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World Heritage Terminology Presented by Mr. Mohamed Badry, M.A.

Heritage Management Professional; HeritageForAll Initiative Founder


Archaeology

Antiquity

Monument

Heritage

Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Phase IV

• Discovering the buried structure or object; or Exploring the unknown cultures through a group of scientific hypotheses • Bridge to transfer the antecedents’ inheritance to the present Responsible for: - Archaeological excavators - Architectural artists - Historians - Anthropologists - “Related professions” © Mohamed Badry, 2019

It is a part of preservation. The responsible seeks to preserve this discovered structure or object; or the explored inheritance “anti-time” being a part of the current society’s culture.

Responsible for: - Archaeologists - Documentation professionals - Restorer - Architects - Curators - Academic researchers - “Related professions”

The science of presenting the moment and the historical memory of the object, historical building, temple and so on Responsible for: - Local/ Tour Guides - Teachers - Edu. facilitators - Curators “in particular” - “Related professions”

“Integrative Process”

Future

Past

Present •Past: Heritage Attributes (Tangible & Intangible) •Present: Cultural Identity (To preserve Authenticity + Integrity = The Sustainability/Continuity Factor) •Forming effective future vision (Cultural Heritage = SDGs [.. have to be one of the state’s socio-economic pillars) •Heritage: is the science of inheriting practically the past to create a civilized improved society


What is Cultural Heritage?

UNESCO (2006), Cultural Heritage and Local Development, Paris: Craterre-ENSAG / Convention France-UNESCO.

Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Adopted by UNESCO Operational Guideline – version 2017 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Tangible Heritage

UNESCO WHC (UNESCO WHC, 2013) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Monuments • Architectural works, • Works of monumental sculpture and painting, • Elements or structures of an archaeological nature,

• Inscriptions, • Cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; (UNESCO WHC Operational Guidelines (2017) Para. 45, Article 1) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Monuments

EG UNESCO WHS “Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae”-Ramses II temple, 1979 © Emmanuel Pivard Thursday, 8 August, 2019

China UNESCO WHS “Historic Monuments of Dengfeng - The Centre of Heaven and Earth”, 2010 © Ko Hon Chiu Vincent

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Group of Buildings Groups

of

buildings

separate

which,

or

because

connected of

their

architecture, their homogeneity or their place

in

the

landscape,

are

of

outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; Yamen UNESCO WHS „Old Walled City of Shibam” ©Jean-Jacques Gelbart

(UNESCO WHC Operational Guidelines (2017) Para. 45, Article 1) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Cultural Heritage Sites works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. (UNESCO WHC Operational Guidelines (2017) Para. 45, Article 1) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Cultural Heritage Sites

Sanssouci Palace & Park – DE UNESCO WHS “Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin”, 1990 –

Bibi Maryam Mausoleum - Oman UNESCO WHS „Ancient City of Qalhat”, 2018

©Nesma Ahmed

©MHC

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Built Vernacular Heritage • It occupies a central place in the affection and pride of all peoples. • It has been accepted as a characteristic and attractive product of society.

• It is a focus of contemporary life and at the same time a record of the history of society. • it is the fundamental expression of the culture of a community, of its relationship with its territory and, at the same time, the expression of the world's cultural diversity. • It is the traditional and natural way by which communities house themselves. • It is a continuing process including necessary changes and continuous adaptation as a response to social and environmental constraints.

Shali, Fortified Settlements; To be mainly constructed by eco-material “Karsheef”; To be dated back to 13 C. ICOMOS (1999) para. Introduction

Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Intangible Heritage

UNESCO ICH (UNESCO, 2003) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Intangible Cultural Heritage ‌ the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. It, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. (UNESCO, 2003) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Intangible Cultural Heritage • Oral Traditions and Expressions (Turkey UNESCO ICH “Whistled Language” (2017) - http://bit.ly/2O8S8Oy) • Popular Proverbs (UAE UNESCO ICH “Al Azi, Art of Performing Praise, Pride and Fortitude Poetry” (2017) - http://bit.ly/2Od4xkM) • Rituals and Festive Events (Panama UNESCO ICH “Ritual and Festive Expressions of the Congo Culture” (2018) - http://bit.ly/2ON0z2U)

Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Intangible Cultural Heritage • Performing Arts (Egypt UNESCO ICH “Al-Sirah Al-Hilaliyyah Epic” (2008) http://bit.ly/2ONnefi) • Social Practice (Azerbaijan UNESCO ICH “Dolma Making and Sharing Tradition, a Marker of Cultural Identity” (2017) - http://bit.ly/2OcbMZX) • Traditional Crafts and Craftsmanship (Portugal UNESCO ICH “Craftsmanship of Estremoz Clay Figures” (2017) - http://bit.ly/2Od3GQP)

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UNESCO WHC: Advisory Bodies • ICOMOS The International Council on Monuments and Sites • ICCROM The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property

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ICOMOS, 1965 www.icomos.org • The International Council on Monuments and Sites. • to promote the application of theory, methodology and scientific techniques to the conservation of the architectural and archaeological heritage. • Its work is based on the principles of the 1964 International Charter on the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (the Venice Charter). • To evaluate of properties nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List. (UNESCO WHC Operational Guidelines (2017) Para. 34 & 35) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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ICCROM, 1956 www.iccrom.org • The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. • To

carry

out

research,

documentation,

technical

assistance, training and public awareness programs • To strengthen conservation of immovable and moveable cultural heritage. (UNESCO WHC Operational Guidelines (2017) Para. 34 & 35) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection I. To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;

Brazil UNESCO WH „Historic Town of Ouro Preto” ©M & G Therin-Weise

UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection II. To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design; Austria UNESCO WH „Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg” - © Tourismus Salzburg GmbH UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection III. To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; Bahrain UNESCO WH „Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun” © Jean-Jacques Gelbart

UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection IV. To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history; Belarus UNESCO WH „Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh” - © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection V. To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;

Egypt UNESCO WH „Historic Cairo� - https://goo.gl/eO1h2d

UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection VI. To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. Belgium UNESCO WH „Historic Centre of Brugge” © Nathalie Valanchon

UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, 2005 Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Criteria of Selection Since 1992 significant interactions between people and the natural environment have been recognized as cultural landscapes. UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS, and IUCN (2011), Preparing World Heritage Nomination, http://whc.unesco.org/en/preparing-worldheritage-nominations/, 2nd ed., UNESCO World Heritage Resource Manual :Paris, p. 34

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Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) Statement of Significance Cultural Significance ‌‌.means cultural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common

importance

for

present

and

future

generations of all humanity. (UNESCO WH Operational Guidelines 2017, para. 49) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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OUV in Burra Charter 1999 The Bura Charter, the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance 1999 Article 1.

Place means site, area, land, landscape, building or other work, group of buildings or other works, and may include components, contents, spaces and views. Cultural significance …… aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present or future generations. ……. to be embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects. (Australia ICOMOS, Burra Charter 1999) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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Integrity & Authenticity …… to be a measure of the wholeness and intactness of the cultural heritage and

its attributes. Examining the conditions of integrity, therefore requires assessing the extent to which the property: A. To include all elements necessary to express its OUV; B. To be of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey the property’s significance; C. To suffer from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. UNESCO WH Operational Guidelines 2017, paragraph 88) Thursday, 8 August, 2019

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​@heritage4all info.heritageforall@gmail.com

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