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INTRODUZIONE CORSO 1 OTTOBRE 2012


LA GRANDE PIRAMIDE (c.2450 a.C.) Un’ opera di 35,000 persone


LE PRIME CIVILTA’ Rare isole in un mare grigio di barbari nate dal genio di pochi un’idea nata dall’ignoranza degli spazi intermedi e dei meccanismi di formazione


The story of the rise of Rome from a group of hills hosting a number of Latin-speaking tribes--to the position of ruler of all the Mediterranean lands and Europe north and west beyond the Alps--is a story of both myth and powerful fact. It is a tribute to their doggedness as military entrepreneurs and the giftedness of their military leadership.


Morgan, Henry (1818-1881) American scholar, ethnographer, archeologist and historian of primitive society. Author of the book Ancient Society, published in London in 1877, which was the inspiration for Engels' The Origins of the Family, appeared seven years later.


Savagery -- the period in which man's appropriation of products in their natural state predominates; the products of human art are chiefly instruments which assist this appropriation. Barbarism -- the period during which man learns to breed domestic animals and to practice agriculture, and acquires methods of increasing the supply of natural products by human activity.

Civilization -- the period in which man learns a more advanced application of work to the products of nature, the period of industry proper and of art.


Friedrich Engels 1820-1895


Vere Gordon Childe 1892 - 1957

Edinburgh 1954


V. GORDON CHILDE


ELMAN R. SERVICE 1915-1996


Evolution of Social Formations


ANDAMENTO DELLA POPOLAZIONE MONDIALE miliardi

12 10

Regioni sviluppate Regioni in sviluppo

8 6 4 2 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150


I dream’d in a dream I saw a city invincible to the attacks of the whole of the rest of the earth. I dream’d that was the new City of Friends; Nothing was greater there than the quality of robust love—it led the rest; It was seen every hour in the actions of the men of that city, And in all their looks and words.

A City Invincible Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman (1819–1892)


CHICAGO, December 4-7, 1958


Kraeling. CH & Adams. R.Mc C. (eds.)

City Invincible, Chicago 1960

Lewis Mumford, Concluding Remarks : “The attractive power of the ancient city comes not from its markets but from its gods… As an instrument of culture, the city has proved indispensable…..


ROBERT McC. ADAMS


ROBERT McC. ADAMS Land behind Baghdad 1967


EARLY DYNASTIC III AND AKKADIAN SETTLEMENTS AND MAIN IRRIGATION NETWORKS EAST OF THE TIGRIS


VENCE GORDON CHILDE 1892-1857


PETER J. UCKO, RUTH TRINGHAM & G.W. DIM

Man Settlement and Urbanism, 197


Ester Boserup 1910 –1999

The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. Chicago: Aldine, 1965.

THOMAS R. MALTHUS 1766 – 1834


UniversitĂ  di Bologna, Dipartimento di Archeologia.


Robert e Linda Braidwood

Jarmo


Coxcatlan Cave Tehuacan Valley


KENT V. FLANNERY AND THE SYSTEM THEORY


Population

P TIME

R

Resources

T

Territory


CONFLUENCE & NUCLEATION

TRANSFORMATION

EXPANSION


Pyramid of Control Systems


AGRICOLTURA IRRIGUA

PASTORIZIA E NOMADISMO


SEGMENTATION

EXPANSION

NUCLEATION


……FOR AN EVEN MORE ELUSIVE WEALTH


KINSHIP

PATHWAYS OF GROWTH AND CONDIVISION

KINGSH IP

EXPANSIO N

SPREADING SEGMENTATIO NS HETERARC HY HIERARCHY

COMMUNAL HOUSES SHRINES AND MARKET PLACES

MULTIPLICATION OF TRANSACTIONS

NUCLEATIONS

TEMPLES AND MARKET PLACES PALACES


Population

P TIME

R

Resources

T

Territory


TRIBES AT WORK ISLAND OF NIAS, INDONESIA 1946


ABOUT 8000 OF THEM ARE STILL VISIBLE PROUDLY LISTED AS NATIONAL MONUMENTS


THERE WAS NEITHER STATE OR SUPERTRIBAL ORGANIZATION BEHIND THEM. LABOR WAS ORGANIZED ON COMMUNITY BASES…… GARY S. WEBSTER (2001) HAVE WORKED OUT THE LABOR INPUTS FOR THE ENTIRE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS FROM STONE EXTRACTION TO FINAL LINE UP…..FOR A STANDARD TOWER MADE OF 3000 BLOCKS OF DRESSED STONES: 1. QUARRYING 2. TRANSPORT 3. MASONRY 4. LINE-UP TOTAL

500 MAN-DAYS 1100 1300 700 _____________________ 3600 MAN DAYS

USING SURPLUS LABOR TIME AND WITH PRIMITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, A POPULATION OF 100-200 PEOPLE COULD ACCOMPLISH THE WHOLE CONSTRUCTION IN FEW YEARS


Crescita dei sistemi politici secondo “traiettorie di fluttuazione�


FACTORS OF SCALE AND ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE


THE VERY FIRST MONUMENTAL STRUCTURES IN EGYPT WERE NOT THE PYRAMIDS BUT THE ROYAL ENCLOSURES OF THE FIRST DYNASTIES AT ABYDOS


EGYPT – Hierakonpolis-Enclosure of Khasekemwy


EGYPT – SAQQARA Djoser Complex


EGYPT – Labor Investment for Abydos GREAT ENCLOSURES

(Differences of volume are taken into account)

For most of the enclosures, although we do not know the original height and the precise characteristics of the Abydos Enclosures but on the bases of the Khasekhemwy’s enclosures at Hierakonpolis and Abydos, a valuable exstimation is still possible.The labor investment is based on the value calculated from Erasmus 1965, p. 292: 12,25 man-days labor investiment for a cubic meter of masonry at Uxmal.


THE GIZAH COMPLEX


EGYPT – Labor Investment for THE PYRAMIDS

The labor investment for the realization of the three pyramids. Differences of volume are taken into account. From left to right, the step pyramid of the Djoser, (2665-2645 B.C.), the first pyramid ever build, at Saqqara, then the two pyramid at Ghiza, Khufu , (2579-2556 B.C.) and Khafre (2547-2521 B.C.). Labor investment is based on figures calculated from Erasmus 1965, p. 292: 12,25 man-days labor investiment for a cubic meter of masonry at Uxmal.


LCW AGRICULTURE

EARTHWORKS

WATERWORKS

TRANSPORT

BUILDING

ARCHITECTURE

FORTIFICATIONS

DEFENCE WORKS

WATER

LAND

ROADS

EMBANKMENTS DRAINAGE LANDLEVELLING

BASINS & COLLECTORS BRIDGES CANALS

RAISED FIELDS IRRIGATION

EMBANKMENTS & DAMS

BOATS

SILOS TERRACES

MARINE INSTALLATIONS


SEGMENTAZIONE

ESPANSIONE

NUCLEAZIONE


LEVELS OF LABOUR OF LABOUR FORCE MOBILIZATION

LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 6 LELEL 7 LEVEL 8 LEVEL 9

10 PERSONS 100 1000 10,000 THE GREAT PYRAMID AT GIZAH 35,000 WORKERS 100,000 1,000000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1,000,000,000


THE GREAT DIVIDE

HISTORICAL SCIENCES

SOCIAL SCIENCES

THEY EXPLAIN INDIVIDUAL SITUATIONS IN THEIR COMPLEXITY

THEY BUILD GENERALIZATIONS FROM VARIABLES IDENTIFIED IN HISTORICAL PHENOMENA

LAW-USING

LAW-FORMULATING

THE NEW ARCHAEOLOGY CORE PROPOSAL WAS TO OVERCOME THE DIVIDE WITHIN A SINGLE LOGICAL CONSTRUCT


Greek Kylyx

Chinese Bronze Mirror

THE ISSYK KUL “QUEEN” Saka Burial of the IV century BCE


TRADE: THE OTHER AND MOST INNOVATIVE RESPONSE TO SCARCITY


THE GREAT SILK ROAD


The most distinctive feature of his thought is his emphasis on group feeling and solidarity which he calls "asabiyah" from an Arabic root referring to paternal kinsmen. As its derivation suggests, asabiyah is found first and foremost among blood relatives. Nonetheless, its real cause is not blood but "social intercourse, friendly association, long familiarity, and the companionship that results from ... sharing the ... Circumstances of life and death." It is group feeling, Ibn Khaldun says, that makes possible all great social achievements, from religious reforms to the founding and defense of dynasties. Paradoxically, its necessity also ensures that social achievements never last, because successputs an end to group feeling by liberating desire and reducing the need for mutual responsibility. If fragmentation is the rule and community an exception, all human achievements become temporary deviations from chaos


LA FAMIGLIA ESTESA: PARAMETRO DI OGNI SOCIALITA’


IDENTITA’ INDIVIDUALE E…

SOLIDARIETA’ DI GRUPPO


I PRIMATI SONO UNA STESSA FAMIGLIA


IL CORPO UMANO


LEONARDO DA VINCI E LA PERFEZIONE DEL CORPO UMANO


UNO STUDIO ATTENTO DELLE FORME E DELLE PROPORZIONI DEL CORPO UMANO


I PIU’ FORTI DEGLI UOMINI SAREBBERO VINTI DA……….


Carl Nilsson Linnaeus 1707-1778

La Classificazione Scientifica degli Organismi Viventi


Il merito maggiore di Linneo fu la definizione e l'introduzione nel 1753 della nomenclatura binomiale nel sistema di classificazione delle piante e degli animali. Con questo metodo tassonomico a ciascun organismo sono attribuiti due nomi (in origine in latino): il primo si riferisce al Genere di appartenenza dell'organismo stesso ed è uguale per tutte le specie che condividono alcuni caratteri principali (nomen genericum); il secondo termine designa la Specie propriamente detta (nome triviale o nome specifico). La portata dell’innovazione fu enorme; precedentemente alla nomenclatura binomiale il sistema di nomenclatura era semplicemente basato su un'estesa descrizione di ogni pianta, in latino, per i caratteri distintivi ritenuti di rilievo, in modo del tutto arbitrario, da ogni classificatore.


Moscerino della frutta (Drosophila melanogaster) Dominio

Eukaryota

Regno

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Classe

Insecta

Ordine

Diptera

Famiglia

Drosophilidae

Genere

Drosophila

Specie

D. melanogaster


Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859


CHIMBORAZO, Ecuador

da Alexander von Humboldt, Geography of Plants, 1807.


LA GRANDE PIRAMIDE (c.2450 a.C.) Un’ opera di 35,000 persone


CONSEGUENZE DELL’USO DEL TERRITORIO


LEZIONE 1 INTRODUTTIVA 1.10.2012