Early registration encouraged. Limited enrollment of 150.

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For further information, please phone (604) 822-2676 or fax (604) 822-3619 or email: info@brimacombecourse.org

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Instructors: I.V. Samarasekera, Univ. of Alberta E.S. Szekeres, Casting Consultants, Inc. R.J. O'Malley, Missouri Univ. of Science & Tech. B.G. Thomas, Univ. of Illinois I.D. Sommerville, Univ. of Toronto

April 25–29, 2016

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

www.brimacombecourse.org

Michael Cook, director of production scheduling, Alton Steel Inc., Alton, Ill., USA

Secretary-treasurer


198

MEMBERSHIP RECOGNITION AIST takes this opportunity to recognize our members for their years of loyalty and ongoing commitment to the iron and steel industry. Each year, AIST publishes a roster of individuals reaching significant anniversaries of membership, beginning with 10 years and continuing with each successive five-year anniversary. 50+ Consecutive Years of Membership Jagdish C. Agarwal L. James Anderson Shank R. Balajee John A. Beatrice Richard B. Bertolo William H. Betts Kenneth E. Blazek David T. Blazevic Gary L. Bowman John C. Campbell Richard J. Choulet C. Larry Coe Denis L. Creazzi Charles Criss Roy L. Cross James F. Cunningham Terence E. Dancy Stanley P. Darbut Anthony J. D’Atri William E. Dauksch Anthony C. Demos Richard Frank Draus James L. Emery Francis E. Fairman Elmer G. Foley

Richard J. Fruehan† Gordon H. Geiger Carl E. Glaser Henry G. Goehring Thomas C. Graham James F. Hamilton John G. Harhai Roger Heaton John D. Heffernan Harry O. Hefter Wallace L. Hick Jr. Edwin M. Horak Tobin Humphrey George A. Jedenoff‡ John E. Jetkiewicz Behram M. Kapadia Clifford W. Kehr Daniel W. Kremin Philip R. Landon Frederick C. Langenberg Daniel W. Lavis Robert G.H. Lee Edward C. Levy Jr. Timothy Lewis‡ Louis W. Lherbier

Claude H.P. Lupis Joseph N. Lynch Raymond M. Mader Alexander McLean† Akgun Mertdogan Richard C. Meyer Sr. Royston P. Morgan John M. Negomir William J. Nelson Sanford M. Nobel K.G. Pedersen Robert D. Pehlke Howard M. Pielet Raymond L. Polick K. William Rapp Richard L. Reddy Michel Rigaud Norman A. Robins Mark S. Rodney Gerald J. Roe† Richard E. Rush Walter D. Sadowski Norman L. Samways S.D. Sanders Nobuo Sano

Edward J. Schaming Winfried F. Schmiedberg William A. Schmucker Herbert D. Sellers Sr. Sudhir K. Sharma Bruce M. Shields David B. Simpson Surjit Singh Charles E. Slater Ralph M. Smailer Russell Solomon III Sigurd M. Sorensen George R. St. Pierre Joseph M. Strouse Jr. Russell E. Swanson Johannes M. Uys Brooks E. Weingart David A. Withrow J.F.B. Wood Robert T. Woodings Michael Wyte Albert R. Zelt

Libor F. Rostik Allan M. Smillie Paul J. Songer Thomas N. Thorla

Richard H. Verdier David H. Wakelin Frank M. Wheeler

Patrick D. McKeown Sr. George J. Miller Stephen Nelko H. Lavon Nichols Jack A. Nyrup Edward J. Osterman Ronald H. Radzilowski Joseph A. Raley

Robert A. Rawlings Frederick J. Sebesta Paul M. Shaffer James Skubak James Howard Smith Alfred J. Soltesz John R. Thebo

45 Consecutive Years of Membership

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Harvey R. Cohen Dennis T. Crosby Paul H. Egbers Joseph E. Gantz

D. Gregory Hill Jack E. Lenhardt Wilford G. McCorkle Jr. Dennis B. Rodal

40 Consecutive Years of Membership Dino Azzoni Glenn G. Biever Robert T. Conley John C. Crelling Raymond A. Devries Terry G. Fedor David C. Gilbert P.F. Hammers

Joseph M. Heiman Paul S. Highberger Douglas A. Hug Karl A. Koenig Aldo Longo Richard S. Lubanovic William J. Malic Robert P. Marcinski

*AIST past president; †ISS past president; ‡ AISE past president


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35 Consecutive Years of Membership Richard E. Antonelli Thomas E. Barnett Paul A. Bean Albert P. Beucker Robert A. Bloom Douglas L. Bracher Giorgio Cabai Gianfranco Colagiovanni Louis A. Colatriano Thomas J. Conarty Michael G. Cook Edward C. Crowley Pierre H. Dauby Paul Dellemonache Jr.

David M. Delmaster Daniel R. DiMicco William H. Emling David J. Englund Edward A. Esenwein Richard A. Foster Joseph M. Friedman Göran L. Grimfjärd Wesley T. Hiller Luther J. Holton Frederick W. Hyle Paul J. Jurczak Frank T. Koelble Christopher Kristock

Mark S. Kubas David M. Kundrat Michael C. Labanow Louis W. Lherbier Jr. John D. Lilley William A. Littrell Marty L. Martinez H. Ronald McCollum Karl G. Nacken John R. Paules Eugene M. Petcovic Daniel A. Pflaum Andrew L. Pinskey Jr. Daniel Rellis Jr.

James M. Ridgeway Stewart W. Robinson Charles J. Romberger Richard L. Shultz Randall P. Stone H. Thomas Tsai Alim Ullah Richard A. Walli Terrence P. Wells Bradley D. Wolf Martin B. Wood Robert E. Yeager

Raymond Milman Raymond W. Monroe Joe S. Ng John A. Ohalek David G. Petry Royston J. Phillips David A. Pongrance Franklin D. Riddick Bruce E. Roth Thomas M. Ryan Raymond F. Schleiden

Michael D. Schneider Anthony E. Scotto Gary S. Slaven Steven R. Sontag Ronald A. Stark Daniel G. Swann Jr. Charles E. Tomazin Agustin Torres M. James P. Weber

Camille Lemire John G. Leopold Robert T. McGuire Edward K. McTernan Jr. John S. Mitchell Dennis G. Moreland Arthur E. Morris John C. Moschgat Alberto Munoz E. Dennis L. Murr Christopher Z. Oldfather Brent G. Packey David G. Park Peter-Paul Ploner

Tapio J. Pohto Jeremy C. Pong Allen D. Powell Jr. Brent David Ray Barry S. Ringstrom James R. Robers C. Aldon Rooke James W. Rowland III Edward R. Schaming II Joseph T. Schatz Thomas J. Schrimscher William A. Sidock William E. Slye Mark A. Suer

30 Consecutive Years of Membership Bruce J. Barker Pinakin C. Chaubal Brian P. Claar Thomas J. Connors Patrick J. Coyle Christopher W. Cullen Lucas A. Demysh Pablo Diaz Aquino Rian J. Dippenaar Russel H. Elkan David G. Franz

Michael J. Friedrich Bjorn E. Gabrielsson Walter A. Gaffney Jeffrey Greenwald Edward J. Gross Leon Kenneth Hardy Charles M. Kay William M. Koval Fernando Martinez Jeffrey Mason Robert J. McCabe

25 Consecutive Years of Membership

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Harry J. Giuliani Robert A. Gosnell Gary W. Hallum H. Frank Hanna Lawrence J. Heaslip Thomas P. Helbling Michael A. Hodgson Gerard M. Johnson Tim A. Jur Michael J. Kovach Donald M. Krtanjek Sr. Robert B. Kuball Timothy D. Kuzmicky Prakash C. Laha

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Mark J. Baleja Mark A. Ball Douglas E. Bowen Edward W. Buckle Robert G. Carothers Richard A. Carpenter Bruno A. Chedal-Anglay Russell M. Connor Peter L. Duncanson Joseph A. Esmoer Ronald E. Evans Michael J. Fitch Bruce R. Forman Marc H. Frechette


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MEMBERSHIP RECOGNITION Glenn Sullivan Taleb M. Talaat Gregory Thompson

Eric Thorstenson Judith A. Todd David N. Usry

Floris R. Van Laar Dave L. Van Veldhuizen Douglas W. Varney

Erik Waelchli W. Keith Watson Mary L. Wingert

Michael E. Matas Paul J. Mauk R. Kelly McClara Brett A. McGee Ray McMillan Gregory G. Merta Matthew J. Merwin Daniel E. Michael Barton D. Miller Scott M. Mills Kinji Minami James Moss Darren J. Myers Bill Nielsen B. Gavin Noel Daniel J. Okenfuss Jose A. Ortiz James H. Paluh Harold E. Parker II Bhupendra H. Patel Frank Pearson IV Charles T. Pike Jaydsada Plungmanee Gary R. Polk Barry R. Pollock Philip E. Ponikvar Matthew C. Puhl James B. Quick James J. Raible Thomas G. Ranger Sridhar B. Rao Franz Reufer Deach Rhodes Tomas Richter David B. Rigby James M. Rivich Peter N. Rochussen Tim J. Rohde Eric Rosenow Edward Rumbaugh William Sage

Kevin F. Sainiak Dave Schrader Mark J. Schweitzer Eduardo Sereno Grant M. Shanley Steven S. Shapasian Sam E. Shelby Jr. James C. Sherred Thomas L. Sidler Dmitri Sidorenko Ron M. Smolen John P. Songer Michael E. Stanbary David D. Stobart David A. Stoyanoff Alan D. Strauss Paul A. Stroz Stella M. Sudderth Roberto Parreiras Tavares Hidekazu Todoroki Michael A. Todorowski Robert D. Turnbull Yoshiaki Uezumi Robert G. Urban Gary M. Urso David A. Varcoe Ben Ventresca Milan Vukelich David V. Walnoha Paul E. Wayne Thomas A. Weiler Floyd Weitzel Thomas J. Wilding Jerry Wilkins Sr. Brian R. Wimmer Timothy J. Wojtowicz Joachim G. Wuenning W. Todd Zeisler James J. Zelazny

Narayan Govindaswami Jeffrey R. Graeber Charles E. Greene Brett Guge Remn-Min Guo Robert W. Guy H. Scott Hamilton Bruce Helsel Ulf N. Hermansson Dan R. Herrmann Becky E. Hites Dennis L. Hixenbaugh Craig O. Hlady Ian G. Houldsworth John Allen Hruskoci Daniel H. Hugh William C. Hunter James P. Iwinski Richard W. Jackson Eric J. Janoscrat Norman A. Jedlicka Jeremy A.T. Jones Jeff S. Jordan Nebojsa Joveljic Joseph A. Julian Richard A. Jung Julie M. Kerbaugh Daniel C. Kilgore Kohey Kimura Joseph S. Klak Jr. Charles B. Kooistra Richard E. Kracich Jeffrey D. Latterell Duane E. Leake Jean Lehmann Denis W. Litalien Paolo Losso David O. Lunceford David J. Maccarone Vern Martin Dana F. Maselli

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

20 Consecutive Years of Membership W. Jurgen Ammerling Mark E. Banks Jon M. Barna Osvaldo A. Bascur William J. Baughman Frank W. Beddings Robert H. Bennett Nigel Blackmore Donald Bonnema Joseph B. Boyce Lewis Brandon Trevor D. Bray Sharon K. Case Thomas G. Cehelnik James A. Christina Michael Cline Robert M. Coburn Patrick T. Collins Timothy B. Conley Shaun B. Connolly Darrell R. Cooley Samuel K. Cooper Michael A. Costa William R. Culp L. Val Curran Todd P. Daenzer Donald R. Davidson William A. Dibert E. Joseph Duckett Michael J. Elphinstone Susan J. Engelhardt Bob Fairbanks Mark L. Fedor Barry C. Felton James A. Forbes Patrick J. Gallagher Anthony F. Gamboni Robert C. Garness Douglas E. Geary William D. Gehring Frank E. Goodwin

*AIST past president; †ISS past president; ‡ AISE past president


201

15 Consecutive Years of Membership James W. Adams Darrell W. Applegate Walter G. Balante Sr. Gene K. Beavers Xuegong Bi Claude Bissonnette Mike Blaner Richard A. Boord Mike D. Boyle Charles A. Bradford Jeffrey K. Brower Brayton J. Carner Larry Charbonneau Shaojie Chen Gary W. Dallin Jon E. Ekvall Harri Fenzl

Stephan A. Ferenczy Sergio A. Filippini Kip O. Findley Lew Fish William W. Frank Louis Giroux Miroslaw T. Glowacki James R. Goehring Jerald J. Gordon Jr. Paul Hammerle Gary D. Henderson Alan T. Jackson Marcel G. Kamutzki Marshall Khan Douglas P. Kost William G. Kunca Jeffrey J. Lawrence

Ronald R. Ledin Fu Lianchun John F. Lindeman Steve M. Lowe David G. Meineke Tom Miller Victor M. Monroy Lomeli Robert W. Murphy Scott E. Pisula April D. Pitts Ian D. Prendergast Christopher T. Quinn Leo F. Ricotti Peter L. Rozelle Mark Rubin Steven M. Ryan Mike D. Sauer

Kurt Schwendeman Derrick J. Shuler James E. Sigler William B. Smith III Cameron W. Tasker Huw F. Teale Christopher B. Tedrow Steve J. Thomas Brian J. Trocano Rudolphus J.W.M. Van Kollenburg Antonio C.F. Vilela Troy D. Ward James P. Williams Roger Young III Lifeng Zhang

Douglas S. Crocker Hugh E. Crosmun Doug Cruise James Dean Curry Salvatore Cutrera Jose D’Abreu Kelly M. Dallas Biplab Datta Everette Davis Jr. Amar K. De Mitrajyoti Deka Joel M. Dendinger Ron Derks Shyamal K.R. Dey Jeffery R. Dierdorf Philip A. DiMatteis John W. Dluhos William A. Dolehide Edward A. Dray Andy Dulya Ralph J. Dybiec Jeffrey R. Eis Jason Elmendorf Rick D. English Jeremy W. Fair Harry Fairhurst Charles P. Farnam Herbert P.K. Fastert Terry G. Fedor II*

Daniel A. Fielder Robert J. Fife Timothy J. Fingeroos Frank M. Fisher Jr. James J. Fittipaldo Michael Ford Dale W. Fortner Jeffrey Foster Louis J. Fourie Dean A. Fowler Joseph Frisch John J. Fruscione Dan Gadille Rick H. Gaskill Chad R. Gentry James P. Gilmore Ray O. Gonzalez Robert C. Grove John M. Guin Joseph M. Hagan Robert Hamlin Jeffrey A. Hansen Randal S. Harris Scott Hartenstine James L. Hatcher Benjamin J. Hauch John I. Herr Jim Holdren Daniel E. Horn

10 Consecutive Years of Membership

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Terry Boyd Luke A. Boyer Carl Braun David F. Bricmont Timothy L. Bright Stephen Briglio Tony Bryan Billy W. Bryant Jr. Heather B. Bryant Bruno Buchmayr Wayne P. Bugel Gregory J. Buragino Clay A. Burton Sebastian Capogna Gabriele G. Carinci Mark E. Casper Kaiyu Chen James E. Clark Katherine A. Clark Thomas J. Colander Michael E. Collins Mark Cook Michael D. Cook Michael Todd Cooley Thomas M. Corry Sara T. Cossel Ronald L. Cotten Tim Crimmins Terry G. Crites

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Markus Abel Richard C. Adams Bahador Ahramian Mark J. Alberson Eric G. Almquist Eric A. Anderson Eugene J. Arnold Marc Babineau Nelson E. Baker John M. Balik Thomas J. Balk Sabyasachi Bandyopadhyay Pierluigi Barutta Robert R. Beal Timothy D. Beck Scott Beighley Gary S. Bennett James E. Bennett Joshua M. Bernazzoli Jack Binns Jr. Christian A. Binroth James Blatsioris Jr. James W. Bloskis Robert L. Bobbitt Claude Bodeving Terrill H. Bohnsack Gregg Bond John C. Bondio John M. Bondy


202

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

MEMBERSHIP RECOGNITION Gerald Houck Michael A. Houx Cameron Howard Joseph Huber Keith Hudgins Bradley J. Hug Ken R. Hutter Patrick L. Jablonski Michael A. Jeide Frank Jere James A. Jeschke Jr. Kevin S. Johnson Mark K. Johnson Danny S. Jones William Jones Michael A. Kadar David J. Kasun Pallava Kaushik Christopher Kennedy Shinya Kitamura William D. Klein Nicholas Klipa Chester Knell Jim Komasinski John T. Kopfle Volodymyr Kravchenko Mark A. Kruckeberg Aaron S. Kureck Paul R. Kurtzhals Sam Lahiri Winky W. Lai Eric D. Larmore Robert R. LaRoy Mickey D. Lawrence Michael D. Lee Mark D. Leer Graham T. Legge Gregory R. Lehnhoff Alonza D. Lewis Timothy C. List Justin D. Littleton Keqian Liu

Jeffrey D. Lona Joseph B. Loosle Robert M. Lucas Jr. Anton Lukac Naiyang Ma William R. Mackie Richard J. Manasek John P. Manko James I. Manore Jack Mayer Edward G. Mazurkiewicz Brooke R. McCarty Gerald I. McCorkle Todd S. McCuaig Michael B. McWethy Marc A. Meadows George P. Miljus Jr. Sarah M. Miller Malcolm G. Milligan Charles H. Minter Mike D. Morson Masahiro Nakata Robert D. Newman Gary M. Novak Homero Ortiz Eric Ouellette Chad W. Owsley Gayland L. Owsley Christina F. Packer David W. Pahl Billy Wayne Parish Charles K. Parker Jr. Thomas S. Passek David W. Patterson Doug C. Payne Richard Payne Jeremy Pearson Kevin H. Perala Phil Piggott Daniel O. Plaetzer Christopher Plummer Whitney A. Poling

Joseph B. Porter Craig A. Powell David M. Price David K. Prough Mukesh Rawal George E. Ray Brad Rees Duane Reichard David B. Reilley Ernesto J. Reja Sr. James Richards Thomas Richards Jonathan Ridgeway Fred D. Rine Kip Robertson David L. Rosburg Robert R. Rote Lee M. Rothleutner Don Rottman Afshin Sadri David G. Sanderson Jun Sasaki Kyle J. Saxton Michael R. Schermerhorn Michael P. Schmidt Oliver Schulz Michael C. Seeber Joydeep Sengupta Richard B. Severs Sr. Michael L. Shain Gerald T. Siadek Russell Sindrey Brian Mark Smith Il Sohn Todd J. Soja Fernando Solis John M. Sosa Vincent G. Spaeth Bruce A. Sprague Peter W. Stafford John R. Steagall Henrik Stigers

Robert T. Stroia Robert H. Tatgenhorst Jr. Reggie L. Taylor Richard P. Thiel Wouter K. Tiekink Leon J. Topalian Darryl R. Towne Lazo Trkulja Gerardo Tummillo Douglas M. Turner Joseph L. Turner Jr. Yoshiyuki Ueshima Kamal Ughadpaga Jules Vaisberg David C. Van Aken Eric Van Rens Robert Vanderbeck III Peter VanDoorslaer George F. Verbanic Gregory Vetterick Ellis S. Waldman Ricky W. Wallace James K. Ward Darrell Warren Michael G. Wastchak David R. Werner Jeffrey S. Wetzel Darrell E. Wheeler Les H. Whitver Mark D. Wisialowski Robert H. Woods Joshua K. Yee Joseph S.K. Yong Brad J. Young Eric D. Young Liwei Zhang Ken R. Zimmerman Hatem S. Zurob  F


204

HARDARSHAN SINGH VALIA 36-YEAR LIFE MEMBER

HARDARSHAN VALIA

completed his M.Sc. Tech. in applied geology at Nagpur University, India; his M.A. in geology at Bryn Mawr College; and his Ph.D. in geology at Boston University. After teaching for a short period at Case Western Reserve University and Oberlin College, he entered the industrial world in 1979 as a research engineer at Inland Steel Co.’s research and development laboratories, East Chicago, Ind., USA. His initial work began with improving blast furnace performance/operation by finding ways to improve coke strength after reaction (CSR) with CO2, which resulted in the development of a CSR predictive model. The model is successfully used to predict CSR from coal properties and helped increase CSR that resulted in performance and operation improvements at No. 7 blast furnace. During his career, Valia worked on a wide range of projects: coke behavior in the blast furnace utilizing blast furnace tuyere sampling; modification of Chinese beehive cokes for blast furnace usability; coal selection and blend design for heat recovery/non-recovery and slot oven cokemaking; research on carbonization behavior of coal in heat recovery/non-recovery and slot oven cokemaking; use of poor-quality (low-rank) coals in cokemaking; prediction of coking quality of coal reserves; effect of oxidation on coke quality; new cokemaking technologies; coal selection and coal behavior in blast furnace pulverized coal injection; and the use of additives in cokemaking, ironmaking and steelmaking. Valia retired from ArcelorMittal as a staff scientist in 2002 and started a consulting firm, Coal Science Inc.

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

F

rom my nascent days in coal petrography, I’ve marveled at the magical formation of colorful carbon forms during the coal-to-coke carbonization process. To an untrained eye, coal and coke are dirty-looking materials. But looking under an optical microscope, seeing how the organic entities in coal melt into nematic liquid crystals that come closer, talk to each other and coalesce into a beautiful entity called coke, one can fall in love with nature’s wonder.

I consider myself blessed that Inland Steel Co. (now ArcelorMittal) provided me with the opportunity to explore this world of magic when I joined its research and development laboratories

in East Chicago, Ind., USA, in the fall of 1979 as a research engineer. I had a free hand to explore ideas that would increase productivity, enhance operation efficiency, improve quality and reduce cost, always with an eye on environmental conservation. At Inland/ ArcelorMittal, both the research and cokemaking/ironmaking operations worked hand in hand every step of the way due to management’s vision, leadership skills, and faith in its employees and the team members’ cooperative spirit and selflessness. We celebrated our victories; we shed tears for our losses. Our greatest victory was to bring a non-polluting cokemaking technology called SunCoke Heat Recovery Cokemaking to Inland Steel in 1998.

To my knowledge, we were the first steel company in the world to have adapted heat recovery technology, paving the road so other domestic steelmakers could follow. Prior to the installation of heat recovery cokemaking, a major loss occurred when the shutting down of slot-oven coke batteries caused many employees to lose their jobs. We took comfort in likening our efforts to life’s journey in which victories often outweigh defeats. My first association with AIST goes back to my early days at Inland, where I was advised to join the Iron & Steel Society to enhance my professional growth. What a precious gift I was handed! The society offered me a world of giants


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American Iron & Steel Institute Award, Waldorf Astoria, New York, N.Y., 1990.  hildhood in C India.

VOLCANOES OF NORTHWEST INDIANA  haring the S Joseph Becker Award with his family, 1999.

who were more than willing to share their wisdom, help me navigate my path and pick me up when I fell. Most of all, they were genuinely interested in the personal welfare of its members and of the industry as a whole. I am forever indebted to the Society and its members for contributing to the person I’ve become!

a chapter on cokemaking to The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel®, 11th Edition, Ironmaking Volume.

Oh! The sons and daughters of this land Can you spare some time Ignore Dante’s Inferno Watch Miracle on Cline.

I have received two patents, published/ presented about 85 papers, contributed to five books and to the AISI website, co-authored a book entitled Indiana Coals and The Steel Industry, chaired 30 national and international conferences, and taught 20 courses worldwide.

In the amphitheater of life Along the serene Michigan Lake Under the shadow of shifting sand dunes Belching hot lava of steel That flows, meanders through the uneven land Erecting houses, bridges, highways, rail tracks Giving shapes to cars, trains, ships, bicycles Running turbines, generating electricity Propelling windmills Pumping oil and gas. Yes, I do explode Yes, I do spew ash Yes, I do emit noxious fumes Shed enough tears repenting over mistakes Took many corrective actions to improve.

— Hardarshan Singh Valia

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I refuse to be boarded up I will not let grass obliterate my housing I have promises to keep To deliver nature’s bounty To improve lives of masses So long I can deliver goods And protect them with an invisible blanket Woven with steel threads, I shall survive!

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Our industry is changing. However, those joining our world must remember that as long as iron is made through the blast furnace route, coal and coke will be used. I advise new graduates entering our industry to fall passionately in love with the pursuit of knowledge, but to also be at peace with yourself. Worldly storms are a part of life; both actions help navigate ill weather. Be good, give others what you have received and good things will ultimately follow your path. And most importantly, be humane. What use is achieving success if you’ve lost your soul along the way? F

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

I was humbled to the core when the Iron & Steel Society awarded me with the Joseph Becker Award in 1999 for “distinguished contributions in the field of coal carbonization and coal technology,” followed by the AIST 2006 Joseph Kapitan Award for Ironmaking. Another highlight of my professional career occurred when the American Iron and Steel Institute awarded my coauthors and me the Presidential Medal. Since joining AIST, I have worked to give back, participating in program committees, co-chairing cokemaking sessions and publishing my work. My association with the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (another predecessor of AIST) began when I contributed

From spoon that fetches you food To needle that stitches your wound All came from my womb Bloodied, exhausted Mother of Volcanoes Yes, I am the Blast Furnace of Northwest Indiana.


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LIFE MEMBERS Life Membership with the Association for Iron & Steel Technology is awarded after 35 consecutive years of membership. AIST recognizes the following individuals for their dedication to and support of our organization, and welcomes them as our newest Life Members. Richard E. Antonelli, president, Anker Industries, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

Paul Dellemonache Jr., general manager, business development, Stevens Engineers & Constructors Inc., Canonsburg, Pa., USA

Thomas E. Barnett, steelmaking manager, ArcelorMittal Coatesville, Downingtown, Pa., USA

David M. Delmaster, superintendent meltshop, Union Electric Steel Corp., Aliquippa, Pa., USA

Paul A. Bean, regional sales manager, Winkle Industries, Alliance, Ohio, USA

Daniel R. DiMicco, chairman emeritus; retired chairman, chief executive officer and president, Nucor Corp., Charlotte, N.C., USA

Albert P. Beucker, vice president, Hiller Carbon LLC, Tampa, Fla., USA Robert A. Bloom, Northville, Mich., USA

Giorgio Cabai, president, STS S.r.L., Udine, Italy

David J. Englund, program director — process fluid flow and heat transfer, Natural Resources Research Institute, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minn., USA

Gianfranco Colagiovanni, lead engineer, plant engineering, ArcelorMittal Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio

Edward A. Esenwein, account manager, ASK Chemicals Hi-Tech LLC, Washingtonville, Ohio, USA

Louis A. Colatriano, president and chief executive officer, M3 Steel Tech Inc., Toronto, Ont., Canada

Richard A. Foster, director, marketing and sales, Hose Master LLC, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Thomas J. Conarty, retired, Lehighton, Pa., USA

Joseph M. Friedman, estimator, Kauffman Plumbing and Heating, Canton, Ohio, USA

Michael G. Cook, business development, Burns & McDonnell Engineers, Ancaster, Ont., USA

Göran L. Grimfjärd, president, Progrim AB, Tyresö, Sweden

Edward C. Crowley, southern regional manager, Carbones Imr Inc., Chesterfield, Mo., USA

Wesley T. Hiller, president and chief executive officer, Wes Hiller Trading and Consulting, Tampa, Fla., USA

Pierre H. Dauby, president (retired), Steel-Acero Corp., Hudson, Ohio, USA

Luther J. Holton, president, Luther Holton Associates Inc., Hamilton, Ont., Canada

Bean

Beucker

Bloom

Cabai

Colatriano

Conarty

Dauby

Dellemonache

DiMicco

Emling

Englund

Esenwein

Grimfjärd

Hiller

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Douglas L. Bracher, sales engineer, Refractory Specialties Inc., Downingtown, Pa., USA

William H. Emling, vice president, steelmaking and casting division, SMS USA LLC, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA


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Frederick W. Hyle, senior process engineer, CIM-Tech Inc., Valparaiso, Ind., USA

Karl G. Nacken, regional market and service advisor, Showa Denko Carbon Inc., Pompano Beach, Fla., USA

Paul J. Jurczak, vice president, sales, Opta Minerals Inc., Elyria, Ohio, USA

John R. Paules, chief technology officer, Ellwood Group Inc., New Castle, Pa., USA

Frank T. Koelble, Bronx, N.Y., USA

Eugene M. Petcovic, owner, EMP Services, Freedom, Pa., USA

Christopher Kristock, vice president, quality and advanced technology, SET Enterprises, Warren, Mich., USA

Daniel A. Pflaum, president, Gamma-Tech LLC, Dayton, Ky., USA

Mark S. Kubas, area manager, galvanize and terne operations, U. S. Steel – Mon Valley Works, North Huntingdon, Pa., USA

Andrew L. Pinskey Jr., manager, sales, Holland Manufacturing Corp., Scottdale, Pa., USA

David M. Kundrat, special services, SGL Carbon Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Daniel Rellis Jr., Lansing, Ill., USA

Michael C. Labanow, metallurgy technical support engineer, Imerys Metalcasting Solutions, Lorain, Ohio, USA

James M. Ridgeway, consultant, steel industry water systems, Water Technologies and Engineering, O’Halloran Hill, SA, Australia

Louis W. Lherbier Jr., technical manager, U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center, Munhall, Pa., USA

Stewart W. Robinson, technical/development manager, Carbide Industries LLC, La Grange, Ky., USA

John D. Lilley, corporate technical director, MetalTek International Inc., Waukesha, Wis., USA

Charles J. Romberger, senior principal scientist, ArcelorMittal USA Research, Kinzers, Pa., USA

William A. Littrell, alliance site manager, U. S. Steel – Gary Works, Gary, Ind., USA

Richard L. Shultz, adjunct professor, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA

Marty L. Martinez, improvement facilitator, Gerdau Long Steel North America Arkansas Mill, Fort Smith, Ark., USA

Randall P. Stone, technical sales manager — tech services, Vesuvius, Yardley, Pa., USA

H. Ronald McCollum, consultant, MK Technologies, Munhall, Pa., USA

Hwan-Tang Thomas Tsai, deputy general manager — production, Hunan Valin Steel Co., Changsha, Hunan, P.R. China

Kundrat

Labanow

Lherbier

Lilley

Littrell

Paules

Petcovic

Pinskey

Ridgeway

Robinson

Romberger

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Kristock

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Hyle

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Holton


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LIFE MEMBERS Alim Ullah, consultant, Nemur Ltd., Montreal, Que., Canada

Martin B. Wood, chief estimator, Jones Krall Inc., North Huntington, Pa., USA

Richard A. Walli, environmental consultant, Walli Environmental Technologies Inc., Oshawa, Ont., Canada

Robert E. Yeager, vice president, engineering, S.P. Kinney Engineers Inc., Carnegie, Pa., USA

Terrence P. Wells, customer technical service manager, GrafTech International Holdings, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Bradley D. Wolf, managing director, Berkeley Research Group, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

Shultz

Stone

Tsai

Ullah

Wells

Wolf

Yeager

Walli

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

The following AIST Life Members achieved this status prior to 2015. See pages 198–202 for AIST members celebrating milestone anniversaries in 2015. Jagdish C. Agarwal Harless James Akers L. James Anderson Rodney A. Apple Anthony P. Augius Dino Azzoni Steven A. Bachenheimer Kelso S. Baker Shank R. Balajee William P. Barker*† David G. Barko Drew N. Barry Suhash R. Basu Peter C. Bauerle George J. Bayly

Robert M. Bean John A. Beatrice Leonid Beitelman Thomas F. Bernarding Richard B. Bertolo William J. Bestow Jr. William H. Betts Thomas H. Bieniosek Glenn G. Biever Michael F. Bigowsky Richard A. Black Charles D. Blaze David J. Blazek Kenneth E. Blazek David T. Blazevic

*AIST past president; †ISS past president; ‡ AISE past president

John Boeing James A. Boggs John T. Bowen Michael B. Bower Gary L. Bowman J. Kenneth Bray Richard J. Brelowski William K. Brown Robert L. Bullard Jerry S. Bunnell John R. Buta Gary A. Butler John M. Cable Joseph V. Cadile Richard A. Calvert

Ian A. Cameron John C. Campbell Sam J. Cantavespre John A. Carpenter Thomas A. Castle Arthur S. Cheng Richard J. Choulet Henry Chumienski Thomas H. Cipich William R. Clark C. Larry Coe Harvey R. Cohen Robert T. Conley Laurence A. Conner John P. Connolly


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Life Members interested in submitting a profile about how being a member has helped shape their career in the steel industry should contact Amanda Blyth at ablyth@aist.org.

Kenneth R. Kunz Joseph A. Lahita Philip R. Landon Frederick C. Langenberg C. Steven LaPray Daniel W. Lavis Theodore J. Leczo Andreas Lederer Robert G.H. Lee Jack E. Lenhardt John W. Lenhart Jan R. Leszczynski Edward C. Levy Jr. Timothy Lewis‡ Louis W. Lherbier Marc Liebman Robert F. Lockhart J. Norman Lockington‡ Aldo Longo William H. Lordo Richard S. Lubanovic Claude H.P. Lupis Vern Lutz Leon A. Luyckx Joseph N. Lynch Raymond M. Mader William J. Malic Lawrence G. Maloney Allan H. Mann Gregory J. Manzo Robert P. Marcinski Mark A. Marcucci Peter M. Martin Roy C. Martin Richard H. Marwitz Donald S. Masyada William R. Materna George Matyas David M. McCombe Wilford G. McCorkle Jr. Daniel D. McCoy Patrick J. McDonough John C. McFadden Jr. Raymond J. McGlynn Jr. Patrick D. McKeown Sr. Alexander McLean† Leslie C. McLean James S. McNeill Stewart K. Mehlman

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Hani Henein Robert J. Hennessy Wallace L. Hick Jr. Michael D. Hickman Paul S. Highberger D. Gregory Hill Larry T. Hoffman Kenneth J. Homa Edwin M. Horak James H. Hoyt David L. Hudak Douglas A. Hug Tobin Humphrey David E. Hunt Ronald L. Hunter W. James Hunter Randall A. Huntsman Jon A. Hussey Gene A. Iannazzo Donald J. Idstein Gordon A. Irons Joseph R. Jackman Lawrence Janowski Steven G. Jansto George A. Jedenoff‡ John E. Jetkiewicz David W. Johnson John A. Jordan Sr. D.J. Joyce Jr. Raymond A. Joyce Jr. Joseph B. Kaar James J. Kaczmarek Robert C. Kania Behram M. Kapadia James N. Karamanos Carl W. Karrer Michael P. Keenan Calvin A. Keeney Clifford W. Kehr Joseph Kennedy Bruce J. Kingsbury Jack Klein Frank L. Koch Jr. Karl A. Koenig Daniel C. Kovacs Carl F. Kowalski N.M. Kramarow Daniel W. Kremin Robert C. Kuhn

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Terry G. Fedor Sr. Paul Thomas Fennema Norman T. Ferguson Elmer G. Foley Robert J. Fornadley Stephen C. Foster David A. Fournie Albert F. Fox Jr. George A. Fraser Michael E. Fraser Richard J. Fruehan† Joseph E. Gantz Jack Garzella Richard T. Gass Gordon H. Geiger Claude Gentaz John R. Gibson David C. Gilbert Vladimir B. Ginzburg Gerardo L. Giraldo Carl E. Glaser Henry G. Goehring Thomas W. Goettge‡ Howard D. Goodfellow Thomas C. Graham Thomas C. Graham Jr.* Charles D. Green Theodore A. Greshel Nirmal Kanti Guha Roderick I.L. Guthrie Edward B. Ham James F. Hamilton Arthur J. Hamm P.F. Hammers Robert W. Hanpeter Lars J. Hansen Charles T. Hansotte John G. Harhai Narwani Harman James S. Harper William L. Hartrick David K. Hast Daniel F. Havel Roger Heaton John D. Heffernan Harry O. Hefter Joseph M. Heiman James A. Heine Stanley M. Hendricks II

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Charles W. Connors Sr. Bruce Constantine Edward C. Cool Alan W. Cramb† Denis L. Creazzi Robert Creese John C. Crelling Charles Criss Dennis T. Crosby Roy L. Cross Thomas J. Croyle James F. Crum Robert S. Cude James F. Cunningham Anthony J. D’Atri Terence E. Dancy Thomas A. Danjczek Stanley P. Darbut William E. Dauksch Daniel C. Deer III Anthony C. Demos Suresh P. Parab Desai Kevin F. DeVanney Raymond A. Devries Paul J. Diffenbach Richard M. Dippolito Thomas F. Dohnal Lou B. Donkle Donald E. Dorney John Douglas Gary W. Downey Richard Frank Draus John W. Dresh Sr. Gregory L. Dressel Martin C. Dusel Michael J. Dwelly Albert J. Dzermejko William W. Ebner Chester C. Edmunds Paul H. Egbers Donald K. Eichhorn Andrew Elksnitis James L. Emery Toshihiko Emi Richard G. Erwine C. Thomas Esterly Lawrence F. Fabina Francis E. Fairman Bernard J. Fedak ‡


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LIFE MEMBERS Lou Mellen III John A. Mellowes Walter D. Meloy Richard A. Mendler Basil D. Mercuri Akgun Mertdogan Richard C. Meyer Sr. Steven R. Meyer Glenn G. Mikaloff Robert J. Milbourne George J. Miller James H. Miller George Mischenko Keith H. Moredock Royston P. Morgan Russell A. Motkowicz Patrick G. Mueller Bimalendu N. Mukhopadhyay Biplab Mukhopadhyay Joseph A. Mulcahy John L. Mulesa Thomas L. Mulholland Charles E. Murphrey Jeffrey C. Myers Robert A. Nadolny Donald Naujock John M. Neal John M. Negomir Stephen Nelko Leonard G. Nelson† William J. Nelson Richard L. Nester H. Lavon Nichols Leslie W. Niemi Paul E. Nilles Sanford M. Nobel Leon G. Nusselt Jr. Jack A. Nyrup Richard E. O’Hara* Robert D. O’Neil Dominic Paul O’Shaughnessy Rod J. Oancea Takashi Taq Ohtani Gordon R. Oliver William B. Orr Edward J. Osterman Peter D. Oten R.T. Owens Robert G. Palicka Jr. Stephen Palko L.W. Palmer Prafulla C. Panigrahy James C. Parks

Donald W. Partney Jr. Robert J. Pasquarelli Joseph Pataki K.G. Pedersen Robert D. Pehlke Fred A. Perrotta Craig C. Peterson John C. Petrick Ronald J. Petroski Richard A. Phillips Howard M. Pielet Michael Pierce Guenther Plenzat Raymond L. Polick Joseph V. Poplawski Dennis R. Poulsen Joseph J. Poveromo Martin J. Powers Nagoor P. Prabhu Andrew G. Procopio William Pyne John Quin Joe Rachford William H. Rackoff Dennis H. Radford Ronald H. Radzilowski Joseph A. Raley Appada V. Ramadas K. Ramalingam Madhukar G. Ranade K. William Rapp Robert A. Rawlings Richard L. Reddy Melvin B. Redmount James E. Reichard Craig A. Rhoads Kent C. Richards John A. Ricketts Albert H. Riebel Jr. Michel Rigaud Carl E. Rigg Jr. Lawrence H. Riley Norman A. Robins Dennis B. Rodal Mark S. Rodney Norman F. Rodowicz Gerald J. Roe† Libor F. Rostik Tracy T. Rudolph Richard E. Rush Nicholas M. Rymarchyk Jr. Walter D. Sadowski Eugene A. Salvadore Norman L. Samways S.D. Sanders

Nobuo Sano Edward J. Schaming Anton Schedl John H. Scheel† Eberhard G. Schempp Donald H. Schiele Winfried F. Schmiedberg William A. Schmucker Gregory F. Schneider Edmund N. Schuster Klaus J. Schwerdtfeger Frederick J. Sebesta Samuel H. Seem Ray Sekowski Michael P. Seleski Clyde P. Selig Herbert D. Sellers Sr. Paul R. Sevenich Paul M. Shaffer Sudhir K. Sharma Bruce M. Shields Richard C. Shindle Gary R. Shreve Timothy A. Shuman James C. Simmons David B. Simpson Surjit Singh James Skubak Charles E. Slater Ralph M. Smailer Allan M. Smillie James Howard Smith Robert J. Snyder Stan J. Sobota Russell Solomon III Alfred J. Soltesz Paul J. Songer Sigurd M. Sorensen David J. Sosinsky George R. St. Pierre Alan J. St. Vincent Greg V. Stanic Leroy Stebbing Robert W. Steiger Joseph L. Stein Hans H. Stiasny Fred J. Stover Joseph M. Strouse Jr. Darrell E. Sturgill Sundaresa V. Subramanian Emil S. Suley Michael D. Sullivan† Joel L. Sundholm Russell E. Swanson Richard C. Sweitzer

Edward S. Szekeres Laxmi C. Tandon Douglas P. Taylor John R. Thebo John E. Thomas Thomas N. Thorla John B. Tiley James F. Torok Charles Trenkle Harvey M. Treschow James E. Trunzo Johannes M. Uys Hardarshan S. Valia John A. Vallomy John C. Vaught Richard H. Verdier Frank A. Vonesh Jr. David H. Wakelin Mark S. Walker Richard J. Walla Gary A. Waytena Ron Webber Millet L. Wei Brooks E. Weingart Frank M. Wheeler Donald G. White Robert C. Whitten W. Ben Wicke Ronald L. Widner Lawrence E. Williams III David P. Wirick Emil J. Wirth Jr. David A. Wise David A. Withrow Christian Wojciechowski William F. Wolfe J.F.B. Wood Robert T. Woodings Herbert E. Woodruff Jr. Gerald W. Worth Fred Wren Ray Wright Edgar R. Wunsche Michael Wyte George L. Yager Bhaskar R. Yalamanchili Robert A. Yohe J. Michael Zaia Richard J. Zaranek Hezekiah E. Zeiber Albert R. Zelt Gerald E. Ziemer Mark J. Zikesch Joseph P. Zuccarelli

F


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Coke & Ironmaking

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F AISTech 2016 Preview F Coke Battery R UNDUP F Cokemaking Byproducts R F Blast Furnace R UNDUP

F The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: 101 F Southwest Member Chapter Annual Meeting

UNDUP

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Material Due: 21 January 2016

Feature Articles Criteria to Evaluate Cokemaking Strategy for an Integrated Steel Plant Hatch Ltd.

Managing a Blast Furnace Operation During Abnormally Cold Weather AK Steel Corp. – Dearborn Works Investigation of High-Rate Natural Gas Injection Through Various Lance Designs in a Blast Furnace Purdue University Calumet’s Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation, U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center and U. S. Steel Canada – Lake Erie Works Myths and Realities of Charging DRI/HBI in Electric Arc Furnaces Global Strategic Solutions Inc. and Metallon Ironmaking in North America United States Steel Corporation and ArcelorMittal USA

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Cleveland No. 6 Blast Furnace Hearth Campaign Extension ArcelorMittal Global R&D East Chicago and ArcelorMittal USA

Lockout Tagout (Safety First) Ross Controls


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F Basic Oxygen Furnace R UNDUP F AISTech 2016 Preview F Developments in the North American Iron and Steel Industry — 2015

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Feature: Ladle Metallurgy & Continuous Casting

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F Winners of the Energy Achievement Award

FC  ontinuous Caster R UNDUP

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F Crane Symposium F Material Handling and Transportation Logistics Training Seminar

F Continuous Casting Training Seminar FS  pecialty Alloy and Foundry Training Seminar FL  adle Refractory and Specialty Steelmaking Training Seminar FG  lobe-Trotters Member Chapter Annual Meeting

JULY

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Feature: Material Handling, Packaging & Transportation

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F AISTech 2016 Conference and Exposition Retrospective F Rod and Bar Rolling R UNDUP

F MS&T Program

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Ad Closing: 21 June 2016

F Maintenance Conference F Southeast Member Chapter Annual Meeting F MS&T16

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

F Globe-Trotters Member Chapter Annual Meeting F Rod and Bar Rolling Training Seminar F Student Issue

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213

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F Free year of Young Professional membership F Post your resume online and access the online job board at AIST.org F Discounted registration to AISTech through the Young Professional program

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The industry is everywhere Find it with the Directory — Iron and Steel Plants

AIST.org/Publications

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plus applicable shipping charges

Reliable data on steel producers and product/service suppliers is essential to drive a progressive industry. The 2016 Directory—Iron and Steel Plants will serve as your key industry reference guide. Comprehensive, searchable electronic media is also enclosed with each Directory. • Lists more than 1,500 companies and 15,000 individual names and titles of executive, engineering, maintenance, and operating personnel. • Features essentially every steel producer in the United States, Canada and Mexico. • Contains an alphabetical listing of major equipment, product, and service suppliers to the international iron and steel industry. • Incorporates complete geographical indexing.

All prices are in U.S. dollars. Contact AIST Member Services at +1.724.814.3000, ext. 1 or memberservices@aist.org.


216

New Products & Resources

ABB debuts its largest ever industrial robot

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

ABB has introduced its highest payload, multi-purpose industrial robot, the IRB 8700.

The IRB 8700 offers all the functionality and expertise of the ABB portfolio in a much bigger package. The robot has only one motor and one gear per robot axis, while most other robots in this size class use dual motors and/or gears. In addition, there are no gas springs — only a reliable counterweight and mechanical springs for counter balancing. Together these design elements mean the IRB 8700 has fewer components, shorter cycle times and higher accuracy. The IRB 8700 is available in two configurations, one with a reach of 4.2 m and a payload of 550 kg (620 kg with the wrist down, 475 kg with LeanID), and the other with a reach of 3.5 m and a payload of 800 kg (1,000 kg with the wrist down, 630 kg with LeanID). Both configurations are available with LeanID, a cost-effective integrated dressing designed for easier programming, reduced wear and a smaller footprint. Both configurations also have an incredibly high moment of inertia at 725 kg/m2. Contact: ABB Inc. 1250 Brown Road Auburn Hills, MI 48326 USA Phone: +1.248.391.8622 www.abb.com

New Products & Resources is a free service featuring news of recent product and equipment developments, brochures, catalogs, websites, etc. relevant to the steel industry. To submit material for consideration, please email a press release (and high-resolution photo, if applicable) to khickey@aist.org.

CARBOJET® technology improves heat treatment furnace efficiency and productivity Linde LLC introduces patented CARBOJET® gas injection technology, which can improve the productivity of heat treatment furnaces without the use of circulation fans. The gas mixing technology is ideal for upgrading a variety of furnaces, including roller hearth, pusher, rotary-retort and pit furnaces. Ultrahighspeed injection of a gas or gas mixture through special CARBOJET lances improves gas and atmosphere flows and circulation. This includes both better mixing of the injected gases with the furnace atmosphere and better movement of gas flows within the furnace. In continuous furnaces, CARBOJET gas injection tech­nology offers a variety of benefits, including: improved carbon transfer and homogenization, more intensive heat transfer with improved convection, better residue burnoff at the front of the furnace, reduced soot formation, better cooling zone performance and quicker conditioning when switching atmospheres. Benefits for other furnace types include: •  Roller hearth furnaces: With lances positioned at the inlet, improved heat transfer offers potential to increase productivity by 10%. Minimizes soot formation and improves reproducibility of gas analysis. Potential to increase productivity in cooling zone up to 35%. •  Rotary-retort furnaces: provides better atmosphere mixing, minimizes formation of soft spots, increases throughput and promotes longer retort life. Offers potential to increase output of bulk goods by about 20%.

• Pit furnaces: Atmosphere circulation fan could be eliminated. Uniform heating and more uniform carburizing, annealing and nitriding lead to up to 20% more efficient use of furnace space and productivity gain. Can eliminate vibration damage to heating elements. Furnace lid design extends lid life up to three times longer. The nitrogen supply system for the CARBOJET system can also be equipped with a safety solution used to purge flammable-atmosphere furnaces to satisfy National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) furnace safety requirements. Linde offers decades of experience in heat treatment across all common furnace types and all typical protective atmospheres — from pure nitrogen, pure hydrogen, nitrogen/ hydrogen, nitrogen/hydrocarbontype atmospheres to endothermic gas, exothermic gas and monogas atmospheres. Contact: Linde North America Inc. 575 Mountain Ave. Murray Hill, NJ 07974 USA Toll-Free: +1.800.755.9277 www.lindeus.com


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Safety Today introduces cross-functional protective glove with high wearability rating In many industries, impact protection, cut protection and worker comfort must all be considered when choosing protective gloves, since some applications or job sites present multiple hazards. Comfort can make the difference between compliance and disaster. Safety Today’s new Brass Knuckle® SmartShell™ BKCR4499 gloves provide high levels of cross-functional protection and a glove construction that utilizes the company’s Fit, Form and Function™ standard. The BKCR4499 begins with a machine-knit, ultrahigh-molecularweight polyethylene shell that offers ANSI cut level 4 protection, which

has a strength-toweight ratio that is 8–15 times higher than steel. The glove’s layered construction is designed to conform to the natural contours of the hand and includes flex points in the fingers, wrist and palm, helping to ensure maximum comfort and increase compliance. Thermo­ plastic rubber padding is sonically welded to the back of the glove and offers protection from contusions, smash injuries, punctures and object strikes, with pinch protection extending to each fingertip. The sandy finish of

the black nitrile palm coating offers excellent wet grip and slip resistance along with abrasion resistance. For long-lasting durability, the BKCR4499 is double-stitched in high-wear areas such as the fingertips, index finger and palm. Its

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

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Submi ssion is FRE memb E for A er or h IST m Beniam ave qu embe ina Da e stions rs. No pra at about t an A bdapr posti IST a @ ais n g? C o t.org or +1. 724.8 ntact 14.30 58.


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New Products & Resources excellent flexibility and top-rated ergonomic design make this glove one of the most wearable in its class. The bright lime green shell color meets the requirements of American National Standard (ANSI/ISEA 107-2010) for High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear Devices. Contact: Safety Today USA 3287 Southwest Blvd. Grove City, OH 43123 USA Toll-Free: +1.800.837.5900 info@safetytoday.com www.safetytoday.com

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

New XRF analyzer designed to speed and simplify metal chemistry analysis

Managers, operators and quality control personnel in the fabrication, positive material identification and scrap metal industries can now assess the chemical composition of metals with a new analyzer that is smaller and lighter than any x-ray fluorescence (XRF) alloy analyzer on the market today. The Thermo Scientific Niton XL5 analyzer is designed to provide results rapidly and with a high level of accuracy. Weighing only 2.8 lbs. (1.3 kg), the compact Niton XL5 analyzer enables operators to access difficult-to-reach areas to maximize test coverage, reducing user fatigue and providing exceptionally low limits of detection (LODs). Other features include a new electronics processor that enables real-time results display, and a hot-swappable battery

and travel charger for improved operator efficiency in the field. The Niton XL5 analyzer provides enhanced communication capabilities through Bluetooth and GPS connectivity. The Thermo Scientific NitonConnect companion PC software delivers easy data transfer and remote viewing functionality when the analyzer is mounted in a test stand. The Thermo Scientific Niton XL5 analyzer also offers: • A new, powerful 5W x-ray tube to provide improved detection of light elements. •  Micro and macro cameras for enhanced data collection. • Customizable profiles that can be created for different applications prior to testing. • A new user interface and display that includes a touchscreen with swiping functionality. • Improved ingress protection for rugged environments. The Niton XL5 analyzer is part of the family of Thermo Scientific handheld XRF analyzers that includes the existing Niton XL2 and Niton XL3 series. In addition, the new Thermo Scientific Niton XL2 100G complements the instrument portfolio by providing rapid general metals identification in a value platform designed to give customers cost-efficient, reliable, real-time results in the field.

integrated bar graph that provides the operator with information about the crane’s utilization. The system offers the flexibility of a 4.3-inch (qSCALE I2) or 7-inch (qSCALE I3) color graphic display that features a superior graphic human machine interface for easy operation. The console was designed with an IP66/67 protection rating and is suitable for use in both noncab and in-cab applications. Setup of the crane parameters and LMI functions are done through a new and easy-to-use configuration tool. The system also features a simplified calibration procedure through a menu-driven process to reduce calibration time. The qSCALE I2/ I3 meets the requirements of original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket applications. Contact: Hirschmann Automation and Control 1540 Orchard Dr. Chambersburg, PA 17201 USA Phone: +1.717.263.7655 Fax: +1.717.263.7845 www.hirschmann-usa.com F

Contact: Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. 81 Wyman St. Waltham, MA 02451 USA Toll-Free: +1.800.678.5599 Phone: +1.781.622.1000 www.thermofisher.com

Hirschmann MCS introduces new load moment indicator Hirschmann MCS has introduced the qSCALE I2/I3 load moment indicator (LMI). The qSCALE I2/I3 provides the operator with a graphic display of a crane’s current load and geometric information, including the actual and allowable load, boom length, boom angle and load radius. The display also includes an

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New! Lost Steel Plants of the Monongahela River Valley Robert S. Dorsett Pittsburgh’s Monongahela River is named after the Lenape Indian word Menaonkihela, meaning “where banks cave and erode.” The name is fitting: for over a century, these riverbanks were lined with steel plants and railroads that have now “caved and eroded” away. By the 1880s, Carnegie Steel was the world’s largest manufacturer of coke, iron, and steel rails. However, in the 1970s, cheap foreign steel flooded the market. Following the 1981–1982 recession, the plants laid off 153,000 workers. 1985 saw the beginning of demolition; by 1990, seven of nine major steel plants had shut down. Duquesne, Homestead, Jones & Laughlin, and Eliza Furnace are gone; only the Edgar Thomson plant remains as a producer of steel. While these steel plants are lost today, the legacy of their workers is not forgotten.

ISBN: 978-1-4671-3466-8 2015, Softbound — PB-ARC-001 Member Price��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� US$18.99 Non-Member Price������������������������������������������������������������������������� US$22.99

MS&T15 Conference Proceedings The complete proceedings from the 2015 Materials Science & Technology Conference available on one searchable CD-ROM. Included are manuscripts from symposia in diverse themes: iron and steel, biomaterials, ceramic and glass materials, electronic and magnetic materials, energy issues, fundamentals and characterization, green manufacturing and sustainability, materials-environment interactions, nanomaterials, processing and product manufacturing, and surface modification. ISBN: 978-0-87339-764-3 2015, CD-ROM — PB-278 Member Price��������������������������������������������������������� US$146 Non-Member Price������������������������������������������������� US$195

The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel®, 11th Edition, Steelmaking and Refining Volume Richard J. Fruehan, editor The Steelmaking and Refining Volume of The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel® emphasizes the important developments that have contributed to improvements in steelmaking quality and productivity in recent decades. The history and development of the various technologies are fully discussed. The technical detail is written at a level that will benefit the expert, but in such a way that someone new to the business can understand the concepts without being overwhelmed. Chapters on EAF steelmaking and ladle and secondary refining have been greatly expanded from the 10th edition. The chapters on BOF and AOD steelmaking were also updated to reflect current understanding. ISBN: 978-0-930767-02-0 1998, Casebound — PB-332 Member Price������������������������������������������������������ US$100 Non-Member Price���������������������������������������������� US$125

Download the latest AIST Publications Catalog at Bookstore.AIST.org!

1998, CD-ROM — PB-333 Member Price������������������������������������������������������ US$100 Non-Member Price���������������������������������������������� US$125 1998, Casebound w/ CD-ROM — PB-333EPKG Member Price������������������������������������������������������ US$150 Non-Member Price���������������������������������������������� US$200


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Advertisers Index

Advertise Today! sales@aist.org

William Albaugh general manager — sales +1.724.814.3010 Fax +1.724.814.3011 balbaugh@aist.org

Jon Roman sales manager +1.724.814.3095 Fax +1.724.814.3001 jroman@aist.org

[A]

[O]

Ace World Companies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Oxylance Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

[B]

[P]

Berry Metal Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Primetals Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . 4–5, 60

Brimacombe Continuous Casting Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 BSE America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Geraldine Kane senior sales representative +1.724.814.3022 Fax +1.724.814.3023 gkane@aist.org

Beth Kirschner sales representative +1.724.814.3030 Fax +1.724.814.3031 bkirschner@aist.org

Regal Power Transmission Solutions . . . . . 2

[C] Caldwell Group Inc., The. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

[S]

Carbide Industries LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Sangraf International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

CITGO Lubricants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

SGL Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover III

Contractors & Industrial Supply Co. Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

SMS Siemag AG/SMS USA LLC. . . . . . . . . 6

[L] LAP Laser LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover IV

Cate Davidson sales representative +1.724.814.3092 Fax +1.724.814.3093 cdavidson@aist.org

Lenox Instrument Co.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

[M] McMaster University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Rebecca Smith inside sales representative +1.724.814.3060 Fax +1.724.814.3061 rsmith@aist.org

Messe Düsseldorf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

[N]

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Nidec ASI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Doreen Cary sales administrator +1.724.814.3018 Fax +1.724.814.3019 dcary@aist.org

186 Thorn Hill Road Warrendale, PA 15086 USA AIST.org

[R]

SSAB Americas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Systems Spray-Cooled Inc.. . . . . . . . Cover II

[V] VELCO GmbH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Vishay Precision Group Canada ULC (KELK). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


Steel Calendar

221

For the most up-to-date information on upcoming events, visit AIST.org.

JANUARY 2016 12

Member Chapter Event • Midwest Dinner meeting, Avalon Manor, Merrillville, Ind., USA

FEBRUARY 2016 1–2

19  Technology Committee Meeting •C  ranes — Mill Building Subcommittee Cleveland, Ohio, USA 19–20  Technology Committee Meeting •P  late Rolling Dallas, Texas, USA 20–21  Technology Committee Meetings •P  roject & Construction Management San Antonio, Texas, USA •S  afety & Health San Antonio, Texas, USA 26–27

 Technology Committee Meeting • Rolls Lafayette, Ind., USA

27–28

 Technology Committee Meeting •P  ipe & Tube and Energy & Utilities (joint meeting) Houston, Texas, USA

28–29

SMA Board of Directors Meeting Longboat Key Resort, Longboat Key, Fla., USA

3  Technology Committee Meeting • Electric Steelmaking Jacksonville, Fla., USA 4  Technology Committee Meetings • Cokemaking Coraopolis, Pa., USA • Ironmaking Coraopolis, Pa., USA 8

Member Chapter Event • Pittsburgh Dinner meeting, Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

9

Member Chapter Events • Detroit Dinner meeting, Holiday Inn, Southgate, Mich., USA • Midwest Dinner meeting, Avalon Manor, Merrillville, Ind., USA

I

Member Chapter Event • Southern California 2016 Steel Industry Forecast dinner meeting, California Steel Industries’ Steel Way Café, Fontana, Calif., USA

Modern Electric Furnace Steelmaking — A Practical Training Seminar The DoubleTree Hotel by Hilton Jacksonville Riverfront, Jacksonville, Fla., USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

28

1–5 

International 8th High-Temperature Processing (HTP) Symposium 2016 Advanced Manufacturing and Design Centre, Melbourne, Australia Organized by Swinburne University of Technology. Phone: +61.3.9214.5672, htp@swin.edu.au or www.swinburne.edu.au/ science-engineering-technology/htp/symposium

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Steel Calendar 9–10  Technology Committee Meeting • Cranes Jacksonville, Fla., USA 10–11  Technology Committee Meeting • L adle & Secondary Refining and Refractory Systems (joint meeting) Mobile, Ala., USA 10–12

11–12

SimPro’16 — 4th International Conference on ThermoMechanical Simulation and Processing of Steels R&D Centre for Iron & Steel, Ranchi, JH, India Organized by Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL). Phone: +91.898.688.0280, simpro16@sail-rdcis.com or www.simpro-ranchi.com SMA Committee Meeting • Environment Embassy Suites, Tampa, Fla., USA

16–17  Technology Committee Meeting • Lubrication & Hydraulics Mobile, Ala., USA 17–18  Technology Committee Meeting • Continuous Casting Jacksonville, Fla., USA 21–25

Hot Rolling Fundamentals — A Practical Training Seminar in conjunction with Plate Rolling Fundamentals The Hilton Birmingham Perimeter Park, Birmingham, Ala, USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org

22  Technology Committee Meeting • Rod & Bar Rolling San Antonio, Texas, USA 22–25

Rod and Bar Rolling — A Practical Training Seminar Hilton Palacio Del Rio, San Antonio, Texas, USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org

MARCH 2016 2–4

SMA Committee Meeting • Safety Crowne Plaza Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

6–8

Member Chapter Event • Southwest Annual meeting, Hilton College Station and Conference Center, College Station, Texas, USA

8

Member Chapter Events • Detroit Dinner meeting, Holiday Inn, Southgate, Mich., USA • Midwest Dinner meeting, Avalon Manor, Merrillville, Ind., USA

8–10  The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: 101 Embassy Suites Huntsville Hotel, Huntsville, Ala., USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org 9–10  Technology Committee Meeting • Metallurgy — Steelmaking & Casting Charleston, S.C., USA 14

Member Chapter Event • Pittsburgh Young Engineers Night dinner meeting, Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

14–16

Member Chapter Event • Mexico CONAC 2016, CINTERMEX, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico

16  Technology Committee Meeting • Specialty Alloy & Foundry Warrendale, Pa., USA 17–18

SMA Committee Meeting • Human Resources Washington, D.C., USA

17–19

2nd International Conference on Advances in Steel, Power and Construction Technology OP Jindal Knowledge Park, Punjipathra, CG, India Organized by OP Jindal University. Phone: +91.9691695908, conference@opju.ac.in or www.conference.opju.ac.in

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

23  Technology Committee Meeting • Hot Sheet Rolling Birmingham, Ala., USA 23

Member Chapter Event • Northern Dinner meeting, Holiday Inn Burlington Hotel, Burlington, Ont., Canada


223 APRIL 2016 4

Member Chapter Event • P hiladelphia Dinner meeting, TBD

7–8

SMA Committee Meetings • Plant Operations Division Sheraton Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, USA • Transportation Sheraton Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

11

Member Chapter Event • Pittsburgh Dinner meeting, Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

3–4

4  Technology Committee Meeting • Tinplate Mill Products — Metallurgy of Tin Mill Practices Subcommittee San Antonio, Texas, USA

16–19  — The Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition David L. Lawrence Convention Center, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA Organized by . Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org 25–27

11–13  Material Handling and Transportation Logistics — A Practical Training Seminar Holiday Inn Nashville-Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tenn., USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org 12

Member Chapter Events • Detroit Dinner meeting, Holiday Inn, Southgate, Mich., USA • Midwest Dinner meeting, Avalon Manor, Merrillville, Ind., USA

14  Technology Committee Meeting •M  aterial Handling and Transportation & Logistics (joint meeting) Nashville, Tenn., USA 26–28

28–29

SMA Annual Members Conference The Mayflower Hotel, Autograph Collection, Washington, D.C., USA

21–23  23rd Annual Crane Symposium The Indianapolis Marriott Downtown, Indianapolis, Ind., USA Phone +1.724.814.3000, Fax +1.724.814.3001, conferences@aist.org or AIST.org

AUGUST 2016 1–3

2–3

SMA Committee Meeting •A  06: Magnetic Properties Grand Hyatt San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

2–5

SMA Committee Meeting •A  01: Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys Grand Hyatt San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

SEPTEMBER 2016 13–16

21st IAS Steel Conference and Expo (IAS 2016) Instiuto Argentino de Siderurgia, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Phone+54.0336.4461805 ext. 19, conferencia2016@siderurgia.org.ar or www.siderurgia.org.ar/conf16

22–23

SMA Committee Meeting • Transportation Washington, D.C., USA

I

SMA Committee Meeting •A  05: Metallic-Coated Iron and Steel Products Grand Hyatt San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC 2016) H.B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA Sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Engineers (AAPG) and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). Phone: +1.918.560.2617, urtec@urtec.org or www.urtec.org

JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

1–3

11th European Electric Steelmaking Conference & Expo (EEC 2016) Giorgio Cini Foundation, Island of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy Sponsored by Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia (AIM). Phone: +39.02.76021132, Fax: +39.02.76020551, aim@aimnet.it or www.aimnet.it/eec2016.htm

JUNE 2016

SMA Committee Meeting • Environment Georgetown Suites, Washington, D.C., USA

MAY 2016

SMA Committee Meeting • A 04: Iron Castings Grand Hyatt San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

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224

Steel Calendar 29–30

SMA Committee Meeting • Environment JW Marriott Indianapolis, Ind., USA

OCTOBER 2016 12–14

26–27

27–28

SMA Committee Meetings • Plant Operations Division Renaissance Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA • S afety Renaissance Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA SMA Committee Meeting • Human Resources Chicago Hilton, Chicago, Ill., USA

14–15

ASTM Committee Meeting • A 06: Magnetic Properties Renaissance Orlando at Sea World, Orlando, Fla., USA

14–17

ASTM Committee Meeting • A 01: Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys Renaissance Orlando at Sea World, Orlando, Fla., USA

15–16

ASTM Committee Meeting • A 04: Iron Castings Renaissance Orlando at Sea World, Orlando, Fla., USA

16–18

11th International Symposium on Rolling Bearing Steels Progress in Bearing Steel Technologies and Bearing Steel Quality Renaissance Orlando at Sea World, Orlando, Fla., USA Sponsored by ASTM International. Phone: +31.0.30.607.5722, john.m.beswick@gmail.com or www.astm.org F

SMA Board of Directors Interim Meeting Chicago Hilton, Chicago, Ill., USA

NOVEMBER 2016 13–15

ASTM Committee Meeting • A 05: Metallic-Coated Iron and Steel Products Renaissance Orlando at Sea World, Orlando, Fla., USA

Where’s the Hypocycloid? © 2016 Association for Iron & Steel Technology

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JAN 2016    IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY   AIST.ORG

Steel IronyTM

Each month a hypocycloid (F) is “hidden” on the cover of Iron & Steel Technology. While its size and color may vary, its shape is maintained. Every month, Iron & Steel Technology uses this space at the end of “Steel Calendar” to point out where the hypocycloid was hidden on the previous issue’s cover. In addition, readers can find the location of the current issue’s hypocycloid by visiting AIST.org and clicking on “Publications” then “Iron & Steel Technology.” Challenge yourself to find it before looking for the answer.


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186 Thorn Hill Road Warrendale, PA 15086-7528 USA +1.724.814.3000 Fax +1.724.814.3001 AIST.org

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