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UNIVERSIDAD AUTĂ“NOMA DE MADRID Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East


Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East Madrid, April 3-8 2006

Edited by Joaquín Mª Córdoba, Miquel Molist, Mª Carmen Pérez, Isabel Rubio, Sergio Martínez (Editores)

Madrid, 3 a 8 de abril de 2006 Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología del Oriente Próximo Antiguo VOL. I Centro Superior de Estudios sobre el Oriente Próximo y Egipto Madrid 2008


Colección Actas

© ISBN (OBRA COMPLETA): 978-84-8344-140-4 ISBN (VOL. I): 978-84-8344-141-1 Depósito legal: GU-64/2008 Realiza: Palop Producciones Gráficas. Impreso en España. Diseño de cubierta: M.A. Tejedor.


5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología del Oriente Próximo Antiguo

Scientific Committee Comité Científico Organizador Joaquín Mª Córdoba Sergio Martínez Miquel Molist Mª Carmen Pérez Isabel Rubio

Executive Commission Comisión Ejecutiva

Scientific Steering Committee Comité Científico Permanente Manfred Bietak Barthel Hrouda (honorary member) Hartmut Kühne Jean-Claude Margueron Wendy Matthews Paolo Matthiae Diederik Meijer Ingolf Thuesen Irene J. Winter

Ana Arroyo, Carmen del Cerro, Fernando Escribano, Saúl Escuredo, Alejandro Gallego, Zahara Gharehkhani, Alessandro Grassi, José Manuel Herrero †, Rodrigo Lucía, Montserrat Mañé, Covadonga Sevilla, Elena Torres Technical collaborators Colaboradores técnicos Virginia Tejedor, Pedro Bao, Roberto Peñas, Pedro Suárez, Pablo Sebastagoítia, Jesús González, Raúl Varea, Javier Lisbona, Carmen Suárez, Amanda Gómez, Carmen Úbeda, Cristina López, José Mª Pereda, Rosa Plaza, Lorenzo Manso, Juan Trapero Congress Venue Sede del Congreso Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Sponsorships Apoyos y patrocinios Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Ministerio de Cultura Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores Comunidad de Madrid


Themes of the Congress Temas del Congreso 1. History and Method of Archaeological Research La historia y la metodología de la investigación arqueológica 2. The Archaeology and the Environment of the Ancient Eastern Cities and Villages La arqueología y el entorno de las ciudades y las aldeas antiguas 3. Arts and Crafts in the Ancient Near East La artesanía y el arte en el Oriente Antiguo 4. Reports on the Results from the Latest Archaeological Seasons Informes sobre los resultados de las recientes campañas de excavación


Index - Índice VOL. I Á. Gabilondo Pujol, Prólogo...................................................................................... P. Matthiae, Opening Speech ........................................................................................ J. Mª Córdoba, M. Molist, Mª C. Pérez, I. Rubio, S. Martínez, Bienvenida........

17 21 25

Opening Lectures to Main Themes - Apertura de las sesiones temáticas N. Chevalier, Considérations sur l’histoire de l’archéologie, ses origines et son développement actuel.............................................................................................................. S. Mazzoni, Arts, crafts and the state: A dialectic process............................................

31 37

Papers and posters - Comunicaciones y pósters M. Abdulkarim, O. Olesti-Vila, Territoire et paysage dans la province romaine de la Syrie. La centuriatio d’Emesa (Homs) ............................................................... G. Affani, Astragalus bone in Ancient Near East: Ritual depositions in Iron Age in Tell Afis ........................................................................................................... A. Ahrens, Egyptian and Egyptianizing stone vessels from the royal tomb and palace at Tell Mišrife/Qa7na (Syria): Imports and local imitations ................................... B. Ajorloo, The neolithization process in Azerbaijan: An introduction to review............... C. Alvaro, C. Lemorini, G. Palumbi, P. Piccione, From the analysis of the archaeological context to the life of a community. «Ethnographic» remarks on the Arslantepe VIB2 village .......................................................................................................... Sh. N. Amirov, Towards understanding religious character of Tell Hazna 1 oval............. Á. Armendáriz, L. Teira, M. Al-Maqdissi, M. Haïdar-Boustani, J. J. Ibáñez, J. González Urquijo, The megalithic necropolises in the Homs Gap (Syria). A preliminary approach ................................................................................................................. A. Arroyo, Akpinar....................................................................................................

55 77 93 107 127 137 151 163


10 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East L. Astruc, O. Daune-Le Brun, A. L. Brun, F. Hourani, Un atelier de fabrication de récipients en pierre à Khirokitia (Néolothique pré-céramique récent, VIIe millénaire av. JC, Chypre........................................................................................................ G. Baccelli, F. Manuelli, Middle Bronze Khabur Ware from Tell Barri/Kahat ..... B. Bader, Avaris and Memphis in the Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (ca. 17701770-1550/40 BC)............................................................................................... F. Baffi, Who locked the door? Fortification walls and city gates in Middle Bronze Age inner Syria: Ebla and Tell Tuqan .......................................................................... L. Barda, El aporte de los mapas y descripciones antiguas en el ensayo de reconstrucción de sitios arqueológicos, periferias y rutas (con uso del SIG) ...................................... C. D. Bardeschi, A propos des installations dans la cour du Temple Ovale de Khafajah ..... C. Bellino, A. Vallorani, The Stele of Tell Ashara. The Neo-Syrian perspective............ D. Ben-Shlomo, Iconographic representations from Early Iron Age Philistia and their ethnic implications................................................................................................... A. I. Beneyto Lozano, Manifestaciones artísticas desde Oriente Próximo a Al-Andalus L. Bombardieri, C. Forasassi, The pottery from IA II-III levels of Late-Assyrian to Post-Assyrian period in Tell Barri/Kahat .......................................................... B. Brown, The Kilamuwa Relief: Ethnicity, class and power in Iron Age North Syria....................................................................................................................... A. Brustolon, E. Rova, The Late Chalcolithic settlement in the Leilan region of Northeastern Syria: A preliminary assessment .............................................................. S. M. Cecchini, G. Affanni, A. Di Michele, Tell Afis. The walled acropolis (Middle Bronze Age to Iron Age I). A work in progress..................................................... B. Cerasetti, V. A. Girelli, G. Luglio, B. Rondelli, M. Zanfini, From monument to town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying at Tilmen Höyük in South-East Turkey.................................................................................................................... N. Chevalier, Fouiller un palais assyrien au XIXe siècle: Victor Place à Khorsabad....... L. Chiocchetti, Post-Assyrian pottery from the Italian excavations at Fort Shalmaneser, 1987-1990 ............................................................................................................ X. Clop García, Estrategias de gestión de las materias primas de origen mineral en Tell Halula: primera aproximación................................................................................ A. Colantoni, A. Gottarelli, A formalized approach to pottery typology: The case of some typical shapes from the Late Bronze Age in Northern Syria .......................... A. M. Conti, C. Persiani, Arslantepe. The building sequence of the EB3 settlement ....................................................................................................................... C. Coppini, Mitannian pottery from Tell Barri ........................................................... J. Mª Córdoba, Informe preliminar sobre las últimas campañas en al Madam (2003-2006).... F. Cruciani, The atributes of Ishtar in Old Syrian glyptic and the Mesopotamian literary tradition.................................................................................................................. A. Daems, Alternative ways for reading some female figurines from Late Prehistoric Mesopotamia and Iran............................................................................................

175 187 207 225 245 253 273 285 305 323 339 357 383 393 403 417 441 455 465 477 493 509 519


Index - Índice A. D’Agostino, Between Mitannians and Middle-Assyrians: Changes and links in ceramic culture at Tell Barri and in Syrian Jazirah during the end of the 2nd millennium BC ....................................................................................................... A. D’Agostino, S. Valenti, N. Laneri, Archaeological works at Hirbemerdon Tepe (Turkey). A preliminary report or the first three seasons......................................... M. B. D’Anna, R. Laurito, A. Ricci, Walking on the Malatya Plain (Turkey): Preliminary remarks on Chalcolithic pottery and occupation. 2003-2005 Archaeological Survey Project ......................................................................................................... I. de Aloe, A preliminary report on the 1995 Tell Leilan survey: The pottery from the Hellenistic to the Sasanian Period ..................................................................... F. Dedeoglu, Cultural transformation and settlement system of Southwestern Anatolia from Neolithic to LBA: A case study from Denizili/Çivril Plain.................. K. De Langhe, Early Christianity in Iraq and the Gulf: A view from the architectural remains .......................................................................................................... T. De Schacht, W. Gheyle, R. Gossens, A. De Wulf, Archaeological research and CORONA: On the use, misuse and full potential of historical remote sensing data................................................................................................................. C. del Cerro, Life and society of the inhabitants of al Madam (UAE). Interdisciplinary study of an Iron Age village and its environment.................................................... G. M. Di Nocera, Settlements, population and landscape on the Upper Euphrates between V and II millennium BC. Results of the Archaeological Survey Project 2003-2005 in the Malatya Plain .............................................................................................. S. Di Paolo, Dalle straordinarie avventure di Lady Hester Stanhope alla «Crociata» archaeologica di Butler: la politica «religiosa» dei viaggi delle esplorazioni scientifiche nella regione di Damasco tra XIX e XX secolo.............................................................. R. Dolce, Considerations on the archaeological evidence from the Early Dynastic Temple of Inanna at Nippur.............................................................................................. R. H. Dornemann, Status report on the Early Bronze Age IV Temple in Area E at Tell Qarqur in the Orontes Valley, Syria ............................................................... A. Egea Vivancos, Artesanos de lo rupestre en el alto Éufrates sirio durante la época romana.. A. Egea Vivancos, Viajeros y primeras expediciones arqueológicas en Siria. Su contribución al redescubrimiento de Hierapolis y su entorno ........................................................ B. Einwag, Fortified citadels in the Early Bronze Age? New evidence from Tall Bazi (Syria) .................................................................................................................... M. Erdalkiran, The Halaf Ceramics in Hirnak area, Turkey..................................... F. Escribano Martín, Babilonia y los españoles en el siglo XIX ................................. M. Feizkhah, Pottery of Garrangu style in Azarbaijan (Iran).................................... E. Felluca, Ceramic evidences from Bampur: A key site to reconstruct the cultural development in the Bampur Valley (Iran) during the third millennium BC................................. E. Felluca, S. Mogliazza Under-floor burials in a Middle Bronze Age domestic quarter at Tell Mardikh – Ebla, Syria ...........................................................................................

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12 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East VOL. II S. Festuccia, M. Rossi, Recent excavations on the Ebla Acropolis (Syria).................. S. Festuccia, M. Rossi Latest phases of Tell Mardikh - Ebla: Area PSouth Lower Town ...................................................................................................................... J.-D. Forest and R. Vallet, Uruk architecture from abroad: Some thoughts about Hassek Höyük....................................................................................................... M. Fortin, L.-M. Loisier, J. Pouliot, La géomatique au service des fouilles archéologiques: l’exemple de Tell ‘Acharneh, en Syrie...................................................................... G. Gernez, A new study of metal weapons from Byblos: Preliminary work ..................... K. T. Gibbs, Pierced clay disks and Late Neolithic textile production.......................... J. Gil Fuensanta, P. Charvàt, E A. Crivelli, The dawn of a city. Surtepe Höyük excavations Birecik Dam area, Eastern Turkey ............................................................... A. Gómez Bach, Las producciones cerámicas del Halaf Final en Siria: Tell Halula (valle del Éufrates) y Tell Chagar Bazar (valle del Khabur)............................................. E. Grootveld, What weeds can tell us Archaeobotanical research in the Jordan Valley ... E. Guralnick, Khorsabad sculptured fragments............................................................ H. Hameeuw, K. Vansteenhuyse, G. Jans, J. Bretschneider, K. Van Lerberghe, Living with the dead. Tell Tweini: Middle Bronze Age tombs in an urban context... R. Hempelmann, Kharab Sayyar: The foundation of the Early Bronze Age settlement ....................................................................................................................... F. Hole, Ritual and the collapse of Susa, ca 4000 BC ................................................ D. Homès-Fredericq The Belgian excavations at al-Lahun (biblical Moab region), Jordan. Past and future ....................................................................................................... J. J. Ibáñez et al., Archaeological survey in the Homs Gap (Syria): Campaigns of 2004 and 2005....................................................................................................................... A. Invernizzi, El testimonio de Ambrogio Bembo y Joseph Guillaume Grelot sobre los restos arqueológicos iranios ................................................................................. K. Jakubiak, Pelusium, still Egyptian or maybe Oriental town in the Western Synai. Results of the last excavations on the Roman city ................................................... S. A. Jasim, E. Abbas, The excavations of a Post-Hellenistic tomb at Dibba, UAE..... Z. A. Kafafi, A Late Bronze Age jewelry mound from Tell Dayr ‘Alla, Jordan ......... E. Kaptijn, Settling the steppe. Iron Age irrigation around Tell Deir ‘Alla, Jordan Valley .... C. Kepinski, New data from Grai Resh and Tell Khoshi (South-Sinjar, Iraq) collected in 2001 and 2002 ................................................................................................. A. Klein-Franke, The site in Jabal Qarn Wu’l near % iziaz in the region of San5 an (Yemen) .................................................................................................................. G. Kozbe, A new archaeological survey project in the South Eastern Anatolia: Report of the Cizre and Silopi region ..................................................................................... P. Kurzawski, Assyrian outpost at Tell Sabi Abyad: Architecture, organisation of space and social structure of the Late Bronze settlement .........................................

17 31 39 55 73 89 97 113 123 127 143 153 165 179 187 205 221 237 255 265 285 297 323 341


Index - Índice R. Laurito, C. Lemorini, E. Cristiani, Seal impressions on cretulae at Arslantepe: Improving the methodological and interpretative references........................................ A. R. Lisella, Clay figurines from Tell Ta’anek ........................................................... M. Lönnqvist, Kathleen M. Kenyon 1906-1978. A hundred years after her birth. The formative years of a female archaeologist: From socio-politics to the stratigraphical method and the radiocarbon revolution in archaeology......................................... K. O. Lorentz, Crafting the Head: The human body as art? ...................................... C. Lorre, Jacques de Morgan et la question de l’origine de la métalurgie dans le Caucase .... S. Lundström, From six to seven Royal Tombs. The documentation of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft excavation at Assur (1903-1914) – Possibilities and limits of its reexamination .................................................................................................... N. Marchetti, A preliminary report on the 2005 and 2006 excavations at Tilmen Höyük.................................................................................................................... O. Marder, I. Milevski, R. Rabinovich, O. Ackermann, R. Shahack-Gross, P. Fine, The Lower Paleolithic site of Revadin Quarry, Israel ............................................. R. Martín Galán, An example of the survival of ancient Mesopotamian architectonical traditions in Northern Jazireh during the Hellenistic period .................................... A. C. Martins, Oriental antiquities and international conflicts. A Portuguese episode during the 1st World War ............................................................................... K. Matsumura, Hellenistic human and animal sacrifices in Central Anatolia: Examples from Kaman-Kalehöyük.......................................................................................... P. Matthiae, The Temple of the Rock of Early Bronze IV A-B at Ebla: Structure, chronology, continuity .............................................................................................. M. G. Micale, The course of the images. Remarks on the architectural reconstructions in the 19th and 20th centuries: The case of the Ziqqurrat........................................ L. Milano, Elena Rova, New discoveries of the Ca’Foscari University – Venice Team at Tell Beydar (Syria) ............................................................................................. I. Milevski, Y. Baumgarten, Between Lachish and Tel Erani: Horvat Ptora, a new Late Prehistoric site in the Southern Levant ........................................................... O. Muñoz, S. Cleuziou, La tombe 1 de Ra’s al-Jinz RJ-1: une approche de la complexité des pratiques funéraires dans la peninsule d’Oman à l’Âge du Bronze ancien L. Nigro, Tell es-Sultan/Jericho from village to town: A reassessment of the Early Bronze Age I settlement and necropolis ................................................................... L. Nigro, Prelimiray report of the first season of excavation of Rome «La Sapienza» University at Khirbet al-Batrawy (Upper Wadi az-Zarqa, Jordan).................. A. T. Ökse, Preliminary results of the salvage excavations at Salat Tepe in the Upper Tigris region............................................................................................................ V. Orsi, Between continuity and tranformation: The late 3rd Millennium BC ceramic sequence from Tell Barri (Syria) ............................................................................. A. Otto, Organization of Late Bronze Age cities in the Upper Syrian Euphrates Valley..................................................................................................................... M. Özbaharan, Musular: The special activity site in Central Anatolia, Turkey................. F. Pedde, The Assur-Project. An old excavation newly analysed ..................................

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14 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East C. Persiani, Chemical analysis and time/space distribution of EB2-3 pottery at Arslantepe (Malatya, Turkey) ...................................................................................... L. P. Petit, Late Iron Age levels at Tell Damieh: New excavations results from the Jordan Valley..................................................................................................................... L. Peyronel, Making images of humans and animals. The clay figurines from the Royal Palace G at Tell Mardikh-Ebla, Syria (EB IVA, c. 2400-2300 BC) ................. P. Piccione, Walking in the Malatya Plain (Turkey): The first Half of the III millennium BC (EBA I and II). Some preliminary remarks on the results of the 2003-2005 Archaeological Survey Project..................................................................................

753 777 787 807

VOL. III F. Pinnock, Artistic genres in Early Syrian Syria. Image and ideology of power in a great pre-classical urban civilisation in its formative phases...................................... A. Polcaro, EB I settlements and environment in the Wadi az-zarqa Dolmens and ideology of death........................................................................................................... M. Pucci, The Neoassyrian residences of Tell Shekh Hamad, Syria............................ P. Puppo, La Tabula «Chigi»: un riflesso delle conquiste romane in Oriente ................ S. Riehl, Agricultural decision-making in the Bronze Age Near East: The development of archaeobotanical crop plant assemblages in relation to climate change....................... A. Rochman-Halperin, Technical aspects of carving Iron Age decorative cosmetic palettes in the Southern Levant .......................................................................... M. Rossi, Tell Deinit-Syria MEDA Project n. 15 (2002-2004). Restoration training programs................................................................................................................. M. Sala, Khirbet Kerak Ware from Tell es-Sultan/ancient Jericho: A reassessment in the light of the finds of the Italian-Palestinian Expedition (1997-2000)............... S. G. Schmid, A. Amour, A. Barmasse, S. Duchesne, C. Huguenot, L. Wadeson, New insights into Nabataean funerary practices...................................................... S. Silvonen, P. Kouki, M. Lavento, A. Mukkala, H. Ynnilä, Distribution of Nabataean-Roman sites around Jabal Harûn: Analysis of factors causing site patterning ............................................................................................................... G. Spreafico, The Southern Temple of Tell el-Husn/Beth-Shean: The sacred architecture of Iron Age Palestine reconsidered ........................................................... M. T. Starzmann, Use of space in Shuruppak: Households on dispaly....................... T. Steimer-Herbet, H. Criaud, Funerary monuments of agro-pastoral populations on the Leja (Southern Syria) ................................................................................... G. Stiehler-Alegría, Kassitische Siegel aus stratifizierten Grabungen........................... I. M. Swinnen, The Early Bronze I pottery from al-Lahun in Central Jordan: Seal impressions and potter’s marks................................................................................ H. Tekin, The Late Neolithic pottery tradition of Southeastern Anatolia and its vicinity ....... H. Tekin, Hakemi Use: A newly established site dating to the Hassuna / Samarra period in Southeastern Anatolia.................................................................................

17 31 49 65 71 93 103 111 135 161 181 203 221 235 245 257 271


Index - Índice D. Thomas, The ebb and flow of empires – Afghanistan and neighbouring lands in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries ....................................................................................... Y. Tonoike, Beyond style: Petrographic analysis of Dalma ceramics in two regions of Iran ................................................................................................................... B. Uysal, The technical features of the Ninevite 5 Ware in Southeastern Anatolia ...... C. Valdés Pererio, Qara Qûzâq and Tell Hamîs (Syrian Euphrates valley): Updating and comparing Bronze Age ceramic and archaeological data ......................... S. Valentini, Ritual activities in the «rural shirines» at Tell Barri, in the Khabur region, during the Ninevite 5 period ........................................................................ K. Vansteenhuyse, M. al-Maqdissi, P. Degryse, K. Van Lerberghe, Late Helladic ceramics at Tell Tweini and in the kingdom of Ugarit............................................ F. Venturi, The Sea People in the Levant: A North Syrian perspective ........................ V. Verardi, The different stages of the Acropolis from the Amorite period at Tell Mohammed Diyab.................................................................................................. V. Vezzoli, Islamic Period settlement in Tell Leilan Region (Northern Jazíra): The material evidence from the 1995 Survey .................................................................. O. Vicente i Campos, La aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en el yacimiento arqueológico de Tell Halula....................................... N. Vismara, Lo sviluppo delle metodologie della scienza numismatica e la scoperta di una nuova area di produzione monetale: il caso dell’identificazione della emissioni della Lycia in epoca arcaica ............................................................................................. T. Watkins, Natural environment versus cultural environment: The implications of creating a built environment ................................................................................................. N. Yalman, An alternative interpretation on the relationship between the settlement layout and social organization in Çatalhöyük Neolithic site: A ethnological research in Central Anatolia................................................................................................ E. Yanai, Ein Assawir, Tel Magal and the peripheral settlement in the Northern Sharon from the Neolithic period until the end of the Early Bronze Age III ...................... E. Yanai, Cemetery of the Intermediate Bronze Age at Bet Dagan.............................. E. Yanai, The trade with Cypriot Grey Lustrous Wheel Made Ware between Cyprus, North Syrian Lebanese coast and Israel..................................................................

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Workshops - Talleres de debate Workshop I Houses for the Living and a Place for the Dead N. Balkan, M. Molist and D. Stordeur (eds.) Introduction: House for the living and place for the dead. In memory of Jacques Cauvin ................................................................................................................... 505 P. C. Edwards, The symbolic dimensions of material culture at Wadi Hammeh 27.......... 507


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Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

F. R. Valla, F. Bocquentin, Les maisons, les vivants, les morts: le cas de Mallaha (Eynan), Israël ...................................................................................................................... E. Guerrero, M. Molist, J. Anfruns, Houses for the living and for the dead? The case of Tell Halula (Syria)............................................................................................ D. Stordeur, R. Khawam, Une place pour les morts dans les maisons de Tell Aswad (Syrie). (Horizon PPNB ancien et PPNB moyen).................................................. I. Kuijt, What mean these bones? Considering scale and Neolithic mortuary variability...... B. S. Düring, Sub-floor burials at Çatalhöyük: Exploring relations between the dead, houses, and the living ..................................................................................... P. M. M. G. Akkermans, Burying the dead in Late Neolithic Syria .......................... T. Watkins, Ordering time and space: Creating a cultural world ...................................

521 547 561 591 603 621 647

Workshop III The Origins of the Halaf and the Rise of Styles O Niewenhuyse, P. Akkermans, W. Cruells and M. Molist (eds.) Introduction: A workshop on the origins of the Halaf and the rise of styles .................. W. Cruells, The Proto-Halaf: Origins, definition, regional framework and chronology.............. O. Nieuwenhuyse, Feasting in the Steppe – Late Neolithic ceramic change and the rise of the Halaf........................................................................................................... R. Bernbeck, Taming time and timing the tamed......................................................... M. Le Mière, M. Picon, A contribution to the discussion on the origins of the Halaf culture from chemical analyses of pottery................................................................. B. Robert, A. Lasalle, R. Chapoulie, New insights into the ceramic technology of the Proto-Halaf («Transitional») period by using physico-chemical methods........ H. Tekin, Late Neolithic ceramic traditions in Southeastern Anatolia: New insights from Hakemi Use........................................................................................................... M. Verhoeven, Neolithic ritual in transition............................................................... Programme - Programa

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From monument to town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying at Tilmen Höyük in South-East Turkey Barbara Cerasetti – Valentina A. Girelli – Giampaolo Luglio – Bernardo Rondelli – Massimo Zanfini, Bologna* Abstract Different survey methods are needed on archaeological sites: philological surveying of a monument, use of a total station combined with low altitude shots (through a kite) and photomosaics (through a pole), Close-Range Photogrammetry, absolute georeferencing, topographical and morphological surveys and remote sensing methodologies, allowing for a GIS archive. The case study of Tilmen Höyük (Turkey) is briefly examined in the article. Keywords: Turkey, Topography, Geodesy, Surveying, Photogrammetry, GIS, Tilmen Höyük.

Through their application on the case study of Tilmen Höyük (a 2nd mill. BC town in south-eastern Turkey excavated by the Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna), this work stresses the close connection of different survey methods, effective and of limited cost. They are all needed at the same time if one aims at fully extracting the historical information carried by ancient monuments and their landscape. The philological surveying of a monument is a goal in itself: building techniques and structural details add substantially to the information from the excavations. The use of a total station combined with low altitude shots (through a kite) and photomosaics (through a pole) allow to create the basis for detailed surveying, after processing in monoscopic photogrammetry for orthorectification. Close-Range Photogrammetry is applied for 3D description of the monument. Absolute georeferencing of the site, by means of spatial geodesy (through long GPS static observation), must be coupled to topographical and morphological surveys (through kinematic and fast-static GPS methodologies). The setting of the site within its landscape is done, at survey level, not only with GPS, but also through remote sensing methodologies, working on high and medium resolution satellite images (multispectral and radar), allowing for a GIS archive. * We wish to thank Prof. N. Marchetti for his help and support throughout our field research and for setting an interdisciplinary and stimulating research environment for the Tilmen project. We also thank the General Directorate for Cultural Heritage and Museums in Ankara for the permissions granted and the Madrid staff of the 5th ICAANE for their warm reception. G. Luglio has written § 1, M. Zanfini § 2, V. A. Girelli § 3, B. Cerasetti and B. Rondelli § 4. For some excavation reports and studies on Tilmen Höyük, see Marchetti in this volume; id. 2005; id. 2006a; id. 2006b. This research was made possible by a FIRB 2003 grant of the Italian Ministry for Universities and Research.


394 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East 1. Surveying of monuments Archaeological drawing is traditionally considered the graphical representation of a monument or a stratum. Only in recent years it has been approached «philologically», thus in a way not invasive but essential for the interpretation and the analysis. The archaeological drawing consists of both technical and interpretative aspects. The first ones require the placing of the object in the space (trilateration), the knowledge and the integration of instrumental methodologies, the choice of the reference graphic scale (general, detailed, single phase or composite plans, etc.), and the tools for graphic characterization. These elements allow a clear understanding «sostituibile al testo descrittivo» (Giuliani 1976, 9). The interpretative phase needs to apply skilful observation and critical analysis, and carries an interaction with the monument. The combination of these aspects allow not only a detailed analysis of the monument and its phases, from planning and building to reuse and abandonment, but it also provides useful data for identifying its function and its relations with the nearby structures (Giuliani 1990, 19). The adoption of this methodology at Tilmen Höyük has lead to a detailed interpretation of a great quantity of structural aspects and the decoding of the numerous building phases on the site. Much new data came, for example, from the new surveying in area K5 (fig. 1), excavated in the late sixties by the Turkish Expedition (Duru 2003, 54). The data helped in understanding aspects useful for a new interpretation of the structures. In particular, the detailed archaeological drawing of the sector L.765-L.774 has lead to the individuation of the door socket and the reconstruction of the drainage system (D.782). Another example is supplied by the surveying of the sections (vertical plans) in area K5: thanks to photogrammetric techniques, it has been possible to recognize and distinguish the traces of ancient repairs and restorations. In other area at Tilmen Höyük, direct survey has allowed to single out the different building techniques employed. This new methodological approach –which especially considers details such as thickness, bulging and collapses– provides also useful elements for the study of structural stability and the determination of possible physico-structural collapses, caused by site morphology and man-made interventions. Further observations, such as working traces on the ortostats of buildings C and A, are contributing to the understanding on quarrying techniques and procedures of stone cutting (Adam 1984, 23-60; Rockwell 1989, 15-207). 2. Topography Concerning the topographical survey, the preliminary work in 2003 has been to surround the acropolis through a closed polygon by using a Total Station, allowing a good visibility from each side of the mound. In this first phase, the closed polygon was conventionally pointed towards magnetic North within a relative system of coordinates, because of the lack of an accurate GPS device, which was then used during the 2005 campaign (see § 3). A network of secondary stations


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has been derived from the main polygon, which is made by five stations which have been fixed with concrete. The morphological survey of the mound has been also created by a Total Station, producing topographic plans characterized by 50 cm contour lines. In order to correctly describe the surface of the site, more than 3000 topographical points have been necessary, taken at an interval between 50 cm and 300 cm according to the complexity of the terrain, producing also the 3D model of the mound. The Total Station topographical survey has been integrated through monoscopic photogrammetry by using the software Rolley MSR 3.0 ©, used for the detailed survey of single pieces of evidence (such as the casemates in the northern part of the lower town) and for the general survey of the excavation area. In the latter case, both kite photography (Medri 2003, 68-69) and photos taken by a 3 meters high camera on a pole (Zanfini 2003) were used: the resulting photoplanes were digitalized and then checked again stone by stone on the field, representing a fast but exteremely accurate day-by-day survey methodology. A kite with a non digital camera with remote control exploits the flying area between the maximum height that can be reached by staff or poles, about 10 m, and the minimum flying height of an aircraft, about 100 m. This photogrammetric system guarrantees the coverage of the whole archaeological site, at low cost and limited time investment. All the excavations at Tilmen have been been photographed between 10-12 m and 150-200 m in height, also documenting the progress of the work year by year. These photos will be used to create a photographic mosaic of the entire mound, with a degree of detail that no single shot can obtain (fig. 2). The choice of the techniques for topographical surveying at Tilmen Höyük has been made bearing in mind speed and low cost applications, preserving at the same time a great working accuracy, defining a standard set of procedures applicable to any other archaeological site (Docci – Maestri 1994). 3. Geomatic techniques for the survey of cultural heritage The field of Cultural Heritage surveying is probably the most emblematic of the potentialities offered by the integration of geomatic technologies, because of specific peculiarities presented by each case of study and because frequently working conditions push towards a short acquisition time, a requirement that a multi-technique surveying approach can today partially address and solve (Bitelli et al. 2005). The new digital techniques and technologies offer, indeed, the possibility of obtaining new products not only from surveying activity but also in representation and visualization, with the aim to have a metrically rigorous description of territory, structures and objects; they provide also powerful instruments for object analysis and in support of reconstruction and restoration activities (fig. 3). Data recording and processing must be performed following appropriate methodologies, taking in account the characteristics of each technique either in terms of intrinsic capabilities (precision, accuracy, data dimensionality, etc.) and of suitability for mutual integration, with the aim of insert all the products in a common shared database useful for many applications: divulgation, documentation, structures stability studies, etc.


396 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East In the case of Tilmen HÜyßk, we are following a methodological approach adopted in many works on archaeological contexts: it usually includes different techniques integrated together with the aim of performing in a quick and rigorous way a multiscale survey from the territory to the site area and excavations, and finally to single objects (Bitelli et al. 2005), characterized by having all the data and results in a common well established reference system. Therefore a first phase always consists in the definition of reference points or a reference network pre-signalized in the interested area; this usually involves the adoption of spatial geodesy, e.g. for the connection to international GPS networks for the absolute georeferencing of a site if local geodetic points are not existing or, as in this case, data are not available. GPS is also used in kinematic mode for morphological description of areas and surveying of structures, sometimes coupled with topographical instruments and aerial, low height, or close-range photogrammetry. The same points used for satellite remote sensing image georeferencing are used for mapping purposes, for thematic interpretation and classification, or as a base for the other surveys of the site and its surrounding territory. Classical topographical methods by using Total Station (see § 2), terrestrial laser scanning and close-range photogrammetry are used at the site scale for structures and object surveying; all the methods require to realize a preliminary orientation within the common system. Photogrammetry, used by itself or in connection with laser scanning, with its products like orthophotos, 3D vector drawing or Digital Surface Models with texture mapping, provides important instruments for visual inspection and structures analysis (e.g. for diagnosis or restoration purposes), combining accurate metric informations with the high level of qualitative description of photographic contents. Finally, the knowledge of a site is greatly facilitated if the means for virtual exploration are provided, using visual or virtual reality techniques, based on photographic data (e.g. QTVR technology) or vector/raster structures (e.g. VRML products), considering that this kind of products are highly interactive, especially if made available on the WEB. For single objects, the study can be performed using different techniques, depending on the characteristics of the object (size, location, shape, etc.) and on the purposes of the work. Digital photogrammetric surveys are frequently an optimal solution because of their characteristics to perform the survey without contact with the object and in a very short time, thus without interrupting for a significant period the excavation process. The use of consumer digital cameras allows the acquisition of data with cheapness and handiness, although in this case the photogrammetric processing becomes more difficult, requiring the use of appropriate algorithms and procedure especially in the calibration phase. Laser scanning is also an emerging technique to perform the survey of an object with a very high density of 3D information, and with the possibility to couple the point data with their radiometric attributes (e.g. colours) acquired by calibrated cameras. The availability of a laser scan instrument on a site during the excavation is however highly unusual, due to complex logistic problems and the high cost of the instrumentation.1 1 For instance, the surveying of a late MB II stela discovered at Tilmen (Marchetti 2006b, fig. 12) has been realized, with the greatest accuracy possible, through a 3D laser scan on a gypsum mould taken on the field (Bitelli et al. in press).


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4. Remote sensing in Archaeology and GIS archives In recent years the use of GIS for archaeology has increased because of the development of commercial systems and the quick access to data obtained through GPS and remote sensing. From macro level point of view, GIS is a fundamental instrument for representation, analysis and management of cultural landscape, such as «the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal» (in according with UNESCO definition, see www.unesco.org). The fundamental question for such a cultural landscape information system is how «landscape» can be operationalised in order to assign a value to the diachronic approach for direct applications within the planning process. Landscapes can be seen as topological variations of «historical processes», and it is possible to determine these landscape units based on the various forms of anthropic use. The analysis of cultural landscape change is generally based on a variety of sources, including topographic and historical maps, aerial and satellite photographs, land registers with geodetic survey maps and land plot records. A state of the landscape, which represents the traditional land use system, should be the starting point for the diachronic analysis of landscapes. We assume that analyses of cultural landscapes ultimately require operationalisation with the help of a GIS in order to successfully manage the abundant information about land units, attribute data, and temporal layers. One of the main aims of the Tilmen project is to recover and organize the collected data in a single digital corpus, whereas new field surveys make possible to obtain more detailed mapping of the archaeological remains around the main site. High and medium resolution remote sensing data (multispectral and radar) and GIS methodologies have been really useful for the investigation of Tilmen Höyük and its landscape. In order to investigate the cultural landscape (from archaeological point of view) of Tilmen Höyük area, the first step should be the creation of thematic maps with other archaeological sites, in the perspective to analyze the dynamics and trajectories of settlement evolution and population interactions in Middle Bronze Age. At the beginning the main aim of the present research was to obtain a solid basis, using all available new methodologies and supports, composed by the data coming from older researches the Islahiye valley (i.e. the survey carried out by B. Alkιm in the late Fifties)2 and the new results. The historical maps and survey have been interpolated with satellite images as KH-4 CORONA, panchromatic QuickBird3 and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) (Donoghue et al. 2006; Galiatsatos et al. in press) to obtain important insights about ancient hydrography and the relationship between sites and topography (fig. 4) (Rondelli and Tosi 2006). 2 For a sketch map of the sites surveyed by Alkιm, see most recently Duru 2004: folder at the end of the volume. 3 We would like to thank Nik Inhaat Ticaret Ltd. Hti (Istanbul) for supplying the QuickBird images for the Islahiye valley.


398 Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East Thanks to the high resolution satellite images, archaeologists have been greatly helped in reconstructing, studying and understanding even the territory where the acquisition of aerial photos and small scale topographical maps is, for different reasons, impossible. Finally Google Earth software, with its impressive number of high and medium remote sensing data, has made available to scientists a notable amount of different data, while everybody can «have a look» around the world (Beck 2006). At the end, the GIS archive will contain layers of cartographic data (old and new maps, satellite images, aerial photos, plans, etc.) in order to combine and overlay maps for large scale hypothetical models based on different analytical elaborations and distributive analysis, to obtain a «territorial matrix» for historical and geographical processes of landscape. Bibliography

ADAM, J.A. (1984) La construction romaine, matèriaux et techniques. Paris. BAFFI, F., DOLCE, R., MAZZONI S., PINNOCK, F. (eds.) (2006) ina kibrát erbetti. Studi di Archeologia orientale dedicati a Paolo Matthiae. Roma. BALTSAVIAS, E., GRUEN, A., VAN GOOL, L., PATERAKI, M. (eds.) (2006) Recording, Modeling and Visualization of Cultural Landscape. London. BECK, A. (2006) Google Earth and World Wind: remote sensing for the masses?: in Antiquity 80, p. 308. BITELLI, G., GIRELLI, V.A., REMONDINO, F., VITTUARI, L. (2006) Surface modelling of complex archaelogical structures by digital close-range photogrammetry: in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Remote Sensing in Archaeology (BAR International Series 1568), Oxford, pp. 321-326. BITELLI, G., GIRELLI, V.A., TINI, M.A., VITTUARI, L. (2005) Integration of geomatic techniques for quick and rigorous surveying of cultural heritage: in Proceedings of CIPA 2005 (Torino, 27 Settembre - 1 Ottobre 2005). Torino (CD-ROM ISSN 1682-1777). BITELLI, G., GIRELLI, V.A., TINI, M.A., VITTUARI, L. (2006) Spatial geodesy applications for accurate georeferencing of Soknopaiou Nesos site and DTM determination: Fayyum Studies 2, pp. 15-21. DI GRAZIA, V. (1991) Rilievo e disegno nell’archeologia e nell’architettura. Tecniche, Opinioni e Teorie. Roma. DOCCI, M., MAESTRI, D. (1994) Il rilevamento architettonico. Storia, metodi e disegno. RomaBari. DOCCI, M., MAESTRI, D. (1994) Manuale di rilevamento architettonico e urbano. Bari. DONOGHUE, D.N.M., BECK, A.R., GALIATSATOS, N., MCMANUS, K.B., AND PHILIP, G. (2006) The use of remote sensing data for visualising and interpreting archaeological landscapes: in Baltsavias et al. (eds.) (2006). DURU, R. (2003) Tilmen. A Forgotten Capital City (The Story of a 5400 Year Old Settlement in the Islahiye Region, Southeast Anatolia). Istanbul.


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DURU, R. (2004) Yesemek. The Largest Scultpure Workshop of the Ancient Near East. Istanbul. GALIATSATOS, N., DONOGHUE, D.N.M., PHILIP, G. (in press), High Resolution Elevation Data Derived from Stereoscopic CORONA Imagery with Minimal Ground Control: An Approach Using IKONOS and SRTM Data: in Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. GIULIANI, C. F. (1976) Archeologia e documentazione grafica. Roma. GIULIANI, C. F. (1990) L’edilizia nell’antichità. Roma. MARCHETTI, N. (2005) The 2003 Joint Turkish-Italian Excavations at Tilmen Höyük: in 26. kazι sonuçlarι toplantιsι, 24-28 mayýs 2004, Konya. 2. cilt, Ankara, pp. 129-136. MARCHETTI, N. (2006a) Middle Bronze Age Public Architecture at Tilmen Höyük and the Architectural Tradition of Old Syrian Palaces: in Baffi et al. (eds.) (2006), pp. 275308. MARCHETTI, N. (2006b) New Results on Middle Bronze Age Urbanism in South-Eastern Anatolia: The 2004 Campaign at Tilmen Höyük: in Colloquium Anatolicum 5 (in press). MEDRI, M. (2003) Manuale di rilievo archeologico. Roma-Bari. ROCKWELL, P. (1989) Lavorare la pietra. Roma. RONDELLI, B., TOSI, M. (2005) GIS and Silk Road Studies Monitoring Landscape and Population Changes at Samarkand and in the Middle Zeravshan Valley: in Uno (ed.) (2005), pp. 459-489. SELVINI, A., GUZZETTI, F. (2000) Fotogrammetria generale. Torino. UNO, T. (ed.) (2005) Reading Historical Spatial Information from around the World. Studies of Culture and Civilization based on Geographical Information Systems Data. International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 24th International Research Symposium (Kyoto, 7-11 February 2005). Kyoto. ZANFINI, M. (2003) Il rilievo di un pavimento musivo, sito di Bir Messaouda, Cartagine: in Ocnus 11, pp. 259-266.


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Fig. 1: Detailed composite map of the K5 staircase drawn in 2005 after cleaning and clearing the monument exposed by Turkish excavations in the early Seventies.


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Fig. 2: Photoplan of the upper city at Tilmen after the 2005 campaign. Kite photos and software elaboration by M. Zanfini (TE.M.P.L.A. – Bologna).

Fig. 3: From the territory to the single object: the absolute georeferencing of the site by means of GPS long time observation and the 3D model, by digital photogrammetry, of a wall with some simple application: distance measurements and sections.


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Fig. 4: Settlement distribution in the mid-Islahiye valley on the basis of AlkΚm’s survey and of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM 2000 by NASA.


Cerasetti, girelli, luglio, rondelli, zanfini 2008 from monument to town and country integrated tech