CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING THE CONSTRUCTION STAGING Henry P. Turalde College of Engineering, Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges PICE Iriga - Rinconada Chapter Abstract: The constructor equipped with relative amount of resources, space and time must be able to figure out the project worksite situation during the construction phase. In order to alleviate most of the constructionrelated problems, the engineer must be aware of these elements in preparing the construction schemes. Essential items to consider in construction staging are: a) site limitations, b) utilities, c) safety, d) traffic control, e) access to work area, f) impacts during construction, and g) nature protection. These factors are crucial to ensuring quality, safe and timely construction operations. Keywords: construction staging, site planning, construction impacts, site traffic, environment protection
In highly urbanized area or existing transportation facility, construction staging involves enclosing or isolating specific areas while undergoing particular construction operations and shifting enclosure as work progresses.
Every construction project is unique, so is its site. Every project poses diverse yet unique problems that require special treatment down to its detail points for its resolve. One way to avoid facing potential troubles during the project construction phase is to prevent these situations from happening, by working on the solutions before the problem comes. After all, that is one function that construction management should look after – controlling, the art of “being on top of the situation” as it is said. With future events unknown, anticipation may serve that purpose, though, that is a lot easier said than done.
Construction staging needs careful planning of the intricate combinations of different elements of the construction procedures, methods, equipments, system including the proper application of technology and the available working space for the particular project phase. The important factors to be considered in planning the construction staging can be summarized as follows: S- site limitations U- utilities
Construction staging is the logistics of space allocation for equipment movements and materials storage, worksite access, temporary works, provisions for construction work requirements, including the schematic organization of the staging areas.
S- safety T- traffic control A- access to work area I - impacts during construction N- nature protection
For a construction project covering a very vast land area such as a town or subdivision development, a big interchange or a long stretch of multi-lane highway, construction staging may involve strategically dividing the whole area into different parts, treating each part as one separate job site, as in first phase, second phase and so on. Construction activities may progress from one part to the next, and then to the next until all parts or phases have been completed.
Every site has its positive and negative elements. Every site has its limitations. Site limitations such as terrain, sensitive landscape, the people or inhabitants in the area and neighborhood, existing structures and underground utilities, available space for the project, temporary works, and staging areas
are constructability issues that may influence the implementation of a construction project.
The presence of these buildings, other infrastructures, exposed utilities and, most particularly, underground utilities can serve more as a burden than as a help to the construction activities. Its existence can hamper the work because of the following reasons:
For these reasons, site limitations should be considered during all phases of design and execution, and are best addressed by preparing a construction staging plan. Developing a conceptual construction staging plan early in the design process will help identify and resolve many aspects of constructability that are dictated by site limitations. Difficulty in assessing and resolving site limitations may worsen work execution, and so, virtually increasing project construction costs.
• Existing structure blocks the movement of equipments, materials and working personnel. • Existing structure blocks the line of sight in laying out the project points using the surveying equipments. • Underground utilities, since their particular locations are not fully known, may coincide or be in conflict with the new project’s location, and due to that, it will require either the revision of project design or the temporary or permanent relocation of the existing utilities. Whichever way it goes, it will cause the delay the implementation of the project.
2.1 EXISTING SITE CONDITION No matter where the job site is, every job site has its own distinct past and present conditions. Its terrain, landscape, inhabitants, natural environment including soil and trees, and climatic conditions should be given much attention in order to carry out construction activities effectively.
2.3 SPACE ALLOCATION
Its terrain and landscape may aggravate transport of materials and workers. The residents in the area or neighboring community may be a source of labor supply depending on the skill requirements of the project. The trees, the soil, the ground and the natural environment can be a source of materials needed for the job.
One of the most important considerations on the project site is the allocation of space for each distinct stage of the project. Construction staging plan should consider the provision of space for working areas, staging areas, materials stockpile and storage, and temporary vehicles or equipment parking. The progress and pacing of project execution will have its direct relationship with the available space allotted for each particular work phase.
Its climatic condition may require critical project scheduling as rainfall pattern or storm occurrence may cause flooding and other detrimental events to happen in the vicinity. A carefully prepared construction staging plan can mitigate the effects of negative elements in the construction site.
Staging Areas A staging area is a designated area where vehicles, supplies and construction equipments are positioned for access and use to a construction site. Constructors are most likely to require staging spaces immediately adjacent to the work. Each staging area should be strategically planned and located for its optimum effectiveness. As the work progresses, staging area may shift from one location to another depending on the basic requirements, usefulness and convenience of the spot.
2.2 EXISTING STRUCTURES AND UTILITIES Construction sites may have existing buildings and structures. Likewise, existing utilities are often found near or within a project site. Careful review of the site will reveal most utilities present including power lines, pipelines, buried cables, sewers and other common utilities. All utilities owners should be contacted to evaluate hidden utilities and to identify or establish protocol for working near or within utilities’ right-of-way. Urban project locations with many site limitations may require the temporary or permanent relocation of utilities to accomplish project objectives.
Temporary Works Towers, trestles, falsework and other temporary structures should be carefully regarded as important requirements of the work depending on the method,
procedure, and equipments including the technology the project employs. The stability and reliability of the temporary works is the bottom line of the quality of the finish product. Once the temporary structure had served its purpose, it should be dismantled immediately to give way to other staging necessities.
In today’s age, energy supply is a fundamental necessity. All construction equipments basically run on power – from electric power supply, to generator, to battery, to engine, and probably, to some other kind. Without energy, the construction will not and can not progress as intended. Construction staging must consider power and energy management of the construction site, depending on the daily fuel demand of the mobile equipments and vehicles, power demand of the tools and machine in the yard, and other energy demand of the entire project.
Site Office and Other Requirements Whenever possible, space for other provision on the site such as field offices, toilets, shower rooms, mess hall and rest rooms including sleeping quarters for workers shall be provided on site or in the neighborhood. Doing this can save transportation time and cost, depending on the length of execution period of the project.
Water Requirements Water supply is a very important commodity in the construction site. Water is used in the concrete works, earthworks compaction, washing and sanitary facilities. Potable water is a priority concern for workers on the field, in the offices, quarters and mess hall. Workers without ample supply of water can be constrained in doing their job effectively.
Space Allocation for Waste Stockpiling of construction waste materials (e.g., excavated materials, wreckage from demolished structures, trash) should be considered during construction sequencing. Careful consideration of stockpile size and location will facilitate construction activities, reduce cost and damage to sensitive areas. The orderliness of the jobsite, the quality of the work finish and the safety of the project site is directly related to waste management.
Construction staging should consider the details of water supply scheme, where and how it should be supplied, including its hourly supply and demand inventory.
The most neglected issue of space allocation is the provision of waste stockpile before it is disposed off site. Non-toxic waste materials maybe stockpiled on site until disposed off. However, toxic waste must be properly disposed off according to the environmental and legal requirements of the land.
Drainage Requirements Drainage provision on site should be properly considered. When dewatering activity is involved in the project, drainage system is a very essential requirement. Providing the project with own drainage system for a large volume of sewage within a long period of time, particularly in the urban areas, may need a lot of resources. Improper provision of sewerage system may create inconvenience or chaos in the community.
Heavy construction works can not perform its activities without the regular services of utilities such as power, water supply and drainage or sewerage utilities. Without the regular services of the public utility providers, contractor’s own provision for these utilities may constitute extra work or higher cost. However, without the provision of these utilities, project execution will suffer worse. Construction staging plan should consider essential utility needs for the project.
When the site has field offices, toilets, shower rooms, mess hall and sleeping quarters, drainage system is a “must” provision. In the absence of a proper drainage system in the area, portable sanitary facilities maybe employed, but regular disposal should be maintained. Communications Communication facility is also a basic necessity in the construction site. And, with the advancement of communication technology, setting up a
communication system is no longer a major issue. The choice of what system the site would use may depend on the type of works involved in the project. Stationary communication set may be enough for personnel dealing with stationary works, but mobile set has the upper hand.
4.1 ENGINEERING CONTROL Engineering control is the pre-contact control of the hazard from its source. It is the first line of defense. Engineering First, through engineering design, construction methods or procedures can be modified so as to eliminate the presence of hazards. Second, through engineering (control) measure, the hazards can be enclosed. Third, by engineering control, hazards can be redirected, that in any case the inevitable happens, its consequential effects are directed away from persons or critical structures.
Safety apprehensions are prevalent in the construction site. Construction staging should always consider safety management in every construction activity. Accidents can delay, demobilize, demoralize and degrade construction projects. Accidents happen in the jobsite due to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In a construction site involving various workers and diverse activities, materials, tools, equipments, and the work place itself, are potential hazards. These hazards when exposed or combined with other variables may create reaction that would result to unwanted effects causing serious or fatal injuries to persons and critical damages to materials or structures.
4.2 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Administrative control is the second line of defense against hazards. This is done by initiating administrative strategies such as: 1) limiting the time of exposure to hazards; 2) advocating safe work practices; 3) placing alarms and warning signs around the work areas; and 4) training and education program for the workers. Construction site is a practical example of Murphy’s Law: “Left to themselves, things tend to go from bad to worse”. Hence, a construction site has the normal tendency to become 4D’s: dirty, disorderly, dense (crowded), and dangerous.
Accidents in the workplace can be prevented if the hazards are constrained through engineering control, administrative control, and personal protective equipment (PPE). In simple terms, safety in the construction site can be achieved by way of the following methods:
Excellent housekeeping practices in the work place can promote construction safety. Here are the 5S’s of excellent housekeeping: sort (arrange), sweep (clean), sanitize (free from dirt and germs), systematize (organize) and self-discipline (consistent practice).
E - eliminate the hazard (if not practical, then) P - prevent the hazard (if not practical, then) C - control the hazard. Following is a summary of the basic requirements to effectively improve safety management in a construction site (acronym: SAFE ESCAPE): • • • • • • • • • •
4.3 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Safety personnel Ample lighting Fire protection system Electrical hazards checked Efficient material storage Structural soundness Controlled access Adequate ventilation Personal protective equipment (PPE) Excellent housekeeping
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is necessary if the engineering and administrative controls necessary don’t eliminate the hazards. PPE serves as barrier between the hazard and the worker. PPE is the last level of control. For the PPE to work more effectively, it is important that workers are well trained in its purpose and use. However, the use of PPE has the following limitations: • Hazard still exists. • PPE protects the user only. • If the PPE is defective or ineffective, the user becomes exposed to hazard. • PPE may introduce additional hazards. • PPE may not be suitable for long and continuous use.
In case of emergency, first-aid facilities and services should always be available in the jobsite.
• PPE may not be effective if worn improperly. • PPE may transfer hazard from one location to another.
diversion route surface maybe stabilized by paving in order to provide smooth driving surface and to avoid dust emission. Diversion route should be regularly maintained.
Listed below is a summary of the commercially available PPE‘s for the safety of construction personnel:
Ineffective traffic control scheme would result to encroachment of traffic to the work site, causing delay to construction activities, or effecting damage to finished works.
• Head protection – hard hat, bump cap; • Eye and face protection – safety glasses, safety goggles, face shields; • Ear protection – ear plug, ear muffs, canal caps; • Respiratory protection – filtration respirator, air-purifying respirator, air-supplying respirator; • Hand and arm protection – gloves, hand pads, sleeves, barrier cream; • Foot and leg protection – foot guards, safety shoes, boots, leggings; • Fall protection – safety belts, safety harness, lanyards; • Torso or body protection – vests, jackets, aprons, cover-alls, full-body suits.
ACCESS TO WORK AREA
Access to work area is a basic requirement. However, controlling access to some specific delicate jobs should also be a major concern. Issues relating to site access should include the consideration of building an access road to the area, ingress and egress, and probably, isolation of some specific work areas. 6.1 ACCESS ROAD When access road to the job site is not available, temporary access road may need to be constructed to transport materials, equipment and personnel to the work area. Access roads must be designed and built according to the requirements of the project. The basic elements in designing and building the access road to the site are:
Construction activities within a transportation facility area would result to traffic disruption. In order to minimize traffic problems, construction staging must prepare a traffic flow scheme for the immediate relief of vehicles traveling the area during the project execution period. Alternative route must be provided and traffic diversion route should be employed using standard traffic engineering improvements for mitigation, particularly, of the intersection.
• • • • •
road grade, sensitivity of soil , equipment size, weight and character, frequency of access, and weather effects to the road.
Access roads should be properly maintained throughout the duration of the project. The availability of materials and the condition of vehicles or equipments on site may depend on the kind of maintenance the access road receives.
An effective traffic control scheme should provide relief to the traffic affected by the disruption due to construction activities. If possible, the width of temporary traffic diversion route must be able to accommodate the bulk of traffic particularly during the peak hours. If possible, major construction activities should be scheduled during off-peak.
6.2 INGRESS AND EGRESS Controlling entrance and exit in a construction area is not only a matter of safety and security; it is also a matter of resource and quality management. The site which is protected from any external influence is more orderly, cleaner, undisturbed and more controlled. Intrusion to the site may disturb the delicate setting of materials (e.g., concrete, tiles) and the quality of finish the job requires (e.g., painting).
Advance public notice to motorists should be made known of the nature, extent and duration of lane closings and detours. Appropriate road signs, markings and proper illumination would greatly help to guide the traffic flow. Traffic aides and flagmen, if necessary, should be employed. Depending on the duration of the traffic diversion scheme and the project execution period, the
For example, the setting-out points of projected building corners and the elevation markings of building floor or pavement finish may have been disturbed by intruders, and would require rechecking before final finishing works are executed. No admittance to these areas could have prevented disturbance.
Construction noise causes problems not only to construction workers but to pedestrians and the nearby community. As a rule, appropriate engineering and administrative controls should always be the preferred method of reducing noise levels on worksites. Only when these controls are proven unfeasible, earplugs and other types of personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as permanent solution.
IMPACTS DURING CONSTRUCTION
The alarming concerns in the project site are the impacts of the work activities during construction particularly when massive earthworks and heavily powered equipments are involved. Some of these impacts during construction are disruption of vehicular and pedestrian traffic flow, construction noise, vibration, dust and smoke.
Since every construction project is different and constantly changing, noise control solutions have to be applied for certain situation. There are a variety of ways by which impacts of construction noise can be controlled, as follows: • Incorporate noise control in all phases of project planning and design, • Communicate with the surrounding community, • “Buy Quiet – Rent Quiet” (equipment), • Equipment maintenance, • Barrier protection, • Work activity scheduling, and • “Work quiet” awareness.
The disruption of vehicular traffic due to construction activities is discussed under the traffic control sub-topic. 7.1 DISRUPTION OF PEDESTRIAN ACCESS The disruption or removal of a pedestrian access route or pedestrian street crossing, even for a short time, may create a severe impact to pedestrians, preclude access to buildings, facilities or sites on adjacent properties. Whenever the existing pedestrian access route in the public right-of-way is blocked by construction, an alternate circulation path shall be provided as much as possible, so long as safety guarantees.
Noise levels are measured in decibels (dbA). Decibels are measured on a scale like the one for earthquakes. So when the decibels go up a little, the noise goes up a lot. 73 decibels is 2 times as loud as 70 decibels as suggested by the Center to Protect Workers’ Rights (CPWR). The noise level that is normally safe for human ear without hearing protection should be kept below 85 dbA, but noise, even in lower noise level may cause discomfort and irritation. Table 1 shows the noise level of common equipments in construction site.
The alternate pedestrian circulation path shall be provided with warning and informatory signs or markings, enclosed with protective barricade and properly illuminated, as necessary.
Table 1- Noise levels of construction equipments
7.2 CONSTRUCTION NOISE
Equipment Back Hoe Bull dozer Compressed Air Blower Concrete Joint Cutter Concrete Mixer Concrete Pump Crane Electric Drill Grader Jackhammer Loader Paver Pile Driver (Pneumatic and diesel)
Controlling construction noise can pose special problems for contractors. Unlike general industry, construction activities often are not always stationary and in one location. Construction noise makers such as heavy earth moving equipments can move from one location to another and is likely to vary in its intensity throughout a work day. The danger of high noise intensity level is obvious. Not only it can impair hearing, noise can make a person tired and nervous. It can also raise blood pressure and add stress that can lead to heart disease.
Sound Level at Operator (dBA) 84 – 93 93 – 96 104 99 – 102 <85 <85 90 – 96 102 <85 102 – 111 86 – 94 100 – 102 82 – 105
site can reduce noise hazards. Combine noisy operations to occur in the same time period. The total noise level produced will not be significantly greater than the level produced if the operations were performed separately. Jobs can be rotated so that noise exposure time is limited. Scheduling the noise intense work operations when lesser pedestrians are passing near the worksite or during the period when reduced number of workers are present on the jobsite. Avoid nighttime activities. Sensitivity to noise increases during the nighttime hours in residential neighborhoods.
Pile Driver (Gravity, bored) 62 – 91 Pneumatic Chip Hammer 103 – 113 Portable Saw 88 – 102 Stud welder 101 Truck 89 – 103 Source: The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights
Barrier Protection An effective way of reducing noise is through barrier protection, by locating noisy equipment behind purpose-built barriers. Construct walled enclosures around especially noisy activities, or cluster of noisy equipments. The barriers can be constructed on the worksite from common construction building material (plywood or blocks) or the barriers can be constructed from commercial panels which are lined with sound absorbing material to achieve the maximum shielding effect possible. The length of the barrier should be greater than its height. The noise source should not be visible and barrier should be located as close as possible to either the noise source or the receiver.
“Work Quiet” Awareness Equal to or above all the ways of reducing the noise level is the awareness that noise control is an important part of the job in the construction site. Every worker should be involved in the noise reduction awareness scheme by working quietly. Noisy equipment should not run for periods longer than necessary and should be switched off when not in use. Develop a practical noise-monitoring program in order to promote noise sensitivity among workers in the jobsite.
Whenever possible, stationary noise sources like generators and compressors should be positioned as far as possible from noise sensitive receivers (workers, schools, residential buildings). Whenever possible, stacks, spoils and other construction materials can be placed or stored around noise sources to reduce the hazard to receivers. Advantage should be taken of the screening effect of any nearby object such as cooling tanks, trailers or temporary site offices.
7.2 CONSTRUCTION VIBRATION Construction activity can cause varying degrees of ground vibration, depending on the type of equipment and method employed. Ground vibrations spread through the ground and weaken through distance. Buildings and structures in the vicinity react to the vibration.
The distance between the noise source and noise receiver can be considered a barrier as well. Further increasing the distance from the noise source further lowers the noise level at noise receiver.
In general, construction work which uses equipments that may generate serious vibration impact must be subjected to careful review. Vibration effects can range from simply causing annoyance to people inside the buildings, to minor (cosmetic) damage to walls and ceilings, to major structural damage. Even though the vibrations may rarely reach the levels that can cause structural or architectural damage to buildings, it can create perceptible and disturbing ranges, thus special care to old buildings close to the construction site must be taken. Unlike the regular structures, old buildings are so fragile that even slight construction vibrations may cause alarm.
Table 2- Noise levels at noise receiver by distance Noise level at Distance. from Noise level at noise source source to noise noise receiver (dBA) receiver (m) (dBA) 105 1.5 102 105 3 96 105 6 90 105 12 84 Source: MSHA Surface Equipment Noise Control
Work Activity Scheduling
Vibration, viewed as “ground-borne noise” as opposed to the “air-borne noise”, its intensity is also measured in decibel scale, but vibration decibels are based on a different scale than noise decibels. Since the primary concern with regard to construction
Whenever possible, schedule the more noise intense activities for less intrusive times. This is an administrative means to control noise exposure. Planning how noise sources are organized on a work
vibration is building damage, vibration criteria and predicted vibration levels are presented in terms of overall vibration velocity levels in decibel (VdB). Perceptibility threshold is about 65 VdB. Damage to buildings may occur at above 100 VdB, although damage to old fragile buildings may occur at above 95 VdB.
2. Sequence of operations: •
Another measurement of construction vibration is assessed in terms of peak particle velocity (PPV). A peak particle velocity of 0.5 inch/sec corresponds to a vibration velocity level of 102 VdB assuming (Peak/RMS) crest factor of 4. The construction activities that typically generate the most severe vibrations are blasting and impact pile driving.
Approx. Lv at 25ft** (VdB re 10-6 in/sec) 112
Pile driver (impact, upper 1.518 range) Pile driver (impact , 0.644 104 typical) Pile driver (sonic, upper 0.734 105 range) Pile driver (sonic, typical) 0.170 93 Clam shovel drop (slurry 0.202 94 wall) Large bulldozer 0.089 87 Caisson drilling 0.089 87 Loaded trucks 0.076 86 Jackhammer 0.038 79 Small bulldozer 0.003 58 Source: Guidance Manual for transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment, May 2006
Avoid impact pile driving where possible in vibration-sensitive areas. Drilled piles or the use of a sonic or vibratory pile driver causes lower vibration levels where the geological conditions permit their use, however, there are some additional vibration effects of sonic pile drivers that may limit its use in sensitive locations. Select demolition methods not involving impact, where possible. For example, sawing bridge decks into sections that can be loaded onto trucks results in lower vibration levels than demolition by pavement breakers, and milling generates lower vibration levels than excavation using clam shell or chisel drops. Avoid vibratory rollers and packers near sensitive areas.
* Peak Particle Velocity ** RMS (Root Mean Square) Velocity in decibels (VdB)
Common to construction site is the presence of dust, from demolition activities to site preparation works including drilling, blasting, excavation, cut and fill operations, from uncovered stockpiles to unpaved earth road surface aggravated by vehicle or equipment movement. Also common to construction site is soil that is exposed. When the wind picks up the dry exposed soil and carries it off, dust can become airborne.
Construction Vibration Mitigation Mitigation of construction vibration requires consideration of equipment location and processes, as suggested in MTA New York City Transit Vibration Assessment: 1. Design considerations and project lay-out: •
Phase demolition, earthmoving and ground-impact operations so as not to occur in the same time period. Unlike noise, the total vibration level produced could be significantly less when each vibration sources operates separately. Avoid night time activities. People are more aware of vibration in their homes during nighttime.
3. Alternative construction method:
Table 3 - Vibration source levels for construction equipment PPV * at 25 ft. (in/sec)
Operate earthmoving equipment on the construction lot as far away from vibrationsensitive sites as possible.
Airborne dust from construction site is a problem for a number of reasons. Dust can cause the following: • create health problems, particularly for those with respiratory problems • degrade the environment, pollute the air and water
Route heavily loaded trucks away from residential streets, if possible. Select streets with fewest homes, if no alternative s are available.
• create problems with visibility • damage or dirty property and belongings • create unsafe working conditions
As part of construction planning, numerous and detailed construction work plan should be sequentially prepared incorporating the environmental protection requirements of the project.
Dust Control Measures
Construction staging can possibly ensure that all land used for quarrying activity is restored to equivalent or even better condition before it commenced the operations. It can prevent disturbance of vegetation or rehabilitate disturbed vegetation.
Dust prevention and control measures for construction activities generally seek the minimization of soil disturbance and eradication of loose soil fines or uncovered earth surface. It can be done in the following manner: • Minimize disturbed surface by reducing the excavation size and/or number of excavation. • Limit dusty work on windy day. • Pave haul road and storage areas. If this is costly, pave just the entrance and exit, then gravel the remainder. • Water or sweep the roadway often to ensure that vehicle traffic is not picking up dust. • Limit driving speed on unpaved surfaces to 15 kph. • Prevent transport of dusty materials by rinsing vehicles and equipment before they leave and tightly covering loaded trucks. • Enclose storage and handling areas if dusty materials are frequently loaded and unloaded at these sites. Use storage silos, three-sided bunker, or open-ended buildings. If handling is less frequent, try wind fencing. • Keep storage piles covered when not in use. Apply dust suppressant spray of cover with a tarp. Limit the working face of the pile to the downwind side. Most dust emissions come from loading and unloading the pile and from the truck and loader traffic in the immediate area. Keep the drop height low to reduce dust and the ground at the base of the pile clear of spills. • Clean up dusty spills immediately. Waiting will increase the mess and prolong cleanup.
Likewise, a good construction staging plan can avoid the pollution of the air, thwart the contamination of the water resources and cause an effective waste disposal in the construction area and its periphery.
Construction staging is crucial in the over-all performance of the construction operations. It is as important as the construction work itself. Most of the construction-related problems (before, during and after) in a project execution are either the direct or indirect result of insufficient consideration of the basic elements in a well-balanced planning of the construction staging.
REFERENCES: Arkansas Development Finance Agency, Construction Performance Manual, 2006 Detroit River International Crossing Study, Cost and Constructability, Construction Staging of Access Road Alternatives, 2007 Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction, Washington, DC Federal Transit Administration, Construction Protection Plan, 2007 FHWA, Work Zone Impacts Assessment During Construction OR-OSHA, Controlling Hazardous Noise on Construction Sites University of Nebraska, Construction Sites – Environmental Protection, Safe Operating Procedure US Department of Transportation, Management of Urban Construction Programs, 1981
Man-made projects or development as we call it, no matter how large or small, will always involve alteration of the natural landscape, resources and environment. Impacts to natural resources can result from construction activities. Construction staging plan can facilitate circumventing negative effects of these alterations.