Page 1

Connecting fragments

Researching and thinking about future development in Arna




Development of Bergen for the past 50 years has largely been provincial. An extremely transport-demanding structure has grown. An infrastructure has been built that provides a regional way of life where work is scattered throughout a large area. The constant attempts to deal with transport in this decentralized structure testify that it requires large public effort to maintain it; it is not a development that has taken place by itself, it is a structure that has been actively cultivated.

of the residences are located here.

“Since the middle ages, Bergen’s population has tripled up for every hundred years. Continuing this trend, we will in 2108 be good and well a million inhabitants in Bergen. How do we build a community that can read just them zselves and meet such an increase? “

The only thing one can say with reasonable certainty about the future is that energy questions are going to dominate the shaping of our societies. In about a hundred years the world’s oil production is reduced to a tenth of what it is today. Norway’s oil production will probably end a long time before that. The immediate concern will be; What should we in live from in Bergen in the future? But harder than to readjust the business world will be the transformation of settlement patterns. In Bergen, it is necessary with a dramatic change in relation to the provincial development that we have had, and still actively continue to pursue. It must, with the background of a need for new and higher level of density in the urbanization, be worked out concrete plans as to how densifying of central areas should take place.

Bergen is emerging today as an extremely transport-demanding structure and is the subject of a huge daily regional commuting of people.

A typical family living in the suburb spends about 100 working days per year in the car to get to and from work and leisure activities. The area needed for a family with two cars is 100 m2 parking space at home and at work. This is about as large as an average residence. And then the area demanded from the infrastructure is not taken into consideration.

densifying. But currently, one has no opinion about how this could happen. that have taken place over the past 50 years and the density that is now needed. With this as the backdrop, BAS wants to emphasize density in Bergen on the agenda for our master course. municipality and the city a valuable study around the city’s most important and yet unexplored problem.

To ensure that future plan processes can deal with environmental challenges and frequent changes in societal structures, new alliances and tools must be taken into use. A dynamic planning that goes across professional distinctions and different spheres of interest, and which to a subject that is needed in order to reach the socially responsible solutions. undergoing changes. But this is a landscape that we need to start to get accustomed to.




INTRODUCTION orientation, where is the center? Where to meet? The best answer is the tarmac paved beach clad with a shopping mall. scape of Arna who have a widespread settlement in a valley by the size of the Bergen valley. Being is the least populated. As a suburb to Bergen, Arna has been through a wide arrange of development the last 100 years, from a rural farm base landscape, to a more suburban, yet rural, with more urban elements like a nation wide train line, a shopping mall and various industrial containers, all of it mainly connected by car roads. So Arna lingers in ambiguity, not being quite sure what it is and what to become. The development policy the last 50 years has been more or less open, and single home residents with large gardens like the american suburb, is dominating the overall impression of Arnas built structures. In addition both the european road and the railway towards Oslo is penetrating the valley across. Connecting fragments of Arna, is a collection of work investigating on a broader scale some essential features of Arna. Landscape qualities, housing clustering and typologies, investigations in history and make visual the mountain contours constituting arnian space. How this body emerges as the beholder of the arnaian drama. It is between these walls, the running water, the forests the ongoing play of Arna is acting out. What characterizes this play AD 2012? Arna has changed. And will change again. human opportunity to experience landscape fundamentals. Traveling fast and through Arna, leaves no reason to stop here. Why should one stop in Arna? Not very many things make it worth spending What Arna needs is an architectural reason to stop, an invitation to the stranger, pleasing him to stay, to see and experience some of the beautiful aspects of this place. These qualities quickly vanishes when structures notoriously is placed on the landscape body. Architecture can enhance or degrade a landscape. The notion of a fragmented architecture in Arna today, and the lack of consideration for a potentially beautiful landscape, gives Arna an atopia, a sense of non-place. Where Bergen has clearly managed to preserve a more clear sense of place, the development in Arna the last 120 years, shows a transformation from a place with a very clear architecture


car road to front door. The gardens are reservoirs for private self-indulgence, closing architecture, establishing a harsh built environment saying this is mine, only mine. The mineness is harsh because it hinders free movement, especially across the landscape, where bonds of properties close access from the valley bottom to the mountain sides. Today Arna depends on Bergen, but, historically Arna has had an identity different that of the bergensis. The arnaian identity is more linked to that of the inner fjords. To bergensis they were strils, that is, not a member of the urban community of the city. To this day this notion continues to work. Arna is Densifying Arna should then be done with consideration of these aspects. Learning from history could not be more valid than in this situation. Where did Arna go wrong? How can we work with Arna, making it attractive again, as a place one would wish to see, visit, move to, whether or not population a notion of Arna, in which Arna again is begun to be seen as the beautiful place it has the potential to be. This student work has been a part of the master course “Think Tank Bergen” at Bergen School of S333 architects. Additional teachers has been Thomas Wiesner (DAV - “The Other World”), Harald of the course is as stated above in the introductory note by Sixten Rahlff. This collection of research Helle and Henning Wenaas Ribe.


Chapter 1 A mapping of Arnas landscape features




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The contour of Arna This is a collection of 300 sections, stretching from the northern sea front of Arna, through the centrum and all the way back to the souther side of the Arna valley. The idea is to map the high diversity of the shape of the valley.




Arna: Generic landscape

Arna Centrum Indre Arna S

A mapping of Arnas light pattern.


N 60








Winter noon

Indre Arna



Summer noon

Indre Arna



Arna: A light year A mapping of Arnas light pattern.



Indre Arna 74


Stor elva 76


Indre Arna Haukelandsvatnet 78


1 3 4

The Arna valley corridor 1.The southwest corridor leads down to Nestun. 2. The northeast corridor leads to Trengereid. 3. The northwest corridor leads to Borgo.


These valley corridors and the topography have created a wide variety of landscape characters. 80 80


In the south the Arna valley connects to the larger Bergen valley, in north to Sørfjord Arna




teaching language in primary schools. As the map shows Arna differs drastically from the other districts in the Bergen municipality, almost half of the children in Arna are educated in nynorsk


Newspaper status: regional Inhabitants in the covered area: 600000. Subscribers: 82000


Newspaper status: regional Inhabitants in the covered area: 20000. Subscribers: 9300

VAKSDALSPOSTEN Lindås Øygarden Meland 72% 84% 78% 43% Askøy 0% Fjell 53% Sund 88%

Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 4500 Subscribers: 2300


100% Nynorsk

Bergen ARNA 42% 2,8%

Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 20000 Subscribers: 4600


Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 40000 Subscribers: 2300

Os 84%


Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 32800 Subscribers: 6000


SYDVESTEN Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 68000 Subscribers: 1800


Newspaper status: local Inhabitants in the covered area: 60000 Subscribers: 4600

BERGENSAVISEN Newspaper status: regional Inhabitants in the covered area: 263000 Subscribers: 22452

resterande skulekretsane i kommunen. 84

Bergens Tidende is the biggest newspaper in western Norway, and covers the countys Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane. Hordaland county have over 19 local papers, which Arnabuaren også svært interresert i kvaasom i Sørfprinted ineg small numbers, but also have greatskjer number of subscribers. Compared to t jordsregionen. Lokalavisa Bygdanytt, som har Arna og Osterøy other districts in the municipality of Bergen, a lot of people in Arna read their local pap som sitt dekningsområde vert halde av ein fjerdedel av innbygon this basiserone could høgt claimtal thatsamenlikna the inhabitants a strong local identity. garane. Dette eit svært med have dei andre lokalavisene i Bergen kommune. 85

Sogn og Fjordane Nord Noreg Island, Shetland Færøyene

Voss Nordsjøen

Nordhordaland Dale


Bruvik Haus

HISTORISK Arna ligg langs sørfjorden. Denne fjorden er ein del av eit fjordnett som knyttar handelsstaden Bergen til dei omkringliggande bygdene, frå øyene i vest



Sørfjord regionen

til Arnabuaren. Fjorden var hovedkommuni kasjonsåre heilt frå dei fyrste folka busette seg langs den, og langs fjorden møtte arnabuaren sine naboar i kyrkja og på tingstaden, dreiv handel og fann seg ein ektemake. Haus var ting- og kyrkjestad for Sørfjordgrendene, seinare kom det også kyrkje i Bruvik








1879 Dale Fabrikker

Haus, Osterøy. Politisk og religiøst sentrum i Sørfjorden Ytre Arna.fabrikker (1846 -1956) (P. Jebsen). frå mellomalderen til 1964.

1859 Salhus Tricotagefabrik.

1872 Vaksdal mølle

1859 Salhus Tricotagefabrik

Salhus 1872 Vaksdal mølle



1846 Arne Fabrikker

Ytre Arna

Haus 1895 Trengereid fabrikker


1879 Dale fabrikker (P. Jebsen).

1864 D/S Arne. Fyrste dampskip til Arna. (P. Jebsen).

1895 Trengereid fabrikker (J. Jebsen)

1870 “Den Norske Amerikalinjen” (P. Jebsen mf).

Labor Waterfalls Cotton (USA)

1864 Steamboat Bergen - Arna - Bolstad 1872 Steamboat Bergen - New York

Bergen New York

1883 Bergen - Voss railroad

1895 Espelandfos Spinderi & Tricotagefabrik





På 1800-talet kom det store endringar i liva til folka langs Sørfjorden. Ein eksplosiv vekst i folketalet føra til stor utvandring til USA. Men utlandske lykkejegarar kom også til Noreg, lokka av store fossar som kunne temmast til energi. På 50 år vart hovudnæringa for Sørfjordingen endra frå jordbruk til industri, og kommunikasjonen gjekk frå robåt til dampbåt og tog.

Dei nye industristadane endra samfunnet på mange vis. I Arna vaks det fram eit nytt sentrum i Ytre Arna, og snart overtok det mange av dei gamle samfunnfunksjonane ein tidlegare fann i Haus. Haus herad opphøyra i 1964.


89 1895 Espelandfos Spinderi & Tricotagefabrik

Peter Jebsen. Flytta til Noreg frå Slesvig (Denmark/Tyskland) i 1843

1883 Vossebanen opnar (Bergen - Voss)

Chapter 2 Arnas built structures The past, the present



Where is Arna? If Arna is seen as a consistent body, does it consist of two places? The destinct and varied landscape of the Arna valley has played an important part of spatial layout that we see in Arna today. Housing, central commercial hub(shopping mall), industry, farming and infrastructure(collectiv or none collective transport) are also some of the important spatial indicators or definers in the landscape. Telling what is central and what is peripheral.

Ytre Arna

Today what is considered as “the Centrum” in Arna is “Indre Arna”, because of its geographical position, it has a railway station connecting arna to the region and the continent, a sea line making Arna physical member of a larger and older infrastucture, and it has a commercial alternativ(Shopping mall) for the local inhabitants.

Indre Arna



Arna bestür faktisk av 19 ulike og distinkte stader, kor nokon av dei er tilknytta sentrumskjerna innerst i fjorden. Andre ligg i dalsidene, langs dalbotnen, ved innsjøar, eller oppe i sidedalar. Nokre av dei har ogsü allereie etablerte smü sentrumsstrukturar, i tydinga ein lokal butikk, bensinstasjon, skule, barnehage osv.



19 places

Arna consist of 19 different places with and Arna Disse 19 stadene har ein distinkt karakter nür det gjeld korleis ein har plassert husa i landskapet, kva slags mønster dei er satt saman i, og ulike hustypologier.




mogleg, da det er bilens veier som definerer bevegelses mogligheitane.


Indre 96 Arna







Havrütunet, Osterøy

Building patterns Investigating how they build and live, in and around Arna


Borgo, Langedalen, Arna

Seimsmark, Arna

500 houses in Arna This is a collection of 300 sections, stretching from the northern sea front of Arna, through the centrum and all the way back to the souther side of the Arna valley. The idea is to map the high diversity of the shape of the valley.

































in the cities, some of the community qualities where maintained and continuated on a different but same time likely way. urban communities grew larger and far more dense than the rural communities, but preserving some of the initial rural expression. one house per family, and at the ground floor there were shops giving life to the urban fabric.

Borgo Seim



109 109

Seim 110


single housing

seim is a west facing convex formed small hill, not very steep and quite rich in terms of amount of direct sunlight. in the hillside, terrased in the landscape lies rows of houses, divided by the public communication, the car-road towards the sea there is a plateau on which several industrial sheds has managed to find space for their activity. seafront lies several boathouses squished towards the relatively steep landscape there. on the hilltop of seim is a protected forest.

industry townhouses





seafront boathouse, industry and dwelling Today the industry is occupying the sea side, creating a physical barrier between the residential area and the harbour. the living houses lies terraced with large gardens around them. most of the dwellings consist only of one singular unit; the house, but some have also added more buildings to their home, such as parking garage, tool sheds and so on. the houses are scattered in the landscape, and the only element seemingly connecting them to a form of community is the paved car roads regarding housing typology, we see approximately three different sorts; the single house, the paired houses and minor block apartment houses. they all share the sloping roofs, apart from the industrial sheds differing from this typological pattern.



Building edges landscape relation

as the roads go on natural terraces in the hillside, houses are forced either towards edges, like the housing group in the center of the picture, or like in the back; the sloping hill. houses in this area are rarely placed on flat surfaces, some even utilizing stilts to support their overhanging structures, while others rely on feeting themselves to the slope placing a solid rock wall following the curvature of the landscape.



Trying to be friends

pairs of houses forming smaller communities

as seim on a bigger scale seems to lack the sense of building with common qualities apart from the road, there are some building projects adding this into their gestalt. here is on particular project who by placing itself on the landscape edge creates a bigger space on the backside towards the road. here the entrance of the house is clearly placed towards the public side of the community, while the frontal, west facing side, has a more private character with view, sunlight and garden



Borgo 120


single housing farm

the topography of Borgo is Shaped like a Bowl, making the flat plateau here productiv for agriculture pur zpouses. The singel housing dwells close to the foot of the mountain, and the barn is placed on the flat plateau close to the agricultural field.



natural plateau 122


breaking the pattern mixed typologies

borgo is a valleyfloor approximately 100 meters above sea level. the soil here is rich on minerals, thick and good for agriculture. the farm buildings are placed towards the edges of the land, on demarcating innfield and outfields. amongst this farm settlement, here and there, lies a living house or two, not connected directly to the farming activity. but they have the quality of openness around them, and nature merging into their frontdoor.



Farm and neighbour

some people prefer the farmscape without being farmers the modern farm overall consist of two large buildings, the living house and the barn. also more functional buildings like a plant house, parking garage and big barrel for storing animal urine comes into play with the landscape. like this example from borgo, the placing of the living house and the barn creates a space in between that seems to be the social outdoor space, a place to see and be seen. neighbouring is a single house dwelling with a parking garage and playhouse for children. this area has even lower density than seim in indre arna.



Family farming

new generation need new house when the farming family elders retire, its normal to give the main house to the children overtaking the farm. often the elders build a new house close to the farm houses. this allows them to remain in contact with the farm and their family. three or even four generations of people can live together in a small community



Typical house

saddle roof and utspring the typical farm house in borgo(and in a wider sense arna), is the saddle-roofed double-windowed house. covered with laying wooden panels, and umbrellaed with shingles or flat stones. often added multiple times, and with a cellar. normally you enter the main floor directly from the landscape, like in the back of this house, and many also have basement access from the front.



? Segregating communities

From living in a community to living individually to gathering again 132


Common ground

how they lived and build before national politics dictated change havr책tunet in its constitution shows us a way of building a smaller community that takes into consideration the landscape and tis qualities. the center of the village is public domain, while the private properties are the growable fields outside. in one perspective it shows the importance of having common social ground and access to nature outside.



Common ground

dividing and sharing natural resources In this period of time everybody relied heavily on the natural resources outside their door. Therefore there was an incentiv to live in a smaller community where on could benefit from eachothers resources and help one another.



Split and rule

where did the common ground go? socially pointilized. due to the industrialization of the agriculture and national tax politics of the 19th century, the traditional farming communities where split up, and farm housing scattered around the landscape centralizing the farm house in the center of their properties what got lost in the process was the communal living. the new common grond was the roads at the property boundaries. then the pickup points for milk became important social meeting points



Alone together or together alone? Single farms Tun

Single housing

Governmental ruled planning, taking into consideration national interests

Non-governmental way of organizing community Contemporary arnaian building culture, forgot how to make community



Chapter 3 Sustainability essay




Landscape, food, solarconditions, transport, work. ABSTRACT : This sustainability essay is about how do densfiy in a more sustainable way. Our main focus has been how to place settlements according sun and light conditions. Secondary we have looked into the issue of transport. The challenge with transport is about going to school and work. As a concequence of this, our third issue has been about the relationship between work and home. Transport is also about what we consume, so transport is also about food-production. In this project we are seeking a way to deal with these questions with an ecological approach.




What makes a sustainable community? As far back in time as we know, humans have lived in societies; larger or smaller communities with certain rules or regulating natural, political and social conditions. The question has always been about the qualities of the community that we at present time inhabit. How do we build and live with or against the environment. Architecturally seen, community inevitably discloses itself on landscape, that is, our current culture unfolds its values on the landscape with buildings, roads, treatment of private and common buildings, positioning in the landscape, hierarchies, monumental forming, sharing or robbing of natural resources. The ever recurring question is how these values are managed and concreticized in the landscape. Since these values are constantly changing, what are the present conditions, and what is sustainable today? These are complex questions, and not necessarily ment to be answered directly by architects, but bearing this in mind, how do we prepare our architecture for future conditions, for a time when oil runs out, when cars and personal transportation might become history? When food once again need be grown locally. When water and electrical energy need be shared globally? We must prepare our communities for poorer economical conditions. What matters then? Havr책tunet was a sustainable, self-reliant community, a holistic ecological constitution where the landscape surrounding them supported their way of living. Travel was difficult, so food had to be grown or catched locally. Knowledge of local climate made them arranging the housing in a certain practical way; by clustering the buildings they sheltered the living core against cooling winds and rough climate, saving heating expenses. Knowing that 20th century mobility is the main source of climate change, how can we introduce modern sustainable communities, but with high mobility? 146


har derimot mindre utslipp knyttet til sin produksjon enn importerte varer. (faktaark om klimagassutslipp fra forbruk side 3, http://www.framtiden.

of the land considered productive land. This land is precious, and should be saved for further generations. The norwegian consumption is high. If klimagassutslipp-fra-forbruk.html). every person on earth would consume the same amount of stuff as norwekomlekst regnestykke. Fisk fanget i Oppsummert kan vi påstå at matvareNorske- og Barentshavet fryses på produksjon i norge er bærekraftig om cording to a WWF report, Cuba is the feltet for så å bli transportert rundt halve kloden til Kina. Her tines fisken, det dyrkes i sessong, og om produk- only country in the world that can be - called sustainable and at the same fileteres og fryses igjen til panerte, frosne fiskepinner med svært lave ar- bruksland i nærmiljøet er dermed en time achieve a high level of well-being. On the Human development index beidslønninger. Så bærer det til sjøs miljømessig verdi. (HDI) Cuba igjen og ny lang seilas før produkThe earth does not have much proscores 0,81, and it has a ecologitene finner veien til frysediskene i den vestlige verdens supermarkeder person. Havana, Cuba, is a world ( ARNA FARMING COOPERATIVE leader in urban agriculture. In 1995

food and agriculture

Farm 1

Farm 2

Farm 3

Farm 4

Slik gjør man at miljøregnskapet til et i utgangspunktet bærekraftig produkt gassdrevet drivhus i danmark , er derimot mindre bærekraftig en en agurk frilandsdyrket i Spania og transportert til Norge (faktaark om klimagassutslipp fra forbruk side 3, http:// faktaark/klima/klimagassutslipp-fraforbruk.html). Grønnsaker som Isbergssalat, kål, kålrot og purre dyrket i sessongen 148







Events Market day Dugnad


Farm 5

parcels throughout the Havanna urban districts. Fishing

bor - local agriculture use organic waste from the new planned community

Strategy: -The farmland in Arna should be used for producing food for the local marked. -The fjord should be used for local fishing. -Imported food shuld be importet by boat. Arna has excellent conditions for the establishment of an international har-

Building according to local climatical conditions

Solar radiation is the basis for all heating on the planet. Since Arna is a relatively narrow and steep valley, the local sun qualities are very varied based on local topography. As the climate of the Bergen region has more than 300 days a year with rain or mostly clouded, the qualities of the sun; the warmth, the light, is highly appreciated. As the valley in wintertime has a natural cold wind draft from the mountains, the cold air on wind still days tend to produce very cold areas in the center of the valley, building higher up on the mountain sides, where the temperatures typically would be some degrees higher, could reduce the energy consumption needed to heat buildings. Strategy: - Reduce residential building in areas of the site that has not got good morning or evening sun qualities. spread sun on ground - Industry and other low sun demanding functions can build on shadower grounds, like river floor - Building on Storenuvarden, reduces the energy need for heating on cold winter days.

transportation, communication, car, rail, bike, walk The private car gives the individual personal freedom to go almost wherever it want’s. This freedom has it’s price. The infrastructure needed often destroyes the natural landscape, separates animals and plants from their natural habitat, and have a negative effect on ground water flow. Cars pollutes the envirorment. In Norway, about 30 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, 85 percent of noise polNOx emissions comes from transport. (transportøkonomisk instetutt: https:// Arna was planned for private cars. On use their car to go to Bergen, only 9000 use the train. Global oil production has reached its peak. In the future oil will therefore be more expensive, 149

which will increase the costs of transportation. Cars could in the future run on green energy such as hydrogen or eletric power from sustainable sources, but we still have the challenge of building roads and parking space, wich has a big impact on the local

should we simply plan for a community that is less depending on cars? Strategy: - Connect Storenuvarden to existing workspaces and shops - Re-opening the local railroad. Storenuvarden to the railroad - Connect Storenuvarden to municipality bike roads

have its economic costs. Should we in the future plan for every family to own 1-2 private cars, or taxi rank for Storenuvarden. ARNA RAILROAD NETWORK - driving into the area should be reduced to the absolute minimum -Valestrandsfossen -Breistein



Ytre Arna





- Ytre Arna - Votlo - Haus - Valestrandsfossen - Breivik

Leirvika Seimsmark

Garnes Tunes

Indre Arna


Leirvika -Voss -Oslo







The old railroadline is connected to the new line at Takvam in the east. If it also was connected at Arna station we would have a flexible network of lines through the Arna Valley. Some of the old stations may be retained, while new ones should be located in densely populated areas. The circle around the proposed station areas show a radius of 500 meters distance. Eight stations could cover a large part of the settlement areas, and also cover new development. Ytre Arna, Haus, Votlo, Breistein and Valestrandsfossen could be connected to the railroad by highspeed passanger ferry


time travelling. A home office conin a conventional glass tower, mainly becouse the worker does not need to travel to work. In planing, rather than worrying abaout the creation of

work, industries, economy Income


- Bergen


This could have a positive impact on the global environment. Reduced working hours could also give people more leisure time to spend with family and friends in the community, or to cultivate hobbies and interests. So when we work, where should we work? Transportation is a huge source of pollution. Why not work where you live? If people did their work in a walking distance from their home, there would be less use of energy and less pollution.


and consumption are intertwined. The higher the income the higher the consumption. Norwegians are globaly on top in both areas, and as a consequence we are very active in a collective over-consumption of

claim that If people worked less, they would earn less and consume less.



low energy commercial buildings, we should be cocerned about the pattern of work and where we do it. In Arna production is placed by the fjord and river, and could easily be connected to where people live by foot and bike. When this is not possible there should be exellent collectiv connections between homes and workspaces. The industri in Arna should in the future focus on products that could be consumed locally, and products that have environmental benefits of being produced in Arna. Strategi: -Further development in arna should be connected to workspaces by foot and bike -Land should be saved for further industrial production in the future.

ARNA Norway has committed itself trough international agreements to change its community planning to a more sustainable society. Sustainability is the foundation for future urban planning. In Arna we have found that Storenuvarden is the best spot for a future development of a sustainable urban growth.

-It borders the agricultural area Langedalen, where food could be grown -It also borders the industrial sites down in the Arna valley. There are space here for further development of workspaces

-Storenuvarden is placed in a landscape with a lot of high natural quality. The location of the plot makes it a natural link be-The site Storenuvarden have a low biological diversity, and connsist main- tween different recreation areas, like the mountains, the ly of rock fjord, river, lakes, cultivated land and ground and marsh. outfields. -It’s is easily connectable to the local rail network, witch have a potentional for further development.


Leisure 151

What makes a community? Side study of neighbouring town, Dale.



What makes a community? Dale, Hordaland; fr책 gardstun til industritettstad 154


Gato, samanbindane

Dales gate har ein samlande funksjon som handels og møteplass. 156


Kva er eit samfunn samansett av? Our conclution is that the basic for a rich local urban community is the connection between different scales. The lines connecting macro scale buildings is an invitation for others to add programs. This line with it’s programs have a great potential for high quality public spaces and meeting points.





Macro Meso




The traditional city and town is there something to be learnt from history? WHAT


LĂŠon Krier (born 1946) is an architect, architectural theorist and urban planner from Luxembourg. Krier has been highly critical of modernist urban planning, and its division of the city into various zones for residential, commercial, industrial and leisure programs. Krier has been a strong motivator for the New urbanism movement that emerged towards the end of the 1980s, and they ar both negative to the suburb and its commuting. Krier suggest as an alternative a continuation of the traditional European city, based on a human scale, where neighborhoods are limited by the walkable distance between them (10 min), and he argues that the neighborhoods should have a mixed program for everyday needs.

The public buildings

The private buildings

The urban city



Chapter 5 The desire to plan a suburban paradise in Arna



The Arna railroad 2012

penetrating and dividing the valley, connecting Arna to Bergen and Oslo



Storenuvarden Arnas 20th place?


Arna station

Proposed connections Arnatveit station



Arnas new hillside community The south view from stornuvarden 168


The area around the hill Storenuvarden have very good sun conditions. and are not far from the railway station. We have investigated the possibility of a major development in this area, which potentially could house several thousand people. Such a large development should include different housing typologies and housing for different social groups.

A network of walk and bikeing paths links the area together, and connecs it to the surroundings. Key intersections have a potential to develop into meeting places for the residents, with various public and commercial programs.

Arna river


Collage showing the hillside residential area and indre Arna in the low horizon

Collage showing the main street to the trainstation

1. smaller houses, one to two storeys high

2. Larger blocks, one to four storeys high

Smaller paths between the houses provides closeness to nature 170

Nature of great beauty are preserved as landscape parks

A network of trails connecs Storenuvarden to the surrounding areas 171

Wait a minute?



We must make Arna more inclusive, not more fragmented 174

Diagram by L. Krier 175

Fragmented suburb General programs of arna today

Arna is not a urban city. In arna all the public buildings and programs are scattered to travel, by car. 176


Connecting fragments of Arna



The Arna railroad 1951 Travelling along the landscape

The rail line is dancing with the landscape. Following its motion and turns, ups and downs. In this manner, the line is humble to the landscape it rests in.



Running the old railway As a part of investigating the old railroad, we walked 10km along it, from Haukeland south in the valley, to Garnes at the tip of Arna.





Railing arna

high speed rail, slow speed walk


The public buildings


The private buildings

The ligthrail

The common ground

The suburb of the pedestrian


Fast along // slow across

The Suburb Of The pedestrian

integrating two new suburban layers in arna Connecting future infrastructure with placemaking New demographic estimates predict that the population in the Bergen region will increase. This also demands for more energy, infrastructure and transportation. The need for a sustainable strategy defining a more efficient and less energy demanding infrastructure that supports commuting between home and work, according to UN CliSuburban development of Arna was built on the freedom of personal transportation, and was highly interesting until knowledge showing the impact of carbon dioxide on the atmosphere.

The Railway Re-opening the old railway between Tunes and Nesttun creates a vital possibility of connecting the valley of Arna to the economies of Bergen South, Flesland area, and symmetrically the industries of Arna is connected to potential labour inhabiting Bergen South. The most sustainable way of thinking transportation in future perspectives, is phasing out transport built on oil to renewable energy sources such as hydropower, reduces the impact of climatical gases on the environment, and builds a more sustainable way of living and commuting between home and work. New stops along this line gives the advantage of densifying within walking distance from these, creating new interesting points for commerce, social and cultural activities.

the slow connection, walking, can walk more easily across, up and down, and is far more flexible. the human can climb the valley across.

a 5-10 min walk to your local stop makes the bigger arna and bergen accessible with a fast moving connection along the valley floor.

The Water Connection

future densification should happen around these spots in arna

The Arna river is a regional attraction, having the staus as the only salmone river in Bergen, makes the river an important asset for Arna since it can be used by other intusiasts from the region, and not only by the locals(it is a a kind of macro social meeting point).

as a barrier, dividing the west side and the east side of the valley. The river stretches from the Haukeland means thinking and planning the city lake in the south and all the way down more efficiently in terms of personal to Arna Ă˜yrane torg in the north. It is transportation. The age of the suburb is also an important biotop corridor for New movement, old connection coming to an end, and one have animal migration(birds, deer, insects. to glean backwards in time to find how etc). they built communities when possibili- A high speed connection has a more By the locals some acsessible parts ties of transportation where lower than closed line. it needs to follow the land- of the river in the north end is used for scape. therefore this railline lies along recrational purpouses, but it is difficult now. the valley. 188

the haukelands water and all the way along the train track to The Intention Using the water(the river and fjord) and the re-opened train track as an element for future planning in Arna: a strategy for exsisting and future development of the arna valley: the rail roade as a new infrastructural alternativ for cars and as a pointified developer around the tram

stops all way through valley....and the water as a vital and recreational elemenet that can be connected to exsisting and new potential activities (commerce,industry, housing.


Connecting fragments of Arna Linear suburb

Arna is not a urban city. In arna all the public buildings and programs are scattered throughout the whole valley. you can not fulfill your daily life in one place, but bound to travel, by car. Introducing a rail, stopping at these places re-connects Arna in a new, more sustainable way, bringing activity to the more remote locations of the valley, but also connecting to Bergen south. 190


Chapter 7



SEIMSMARK STASJON Seimsmark er ein av dei mest fortetta grendene i Arna i dag. Her er det gode solforhold og kort avstand til fjord og fjell. Kommunikasjonen i dag er bilbasert, med forbindingar på langs av dalsida. Kva om kontakten gar for gåande? Nye møtestadar ville oppstå, og tilgangen til bybanen ville blitt forenkla. Langs allmennibgane ville det vera potensiale for fortetting. Storaneset industriområde langs fjorden kunne blitt eit nytt urbant sentrum for området, med større bygningsmasse i ein kvadraturstruktur. Langs dalsidene kan tomtene utnyttast betre og ein kunne få plass til mange eienebustader og rekkjehus.


Seimsmark i dag. Bustader i dalsida, industri langs fjorden.


Bustadsområdet ved den foreslåtte seimsmark stasjon i dag, prega av spredd busettnad i form av einebustader og rekkjehus. Markert på biletet ser ein bustader for 29 familiar.

Skråfoto av dagens situasjon


Referanse: Havråtunet

Seimsmark i framtida? Grunneigarane kan tjena gode pengar på å byggja ut for neste generasjon i dei store hagane sine. Samstundes kan ein skapa nye klimaskjerma uteplassar for privatliv og fellesskap. Nye stiar og allmenningar mellom husa gjev stor fridom til å bevega seg i terrenget slik ein sjølv ynskjer. Illustrasjonen synar bustader for omkring 100 familiar samt nye næringlokaler.

1. Nye stiar og allmenningar 2. Ny stasjon og bustader

3. Nye vegar å gå

4. Nye møtestader


Arnatveit Station

Seimsmark er ein av dei mest fortetta grendene i Arna i dag. Her er det gode solforhold og kort avstand til fjord og fjell. Kommunikasjonen i dag er bilbasert, med forbindingar p책 langs av dalsida. Kva om kontakten mellom fjord oppst책, og tilgangen til bybanen ville blitt forenkla. Langs allmennibgane



The site seen from the south The plan shows a train platform and different pathways stretching out and connecting local program and nature qualities. The river junction were the Arnatveitriver meets the Arnariver is now more accsesible and gives the opportunity to explore the local river channel and watch the seasonal spec-

Site seen from the north

typology. Today Arnatveit has a small centrum consisting of a few convenience store and the toro factory on the otherside of the Arnariver. Local institutions consist of one kindergarden and a primary School. Arnatveit is also on the treshold to the local rrecreational trails and the Arnariver as a nature experience and salmon fishing. Intention: The stop will connect the industry(toro)and the small centrum and bring a new collectiv alternative to the dominated car driven condition, and to make the nature qualities(The Arnariver) more accessible with new pathways from the stop. residential area, industry and small centrum)


Qualities to incorporate(local riverjunction and recreational area)

Walking distances from stop(circle: 2,5min and 5min)

Sketch connection/direction diagram


Espeland Station Seimsmark er ein av dei mest fortetta grendene i Arna i dag. Her er det gode solforhold og kort avstand til fjord og fjell. Kommunikasjonen i dag er bilbasert, med forbindingar på langs av dalsida. Kva om kontakten gar for gåande? Nye møtestadar ville oppstå, og tilgangen til bybanen ville blitt forenkla. Langs allmennibgane



- Strengthening local centers troughout Arna valley. - Intensifying activity around new stops/stations. - New effective pedestrian connections connecting local community to new stops. around local landscape qualities.

- Connecting residential areas to new stops with pedestrian paths - Developing mixed programming volumetrics - Accentuating river and landscape qualities, strengthening

The high speed road and railway is running along the valley floor, intersecting close to the factory. Residential areas is more or less connected to the factory plausible and sustainable alternative, considering future increase in population and transition to renewable energy transportation, e.g. the train. As the factory already introduced an urban structure, the possibility for developing this into a place with higher activity is possible. Conditionally, what is needed is more of that urban fabric, it is bigger higher volumes allowing for mixed programming, meaning living and working.



Chapter 8 Lessons learned about Arna



I jordbrukstida f¯ørte dette til spreidd busetting, folk busette seg ved den jorda dei dyrka, ofte til

over 12 prosent. sosiale livet og samarbeidesfellesskapet klyngegardane representerte.

ein stor del av den framtidige folkeauken i Bergensregionen.

denne seg saman med den tradisjonelle bondekulturen.

Arnas vegval

inspirert av forstadsutviklinga i USA. I byens omland, som til d¯mes Arna, kunne folk kj¯pa seg billig tomteland til oppf¯ring av private einebustader, og med bilen sin kunne dei k¯yra omkring nesten kvar dei ville. Staten st¯tta og subsidierte utviklinga med Husbanken og Statens vegvesen som dei viktigaste akt¯rane.


er begrensa. Stor befolkningsvekst etter denne strategien vil difor kreva at ein byggjer h¯gare og tettaren enn det som er vanleg i Arna.

bilbruk har fjerna mange av dei mogelege m¯testadane i desse tettare nabolaga. kven skal ein eventuellt byggja for?

I Arna gjev dem spreidde busetningsm¯nsteret har skapt utfordringar for dagens byplanleggjarar. Det er lite -



Indre Arna 210


Connecting fragments of Arna  

Research and thinking about future development of Arna, Hordaland, Norway

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