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SEMINAR FOR ARABIAN STUDIES 2013 LONDON, 26-28 July, 2013

EARLY IRON AGE TRIBAL ALLIANCES IN EASTERN ARABIA: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE DABA CORRIDOR GRAVE AND THE METAL MANUFACTURING SITE OF AS‘SAFAH

Sultan S. Al-Bakri, Francesco Genchi & Maurizio Tosi Ministry of Heritage and Culture of Oman


DABA

AS’SAFAH


ENTRANCES

PLAN OF THE DABA COLLECTIVE GRAVE


FOTO DABA FEMORI


Daba 2012 Human remains Humerus


Daba 2012 Human remains: humerus


Minimum Number of Individuals (NMI) estimated on he basis of the following bones:

Bones Humerus Talus Axis (2nd vertebra)

Bones Temporal bone

Adults Left pieces 128 147

Right pieces 153 128 94

Subadults Left pieces 35

Right pieces 32

Total 188 Individuals


BONE MODIFICATION (microtraumas) Morphology joint Extension of original surface Iliac imprint on the anterior surface of the femural neck caused by hyperdorsiflexion of the hip as during horse-back riding

New and accessory articular surfaces Squatting facet on the anterior distal end of the tibia


RADIOCARBON DATINGS FROM CHARCOAL


RADIOCARBON DATINGS FROM CHARCOAL


FIRST GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

AREAS OF INTEREST

BUILDUP AREAS

EXCAVATION AREA


LARGE CAULDRON FOR COLLECTIVE MEALS


BANGLES MARKERS OF RANK FOR WOMEN


DAGGERS/KANJARS MARKERS OF RANK FOR MEN


HALBERDS FROM DABA

HALBERDS FROM LURISTAN


ARROWHEADS OF DIFFERENT TYPES


DABA GRAVE 1 OBJECTS LIST


BOW & ARROW

QUIVER

IRON AGE CAMEL RIDERS IN NORTHERN ARABIA FIGHTING THE ASSYRIANS WITH ARCHERY AROUND 645 BCE


PRESTIGE BADGES MOSAIC INLAYED SHELL ROUNDELS


PRESTIGE BADGES MOSAIC INLAYED SHELL ROUNDELS


PRESTIGE BADGES RESTORED


Drawn by Helene David

MIDDLE ELAMITE SEAL FROM IRAN (CIRCA 1300 – 1100 BCE)


GOLDEN ORNAMENTS

CLAY-CORE GOLD FOIL BEADS


THE DABA GOLDEN PENDANT

LONG RANGE CONNECTIONS

A GOLDEN PENDANT FROM MARLIK


SILVER RINGS AND BRACELETS


ETCHED CORNELIAN BEADS

TRIANGULAR AGATHE BEADS


CHART OF BEADS


GRAVE 2


GLAZED PARTHIAN VASE FROM GRAVE 2 C. 100 BCE – 200 CE


SAFAH AN EARLY IRON AGE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX ON THE DESERT BORDERS OF OMAN


COPPER PRODUCTION AT 3000 BCE FINDS FROM HD-6


PORTRAIT MACEHEAD ON OFFER AT CHRISTIES FOR AUCTION IN APRIL 2012 STARTING FROM 14,000 POUNDS


AXES FROM

THE SALME HOARD


UNTRIMMED OVERFLOWS OF MOULD

UNFINISHED AXE


LARGE COMPOUND OF IRON AND BRONZE SLAGS FROM FURNACE


DROPS & SPRUES OF MELTED COPPER


SCRAP METAL FOR RE-UTILIZATION

POSSIBLE STAND

FOLDED DAGGER

DISUSED HOE


HOES: THE MAIN FARMERS’ TOOL TO TILL SOIL IN THE OASES


OVERUSED SLEDGE HAMMER TO BEAT METAL


NOT ONLY BRONZE…..

NOT ONLY IRON…….


A CARNELIAN CYLINDER BEAD DRESSED WITH GRANULATED GOLD FOIL

BAT GRAVE 154


MODERN CRUCIBLES MELTING DISHES FOR GOLD & SILVER FROM E-BAY MADE OF CLAY BONDED FUSED SILICA

26 $ PER SET


Topographic map of site Safah 1


Stratigraphic Layout Depositional environment -

-

Safah 1 is located in an interdunal area -

The site is underlain by silt deposits

-

The silt shows fining upward cycles

The sediments were deposited by fluvial activity -

-

The deposits are a good paleoenvironmental achieve

Pollen record will reveal the availability of resource 2: fuel


TOPSOIL LOOSE SAND

DEFLATION SAND PACK UPPER SECTION

LOWER SECTION

ANTHROPOGENIC BLACK SOIL INCLUDING CHARCOAL & SLAGS

COMPACT BURNT SILT FROM MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

SEDIMENTARY GRAVELS


RESOURCE 1: WATER

Safah


RESOURCE 2: ORES


RESOURCE 3 : WOOD FOR CHARCOAL


SARUQ AL-HADID

SAFAH


SARUQ AL-HADID SCATTERS OF SLAGS FROM COPPER SMELTING


SARUQ AL-HADID SCATTERS OF BRONZE WEAPONS ACROSS THE SAND


FINDS FROM SARUQ AL-HADID


WADI SUQ PERIOD 2000-1600 BCE

LATE BRONZE AGE 1600-1200


TYPES FROM THE SALME HOARD


The site is divided into two distinctive areas called Safah 1 and Safah 2 and separated by a dune belt.


Field work was divided into three different phases: • Collection and positioning of the archaeological material found on the surface or under a few centimeters of sand with the aid of a metal detector • Detailed survey of the furnaces visible on the surface aimed at the realization of a map and the creation of a catalog of evidence

• Stratigraphic excavations through the opening of six soundings for an overall total of 200 m²


1. Collection and positioning of archaeological objects


The areas of greatest density are concentrated around two main groups of furnaces, the first behind the dune belt to the south, and the second to the North


In the area of the major concentration of metal objects, called Safah 1, have been recognized more than 90 furnaces in an area of 80.000 m². While in Safah 2 which presents a total area of approximately 17 ha, have been recognized more than 170 furnaces.

SAFAH 1

SAFAH 2


THREE TYPES OF FURNACES

TYPE 1

TYPE 2

TYPE 3


SAFAH-1

TEST EXCAVATIONS JANUARY – FEBRUARY 2013


TRENCH 3

TRENCH 2

TRENCH 1


SAFAH 1_TRENCH 1


SAFAH 1_TRENCH 3


SAFAH-2

TEST EXCAVATIONS JANUARY – FEBRUARY 2013


SAFAH-2

HUNDREDS OF KILNS FLOATING ACROSS THE SAND


SAFAH 2_TRENCH 1


SAFAH 2_TRENCH 2


SAFAH 2_TRENCH 3


Growth & Collapse as Formative Options of Evolutionary Change


THANK YOU !!

EARLY IRON AGE TRIBAL ALLIANCES IN EASTERN ARABIA  

SEMINAR FOR ARABIAN STUDIES 2013 LONDON, 26-28 July, 2013

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