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Nr. 1 / Ianuarie 2014 COLEGIUL TEHNIC "HENRI COANDÃ" TIMIŞOARA

PAROLE, MEANING, LITERATUR

REVISTA COMISIEI METODICE DE LIMBI MODERNE

ISSN 2359 – 7917 ISSN–L 2359 – 7917


CONTENTS/ SOMMAIRE/ INHALT

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LIFE THOUGHTS

3

SPOOKY DECORATING

5

THE OTHERS

5

QUELQUES PLATS TRADITIONNELS DE NOËL

6

GRÜNDE DEUTSCH ZU LERNEN

7

WIE KANN MAN EINE SPRACHE LERNEN

7

RUMÄNISCHE WÖRTER DEUTSCHER HERKUNFT

7

CHOICES

8

THE GATE TO OUR SOULS

9

LE SAVIEZ-VOUS?

10

DEUTSCHE ERFINDUNGEN

11

POTENTIAL HEROES

12

À LA MANIÈRE DE PRÉVERT

14

MON PORTRAIT CHINOIS

14

EDUCATION - A CULTURALLY EMBEDDED CONCEPT

15

MA PASSION: LA DANSE

21

BLAGUES

21

LE QUESTIONNAIRE DE PROUST

22

LES MOTS-VALISES

23

LES CODES DES FRANÇAIS

24

WAS DENKT EUROPA ÜBER DEUTSCHLAND ?

25

BEKANNTE BANATERSCHWABEN

25

EXAM– STRESS OR RELEASE?

26

TIOMAN ISLAND - A WILD HEAVEN

26

EDITORIAL BOARD/ LE COLLECTIF DE RÉDACTION / REDAKTIONSGRUPPE

27

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Life Thoughts We are born, we live and we die. In short terms this is our life. When we come into being we have no knowledge about life, about its mechanism or what its rules are. When we are born we first need to get acquainted to the basics, how to walk, how to speak, how to properly use our body. The only certainty of our lives is represented by those two persons who lovingly hug us, kiss us and cuddle us: our parents. Our every step depends on them. Our parents are our guardians and our teachers. They represent an essential part of our life. They guide us and support us through life, giving us valuable advice about the meaning of existence, its ups and downs and the proper behaviour in difficult situations. They are our guardians because they keep us away from danger whether or not we are aware of it. They can be regarded as basic life teachers who will embark on a very demanding journey, namely the duty of being by their children’s side whenever the situation requires it. Seven years after we are born we start primary school. There we are given another type of guidance by the teachers and we become part of the formal education process. The teachers are specialized educators who are prepared to convey information on how to read, write, infer, deduce, make associations and properly use the gathered data about how the world works. After primary school there comes high school and college, where we deal with more advanced information. It is now that the real challenge begins. It is the beginning of the new phase when we say farewell to adolescence and welcome maturity. We need to be responsible and make a living. We have to embrace a profession in order to survive independently. Words like “nutrition”, ”outfit” or “rent” are added to our existential vocabulary. A brand new world unfolds in front of us, and we are sometimes taken by surprise or even shocked because it was our parents took care of all these for us so far. The way we manage our life after we leave our parents’ house represents the hardest exam of our life. We are not mentally prepared for this lifestyle, so, most of the people fail this exam not once but many times until they understand it is a matter of survival. Some life exams repeat themselves until you are prepared and ready to overcome the situation. In contrast, some exams are rare and when you come across one of them and fail, you are never given the second chance.

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Now do not get me wrong! I am certain you must have grasped the meaning, but I feel the need to explain that when I say ‘exam’ I do not specifically refer to an exam where you sit in a room with other classmates or no classmates at all, being supervised by the teacher so you could not cheat. In real life there are no teachers, no classmates, no paper, no tasks. It is only you, trapped in different challenging situations, some which might be weird, some confusing, awkward or dangerous. There are no marks or people to judge your actions. No matter what your superior or your entourage say, what matters most is what you see in the mirror and your satisfaction.

“Am I satisfied with the outcome? Could I have done more?” These are the questions that only you can answer and you need to be true to yourself. This way you will learn more about you and who you really are. For instance, if you have a problem and you have to fix it, the way you intend to fix the problem will describe your abilities and you will know how good you are in tight situation. Still, there are situations in life you will never be prepared for, despite your intelligence or skills. Existence can be dual, life can be a dangerous place, but at the same time, it can be a safe and warm place. If you want to have a good life, you have to be careful to wisely choose your friends, because they may turn into foes. Some might befriend with you only for their best interest and leave you alone when you need them the most. A good friendship is very important because friends might be a good support when you are in distress and they are an excellent social resource. Besides parents, when you do have a problem, you can turn to friends for help and together you can fix it. Due to the existence of friends and family, we might have an easier life. Some of us do not have friends. This leads to social problems and some of them might find it hard to have a proper conversation with their peers. On the other hand, there are those who do not have families, some because their parents abandoned them or because their parents died. Life becomes a trial filled with daunting challenges. In conclusion, we all start life from the same point: some with advantages and some with disadvantages, but, in the end, how you chose to live your life and what you want to leave behind matters. Lucian Curcuţã, a XII-a A

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Spooky decorating Is Halloween decorating fun? Our class thinks so. For this holiday we decided to decorate our classroom. We raised some money and then went buying colorful decorations. We created some at home and they turned out to be very cool. Once we got to school, we got down to work. First, we made a garland from leaves and ghosts and trimmed the blackboard. We stuck paper bats on the windows, and a big spider web in the back of the classroom with a lot of leaves surrounding it. There were also some little pumpkins on the teacher’s desk and a big one too, in the middle. What is more, a ghost garland was hanged on the blinds! The stickers on the classroom’s door warned the trespassers to beware from haunted spaces... Everything looked so creepy! We enjoyed our classroom very much and so did our teachers. When they entered the classroom they were pleasantly surprised and also proud of us. The whole class participated in this activity and we enjoyed spending time together. The activity ended with a horror movie named “The Others”. The action happens after the World War II in England. The story captivates you and the end is unexpected, but I will let you find yourself because I don’t want to spoil the surprise! It was so funny! You should try this with your classmates. You will not regret!

Pop Teodora a XI-a F

The Others

The Others” is a 2001 supernatural horror film written, directed and scored by Alejandro Amenabar, starring Nicole Kidman and Fionnula Flanagan. William Skidelsky of The Observer has suggested that it is inspired by the 1898 novella “The turn of the Screw” The thriller set in stately manor in post World War II England where devoted wife and mother Grace (Nicole Kidman) awaits the return of her husband who was called off to war. Grace has two children named Anne and Nicholas who have an uncommon disease characterized by photosensitivity, so they cannot be exposed to bright light of any kind. Grace is very protective with her children and she is careful with the sunlight not to enter the rooms, blocking it with large draperies hanging throughout the mansion. At Grace’s door come three servants that apparently are seeking for work, but what she doesn’t know is that they are hiding a huge secret. Grace is obsessed by the silence in the house but, the much-coveted silence is broken by a person or presence that leaves the doors open and makes noises. Grace’s daughter is the only one who can talk with the supposed “ghosts”, having a special connection with Victor and when she tries to tell the truth to her family, her brother gets scared and her mother doesn’t believe her, punishing Anne for this. We won’t go further with anymore of the story as it will spoil the surprise ending. It is rare to see an actress transform from scene to scene with such consistency as Nicole does. She went from being a strong, formidable woman at one point to a scared and fragile child the next. One scene she was the stern disciplinarian home schooling her children and a few scenes later the doting, over protective mother. The movie is well worth seeing because of the excellent cast and the story that will keep you captivated until the unexpected end. Serediuc Denisa, Stan Georgiana, a XI-a F 5


Quelques plats traditionnels de Noël

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La tourtière est un plat très célèbre de la cuisine québecoise

qui est servi traditionnellement sur le plateau de Noël ou de réveillon. Il faut préciser qu'il y a beaucoup de particularités dans la préparation de la tourtière au Québec. On la cuisine avec du boeuf, de la volaille ou du gibier, de la viande hachée ou en cubes...Mais, ce qui caractérise principalement ce plat, ce sont les épices utilisées: la cannelle, le clou de girofle, la muscade et le piment de Jamïque. La bûche de Noël est un gâteau symbolique que l'on prépare dans toutes les pâtisseries françaises à l'occasion de la fête de Noël. Il s'agit d'un gâteau roulé, glacé de crème au café ou au chocolat et décoré de feuilles de houx et de roses en sucre. La dinde aux marrons est un plat traditionnel de Noël en France. C'est une dinde rôtie au four et farcie, accompagné soit de marrons soit de haricots verts ou de pommes de terre. Les marrons sont cuits à la vapeur.C’est un plat riche avec lequel il est agréable de boire de l ’eau ou du vin. L''oie rôtie est un plat traditionnel qu'on prépare en Belgique à l'occasion de la fête de Noël. C'est la variante belge de la dinde aux marrons. La cougnolle est une spécialité belge qu'on trouve dans toutes les pâtisseries et les boulangeries de Belgique durant la période de Noël. C'est un pain sucré dont la forme rappelle celle de l'enfant divin emmailloté. Sîrbu Oana, Frahler Lavinia Petrea Andreea, Izgãrian Oana IXème F

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Gründe Deutsch zu lernen Motive pentru a învãţa germana Germana

este vorbită ca limbă maternă de 120 de milioane de oameni, adică de un sfert din locuitorii Europei. O limbă ce reprezintă pregătirea ideală pentru a călători în Europa: 38 % dintre cetăţenii Europei spun că pot conversa în limba germană. Limba cel mai des folosită pe internet, după limba engleză. Germana se numără printre cele trei limbi de lucru ale Comisiei Europene. Germania este cel mai important partener comercial pentru aproape toate ţările eu popene şi pentru multe ţări din afara Europei.Peste 17 000 de firme germane activează în România, cunoaşterea limbii germane fiind un atu competitiv în procesul de angajare şi, ulterior, în consolidarea unei cariere. In domeniul produselor de telecomunicaţie, Germania deţine supremaţia în Europa, iar la nivel mondial este pe locul trei. Wie kann man eine Sprache lernen / Cum se poate învaţa o limbã Lerne wenig und oft / învaţã puţin și des Hab keine Angst vor Fehler / nu te teme de greșeli Höre oft, auch wenn du wenig verstehst / Ascultã des chiar dacã intelegi puţin Schreib die Wörter / scrie cuvintele Wiederhole viel / repetã mult Besuche das betreffende Land / viziteazã ţara respectivã Finde ein Lernpartner / Gasește-ţi un partener de învaţare http://geboren.am/orte/Europa/Deutschland http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C8%98vabi_b%C4%83n%C4%83%C8%9Beni http://www.webdex.ro/online/dictionarul_etimologic_roman/ http://www.goethe.de/ins/ro/prj/dfj/roindex.htm http://www.goethe.de/ins/be/prj/dli/eur/deindex.htm http://deutsc.blogspot.ro

Rumänische Wörter deutscher Herkunft Cuvinte de origine germanã buştean, jet, roabă, şanţ, şindrilă, şopron, şură, şold, ştreang, turn, ţiglă, stofă, şnur, şorţ, vestă, balonzaid, şliţ, căptuşeală cartof, chiflă, crenvurşti, gris, halbă, parizer, şniţel, şuncă, şvaiţer, ştrudel, căprar, maior, ofiţer, chelner, maistru, magistrat, hingher, bormaşină, ghips, lac (substanta), şurub, şaibă, şină, ştecher, nit, matriţă, haltă, lozincă, vană, ventil, pantof, protocol, corectură, reclamă, spatiu, folie, şmecher, abţibild, bliţ, loz, oază, rolă, rucsac, fleac Prof. Rusu Vladimir 7


CHOICES There's a quotation that says "Life is the most difficult exam. Many people fail because they try to copy others - not realizing that everyone has a different question paper!" We are destined to face challenges in life; obstacles, hurdles and difficulties that are bound to get in the way. But every failure is supposed to be a stepping stone to success. The easiest way out would be imitating someone else that seems to be effective in what they do. It's a mighty task to try to be yourself, because at the same time you're still on the journey of finding out who you actually are. There are some that stand up for what they believe in, while others simply follow. The followers are afraid of being judged and only want to be accepted and fit in, scared of what people think about their genuine character. As clichĂŠ as it sounds, whether you're an average student, an outstanding artist or just someone's best friend, being yourself as in choosing your own unique road might prove to be the best option. Thomas Carlyle, a well-known Scottish philosopher, once asserted, "Go as far as you can see, and when you get there you will see farther." This makes me believe that if one has dreams and tries to fulfill one's aspirations, an important step would be setting goals to work towards. Perusing the big picture, life's choices can be thought of as questions that are part of an exam, showing up at different times in people's lives. The ones we pass shape us and define who we are, while the others make us wish we were different. There will be a lot of struggling and countless bad days that never seem to end. Wrong answers will rip out bits of us. There's a small percentage of people that can't take it and give up, but the ones who don't will be the ones to get to the brighter side of the say. It is said the night is the darkest before dawn. Life can run you over and play mind games with you, making us wonder what it all means or if there's anyone controlling it. But if you can learn from your mistakes, you can understand how to find pleasure and most importantly, to endure. Analyzing the past will put you in a better position and it will provide a higher chance of success with your next attempt. Charles Monroe Schulz, widely regarded as one of the most influential cartoonists of all time, once asserted, "Sometimes I lie awake at night and I ask; Is life a multiple choice test or is it a true or false test?... Then a voice comes to me out of the dark and says; We hate to tell you this but life is a thousand word essay." To some people, life can be hard, cruel and merciless. This group sees it as anguish and despair throughout their entire existence. They concede and believe in destiny, refusing to take responsibility for their erroneous actions. From their point of view, nothing they do will ever be as good as others. Some'll end up finding satisfaction in committing crimes for the thrill of it, losing every sense of what's right and becoming inhumane to run from the injustice that fate has dealt to them. But there are also those 8


who enjoy living for its discoveries and the amazing feeling of accomplishment. To them, the idea of reaching success after hard work makes them keep pressing on to get the most out of life. Fighting against the odds, even if things seem discouraging and unpleasant is not considered a necessity by every individual. The will to win or lose varies; you can prepare for what's about to come or take everything for granted. The way I see it, you have to listen to the cries for help of others. We're locked in this world, but we're required to defend our ground and try to see beyond the lies. When destiny calls to remind us that our time is limited, we can leave behind what hurts us and break the chains of this seemingly eternal suffering. To conclude, if they take chances and trust their feelings, anyone is capable of going through the least required amount of correct paths to be left with just enough willpower needed to keep carrying on with the crippling torment which we call life and accept their misery as the cost of holding on to whatever or whomever they deem worthy. Claudiu Nãdrag,a IX-a F, Public Speaking

The Gate to Our Souls Who can this man be? Sheila wondered as she looked at the stranger standing at the front door. This door wasn’t a normal door, it was the gate to her heart! Geo came to her to lay his soul in her hands and confess his feelings for this new part of his existence. They were in a coexistence among the turmoil of his own feelings. She accepted his gift given by gods to Geo. She ran-out of dark feelings and became an butterfly. Geo raised her to the point where their feelings touched the angels’ light. It was then, when the cute butterfly saw a pure light between the stars and the sun. She, the butterfly, spread its magic in thousands of glittering drops. The bright drops turned into letters, whirling letters digging the black hole of the conscience. They became a group of words, an adage- an eternity! Love once and it is enough for both lives- the real life and the other one… when nothingness becomes forever.

Cãrãusu Ciprian, a XI-a C 9


Le saviez-vous ? La clémentine est un fruit hybride, résultat du croisement entre une mandarine et une orange amère. On la considère un fruit stérile parce qu'elle n'a pas de pépins comme les mandarines ou les oranges. Les spécialistes croient que la clémentine a été découverte par Clément Rodier entre 1900 et 1902, dans la région d'Oran, (en Algérie) lorsqu'il a décidé de féconder des fleurs de mandarinier avec du pollen prélevé sur un bigaradier. Le paparazzi provient du film La Dolce Vita (en 1960) de Federico Fellini dans lequel le héros, Marcello Mastroianni, est souvent accompagné d'un jeune photographe du nom de Paparazzo. Paparazzi est le pluriel de paparazzo en italien. Grâce à ce film, un nom propre est devenu un nom commun, qui a fini par désigner dans toutes les langues les reporters avides d'images sensationnelles et du scandal. La micheline est le premier véhicule ferroviaire monté sur pneus,mis au point par la société Michelin dans les années 1930. Ce véhicule hybride, à moteur thermique a été destiné au transport de voyageurs sur les lignes non électrifiées. Pour les Français, la célèbre micheline symbolise les colonies de vacances et les voyages à la mer. Aujourd’hui, en France la plupart des michelines ont été remplacées par les TER (Trains Express Régionaux). La pasteurisation est un traitement thermique qui assure la conservation des aliments. Les températures de pasteurisation varient entre 62 °C et 90 °C. Le processus vise à réduire la quantité de micro-organismes présents dans les produits alimentaires. Pourtant, cette méthode entraîne une dénaturation des protéines et une modification des globules de matière grasse. Le procédé de la pasteurisation est attribué à Louis Pasteur qui l'utilisa en 1865 pour conserver les vins. Groze Daniela, la 12ème E

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Deutsche Erfindungen / Invenţii germane

Die Sportschuhe Adidas - Adi Dassler Der Airbag Das Aspirin Das Automobil – Benz Das Bier Das Fahrrad (bicicleta) Der Buchdruck (tiparul) – Gutenberg Der Weihnachtsbaum (pomul de Crãciun) Der Computer – Zuse Der Helikopter Die Jeans – Strauss Der Kindergarten Das Motorrad (motocicleta) – Daimler MP3 Der Kühlschrank (frigiderul) – von Linde Der Scanner Die Strassenbahn (tramvaiul) Der Fernseher (televizorul) – von Ardenne Die Zahnpasta (pasta de dinţi) Die Röntgenstrahlen (raze X)

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Potential Heroes It is said that animals have a ‘sixth sense’ that helps them anticipate a natural disaster. If it is true, maybe our future could dramatically change in this respect. If we take the time and research this ‘sixth sense’, we could actually escape from a tragedy. These catastrophes like earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, tornadoes, forest fires and super storms strike without a warning more often nowadays. Just imagine how calamities could be prevented and how many lives could be saved! Whether animals sense natural disasters before they happen or they barely feel the physical effect of these events before humans do is still unknown. Even though this has still not been found to be true, many creatures hold, without a doubt, the power of detecting disasters. On December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake in the Indian Ocean created a tsunami that killed hundreds of thousands of humans. But, despite that destruction, no mass animal deaths were reported. Along Indian coast, thousands of people perished, whilst dogs and other animals were found untouched. Do the animals really have a “sixth sense” to predict disasters

and move to safe locations?

would seem so.

It

Sometimes human's best

friend can keep you "alive" even after you pass away. Let us not forget the big animals, too. Elephants felt the danger, trusted their senses and became nervous. They broke their chains and went through the forest like a storm before the wave struck and they took people with them, carrying them on their back, because they are animals and they think about us , which is not what we can say about humans. We seem to have a very developed sense of selfishness. 12


A few years ago, in 2007 more specifically, a fascinating story about a cat came to surface. She could feel when someone passed away in a hospital room by going near his door and stop moving. Since then the nurses took it, fed it and kept it in their hospital. After that it went near every dying man and stayed next to him, so families could come and talk to him for the last time. In ancient Greece, people thought that rats could save their lives from a big disaster such as earthquake. We could take this story as a true story and learn from it, and when we see a bunch of rats rushing out from their holes, we should react the same way. Do not try to be smart and think that rats are ignorant, because they are not. Scientist believe earthquakes are unpredictable and animals can not predict them with accuracy. Scientists, like always, need proof because they never put their trust in something without testing the theory first. People have this “sixth sense” too, but it is not so developed or it is completely ignored most of the times. Maybe if we listened to our senses, we could live a better life. Can animals predict coming disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis? Not everyone agrees to the idea that they might, but most people will believe that animals are closer to nature than humans. We should invest in researching this phenomenon more and, maybe one day, we could beat Mother Nature in her own game and prevent more people from dying. We should stop ignoring odd animal behavior, because they surely can sense, and predict a disaster even if they are small or big. Size doesn’t matter at all. Animals have low intelligence but high senses. We have the opposite. They try to tell us something, but we ignore them regardless and we regret our mistake later but it will be way too late to change the past, no matter how hard we try. With all this technology we have, with our brain capacity being higher than animals', we question ourselves, what do these animals know, that we don't? All this technology for what? We are not able to predict earthquakes. Being prepared for such a disaster is the difference between life and death. We need to consider that animals, from mammals to birds and bugs have abilities that we don't. Their "sixth sense" is more developed than ours and this allows them to perceive things we might not be aware of. Cãrãuşu Ciprian and Anca Sergiu, a X-a C 13


À la manière de Prévert….. Quand la vie est un défi Quand la vie est un film, Chaque jour est une aventure. Quand la vie est une chanson Chaque jour est un vers. Quand la vie est un livre Chaque jour est un chapitre Quand la vie est un jeu Chaque jour est un défi. Quand la vie est belle, Chaque jour est un sourire. Quadri Nicole , la 9ème E

Quand la vie est belle Quand la vie est une fleur, Chaque jour est une pétale. Quand la vie est un amour, Chaque jour est un baiser. Quand la vie est un baiser Chaque jour est un enfant. Quand la vie est un enfant, Chaque jour est une célébration. Quand la vie est une école, Chaque jour est un devoir. Paven Andreea , la 9ème E

Mon portrait chinois Le portrait chinois est une suite de questions auxquelles on répond par un mot ou par une phrase afin de créer le portrait psychologique d'une personne. En classe de FLE, cet exercice s'avère très utile pour enseigner la deuxième règle de Si conditionnel ( Si j'étais…….., je serais…) Dans les lignes qui suivent,vous découvrirez un portrait chinois inédit, réalisé par les élèves de la 9e F. Si j'étais un groupe de musique , je serais Metallica parce que j'adore la musique rock. Si j'étais un moyen de transport, je serais un avion parce qu'il vole au-dessus des nuages. Si j'étais une saison, je serais l'été parce que j'aime manger de la glace, boire du jus et aller à la piscine. Si j'étais un sport, je serais le parkour parce que j'adore vivre et me sentir libre. Si j'étais un plat, je serais une pizza parce qu'elle est très délicieuse. Si j'étais un parfum, je serais une essence de cerises parce que cette odeur évoque les temps de mon enfance. Si j'étais une boisson, je serais l'eau parce qu'elle représente la vie. Si j'étais un pays, je serais la Grèce parce qu'il y a partout de belles îles. Si j'étais un fruit, je serais une fraise parce qu'on en prépare une confiture délicieuse. Si j'étais une chanson, je serais Ecou parce que c'est une mélodie très romantique.

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EDUCATION-A CULTURALLY EMBEDDED CONCEPT Abstract: The paper deals with the concepts of public and private spheres as defined from Plato and Aristotle to more recent sources. The two issues are considered as being distinct from each other. The link between them is mediated by education. Keywords: education, family, state

Introduction The paper deals with the binary of public/private, two concepts that have undergone significant changes in the course of history. The private area refers to all those activities that are carried on within the household, whereas the public area implies activities concerned with the space outside the house, i.e. society. According to Professor Reghina Dascặl, the distinction between the public and the private spheres has been a central feature of liberal political discourse since its beginning. Aristotle regarded the public sphere as an arena for free discursive interaction, where free and equal citizens engage in striving together toward the common good. The liberal theorists defined the zone of privacy as a way of delimiting the power of the state, taking individual freedom as their departure point. There was a question for many theorists about where the line of demarcation between the state power and the private realm should be. The private includes everything that is not political; it is not a locus of constructed power relationships, and largely irrelevant to politics. The private is not the domain where rights reign but is governed by norms of duty, love, and custom. (Dascặl, 2001: 145-49). According to the very origin myths of liberalism, men came out of the state of nature to procure rights for themselves in society; they do not establish the state to protect or empower individuals inside families. Thus, the liberal subject is a man who moves freely between family and civil society, bearing prerogatives in the former and rights in the latter. This person is male rather than generic, because his enjoyment of civic rights is buttressed rather than limited by his relations in the private sphere, while the opposite is the case for women within the standard sexual division of labour, women’s access to civic society and its liberties being limited by household labour and responsibilities. Liberalism’s discursive construction of the private sphere as neither a realm of work nor of power but of nature, of comfort and regeneration is inherently bound to a socially male position within it; it parallels the privileging of class entailed in bourgeois characterization of civil society as a place of universal freedom and equality (Dascặl 149).

Education As a link between the two spheres I intend to take up the issue of education. Before the invention of reading and writing, people lived in an environment in which they struggled to survive in the face of natural forces and wild animals. To survive, preliterate people developed skills that grew into cultural and educational patterns. Peoples had to transmit their culture from adults to children. The earliest educational processes

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involved sharing information about gathering food and providing shelter, making weapons and other tools, learning language, acquiring values. Since they lived before the invention of writing, preliterate peoples used oral tradition to pass on their culture from one generation to the next. When Europeans began to invade the American continent in the 1500s, the most devastating assault on Indian life came from the unseen viruses they brought with them. As cultural and economic contact grew, the differences between women and men began to change. These various changes were shaped by the sexual division of labour in indigenous cultures. (Evans1-18). Perhaps the most striking evidence of change among women was the emergence of the college-educated and self-supporting new woman. After the Civil War, the first generation of such women was formed in the intense world of women’s colleges. By 1870 there were 11,000 women students enrolled in higher education. I would like to single out Mary Jane McLeod, an outstanding example of a woman who by assigning great importance to becoming educated also contributed to education of other women. She was born on July 10, 1875, the fifteenth of seventeen children of Samuel and Patsy McLeod. Some of their children were born into slavery and sold to nearby landowners, but they reassembled after President Lincoln’s Proclamation. Although Mary Jane was born free, she was no stranger to the evils of slavery. In the hard- working family every one had to do her or his part. Mary learned to cook, sew and chop cotton. She sang as she worked in the fields and in the Methodist Episcopal church where the family worshipped. They all worked on the farm, praying together every night and morning. Most of all Mary prayed to be able to go to school. More than anything else, she desired to read. She did so well at her studies that after finishing elementary school she was awarded a scholarship to Scotia Seminary in North Carolina. In 1887 she left her family to ride alone on a train, frightened but proud, to her new school. After graduation from Scotia, she continued her education at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, the only African-American in a school of a thousand students, and her world expanded again. She had a dream, that of establishing a school of her own, where African-American girls could be educated. Mary believed that by means of education, these girls’ low social status could be raised. On October 3, 1904, the Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls opened its doors. Her school grew faster than she could have imagined. In addition, she started a library and a tiny hospital, which eventually became a school for nurses. In 1928, while Mary was involved in transforming her school into a junior college, she received an invitation from President Calvin Coolidge to attend a child. She became the country’s expert on the education of African- Americans. (Wright 31-41).

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She died on May 18, 1955, leaving as her legacy to all her people: “I leave you love I leave you hope I leave you a thirst for education I leave you faith I leave you racial dignity I leave you a desire to live harmoniously with your fellow men I leave you finally a responsibility to our young people” (Wright 42). Ancient Greece is considered to be one of the places where Western formal education originated. The Iliad and Odyssey, epic poems attributed to Homer and written sometime in the eighth century BC, created a cultural tradition that gave the Greeks a sense of group identity. Ancient Greece was divided into small city states (Athens, Sparta, etc). Athens laid the stress on a humane and democratic society and education. Only the sons of free citizens could attend school. The Athenians believed a free man should have a liberal education in order to be able to perform his civic duties and for his own personal development. Women’s education depended on the customs of each particular Greek city-state. As in Athens women had no legal or economic rights, most women did not attend school. However, there were girls who were educated at home by tutors. In the fifth century BC, the Sophists began to teach in Athens. They claimed that they could teach any subject or skill to whoever wanted to learn. They specialized in teaching grammar, logic and rhetoric, subjects that eventually formed the core of the liberal arts curriculum. The Greek philosopher Socrates wanted to discover and teach universal principles of truth, beauty and goodness. He considered that true knowledge existed within everyone and needed to be brought to consciousness. Plato believed in the unchanging world of perfect ideas or universal concepts. He said that since true knowledge is the same in every place at every time, education, like truth, should be unchanging. He described his educational ideal in the Republic, a fundamental work of Western philosophy. Public versus Private Public has meaning in relation to what is not public, the private sphere. The Greeks made a distinction between two lines of inquiry: the first was concerned with the study of goodness in the collective life of a community, while the second dealt with the goodness of an individual. They also differentiated between the polis (the city-state) and the oikos ( the household). In the Republic, Plato considers that private interests have divided citizens and undermined their interest in the wellbeing of the polis as a whole. Plato’s ideal re-

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public opts for equality between the sexes in the guardian class. This is to be achieved by eliminating the internal divisions within a state which pull leaders away from the collective good towards their own private interests. For Plato to eliminate these divisions, the private sphere had to be abolished. So Plato has to find a place in the public sphere for women who had previously filled the roles of wife or slave in the private area. He focuses attention on the guardian class and claims that men and women should be trained equally for the role of ruler. He also brings in the concept of education for the guardian class. Unlike Plato, Aristotle believed strongly in the need for both a public and a private sphere. His description of political society begins with the description of what he calls first societies, namely families. The purpose of the private realm is to meet biological needs. The public area, on the other hand, exists for the sake of a good life. Aristotle considers that a man should rule over his wife; the man is fitter to rule because he possesses moral goodness and reason in a perfect form. He asserts that men have authority over their wives, but it is the rule of the statesman over his fellow citizens rather than of the monarch over his subjects. This limitation of men’s authority is rooted in the recognition that wives have some authority over the children in any marriage and that they have a capacity for rationality (Arneil 28-31). For Plato, the private sphere must be eliminated (in the guardian class) if the interest of the whole community is not to be divided by the interests of private families. The radical implications of eliminating the family for wives of the guardians is understood by Plato, and hence the need for his elaborate schemes of reproduction and equality between the sexes in training and education. Some have argued, however, that by creating a sphere in which only the public may exist, Plato actually leaves no choice but for these wives to become masculine in political life, by the very way he defines the virtues of the guardian class. Equality, therefore, may be at the expense of retaining a difference between the genders and in particular those qualities traditionally associated with femininity. Plato ignores the majority of men and women who fall outside of this category of guardian in his analysis, seeing them as providers of the biological needs of the guardian class. Aristotle, on the other hand, has anchored the origin of his political societies on the more primitive household societies. The key difference is that the polis is both public and part of the cultural rather than natural world. The family, in particular the wives and slaves, on the other hand, meets the needs of mere life. Rule within the family naturally falls to the man for reasons of morality and his capacity for rational thought, yet his authority over wives is different from his authority over female slaves: Aristotle claims that the former has some capacity for reason, while the latter has none (Arneil32).

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According to Sara M. Evans, the rhetoric surrounding the American Revolution was rooted in classical Greek assumptions and presumed a sharp dichotomy between public and private. As Hannah Arendt has stated, the public was the realm of politics, where citizens who commanded independent resources and private households, gathered to debate the future of the community. This political sphere was the locus of freedom, an arena for action through which individuals made themselves visible by using impressive discourse and seeking public recognition of their achievements. It was also important to have a strong sense of virtue, to assume responsibility for community affairs. By contrast, the private area was concerned with producing food and bearing children. On account of the fact that women devoted themselves to the necessities of life, male heads of households had the freedom to engage in politics. Jean Bethke Elstain has asserted: “The flip side of a coin that features the public spirited visage of the male citizen and dutiful father, is the profile of the loving, virtuous, chaste, selfless wife…. Without someone to tend the hearth, the legislative halls would grow silent and empty, or became noisily corrupt” (qtd. in Evans, 1997 2). American women reshaped the boundaries of the private sphere in ways that have not up until now been explored. They changed the meaning of public life itself. The realities of seventeenth century life, however, ascribed to the family many activities and responsibilities such as education, health and welfare that we now associate with public life and institutions. Even though women were excluded from most formal public roles, they had access to private sources of social control over public action. The most outstanding example is represented by Iroquois women who, unlike their colonial counterparts, could act as a group to nominate council elders and vote on the appointment of chiefs. As a consequence of the Revolution, a new political meaning was given to domestic life; this raised the role of women to a problematic status in the new political order, a status that has persisted to the present. Women created a different form of public life. In different ways and to different degrees, every group of women (middle class, immigrant, black, and working class) used voluntary associations to express their interests and to organize themselves for public activity. This made possible the public expression of private perspectives. Among the peoples of North America, whose tribes lived in the woods, along the rivers and on the edges of the plains, women were essential to group survival. Their work as gatherers and processors of food and as nurturers of small children was not only visible to the whole community but also shaped ritual life and processes of community decision making. In most Indian societies, women’s activities were different from those of men. They gathered seeds, roots, fruits and other wild plants. Male activities centered on hunting and warfare.

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After the hunts, Indian women had an important role in processing the hides of deer or buffalo into clothing, blankets, floor coverings or trade goods. Indian societies differed in their definitions of which tasks were appropriate for women and men and their degree of flexibility. In some groups people would be ridiculed for engaging in tasks inappropriate for their gender, while other groups were more tolerant. Sometimes man and women performed complementary tasks. Among the Iroquois, men cleared the fields and women planted them. Societies with a clear sexual division of labour encouraged gender solidarity. In Iroquois society women farmed in a highly organized way. Their work is described by a white woman as follows: In the summer season, we planted, tended and harvested our corn, and generally had all of our children with us; but had no master to oversee or drive us, so that we could work as leisurely as we pleased ….we pursued our farming business according to the general custom of Indian women, which is as follows: in order to expedite their business and at the same time enjoy each other’s company they all worked together in one field, or at whatever job they may have on hand. In the spring they choose an old active squaw to be their driver and overseer, when at labor for the ensuing year. She accepts the honor and they consider themselves bound to obey her. When the time for planting arrives and the soil is prepared, the squaws are assembled in the morning and conducted into the field where each plants one row. They then go into the next field and plant once across and so on till they have gone through the tribe (Evans 9).

In many tribes there were public forums, such as a council of elders, where decisions could be made for the community as a whole. In spite of most scholars’ belief that women had no significant political roles, there were many female chiefs and traders. Iroquois women represented the apex of female political power. The land was theirs; the women worked it and controlled the distribution of all food. This gave them essential control over the economic organization of their tribe. They could withhold the food at any point – in the household, the council of elders, at religious celebrations etc. The Iroquois institutionalized female power in the right of matrons or older women to nominate council elders. Conclusion The public and private spheres coexist in people’s lives all over the world. One of the links, as I have tried to show, is education. Everybody must have access to education, irrespective of gender, nationality, social status or age. Women, as well as men, have always and at all times made their contribution visible in the two areas under discussion. All the citizens of a state should enjoy full access to both of them. They exist as different areas, but this does not mean that they belong to only one segment of humanity. One’s existence has to benefit equally from the achievements of both spheres. Works Cited Arneil, Barbara. Politics and Feminism. Great Britain: Blackwell,1999 Evans, Sara M. Born for Liberty--A History of Women in America. New York: Free Press Paperbacks,1997. Wright, Lynne. E. More than Petticoats–Remarkable Florida Women. Guilford, CT: The Globe Pequot Press, 2001

prof .Sima Remina

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Ma passion : la danse L’une des choses que j'aime bien faire est la danse folklorique. Sans doute, c'est une passion dont je suis très fier. La danse est devenue pour moi une activité à la fois éducative, dynamique et relaxante. Je la pratique seul ou accompagné de mes amis . Martha Graham disait " la danse est le langage secret de l'âme". Je pense que c’est le meilleur canal pour toucher les coeurs des autres et créer des changements positifs profonds. La danse a aussi une fonction libératrice car elle nous provoque un flot de sensations et d'émotions diverses; elle nous libère du stress quotidien et de la tension. Tout ce qui tient à la tradition roumaine (danse, musique, culture, costumes, croyances) me fascine. J'aime voir des hommes et des femmes, jeunes ou personnes âgées, portant des costumes populaires roumains. N'oublions pas la blouse paysanne brodée et pailletée, les ceintures en laine multicolores, les chaussures de peau (opinci), les gilets d'étoffe ou le fichu. Ça me donne un sentiment de fierté que je ne peux pas décrire. Quant à moi, chaque fois que je porte le costume traditionnel roumain, je deviens une autre personne! Gruici Cosmin, la 12e A 1.Une grosse femme va visiter son médecin : - Docteur, je voudrais bien perdre du poids. - D'accord vous allez commencer par me dire vos habitudes alimentaires. - Oh ! Je ne mange pas beaucoup, je ne bois jamais d'alcool et je fais de l'exercice tous les jours. - Avez-vous d'autre chose à ajouter ? - Oui, je mens souvent. 2.Une dame descend de sa voiture en colère : - Vous êtes en tort car je viens de la droite et j'ai la priorité. - Peut être, répond l'autre automobiliste, mais vous êtes dans mon garage !

5.Salon de l'auto : Comment reconnaître les nationalités des

visiteurs du Mondial de l'Automobile ? - L'Allemand examine le moteur - L'Anglais examine les cuirs - Le Grec examine l'échappement - L'Italien examine le klaxon - Le Portugais examine la peinture - L'Américain examine la taille - Le Suisse examine le coffre - Le Chinois examine tout - Le Belge examine rien - Le Français examine la vendeuse 6.Deux souris voient passer une chauve-souris... - Regarde un ange !!!

3.C'est un chien qui rencontre un crocodile. Le crocodile dit au chien : - Salut, sac à puces ! Et le chien lui répond : - Salut, sac à main !

7.Un Parisien en vacances à la campagne passe devant un champ et demande au paysan: - Mais comment faites-vous pour obtenir des radis aussi gros ? - Ce n'est pas compliqué, Monsieur: j'ai semé des graines de 4.Un homme rentre dans un bar et demande au betterave rouge ! barman: 8.Une maîtresse demande à ses élèves: - Je voudrais un verre de vin, vite !!! - Si je dis "je suis belle", c'est à quel temps? - Rouge ou blanc ? Répondit le barman. Un élève répond: - Je m’en fiche, je suis aveugle ! - Sûrement au passé madame !

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CRÉATIVITÉ, JEU ET APPRENTISSAGE Les activités de cette rubrique ont comme objectif principal la formation de la compétence d'expression écrite.Il s'agit des exercices créatifs et d'imagination qui permettent aux apprenants de jouer avec les mots et les structures de la langue française, tout en respectant certaines rigueurs. Ce sont des activités à la fois simples et compliquées que les apprenants adorent faire.

Le questionnaire de Proust Le questionnaire de Proust représente un test de personnalité à la base anglais, devenu célèbre par les réponses qu'y a apporté l'écrivain français. Au fil du temps, il a été modifié pour s'adapter aux époques.C'est un questionnaire qui se prête parfaitement à l'apprentissage du français dès lorsqu'on commence à travailler les goûts, les qualités, les loisirs et les défauts. Voici une sélection de meilleures réponses, données par les élèves des classes terminales , la 12e A et la 12e E, à un nombre de dix questions. 1.Le principal trait de mon caractère ? - La patience. (Andrada P.,12 E) - Je suis têtue. (Aida M.,12 E) - L'honnêteté. (Daniel F.12 A) - Je suis une personne tolérante. (Alexandra C.,12 A) 2.La qualité que je préfère chez un homme ? - La sincérité. (Loredana O., Roxana V., Ioana G., Alina M,12 E) - Son caractère. (Alexandra C.,12 A) - L'optimisme. (Alexandru H.,12 A) - Un bon comportement. (Alexandra B.,12A) 3.La qualité que je préfère chez une femme ? - La fidélité. (Roxana V.,12 E) - Son élégance.(Andrada P., Ramona M., 12E, Cosmin G.,12A,) - J'aimerais qu'elle soit belle.(Achim, Alexandru H.,12 A) - L'orgueuil. (Alina M.,12 E) 4.Ce que j'apprécie le plus chez mes amis ? - La confiance. (Miriam B.,12 E) - J'apprécie leur humour. (Aida M.,12 E) - Leur disponibilité lorsque j'ai besoin de leur aide. (Alexandra B.,12 A) - Je les apprécie s'ils sont sincères. (Ioana G., 12 E) 5.Ce que je voudrais être ? - Je voudrais être directeur. (Abel L.,12 E) - Un professeur de gym ou de danse. (Alexandra B., 12 A) - Comptable. (Alina M., 12 E) - Je veux être médecin. (Miriam B, 12 E) - J'aimerais ouvrir ma propre affaire. (Cosmin G.,12 A) 6.Mes héros favoris dans la fiction ? 22


-Superman et Harry Potter. (Ramona M,12 E) -Anna Karenina.(Daniela G.,12E) -Hulk (Achim, 12A) -Batman. (Daniel F.,12A) 7.Le don de la nature que je voudrais avoir ? - Savoir danser très bien(Ramona M., 12 E) - Savoir chanter, avoir une belle voix (Aida M, Miriam B., Loredana O.,12 E) - Être douée pour le dessin.(Daniela G.,12 E) - J'aimerais jouer du violon.(Bonchiș,12 A) -Avoir les yeux bleus. (Cosmin G.,12A) -Avoir les cheveux bouclés (Reneta P., 12 E) 8.État d'esprit actuel ? - Je suis stressée. (Andreea F.,Ioana G.,12 E) - Excellent.(Alexandra M., 12 E) - Ennuyé. (Achim 12 A) - Je suis très heureux. (Daniel F.) - Fatigué(e). (Alexandra B.,Cosmin G., 12 A) 9.Le pays où je désirerais vivre ? - Je voudrais vivre en France. (Ioana G.,12 E) - En Allemagne. (Stevanca S.,12 E) - Aux États-Unis. (Miriam B.,12 E) - J'aimerais habiter en Suisse.(Aida M.,12 E)

10.Ma devise ? "Souriez, demain sera pire!" ( Reneta P., 12E) "Si tu luttes, tu gagneras!" (Cosmin G.,12 A) "Seul Dieu peut me juger". (Achim, 12 A) Aider les autres. (Alexandra B.,12 A) "Qui ne risque rien, ne gagne rien." (Daniela,12 E) "Ne remettez jamais à demain ce que vous pouvez faire le jour même." (Roxana V.,12 E)

Les mots-valises Un mot-valise est une création verbale formée par le télescopage de deux mots existant dans la langue. Ils réunissent la tête d’un mot et laqueue d’un autre. Ces nouveaux mots, fantaisistes, poétiques ou souvent humoristiques, enrichissent la langue en la bousculant.On apprécie qu'un collage verbal n'est réussi que si les deux éléments sont reconnaissables ou conservent la plus grande partie de leur physionomie lexicale d’origine. Les mots-valises ou les mots-portemanteaux peuvent être suivis d'une définition ou même illustrés. Il est à noter que beaucoup de mots-valises sont passés dans l’usage et figurent maintenant dans les dictionnaires de langue générale. En voici quelques exemples: motel pour motor et hotel, pouriel pour pourri et courriel, informatique pour information et automatique, modem pour modulateur-démodulateur. Parmi les modalités de création néologique en français contemporain, la derivation, la composition et la siglaison, les mots-valises occupent une place originale. Ils sont très populaires parmi les écrivains, les journalistes et les humoristes grâce à leur caractère polysémique et à leur capacité de 23


frapper l'imagination. Par exemple, Rabelais a créé hypocritiquement (croisement de hypocritement et de critique), Balzac a inventé le mot mélancolisé (formé à partir de mélancolique et de alcoolisé), Ionesco a imaginé cordoléances (condoléances et cordialité).Dans la publicité, employés comme figure de style, les mots-valises peuvent créer un effet surprennant, étrange ou ironique. (par exemple le titre d'un article parru dans le quotidien francais Le Figaro: Les Jeux "olympolitiques" (Figaro, 5/08/2008). Enfin, pourquoi inventer des mots-valises? La réponse? On la trouve dans la préface du recueil de Finkielkraut, Petit fictionnaire illustré:"Si l’on veut accéder à la pluralité des mondes, si l’on veut échapper au découpage immuable qui nous fait croire que le monde est un, […] il faut mêler les mots, les contaminer, les confondre : il faut métisser le vieux dictionnaire." Vous trouverez dans les lignes ci-dessous Challemand quelques mots-valises, créés par les élèves de la 11ème A. Bouquintal (bouquin-quintal) Ananassin (ananas-assassin) Challemand (chameau-allemand) Vachelier (vache-bachelier) Orangination (orange-imagination) Perversation (perverse-conversation) Baobabouche (baobab-babouche) Chocolâtrie (chocolat-idolâtrie) Lapinocéros (lapin-rhinocéros) Dessin réalisé par Humailo Patrick, la 11ème A Brébiscotte (brébis-biscotte) C'est à vous de trouver les définitions! Prof. Indreica Cristina

Les codes des Français *Les salutations entre hommes et femmes sont accompagnés d’un geste supplémentaire faire la bise. La norme est de faire deux bises, une sur chaque joue. *Il est interdit de cracher dans la rue. *Il est impoli d'appeler après 22 heures. Font exception les amis intimes. *Dans les transports en commun ou dans l'ascenseur, on évite de fixer les gens du regard. *Quand on reçoit un cadeau, il est poli de l’ouvrir toute de suite. *Lorsqu'on est invité à dîner chez des amis, on peut apporter une boîte de chocolat, un bon vin ou un livre exceptionnel. *Si l’on est invité à un dîner ou à un cocktail chez quelqu’un, il faut retenir cette règle : ne pas arriver à l’heure ! Il est poli de se présenter 10-15 minutes plus tard. *À table, si vous êtes un homme, vous serez placé entre deux femmes parce que la maîtresse de maison souhaite alterner les convives de chaque sexe.

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Was denkt Europa über Deutschland ? Ce crede Europa despre Germania ?

 Der bedeutendste Deutsche (cel mai important german) Goethe, Einstein, Merkel, Luther, Bach

 Das beste Buch (cea mai bunã carte ) Faust, Blechtrommel, Grimms Märchen, Die Budenbrooks,

Der beste deutsche Film (cel mai bun film) Das Leben der Anderen, Goodbye Lenin, Der Himmel über Berlin, Der Untergang

Das bedeutendste deutsche Bauwerk (construcţie) Brandenburger Tor, Kölner Dom, Schloss Neuschwanstein, Berliner Mauer.

Bekannte Banaterschwaben / Şvabi bãnãţeni celebri și actor r o t ã t o n üller - î m s s i e W J.

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Exams - Stress or Release? For better or worse, life makes us face same obstacles. At a national level one of the teenagers’ problems consists of passing the exams, which will probably help them in future. These tests are very important and that’s why our heart beats increases only at the sound of the word “exam”. Most young people in our school and maybe in our town too, chose to study even in the day of the exam so they can be sure they’ll take it. What they don’t know is that such choice won’t serve any good it will only make them doubt of their qualities and the nervousness will go higher than they were. I have nothing against studying, but we should also take time to put our thoughts in order. If you trust yourself there will be more chances to take a higher mark then if you don’t. In the day of the exam and one day before, take time to relax and think about other stuff . I talk from experience and I know that will sooth your mind. Maybe some time with friends or a family film will stop you from thinking about the big day. What is more, if you want to learn fast and well, I suggest you to summarize all you have to learn and write it on some papers. So the information is easily remembered and more accessible. However , some of us prefer to learn everything in the eve of the exam but I suggest you shouldn’t make the same mistake .It is impossible to learn everything in one day and what you thought you learned you’ll certainly forget. Give yourself a chance to take a good mark and be perseverant. Clearly, there are as many methods of learning as many children. My advice is to use the one that fits you better and the success is guaranteed.

Tioman Island- a Wild Heaven For the better, the world is becoming a truly adventurer. Every day increases the wish of traveling and the desire of discovering new and mysterious places. If you like to explore and admire the beauty of the nature you can’t miss the chance to visit Tioman Island. It is a top class island for young people because it is classified as an unusual holiday destination. Tioman Island is a small island located 32 km off the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. The journey to this island becomes more beautiful as you feel part of the nature. No matter what remote place you came from, it is quite easy to get to this wild haven. A charter to Malaysia is the first step to get there. A boat will then take you in a wonderful but amazing boat trip. The island has eight main villages and several beaches with clear crystal water. Located in the state of Pahang , Tioman is a great holiday destination for the young. Thanks to the numerous coral reefs it is a popular scuba diving spot. But not only scuba diving made this place that special. The southern mountains offer a spectacular view of the whole archipelago. If you want to go deep you can penetrate the island’s mysterious jungle. Your inside adventurer will be pleased. Clearly, Tioman Island is a wild haven for what young people would be pleased to die. Adina Borobar, a X-a B, Liceul Teoretic “Grigore Moisil” 26


Membrii comisiei de limbi moderne

   

               

prof. Faur Ramona prof. Sima Remina prof. Rusu Vladimir prof. Indreica Cristina

Elevi colaboratori Lucian Curcuţã, a XII-a A Pop Teodora a XI-a F Serediuc Denisa, a XI-a F Stan Georgiana, a XI-a F Nãdrag Claudiu, a IX-a E Sîrbu Oana, a IX-a F Frahler Lavinia, a IX-a F Petrea Andreea, a IX-a F Izgãrian Bianca, a IX-a F Gruici Cosmin, XII-a A Humailo Patrick , a XI-aA Groze Daniela, a XII-a E Cãrãuşu Ciprian, a XI-a C Anca Sergiu, a XI-a C Quadri Nicole, a IX-a E Adina Borobar, a X-a B

Profesor coordonator prof. Indreica Cristina

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Parole meaning Literatur