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Case Studies: The Study of Typologies

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Arc 3020/ Arc 5040 Housing/Spring 2019 Profesor Irma Ramirez

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INDEX LOFTS AT CHEROKEE STUDIOS... P.4-21 • Layout and Key Information • Drawings & Project Photo • Digital Model • Analysis • Analysis/Livability

HOUSING AT MOUNT ROKKO... P.22-35 • Layout and Key Information • Drawings & Project Photo • Digital Model • Analysis/Livability

KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENTS... P.36-51 • Layout and Key Information • Drawings & Project Photo • Digital Model • Analysis • Analysis/Livability

LEWIS COURT APARTMENTS... P.52-63 • Layout and Key Information • Drawings & Project Photo • Digital Model • Analysis • Analysis/Livability

CONCLUSION... P. 64

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Layout and Key Information

LOFTS AT CHEROKEE STUDIOS 751 North Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles 2010 Pugh and Scarpa Project details Year 2010 Work started in 2007 Work finished in 2010 Main structure Mixed structure Contractor JT Builders Cost 3.1 million Status Completed works Courtyard--Rowhouse--Hybrid 12 Units 12 Unit types Lot size: 9925 sq.ft. 0.2278466 Acre Unit Density: 53 Dwelling Units/Acre

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Drawings & Project Photo

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 1

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 2

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 3

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 4

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Drawings & Project Photo

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 5

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 6

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 7

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 8

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 9

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 11

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN 10

1’ = 1/16” FLOOR PLAN

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Drawings & Project Photo

WEST ELEVATION

SOUTH ELEVATION

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

NORTH ELEVATION

EAST ELEVATION

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Drawings & Project Photo

SECTION CUT

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

Concept This urban infill, mixed-use, market-rate housing project was designed to incorporate green design as a way of marketing a green lifestyle. It is pending LEED Platinum certification. The design maximizes the opportunities of the mild Southern California climate with a passive cooling strategy using cross-ventilation and thermal convection while taking advantage of the abundantly sunny location. A commitment to minimizing the project’s ecological footprint informed all aspects of the design. The main architectural feature of this project is the building’s owner-controlled double-façade system. The occupant is able to adjust the operable screens of the building façade as necessary for privacy, views, shading, and thermal comfort. As a result, the facade is virtually redesigned “live” from within, responding to the occupants of the building in real time. The façade also enhances the existing streetscape and promotes a lively pedestrian environment. By visually breaking up the façade into smaller, articulated moving elements, the building appears to move with the passing cars and people. Like many features of the building, the façade is multivalent and rich with meaning, performing several roles for formal, functional, and experiential effect. (1)

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Digital Model

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

SITE PLAN The building is at the crossroads of Fairfax Boulevard and the famous Melrose Avenue and within a half mile of the Sunset Strip and many other popular cultural and entertainment attractions. The location ranks a “Walker’s Paradise� on Walkscore.com (95 out of 100) because of its proximity to restaurants and entertainment, schools, shopping, grocery stores, and other essentials. Retail space invigorates the formerly vacant streetscape and encourages pedestrian traffic. As such, the project benefits its occupants and the environment by promoting a walkable community that minimizes dependence on the automobile and thus reduces pollution and congestion. A shared-use parking analysis was performed to show that combining residential and commercial parking was possible and could reduce the need for additional parking, thereby conserving valuable resources. Metrics Estimated percent of occupants using public transit, cycling or walking: 35%

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(1)


Analysis/Livability

GREENSCAPE SITE PLAN

One of the team’s primary objectives was to enhance the quality of living for each resident by surpassing standards found in conventional market-rate housing projects. All living units have 11” ceilings, ceiling fans, and large windows with lots of natural light and abundant cross-ventilation. Indoor air quality was emphasized by minimizing offgassing. Formaldehyde-free cabinetry, low-VOC paints, natural stone, and fluorescent lighting with low mercury content were used to minimize pollution from materials. These details, coupled with the qualities and character found throughout the building, distinguish this project from similar projects and benefit not only each individual resident but also the community at large. Metrics Daylighting at levels that allow lights to be off during daylight hours: 98% (1)

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

FLOW DIAGRAM

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SUNLIGHT ANALYSIS


Analysis/Livability

FACADE SYSTEM According to the California Title 24-2005 report published by USGBC dated November 19, 2007, the passive strategies alone make this building nearly 50% more efficient than similar conventionally designed structures. It also exceeds current Title 24 requirements by almost 50%. The perforated aluminum panels of the building create an ever-changing screen, providing shade to cool the building, reducing noise, and enhancing privacy while still allowing for spectacular views, natural light, and ventilation from ocean breezes that pass through its millions of perforations even when all panels are fully closed. Passive design strategies include: locating and orienting the building to control solar cooling loads shaping and orienting the building for exposure to prevailing winds shaping the building to induce buoyancy for natural ventilation designing windows to maximize daylighting shading south-facing windows and minimizing west-facing glazing designing windows to maximize natural ventilation utilizing low-flow fixtures and storm water management shaping and planning the interior to enhance daylight and natural airflow distribution The building is designed to incorporate passive and active energy-efficient measures and optimize building performance to reduce energy use during all phases of construction and occupancy. (1)

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

Recycled and locally procured materials were preferred and used throughout. Interior finishes were selected for their high levels of recycled content, low chemical emissions, and use of rapidly renewable materials. Materials were also selected based on their effect on indoor air quality, long-term maintenance, and durability. All wood products, cabinets and flooring were made from 100% FSC-certified products. Zero-VOC paints, sealants, or adhesives are used throughout the building; also, natural stucco pigments were used. Interior floor finishes are exposed concrete containing more than 30% fly ash. The structural steel frame, countertops, skateboard backsplashes and tiles include recycled content. Material with natural finishes throughout the thickness of the material were specified so that when the material suffers from abuse, it shows less wear and therefore lasts longer. The building has facilities to sort, collect, and recycle paper, plastic and metal products. Because of the very low power demand of the building, thousands of feet of wire were saved. More than 80% of all construction waste was recycled. Waste haulers picked up commingled waste and provided a report detailing the amount of waste that went to the landfill vs. the amount of waste that was recycled. (1)

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Analysis/Livability

(2)

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

Cherokee Studios uses a typical steel construction system. The double angles were shop-bolted to the web of the beam and then field bolted to the web of the girder. Most of the connections in the site re shear connections.

Cherokee Studios is essentially 2 buildings surrounding a courtyard. Each building is similar but their bay structures do not connect. They are connected with lateral bracing and vertical circulation.

Lateral bracing is found along the north and south facing walls. Only a few small windows puncture these exterior walls , so the lateral bracing is easily designed on the less visible facades.

Verticle Structure was more difficult to integrate than the lateral bracing. Due to the movement of the stairs and the change from commercial to residential units, the verticle structure had to be placed strategically. The structure is concealed within the building’s mass. (2) 20


Analysis/Livability

REFERENCES (1) http://www.aiatopten.org/node/461 (2) https://www.behance.net/gallery/53252609/Precedent-Case-Study-Cherokee-Studios Plans/Drawings: https://brooksscarpa.com/cherokee-studios Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Layout and Key Information

HOUSING AT MOUNT ROKKO Kobe Japan Tadeo Ando Project Details Phase I Construction Started - 1981 Constrction Completed - 1983 Main Structure Assembly - Cast-in-Place Concrete Cost: Unknown Status: Completed Work Project Type - Multi-Family Residence Number of Units - 20 Number of Unit Types - 20 Building Area - 997.92m2 = 10741.52 ft.2 Building Volume Density- 81 Units/Acre

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Drawings & Project Photo

MOUNT ROKKO - PHASE 1

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

PROJECT INSPIRATION Tadeo Ando as a youth and aspiring architect spent countless hours tracing over the sketches of Charles-Édouard Jeanneret and other noted Architects- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Alvar Aalto, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Louis Kahn. Ando is a self-educated architect and designer whom, throughout his career, drew much inspriation from his personal experiences in and the native surroundings of his life as a youth in Osaka, Japan. Given the steep native terrain typolgy of the Rokku Mountains that surround and nestle Osaka and Kobe, Ando developed the desire the imbue and imprint to the face of the mountains a form of housing that sets in juxtaposition to the sprawl of of urban housing that stretches from the base of the mountians to the sea beyond. Similar to the stepped, hill and cliffside dwellings that occur throughout the Mediterranian region coupled with the formal expression as exhibited in Jeanneret’s sketch Roq-et-Rob, the Housing at Rokku clearly evokes many of the same qualities.

THIRA, GREECE

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Drawings & Project Photo

HOUSING PROJECT - ROLAND SIMOUNET - ALGERIA

JEANNERET: ROQ-ET-ROB

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

ADDRESSING THE SITE The Phase 1 segment of the overall Housing at Mount Rokko development (each phase was commissioned by different owners/investors) is situated at a point wher the natural terrain of the hillside is inclined at a roughly 60 degree angle. Ando’s design takes on a terraced form that directly engages with and inclines back into the hillside; in his own words a “quiet building standing quietly in nature,” The initial phase of construction involved excavating out and shaping the mountain face to accommodate the physical construction process.

EXCAVATION - GRADING - CONSTRUCTION

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Analysis/Livability

SITE SECTION

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

CIRCULATION Circulation though the project runs along two main axis- one that runs centrally up through the project and consists of linear stair runs at the base of the structure and then up through the structure via a series of rounded winding stairs accompanied by a central lift. A level horizontal crossing plane bisects the project effectively separating the volume into tw distinct masses. This arrangement of perpendicular crossing paths are reminiscent of the cross style Ando utilizes in the many chapels he has also designed.

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Analysis/Livability

PUBLIC/PRIVATE - PEDESTRIAN/VEHICULAR RELATIONSHIPS Given the terraced nature of the design, a distinct separation of vehicular and pedestrian paths of travel exists. Vehicles enter the structure through a central opening at the base of the structure with all occupiable living spaces above this parking volume. The local main access roadway lies some distance away from the structure providing occupants a reasonable amount of respite from the tumult of the urban space below.

PARKING ENTRANCE W/ UNITS ABOVE Each of the 20 Units in the complex have a private deck area with each deck oriented in a different direction from the main unit volume thus providing uniqueness and personal open space.

UNIT ARRANGEMENT - PRIVATE OPEN SPACES Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

GRID SYSTEM - UNIT ARRANGEMENT The building grid system and unit arrangement for the Phase-1 portion of the Housing at Rokku project is based on a ste of modules measuring 5.4 meters in width, 4.8 meters in depth, and 2.9 meters in height. The central circulation system is based on a half-width module of 2.7 meters in width. By virtue of the irregular stacking and depth placement of the modules, each individual unit is allowed to take on different floor area volumes and alternate interior space configurations.

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Analysis/Livability

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

SITE SECTION ANALYSIS

CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

UNIT SAMPLE

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Analysis/Livability

MATERIALS Tadao Ando’s signature material is the implementation and use of cast-in-place concrete. Although Ando’s primary design technique resides in the Modernist style, his works are very much his own- reflections of his own personal vision unencumbered by the stict styles or techniques of any given school, movement, or populist trend. The majority of his works employ strong geometric forms that reinforce the strength of his source material. Bolt holes from the formwork of the cast-in-place process are left unfilled providing addtional geometric references and texture to the otherwise smooth finished surfaces.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

DAYLIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION This project s oriented in a south-easterly facing direction thus is generally exposed to early morning direct sunlight and oblique mid-day to afternoon sun. As the project is embedded into the mountainside, generating daylight and any crossventilation of the spaces on the westerly face is not an available option. the deeper interior spaces of each unit are subject to receiving less than moderate to minimal daylighting. The units are outfitted with full width roll down shades across the broad glazing surfaces to control thermal heat gain in summer months and to offer a means of privacy as desired. Prevailing winds flow from west to east- therefore the stucture is promarily shielded from most direct wind forces. The flow of these breezes over, across and away from the structure aid in drawing out any built-up/ excess heat gain within the units.

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Analysis/Livability

REFERENCES Tadao Ando, Tadao Ando: The Yale Studio and Current Works (New York: Rizzoli International Publications Inc, 1989), p.46. Concrete Resistance: Ando in the context of critical regionalism. Xianghua Wu . 2006

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Layout and Key Information

KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENTS Bomanji Petit Marg, Cumballa Hill, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400026, India Architect - Charles Correa Project details Work started - 1970 Work finished - 1974 Main structure - Reinforced Concrete Status - Completed works City, Urban, High Rise Number of Units -32 Units Number of Unit Types - 4 Unit types Density - 292 units per acre 1/4 outdoor space, 3/4 indoor space 2 parking spaces per unit

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Analysis/Livability

The Kanchanjunga Apartments were designed by Charles Correa in 1970 and are constructed in Mumbai, India. The concept of the building is a response to the present culture of urbanization and climate conditions. It is a sustainable design that is very straight forward (a box). This complex is a residential modern structure constructed of concrete. Each unit is organized to have their own open space. There are 32 units or in this buildingnd 4 unit types consisting of either 3, 4, 5 or 6 bedrooms depending on their location within the building. The unit types repeat every 4 stories. The units have a repetition, ligning to a simple grid structure allowing for plumbing, fixtures, electrical to occupy the same location or space from floor to floor. The livability of Kanchanjunga Apartments can take on different roles according to Charles Correa. Correa placed greater emphasis on the resources of managing energy and climate ver the defining of spaces. This ocus is reflected in the design of the entrance of the building and the orientation of interior spaces like bedrooms and outdoor spaces to capture different views. This tower apartment complex stands 275 feet in height and includes housing, commercial spaces and parking. A distinct advantage to Correa’s design are the different views captured from all all 4 sides of the building, The building is separated from the public streets and has its own access, One unavoidable disadvantage are are the effects of the sun and monsoon rains have on the building. Cross-ventilation in some spaces is somewhat lacking affecting overall general comfort. The city of Mumbai is a crowded, rather noisy and somewhat polluted place- air pollution in particular affect livability when accessing the outddor spaces and has a deliterious affect on the concrete structure itself. The Kanchanjunga Apartments is a very unique but straightforward design.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

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Drawings & Project Photo

1’ = 1/32” FLOOR PLAN 1

1’ = 1/32” FLOOR PLAN 2

1’ = 1/32” FLOOR PLAN 3

1’ = 1/32” FLOOR PLAN 4

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

SECTION

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Drawings & Project Photo

ELEVATIONS

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Digital Model

MASSING MODEL

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Analysis/Livability

CONCEPT

Sectional displacement s effected through changes in the floor elevation surfaces. Cellular planning was applied by interlocking 1-1/2 story 3 and 4 bedroom units with 2-1/2 story 5-6 bedroom units. Small displacements in levels differentiated the external earth filled terraces with internal elevated living volumes.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

Parking Main Structure Central Lobby

SITE PLAN LOGIC & PEDESTRIAN & AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS The site has a separate road for individual approach which is connected to the main road. Building is approachable from two opposite sides, one from east and one from west. In Mumbai, buildings are best to be oriented east-west to catch the prevailing sea breezes and open up the best views of the city. The Arabian sea lies to the west, the harbor ies to the east. Half of the apartments are oriented to the west with views towards the Arabian Sea, the other half face east towards the harbor. It is also the correct orienting for the sunshine instead of west. The unit types occouring at the top and ground floor are lightly modified due to their position within the structure.

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Analysis/Livability

CIRCULATION A great deal of transparency has been achieved through the use of terrace gardens and large openings on every floor. 10% to 15% of each floor area has been provided as common circulation. Max. facilities provided using min. circulation.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

PUBLIC SPACE PRIVATE SPACE

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Analysis/Livability

UNIT ANALYSIS

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

MATERIALS

With its concrete construction and large areas of white panels, it bears a strong resemblance to modern apartment buildings in the West. However, the garden terraces of Kanchenjunga Apartments are actually a modern interpretation of a feature of the traditional Indian bungalow: the verandah. In a bungalow, the verandah wraps the main living area. The color expert says that the quality of sunlight, climate and culture influence color choices: hence one would observe a preference for blue and its shades in the West while in India and other Asian countries one finds a pre dominance of reds and yellows.

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Analysis/Livability

STRUCTURAL ORDERING SYSTEM

Constructed of reinforced concrete. 32 stories high with 6.3 m cantilevered terrace garden. Central core of 7.8x6.9 m house the lifts and service areas. This central core also acts as a main structural element in resisting lateral loads. Central core was const. ahead of the main structure using SLIP method of construction.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

NATURAL LIGHT & VENTILATION

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Analysis/Livability

HUMAN SAFETY

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Layout and Key Information

LEWIS COURT APARTMENTS 341-391 North Mountain Trail, Sierra Madre 91024 Irving Gill Project details Year 1910 Garden Courtyard Status Completed works Type Multi-family residence 12 Units One Types Project Density- dwelling units per acre 9.23

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Drawings & Project Photo

SINGLE UNIT

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

1’ = 1/8” FLOOR

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Drawings & Project Photo

NORTH ELEVATION

PERGOLA

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

POOL AREA

NORTH-WEST CONER

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Drawings & Project Photo

WEST ELEVATION

ELEVATION

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Drawings & Project Photo

NORTH ELEVATION

EAST ELEVATION

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Drawings & Project Photo

SECTION CUT

DIGITAL AXON

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

SITE PLAN Lewis Apartments are located at the crossroads of Mountain and Sturevant Dr and East Aleria Avenue and within a half mile of downtown Sierra Madre adjacent to Arcadia and Pasadena. The location ranks a “Walker’s Paradise� on Walkscore. com (76 out of 100) because of its proximity to restaurants and enter-tainment, schools, shopping, grocery stores, and other essentials. The Apartments are in a prime location near the mountain trial heads and the old town district . As such, the project benefits its occupants and the environment by promoting a walkable community that mini-mizes dependence on the automobile and thus reduces pollution and congestion. The addition of the Goldline in Pasadena has increased the accessibility and usage by the population. Parking analysis of the site shows that there is more than ample parking for the residence with their parking area along with additional parking on the street adjacent to the apartments. Metrics Estimated percent of occupants using public transit, cycling or walking: 40% (1)

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Analysis/Livability

GREENSCAPE SITE PLAN Given the age of the project, the structure lacks any modern viable environmental controls. However, what the project has going for it is that the original design incorporated a significant amount of green space reducing heat island effect with the loggia facing inward towards the garden court. Units were cooled by cross ventilation with wind blowing through the units. The material used reflect the drive at the time to build affordable housing within a budget while still giving occupants a comfortable dwelling. The design reflects a romanization of Spanish Colonial architecture popular in the region. With an arched recessed door and windows and flat roof design the units work col-lectively to create a barrier often used in hacienda architecture designs. At the center of the garden court is a large outdoor public space that can be used by the inhabitants. This communal space promotes interaction between neighbors and reinforces interaction giving possibility to defuse any problems that may arise from living in close proximity. The pergola space in an open floor that can be used for any type of formal or informal gathering.

Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Analysis/Livability

FLOW DIAGRAM

SUNLIGHT ANALYSIS

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STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

REFERENCES Photos by: Antonio Anfiteatro Renderings by: Antonio Anfiteatro Gary Bouchard • Antonio Anfiteatro • Blake Burrows • Henry Chu


Conclusion

CONCLUSION In reflecting on the individual characteristics of each of these four projects, the most striking aspect remains that they are uniquely individual. Housing at Mount Rokko and the Kanchanjunga have limited similarities- they are each reinforced concrete structures, yet the articulation expressed in the finished concrete forms are quite different. The general inspiration for the Architect of each of these projects derive from the works of Le Corbusier while the inspirational design contexts are quite different. Kanchanjunga plays off The Unite d’Habitation concept of a multistory but open floor plan that capitalizes on access to daylight and cross ventilation whereas Rokko integrates a vertical structural mass set against a solid or mountainous backdrop as inferred in the sketches of Roq-et-Rob where cross ventilation is not an achievable concept and daylighting the inner reaches of the spaces is severely hampered. Both of these projects lack opportunities for communal interaction. Individual living spaces with their own private outdoor environs, although intended to promote occupant health and well-being, the need for community health opportunities are compromised. Based on the analysis of the site in comparison to the Cherokee Lofts and Lewis Court pergola and community theater, both attempt to address the drive to create inclusivity within the unit occupants. By creating these shared spaces, events of interactions that promote interactions between neighbors. These interaction work as a pressure relief value to defuse problems that may occur by living in close proximity. Both these spaces can be used as formal and informal spaces for various events further reinforce community and inclusivity.

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