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Cancer Awareness SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT TO

Childhood Cancer

Cancer in children vary depending on type

Cancer Screening Guidelines

Early detection greatly increases survival odds

Fight Cancer with Food How nutrition can reduce cancer risk Pretty In Pink Foundation速 Helps local families

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October 6, 2013


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CANCER AWARENESS • October 6, 2013 • THE HERALD-SUN

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5 How you can lower your risk of breast cancer 5 Cancer terms to know 8 Pretty In Pink Foundation 8 What causes benign breast lumps? 9 Cancer screening guidelines


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CANCER AWARENESS • October 6, 2013 • THE HERALD-SUN

Breast cancer diagnosis often described in stages

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pon receiving a breast cancer diagnosis, many women instantly want to know their chances for survival. Such a reaction is understandable when receiving a diagnosis of any disease, and especially one as potentially deadly as breast cancer. A breast cancer patient’s prognosis is often linked to the stage of the disease. Stages are used to make breast cancer more understandable to patients and to give them a basis for comparison relative to other patients. As with many diseases, breast cancer is best treated the earlier it is detected, and the various stages of breast cancer can offer some insight into how far along the disease has progressed.

• Stage 0: During stage 0, cancerous cells have not broken out of the part of the breast in which they started or invaded neighboring tissue. The earliest stage of breast cancer, stage 0 breast cancer is considered noninvasive and is often successfully treated. • Stage I: Stage I breast cancer is divided into two subcategories and is an invasive cancer in which cancer cells have begun to invade normal surrounding breast tissue. Stage IA describes invasive breast cancer in which tumors measure up to two centimeters and the cancer has not spread outside the breast or to the lymph nodes. Stage IB is also invasive but does not necessarily feature a tumor in the breast. In such instances where there is no tumor in the breast, small groups of cancer cells no larger than two millimeters are found in the lymph nodes. When tumors are found in the breast, the tumors are no bigger than two centimeters and there are small groups of cancer cells in the lymph nodes.

• Stage II: Stage II breast cancers are divided into two subcategories depending on whether or not there is a tumor in the breast. Stage IIA can refer to invasive breast cancers in which no tumor is found in the breast but cancer has been found in one to three lymph nodes under the arm or in the lymph nodes near the breast. When there is a tumor in the breast during stage IIA, the tumor may be two centimeters or smaller and have already spread to the lymph nodes under the arm or the tumor may be between two to five centimeters but it has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arms. Stage IIB breast cancer may refer to an invasive breast cancer in which the tumor is between two and five centimeters and small groups of cancer cells have been found in the lymph nodes. This stage is also used to describe tumors between two and five centimeters that have spread to the lymph nodes under the arm or near the breastbone, or tumors larger than five centimeters that have not spread to the lymph nodes.

• Stage III: Stage III breast cancers are characterized by two categories, stage IIIA and stage IIIB. During stage IIIA, the tumor is between 2 and 5 centimeters in size and has spread to at least nine underarm lymph nodes. During stage IIIB, the tumor has spread beyond the breast to tissues nearby, such as the skin, chest wall, ribs, muscles, or lymph nodes in the chest wall. • Stage IV: Stage IV breast cancers describe invasive breast cancer that has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These organs can include the bones, brain, distant lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or skin. Stage IV breast cancers are often described as “advanced” and could be a recurrence of a previous breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

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THE HERALD-SUN • October 6, 2013 • CANCER AWARENESS

How you can lower your risk of breast cancer

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reast cancer is the second most common cancer among women, second only to lung cancer. One in

eight women is expected to develop breast cancer in her lifetime, and a recent survey by the Society for Women’s Health Research found that 22 percent of women named breast cancer as the disease they fear most. The specter of breast cancer

makes it no surprise that women are eager to seek various ways to reduce their risks of developing this potentially deadly disease. Though cancer treatments continue to evolve, there remains no cure for breast cancer or any other types of cancer. However, there are steps men and women can take to reduce their risks of developing breast cancer. In fact, the National Cancer Institute says avoiding breast cancer risk factors is the best path to prevention. • Avoid exposure to radiation. Repeated exposure to radiation therapy used to treat illnesses like Hodgkin’s disease can increase a person’s risk of breast cancer, particularly if treatments begin at an early age. • Keep a healthy weight. Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Healthy eating and exercise can help women control their weight while reducing their risks of developing breast cancer and a number of other diseases. Scientists at The Mayo Clinic believe there is a link between estrogen production in fatty breast tissue and breast cancer. • Get your exercise. Exercising four or more hours a week can lower breast cancer risk. Exercise need not be heavy lifting at the gym. Any moderate physical activity, from cycling to walking, can be effective. Exercise decreases hormone levels in the body that can impact breast cancer risk. Some studies indicate simply walking briskly for one to three hours per week can reduce a woman’s breast cancer risk by 18 percent. • Eat a low-fat diet. The Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study from the National Cancer Institute found that the highest rate of breast cancer reduction was among a group of women who ate a low-fat diet.

• Reduce alcohol consumption. Various studies have indicated that women who drink alcoholic beverages may develop cancer at a higher rate. Women who consume two to five drinks daily have a greater risk of developing breast cancer than those who abstain from alcohol. • Weigh the risks of hormone replacement therapy. There are mixed reviews on hormone replacement therapy, or HRT, for postmenopausal women. There may be a link between long-term HRT and breast cancer, particularly when estrogen and progesterone are used in combination. Some doctors advise estrogen-only hormone therapy for women who have had a hysterectomy. • Use of SERMs and aromatase inhibitors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators, or SERMs, are drugs that act like estrogen on some bodily tissues but block the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Aromatase inhibitors decrease the amount of estrogen made by the body. Women with a high risk of breast cancer may benefit from taking a SERM or aromatase inhibitor. • Increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Carotenoids are cancerprotective pigments found in a vast number of fruits and vegetables. Researchers at New York University found women who had higher blood carotenoid levels had a significantly smaller risk of breast cancer than women with lower levels. • Go sparingly on antibiotics. Only take antibiotics when they are truly needed. New evidence suggests that the more often a woman takes antibiotics, the higher her breast cancer risk. A study of more than 10,000 women found that women who took antibiotics for the equivalent of about 25 prescriptions over an average of 17 years where twice as likely to develop breast cancer than women who never took the drugs. • Breastfeed your children. Lactation can suppress ovulation and the body’s production of estrogen, which has been linked to higher levels of breast cancer. Breastfeeding may drop a woman’s breast cancer risk by 4 percent. Although there is no cure for cancer, there are a number of different ways women can reduce their risks for breast cancer.

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Cancer terms to know

A cancer diagnosis can be difficult to understand. When diagnosed with cancer, men and women are often told many things about their disease, and the terminology used can be confusing. The following are some of the terms those diagnosed with cancer are likely to hear in discussions with their physicians.

Ablation Treatment that removes or destroys all or part of a cancer. Ablation may also be performed to remove or stop the function of an organ. Adenoma A benign growth starting in the glandular tissue. Advanced cancer This describes stages of cancer in which the cancer has spread from where it started to other parts of the body. Cancer that has spread only to nearby parts of the body is known as locally advanced cancer, while cancer that has spread to distant parts of the body is known as metastatic cancer. Basal cell carcinoma The most common form of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma begins in the outer layer of the skin known as the epidermis. Basal cell carcinoma typically develops on sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. Benign Non-malignant and not life-threatening. A benign tumor is not cancer and will not spread to other areas of the body. Biopsy The removal of a tissue sample to determine if cancer cells are present. Cancer A group of diseases that cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Carcinogen Any substance that causes cancer or promotes its growth. Carcinoma A cancer that begins in the lining layer of organs. The American Cancer Society notes that 80 percent of all cancers are carcinomas. Chemotherapy A cancer treatment option that employs drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is often used to treat cancer that has spread or come back or when there is a strong chance the cancer will come back. Five-year survival rate The percentage of people with a given cancer who are alive five years or longer after diagnosis.

Grade The grade of a cancer indicates how abnormal its cells look under a microscope. Different grading systems exist for different types of cancers. Immunosuppression A state in which the immune system is weak and unable to respond the way it should. Immunosuppression may be caused by some cancers or cancer treatments. In situ In place, localized and confined to one area. This is a very early stage of cancer. Invasive cancer Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of cells where it initially began and has grown into nearby tissues. Lesion An area of abnormal body tissue. This term may be used to describe a lump, mass or tumor. Lipoma A non-cancerous tumor made of a fatty tissue. Localized cancer Cancer that is confined to the organ where it started. Malignant Cancerous. Tumors that are malignant are likely to cause death if they are untreated. Metastasize The spread of cancer cells to one or more sites elsewhere in the body. Oncologist A doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Recurrence The return of cancer after treatment. Remission Complete or partial disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer in response to treatment. Sarcoma Cancer that starts in connective tissue, such as cartilage, fat, muscle, or bone. Stage The extent of cancer, which is usually assigned a number from I to IV.


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CANCER AWARENESS • October 6, 2013 • THE HERALD-SUN

Proactive ways to reduce your risk of developing cancer

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eceiving a cancer diagnosis can be a devastating moment in a person’s life. While many cancers are treatable, a cancer diagnosis is still a life-changing moment that leaves many people asking themselves if there was something they could have done to prevent getting cancer. It’s easy to take a reactionary approach to a cancer diagnosis, but many people might not know they can take a proactive approach to reduce their risk of developing cancer in the first place. Though the following tips can’t guarantee you will never receive a cancer diagnosis, they can help you reduce that risk considerably.

Reducing your alcohol consumption can lower your risk of developing cancer.

• Maintain a healthy weight. Numerous studies have indicated that being overweight or obese can increase your risk of developing certain cancers. Uterine, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers have all been linked to being overweight or obese. Speak to your physician about a plan to help you lose weight and then maintain that weight. Your doctor should be able to provide insight on nutrition and how you should approach exercise if it’s been awhile since exercise was a part of your daily routine. • Avoid tobacco or quit smoking. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a majority of cases of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Smoking causes about 90 percent of lung cancer deaths in men and roughly 80 percent of lung cancer deaths in women, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Men who smoke are nearly 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer than men who don’t, while women who smoke are 13 times more likely to develop lung cancer than women who avoid smoking tobacco. Smoking also increases a person’s risk of developing other cancers, including cancer of the larynx, mouth and throat,

kidney, esophagus, bladder, and pancreas. Smokers who quit smoking will see their cancer risk reduce dramatically the longer they go without smoking. • Steer clear of secondhand smoke. Even if you don’t smoke you might be putting yourself at risk if you allow others around you to smoke in your presence. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, exposure to secondhand smoke can increase a person’s risk of developing lung cancer by as much as 30 percent. That’s because the concentration of many toxic and cancer-causing chemicals is higher in secondhand smoke than the smoke inhaled by smokers. • Reduce alcohol consumption. A 2007 study from the World Health Organization revealed that daily consumption of 50 grams of alcohol, or about 1.8 ounces, doubles or triples a person’s risk of developing mouth, voice box or throat cancers. In addition, many studies have linked alcohol consumption to a heightened risk of primary liver cancer and an increased risk of breast cancer. Also, a variety of studies have linked alcohol consumption to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. • Take precautionary measures when spending time in the sun. Exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays has been linked to skin cancer, which is the most common form of cancer in the United States. When spending time in the sun, always apply adequate sunscreen with a minimum sun protection factor, or SPF, of 15. In addition, wear appropriate clothing, including sunglasses, and seek out shaded areas when spending a significant amount of time in the sun. Men and women do not have to wait until a cancer diagnosis to start living healthier. Adopting a proactive

approach can greatly reduce your risk of developing cancer and a variety of other health issues as well.

Did you know?

Non-small cell lung cancer, or NSCLC, is the most common type of lung cancer, with about 85 to 90 percent of lung cancers falling into this category. There are three

main subtypes of NSCLC: squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell (undifferentiated) carcinoma. Roughly 25 to 30 percent of all lung cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which start in the flat cells known as squamous cells that line the inside of the airways in the lung. Usually found in the middle of the lungs, these squamous cells are typically linked to a history of smoking. Adenocarcinomas account for approximately 40 percent of lung cancer diagnoses, and these start in the early versions of the cells that are normally responsible for secreting mucus. Though adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer found in nonsmokers, it mainly occurs in current or former smokers. Adenocarcinoma if most often found in the outer parts of the lung and is likely to be discovered before it spreads beyond the lung. That’s because adenocarcinoma grows more slowly than other forms of lung cancer, which is why the prognosis for those with adenocarcinoma is often better than it is for those with other types of lung cancer. Large cell carcinoma, which accounts for about 10 to 15 percent of lung cancers, can be found in any part of the lung, and it tends to grow and spread quickly.


THE HERALD-SUN • October 6, 2013 • CANCER AWARENESS

Fruits and veggies can help fight cancer

Fighting cancer with food Few, if any, families can say they have never had an experience with cancer. Cancer is a potentially deadly disease with no cure. While cancer can be treated effectively, there is no way for men and women to eliminate their risk of developing cancer.

Though cancer may strike even the healthiest of persons, there are ways men, women and even children can reduce their risk. One such way is to consume certain foods that researchers feel can reduce cancer risk. Though precisely how these foods fight cancer remains a mystery, cancer researchers feel they can effectively lower an individual’s cancer risk when combined to form a healthy diet. • Beans: Beans boast numerous healthy attributes, and their potential to reduce cancer risk is one such attribute. Beans contain many phytochemicals that researchers feel protect the cells from the type of damage that can ultimately make a person susceptible to cancer. Beans also have been shown to decelerate tumor growth and prevent tumors from releasing potentially harmful substances that can damage nearby cells. • Colorful fruits and vegetables: It may seem odd that a food’s color can have an impact on cancer risk, but colorful fruits and vegetables contain

more cancer-fighting nutrients than fruits and vegetables that aren’t as flashy. Consuming such fruits and vegetables also helps men and women maintain a healthy body weight, an important benefit when considering overweight and obesity increases a person’s risk for multiple cancers.

• Foods with folate: Folate is a B vitamin that can reduce a person’s risk of developing several cancers, including those of the colon, rectum and breast. Those who are fond of a healthy breakfast to begin their day may already be getting healthy doses of folate, which can be found in eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, orange juice, and strawberries, among other foods. If toast is your breakfast of choice, opt for whole wheat toast, as whole wheat products are a good source of folate. • Grapes: Studies have shown that resveratrol, a key ingredient in grapes, may prevent the type of damage that triggers the production of cancerous cells. Though scientists are not yet comfortable saying grapes, or beverages like grape juice and wine, can reduce cancer risk, they believe that the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of grapes make them a healthy option. • Tomatoes: Tomatoes are widely beloved, and perhaps that love affair

stems from the tomato’s role in fighting cancer. Though the reasons are unknown, tomatoes have been linked to lowering men’s risk for prostate cancer. One such study, a 1995 study from researchers at the Harvard Medical School, found that men who ate 10 or more servings of tomatoes per week reduced their risk of developing aggressive prostate tumors by nearly 50 percent. Later research from the author of the 1995 study found that processed tomatoes, such as those found in tomato paste and tomato sauce, were even more effective at reducing cancer risk than fresh tomatoes. Tomatoes have also been linked to lowering a person’s risk for lung and stomach cancers. • Water: Water may not qualify as a food, but it may protect people from bladder cancer. Potential cancer-causing agents in the bladder are diluted when drinking water. In addition, the more water you drink the more frequently you’re likely to urinate, which means cancer-causing agents have less time to come into contact with the lining of your bladder. Many foods can help individuals in the fight against cancer. Though one food alone may not be potent enough to do the job, when several cancer-fighting foods are included in a person’s diet, the effects may be significant.

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ancer affects the lives millions of people across the globe. When detected early, cancer becomes a significantly less formidable foe, as survival rates for cancer patients whose cancer was detected early are much higher than those whose initial diagnosis came after the disease had progressed into its later stages. But early detection isn’t the only way to beat cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, a healthy diet that includes at least 21⁄2 cups of fruits and vegetables each day can help men, women and children lower their cancer risk. Fruits and vegetables that have the most color, such as those that are dark green, red, yellow, and orange, tend to have the most nutrients. Fruits and vegetables are typically low in calories as well, which helps people maintain healthy weights. That’s a significant benefit, as the ACS Cancer Prevention Study II showed significant increases in cancer occurrence in people who are the most overweight. The link between cancer and obesity is especially strong with specific cancers, including breast cancer after menopause and cancers of the colon, rectum, pancreas, kidneys, esophagus, and endometrium. What’s more, studies have shown that obese men and women have a harder time battling cancer upon diagnosis. So while a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help lower cancer risk, such a diet may even make it easier to battle cancer if diagnosed.

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When Breast Cancer Is Present And Insurance Is Not Pretty In Pink Foundation (PIPF) is a 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit corporation that has carved out a unique niche in the breast cancer community. We dedicate our resources to assisting patients post- diagnosis and provide our Champions (the title we proudly give to our deserving recipients) with vital services. We strive to look Beyond the Ribbon ™ in hopes of one day eliminating financial barriers to breast cancer treatment. Our results are measured by how our Champions give back to their families, friends and communities with their commitment to life. PIPF’s mission is to provide financial assistance for quality, life-saving medical treatment (surgery, oncology, chemotherapy and radiation) to uninsured and underinsured breast cancer patients regardless of their ability to pay. Typically, these Champions do not qualify for government funded or assisted programs. When breast cancer is present and medical insurance is not, care is delayed or simply not ever received because of cost barriers. Once diagnosed with breast cancer, many people experience financial hardships in trying to keep up with paying for quality treatment. Oftentimes this is because they are forced to choose between treatment and quality of life needs like shelter and food. PIPF operates through partnerships and community-based organizations. One such partnership in Durham is with Northgate Mall. Northgate has adopted two Durham county Champions, one 38 years old and one 56. Northgate will have numerous opportunities throughout the month of October designed to raise funds to provide support for these Champions on their journey with their breast cancer treatment. Women diagnosed with breast cancer are thrust into a process unlike anything they have ever experienced. To make their life and the lives of their family a little easier, PIPF provides access to quality of life support, education and resources through relationships with vendors and healthcare providers who understand their needs. PIPF gratefully acknowledges and appreciates partners such as Northgate Mall who are contributing to make life better for these Durham County Champions!!!

Adopt A Champion Pretty In Pink Foundation was founded by Lisa A. Tolnitch M.D., F.A.C.S in 2004. Their headquarters is located at 2501 Blue Ridge Road, Suite 250 in Raleigh. 919-532-0532 www.PrettyInPinkFoundation.org


THE HERALD-SUN • October 6, 2013 • CANCER AWARENESS are often noncancerous, but some can develop into cancer.

WHY DONATE?

Some tests may be conducted to find both polyps and cancer, and these tests should be conducted at various intervals. Beginning at age 50, men and women should get a flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, a colonoscopy every 10 years, a double-contrast barium enema every five years, or a CT colonography, also known as a virtual colonoscopy, every five years. When tests other than a colonoscopy are positive, then a colonoscopy should be conducted as well.

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Testing can also be conducted to detect colorectal cancer. Beginning at age 50, men and women should receive an annual fecal occult blood test or a yearly fecal immunochemical test. When results are positive, a colonoscopy should be conducted.

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Cancer screening guidelines

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arly detection of cancer greatly increases a person’s odds of surviving this potentially deadly disease. Screening can range from relatively simple self-examinations to more complicated procedures conducted by physicians. The following are the widely accepted screening guidelines, courtesy of the American Cancer Society.

Lung cancer Despite the prevalence of lung cancer, the ACS advises against screenings for lung cancer in people whose risk for developing the disease is average. But the ACS does recommend screenings for those individuals who are at high risk for the disease. These include men and women who meet all of the following criteria: • 55 to 74 years of age • in fairly good health • have at least a 30 pack-year smoking history and are either still smoking or have quit smoking within the last 15 years More information about lung cancer screening is available at www.cancer.org.

Breast cancer Women should begin self-examinations of their breasts starting in their 20s. This helps women familiarize themselves with their breasts early on, which makes it easier to detect any abnormalities, including lumps, later in life.

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In addition to breast self-exams, women should receive clinical breast exams, or CBEs, every three years while in their 20s and 30s, and then an annual CBE starting at age 40. The ACS also recommends women begin receiving annual mammograms starting at age 40. Some doctors may also recommend women with a family history of breast cancer or other significant risk factors receive an MRI in addition to a mammogram. These additional tests are rarely necessary, but women at a higher risk of breast cancer should discuss their options with their physicians.

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Colorectal cancer and polyps Men and women should begin screening for colorectal cancer and polyps beginning at age 50. Polyps are growths on the inner surface of the colon that

Endometrial (uterine) cancer According to the ACS, at the time of menopause all women should discuss the risks and symptoms of endometrial cancer, often referred to as uterine cancer. Detection often begins with women themselves, who should report any bleeding or spotting to their physicians immediately upon detection. Some women may be candidates for yearly endometrial biopsies. This includes women who have hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, or HNPCC, a condition also known as Lynch syndrome. Women known to carry HNPCC-linked gene mutations are also candidates. Women from families with a tendency to get colon cancer where genetic testing has not been done also are candidates for yearly endometrial biopsies. These yearly biopsies should begin at age 35, and women should discuss the risks, benefits and limitations of the tests with their physicians. More information on cancer screenings is available at www.cancer.org.


at Hillandale Golf Course

Herald-Sun publisher, Rick Bean, presents a check in the amount of $8,000 to Karl Kimball, Director of Golf at Hillandale Golf Course, and Founder of The H.E.A.R.T.S. Club at Hillandale Golf Course.

For the past 2 years, together we’ve raised $15,000 for the H.E.A.R.T.S. Club at Hillandale. Each year The Herald-Sun and the community team up FORE A GOOD CAUSE ... this summer you will have the opportunity to play a round of golf, and bring joy into the life of a sick child that is being treated at the Duke Children’s Hospital Pediatric and Marrow Transplant unit. Watch hillandalegolf.com and heraldsunclassic.com for the 2014 dates!


THE HERALD-SUN • October 6, 2013 • CANCER AWARENESS limited to, swelling of the face, abdominal pain, unexplained fever, and difficulty breathing.

the various types of childhood cancers, visit the American Childhood Cancer Organization at www.acco.org.

Brain cancers

Leukemias

Childhood cancers vary depending on type

Symptoms of childhood cancer can vary significantly depending on the type of cancer a child has.

Leukemias occur when abnormal white blood cells, known as leukemia cells, are produced in the bone marrow. These cells are cancerous and, unlike normal white blood cells, they are unable to function as immune cells. As the abnormal cells continue to populate the bone marrow, they begin to push out normal white and red blood cells and platelets. This compromises the body’s ability to prevent infection and carry oxygen, which causes blood clots. So a child with leukemia is susceptible to infection and bruising and will commonly appear very pale. The most common leukemias in children are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, and acute myeloid leukemia, or AML.

A

cancer diagnosis is never welcome news. But such news is even more difficult when delivered to a child. Adding to that heartbreak is the fact that childhood cancers are often more aggressive than adult cancers. Cancers of the lung, breast and colon, while relatively common among adults, are rarely diagnosed in children or adolescents. Childhood cancers are rare, so while the average man or woman might be familiar with lung or colon cancer, that familiarity does not typically extend to childhood cancers. The following is a brief rundown of some childhood cancers. For more extensive information about

Lymphomas Childhood lymphomas are cancers that develop in the lymph system, where a fluid called lymph is carried. Lymph contains white blood cells that help fight infections. When a malignancy develops in the lymph system, which connects lymph nodes in the neck, armpit and groin with the spleen, thymus and parts of the tonsils, it can spread throughout the rest of the system before it is even detected. Lymphomas are classified as Hodgkin’s or non-Hodgkin’s, which is the more common lymphoma in children. Lymphomas are often characterized by swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin, and additional symptoms may include, but are not

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Brain cancers are the second most common type of cancers in children. Many different types of brain tumors can develop in children, which can make it difficult for those unfamiliar with pediatric brain tumors to understand them. The process of classifying these tumors is evolving, but many brain tumors are currently named for the type of cell where the tumor originated and the location of the tumor itself. That location can affect treatment, as the tumor may be inaccessible or located in such a place that can jeopardize a developing brain upon surgical removal of the tumor. Location of the tumor may also dictate symptoms, as where a tumor is located may be reflected in behavior exhibited by the child. Seizures not related to fever, persistent vomiting without a known cause, progressive weakness or clumsiness, walking and balance problems, vision problems, and headaches that wake a child up at night or appear early in the morning are just a few of the potential indicators of brain tumors. The ACCO notes that children are unlikely to report symptoms of brain tumors, so adults must be especially observant and aware of the signs of pediatric brain tumors. A childhood cancer diagnosis is never easy to receive. But adults who understand childhood cancers may be in a better position to recognize and help youngsters battling the disease.

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Cancer Awareness 2013