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Nongqai Vol 9 No 1 Contents THE GATE OF THE YEAR .............................................................................................................. 6 EGIPTE | EGYPT: NUWE JAAR 1942 NEW YEAR: ........................................................................ 9 PUBLISHER / UITGEWER .............................................................................................................. 9 AIM / DOEL ...................................................................................................................................... 9 POLICY / BELEID .......................................................................................................................... 10 ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS ............................................................................................. 10 WELCOME / WELKOM ................................................................................................................. 10 VOORBLAD / FRONT PAGE ......................................................................................................... 11 VIETNAM: AMERIKAANSE BETROKKENHEID IN SUID-OOS ASIË ........................................... 11 1955 - 1975 Viëtnamoorlog..................................................................................................... 12 Jim Hooper besoek Koevoet ................................................................................................... 15 This is Jim Hooper .................................................................................................................. 15 MAIN STORY BY JIM HOOPER.................................................................................................... 17 A HUNDRED FEET OVER HELL .................................................................................................. 18 2


Doc Clement – Catkiller 18 ..................................................................................................... 18 Charles Finch – Catkiller 19 .................................................................................................... 23 Catkiller Down ......................................................................................................................... 24 Night Mission .......................................................................................................................... 28 Photos..................................................................................................................................... 31 SAP: GESKIEDENIS | HISTORY ................................................................................................... 39 SAP: Motorfiets-opleiding: Nico Moolman............................................................................... 39 ‘n Bestuurderslisensie vir Motorfiets en syspan: Maj. JJ van Rooyen ..................................... 43 Majoor Dudley Wattrus: ‘n Legende van die Transkei: Lucas Holtzhausen ............................ 44 Police History: Sub Rosa ........................................................................................................ 44 The Leibbrandt Trap: Mr Harry Lawrence: Sunday Times: 1 April 1973 ................................. 46 Iets oor die polisie van Newcastle, KZ-Natal: Nico Moolman .................................................. 53 Natal Border Police: HBH ....................................................................................................... 57 1879: Newcastle Mounted Rifles: Nico Moolman .................................................................... 61 Genl.-Maj. JG Dartnell: Stigter Natal Mounted Police: Nico Moolman .................................... 62 Die SAP in die jare dertig: Nico Moolman ............................................................................... 65 1897: Claremont Poging: Gewapende Roof: Maj. Easton (Ondersoekbeampte) .................... 66 African Policeman: Morten Kriek ............................................................................................. 68 British East African Native Police ............................................................................................ 69 DIE VRYMESSELAARS IN NASIONALE VEILIGHEIDSVERBAND .............................................. 69 VOORTREKKERS, GENERALS EN PRESIDENTE WAS VRYMESSELAARS ............................ 69 ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE-OORLOG ........................................................................ 81 Sexton, Soldier, Spy, Scout. The Anglo-Boer War Adventures of Captain JJ Naudé, DTD: Compiled by M Naudé ............................................................................................................ 81 •

Pretoria: Special Mounted Police (British) ......................................................................... 82

Kapitein en Hoofd Speciale Diensten................................................................................ 82

British Army: Regimental Pet: Morten Kriek ............................................................................ 86 British Army: Anglo Boer War: Morten Kriek ........................................................................... 87 Saldanha Bay: Boers vs Royal Navy: Nico Moolman ............................................................. 89 ZARP: Johannesburg: Nico Moolman ..................................................................................... 90 Wet & Orde: Assistent-Veldkornet: Pieter Roos: Krokodilrivier: ZAR ...................................... 91 1905: TROOPING THE COLOUR: PRETORIA ............................................................................. 92 UNIE VERDEDIGINGSMAG | UNION DEFENCE FORCE ............................................................ 92 SADF: BUSH WAR | SAW BOSOORLOG ..................................................................................... 93 K-k vraag sit! Steve de Witt..................................................................................................... 93 SOUTH AFRICA: CRIME AND THE MEDIA .................................................................................. 94 Racially charged farm murders rock SA.................................................................................. 95 3


TRUE COMERADESHIP: KAMERAADSKAP EN OMGEE ........................................................... 98 A walk down memory lane: Ben Kruger (USA) on Eugene de Kock ....................................... 98 POLICE INTERNATIONAL .......................................................................................................... 100 UNITED KINGDOM ..................................................................................................................... 100 Ms. Cressida Dick: The Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police ........................... 100 Law and REC-ORDER! Scotland Yard equips 21,000 front-line officers with body-cams in the world's largest roll-out costing £10million .............................................................................. 102 AUSTRALIA: POLICE DOGS ...................................................................................................... 106 From elephant tea parties to packing rabbits for export: These fascinating photos reveal how we lived, worked and played with animals in the early 20th century ..................................... 106 INDIA: POLICE ELEPHANTS ...................................................................................................... 107 Send in the tusk force! Elephants are used by Indian police to smash illegal forest homes built on protected land .................................................................................................................. 107 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: JAILS ...................................................................................... 114 How America's toughest jail turned hookless Abu Hamza's hair white in just two years: Haggard hate preacher's only view of the world is a brick wall he views through a four-inch window in his concrete solitary confinement cell ................................................................... 114 GERMANY: NAZI JAILED............................................................................................................ 122 'Bookkeeper of Auschwitz', 96, must be jailed for his role in Nazi mass murders, court rules after lawyers argued his four-year sentence would 'violate his right to life' ........................... 122 INTERNATIONAL: 2018: NEW YEAR ......................................................................................... 125 Ring of steel around London as armed police take to the streets with dogs and vehicle barriers are erected after ISIS threaten to unleash 'New Year's Eve hell' in the capital ........ 125 LETTER BOX | BRIEWEBUS ...................................................................................................... 127 Kerswense: Brig. en mev Johan & Dalene Giliomee: Kaapse-Suidkus ................................ 128 Thesis: SAPS Chaplain Charisse le Roux ............................................................................ 128 Nuwejaarswense: Genl. Johan van der Merwe ..................................................................... 129 Magazine: “Military Despatches” 2018 .................................................................................. 129 HUMOUR ..................................................................................................................................... 129 Russian Military Academy: Deon Potgieter ........................................................................... 129 Die eerste klip: Danie Marais ................................................................................................ 130 LAST POST ................................................................................................................................. 131 LEDE OORLEDE IN 2017: ANTON M UYS ................................................................................. 131 2017: WE WILL REMEMBER THEM! | ONS SAL HULLE ALTYD ONTHOU: SALUUT .............. 134 Request | Versoek ................................................................................................................ 134 Barry Taylor (SAP – Ret): Thailand ...................................................................................... 134 Gina Truter (SAP): Springs ................................................................................................... 135 Gavin Tischendorf (SAP – ISU): Australia ............................................................................ 136 AH Vosloo: Naboomspruit..................................................................................................... 137 4


Bob Timms: Durban (SA Navy & Police)............................................................................... 137 Admiral Errol Massey-Hicks: SAN (Ret)............................................................................... 138 Col Len Els (DMI & JAG) ...................................................................................................... 138 HJ van Staden: Gauteng....................................................................................................... 139 Paul du Preez (SAP) & Dean Saunders (SAP): Hermannsburg KZN ................................... 139 Kol Marius Morland (SAP): Wes-Rand.................................................................................. 140 Lt.-kol. “Piet-Patu” van Zyl (SAP): Mpumalanga ................................................................... 140 Mnr. Ryno Human: Wes-Rand .............................................................................................. 141 Lt-Colonel (Dr) Charisse Le Roux, SAPS: Paarl ................................................................... 141 SLOT / END ................................................................................................................................. 142

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THE GATE OF THE YEAR ‘God Knows' And I said to the man who stood at the gate of the year: “Give me a light that I may tread safely into the unknown.” And he replied: “Go out into the darkness and put your hand into the Hand of God. That shall be to you better than light and safer than a known way.” So I went forth, and finding the Hand of God, trod gladly into the night. And He led me towards the hills and the breaking of day in the lone East. So, heart be still: What need our little life Our human life to know, If God hath comprehension? In all the dizzy strife Of things both high and low, God hideth His intention. God knows. His will Is best. The stretch of years Which wind ahead, so dim To our imperfect vision, Are clear to God. Our fears Are premature; In Him, All time hath full provision. Then rest: until God moves to lift the veil From our impatient eyes, When, as the sweeter features Of Life’s stern face we hail, Fair beyond all surmise God’s thought around His creatures Our mind shall fill.

"The Gate of the Year" is the popular name given to a poem by Minnie Louise Haskins. The title given to it by the author was "God Knows". She studied and then taught at the London School of Economics in the first half of the twentieth century.

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EGIPTE | EGYPT: NUWE JAAR 1942 NEW YEAR:

Oom Ben Holtzkampf, Egipte 1941, via Cobus Holtzkampf.

PUBLISHER / UITGEWER The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and the e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are his own. Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en die e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militĂŞre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is sy eie. Tel. No. 072-336-1755 E-mail: heymanshb@gmail.com

AIM / DOEL Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations. / Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar.

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POLICY / BELEID We publish the articles and stories as we receive them from our correspondents; we only correct the spelling mistakes. It's important to publish the stories in the form and context as we receive them. Policemen and defence personnel have their own language. Ons gebruik die artikels en stories soos ons dit van ons korrespondente ontvang; ons maak net die spelfoute reg. Dis belangrik om die stories te bewaar in die vorm en in die konteks soos ons dit ontvang. Lede van die veiligheidsmagte het hul eie taal en ons moet dit ook aanteken.

ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS • • • • •

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Photographs of police stations. (Please share your photographs with us.) Southern African Uniforms and badges. Police Heroes and a “Police: Who is Who”. Police Commissioners: We are preparing a booklet on the various SA Police commissioners. Should you have any photographs or anecdotes please share with us. Kommissarisse van polisie: Ons is besig om inligting van ons onderskeie polisiekommissarisse in te samel. Ons begin by kol. sir TG Truter en werk ons pad deur die geskiedenis totdat genl. JV van der Merwe die SAP oorhandig het aan nuwe nasionale kommissaris van die SAPS, genl. George Fivaz. Ons het besluit om brig. George Baston by die reeks in te sluit aangesien hy vir bykans vyf jaar as die kommissaris waargeneem het. Police History: We collect eyewitness reports from policemen about cataclysmic events in our history e.g. Cato Manor, Sharpeville, Pondoland, etc. We have large collection of digital recordings from police officers. Boipatong: Ons sal graag van lede wil hoor wat by die Boipatong-voorval betrokke was. Speurdiens: Ons kry bitter min feite verslae van speurders oor opspraakwekkende misdade. Die Waarheid- en versoeningskommissie: Ons as oudlede het baie repliek om te lewer op die WVK se duisende bladsye op die internet. Honderde lede se reputasies word aldaar geskaad en word inligting – sonder om in dit konteks te plaas – gepubliseer. Daar is selfs inligting wat glad nie waar is nie! [Adv. George Bizos het in sy eerste boek talle lede van die SA Polisie swart gesmeer. In sy tweede boek skryf hy, dit kan aanvaar word dat hy die waarheid geskryf het want niemand het ooit enige beswaar teen bewerings geopper nie.] Manne, indien ons nie op die WVK se skryfsels gaan reageer nie, gaan die nageslag dit as die evangelie aanvaar. Nie-wit lede van die polisie: Ons neem nie-wit lede van die polisiemag – as ‘n groep – onder die loep. Ons kyk na die verskillende uniforms vir Swart-, Bruin en Indiër-lede. Ons kyk na die opleiding van nie-wit lede, dis iets wat die Nasionale Party (NP) in die 1950’s begin het. Vir jare was die Swart-lid van die Mag niks anders as ‘n hulp-polisieman; deur die NP-beleid – daar is verskeie uitsprake deur adv. CR Swart - is die Swart-lede later volwaardige lede van die SAP. Onder die NP-bewind is hulle vir die eerste keer opgelei en party het selfs die rang van generaal beklee!

Onthou skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op die geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is!

WELCOME / WELKOM Hartlik welkom by hierdie negende jaar van ons bestaan. ‘n Voorspoedige Nuwe Jaar aan al ons vriende. 10


VOORBLAD / FRONT PAGE Op die voorblad verskyn ‘n foto van genl. GL Prinsloo. Kommissaris van 1975 tot 1978.

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• Hy was ‘n skoolvriend van adv. B.J. Vorster. In hul jong dae het hulle saam loseer; ampshalwe moes genl. Prinsloo die bedrywighede van sy skoolvriend en medeloseerder aan hoofkantoor rapporteer.1 • Was ‘n voormalige hoof van die veiligheidstak en die eerste veiligheidshoof van die nuwe bedeling om as kommissaris aangestel te word. Sy aanstelling het ‘n nuwe patroon daargestel en ná hom, met die uitsondering van genl. Hennie de Witt, was alle kommissarisse van die polisie veiligheidsmanne. • Die Soweto-onluste vind tydens sy dienstermyn plaas. • Hy was ‘n hoogs intelligente, maar baie onpretensieuse offisier. Hy was vriendelik maar ietwat ingetoë. Sy bynaam was “Klaasvakie” omdat dit baie gelyk het of hy aan die slaap is. Hy het dit geweet en het eenmaal gesê: “Julle dink ek slaap! Maar ek is wawyd wakker!” Hy het ‘n landbouhoewe gehad en het as stokperdjie o.a. met skape geboer. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (SAW) en Militêre Inligting het by geleentheid die polisie se veiligheidstak genooi vir voorligting. Ná die weermag se voorligting met kaarte en dies meer het hulle genl. Prinsloo gevra wat hy dink. Sy antwoord was: “Dis mooi en dis indrukwekkend. Ek wil egter nie weet waar die terroriste was nie, maar waar hulle is of sal wees!”

VIETNAM: AMERIKAANSE BETROKKENHEID IN SUID-OOS ASIË Inleiding Meeste van ons in die SAP en SAW het vandat dié oorlog begin het, tot die oorlog se einde kennis daarvan geneem. Die oorlog was deel van die sogenaamde Koue Oorlog en deel van die kommunistiese beoogde magsuitbreiding in suid-oos Asië. Nuus van dié oorlog was dikwels oor die radio uitgesaai en baie artikels oor die oorlog het in tydskrifte soos Scope verskyn. (Die ou Nogqai’s het oor die oorlog in Korea berig maar ek kan nie onthou dat daar ooit iets oor Vietnam gepubliseer was nie.) Ons het baie films oor die oorlog gesien. Onthou u nog die film “The Green Berets” met John Wayne en die verskillende liedjies van daardie era? Later het ons die oorlog op TV in ons sitkamers ervaar. Ons onthou die Amerikaanse dienspligontduikers en die hippies (”make love – not war”) wat nie wou veg nie. Ons onthou die 1968 My Lai-slagting met luit. William Calley wat aangekla is. Ons kan Jane Fonda onthou toe sy gedurende 1972 haar land se vyande in Hanoi, Noord-Vietnam besoek het. Sy was teen die oorlog gekant en is ‘Hanoi Jane’ gedoop. Die oorlog in suid-oos Asië was maar een van die oorloë wat tydens die Koue Oorlog gewoed het. Maar met ons eie oorloë in Rhodesië, SWA, Angola en op ons grense het ons baie geleer deur te kyk wat daar aangaan. Van ons eie teenstanders is in Noord-Vietnam opgelei. Ons het ook gelet op hoe die kommuniste onderhandel. Inligtingskoorstene 1

Mededeling kol. John Wagenaar.

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As student in strategiese studies het ek ‘n Kanadese generaal by die destydse Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit ontmoet. Hy was in Vietnam betrokke en het na “ons” oorlog kom kyk. Hy was die skrywer van twee boeke en het ook afskrifte daarvan vir my gegee. Hy is ook aan die destydse veiligheidshoof, genl. Johann Coetzee, voorgestel. Van die generaal het ek gehoor dat ons (SAP + SAW) volgens hom redelik goed vaar. Iets oor die Vietnam-oorlog wat hy my vertel het, was dat die Amerikaners losstaande “skoorstene” van inligting gehad het. Die leer, lugmag, vloot, mariniers, militêre inligting en die CIA het almal goeie inligting gehad maar nooit die inligting onderling uitgeruil nie. Ons het hom ook na Maleoskop geneem en gewys hoe ons lede in “Tin” oplei. Aftog geblaas Na die Russe die aftog in Afghanistan geblaas het, het hulle meer op die oorlog in Angola gefokus en Kubane en Oos-Duitsers gebruik. Hiervoor het hul uitstekende propaganda, ook die Weste, teen ons ingespan. Die afstand van Pretoria na die SWA / Angola-grens is egter baie korter as die afstand van Kuba na Angola/SWA-grens. Die oorlog was duur en om president Ronald Reagan se “Star Wars”-program te ewenaar was vir die Russe onbekostigbaar. Nie lank nie, of die USSR het finansieel geswik en op sy knieë beland. Nadat die muur in Berlyn afgebreek is, het die invloed van veral kommunisme – behalwe in China en Kuba – getaan. Ons het toe onderhandel en die VN se resolusie 435 is geïmplementeer. So het ons eie oorlog tot ‘n einde gekom. Dis al amper ‘n leeftyd gelede Om u geheue te verfris het ons hierdie kort geredigeerde artikel op Wikipedia aangehaal.

1955 - 1975 Viëtnamoorlog Die Viëtnamoorlog, ook bekend as die Tweede Indosjina-oorlog, was 'n Koue Oorlog-era volmagstryd (proxy war) wat in Viëtnam, Laos en Kambodja gewoed het. Oorlogshandelinge het op 1 November 1955 begin en op 15 Mei 1975 met 'n skietstilstand geëindig. Dié oorlog het gevolg op die Eerste Indosjina Oorlog (1946–1954) en is geveg tussen NoordViëtnam – gerugsteun deur die Sowjetunie, die Volksrepubliek China en ander kommunistiese bondgenote – en die regering van Suid-Viëtnam – gerugsteun deur die Verenigde State, die Filippyne en ander anti-kommunistiese bondgenote. Die Viëtkong (ook bekend as die Nasionale Bevrydingsfront, of kortweg NLF), 'n Suid-Viëtnamese kommunistiese gemeenskaplike front, wat deur die Noorde ondersteun was, het 'n guerrilla-oorlog teen die anti-kommuniste in die streek gevoer. Die Volksleër van Viëtnam, ook bekend as die Noord-Viëtnamese Leër (NVA) het 'n meer konvensionele oorlog gevoer waar groot eenhede op die slagveld ingestoot is. Namate die oorlog gevorder het, het die Viëtkong se rol al hoe minder geword soos die NVA al meer by gevegte betrokke geraak het. Die Amerikaners en Suid-Viëtnamese het grotendeels op lugbeheer staatgemaak met oorweldigende slaankrag vir soek- en opspoor-operasies. Hiervoor is grondmagte, artillerie en lugaanvalle gebruik. Gedurende die oorlog het die VSA ook grootskaalse strategiese bomaanvalle teen Noord-Viëtnam geloods. Die Amerikaanse regering het sy betrokkenheid by die konflik as 'n manier gesien om die kommunistiese oorname van Suid-Viëtnam te verhoed. Aan die ander kant wou Noord-Viëtnam en die Viëtkong, Viëtnam verenig onder 'n kommunistiese bewind. Hulle het die konflik as 'n koloniale oorlog teen, aanvanklik teen die magte van Frankryk, en toe teen die VSA en uiteindelik teen SuidViëtnam, beskou. Aan die begin van 1950 het Amerikaanse militêre raadgewers in, wat toe nog as Frans-Indosjina bekend gestaan het, aangekom. Die VSA se betrokkenheid het in die vroeë 1960's toegeneem, met die aantal troepe wat in 1961 verdriedubbel het, en in 1962 nog drie keer meer geword het. Dit is in 1964 verder uitgebrei na die Golf van Tonkin-voorval, waartydens 'n Amerikaanse oorlogskip in 'n skermutseling met 'n aanvalsvaartuig van Noord-Viëtnam betrokke was. Hierna kry die Amerikaanse 12


president magtiging om die Amerikaanse militêre teenwoordigheid te vergroot. Gevegseenhede is van die begin van 1965 ontplooi. Die operasies het oor internasionale landsgrense gestrek en grensgebiede soos Laos en Kambodja het swaar onder Amerikaanse lugbombardering deurgeloop. In 1968 het die oorlog sy hoogtepunt bereik toe die kommuniste hul Tết Offensief geloods het. Die offensief het nie in sy doel geslaag om die Suid-Viëtnamese regering tot 'n val te bring nie, maar was die keerpunt in die oorlog aangesien dit 'n groot segment van die Amerikaanse bevolking laat besef het die Amerikaanse regering se aansprake dat die oorlog gewen word, net 'n droom is. 'n Stelselmatige onttrekking van Amerikaanse troepe is begin as deel van die "Viëtnamisasie" van die land wat daarop gemik was om Amerika se betrokkenheid in die oorlog te beëindig, en die oorlog teen die kommuniste aan die Suid-Viëtnamese oor te laat. Ondanks die Paryse Vredesverdrag, wat deur alle partye in Januarie onderteken is, het die gevegte voortgeduur2. In Amerika en die Westerse wêreld het 'n reuse anti-Viëtnambeweging gestalte gekry as deel van 'n groter kontra-kultuur wat in die 1960's posgevat het. Die Amerikaners se regstreekse betrokkenheid by die oorlog het op 15 Augustus 1973 geëindig. Die oorname van Saigon deur die Noord-Viëtnamese magte het die einde van die oorlog beteken, en Noord- en Suid-Viëtnam is die volgende jaar verenig. Dit was 'n bloedige oorlog met baie sterfgevalle. Na raming is tussen 800 000 en 3,1 miljoen soldate en burgerlikes dood. Sowat 200 000 tot 300 000 Kambodjane en 'n geraamde 20 000 tot 200 000 burgers van Laos het ook gesterf. Die dodetal onder Amerikaanse soldate is 58 220, met 'n verdere 1 626 wat as vermis aangemeld is. Die konflik was 'n voorbeeld van die sogenaamde domino-effek, wat deur Amerika gevrees is en as rede vir sy deelname aan die oorlog gegee is. Indien die een land voor kommunistiese oorname swig, is die volgende land kwesbaar. Die Franse onttrekking, 1950–1954 In Januarie 1950 het die Volksrepubliek van Sjina en die Sowjetunie die Viët Minh se bewind in Noord-Viëtnam met sy hoofstad in Hanoi as die legitieme regering van Viëtnam erken. Die volgende maand erken die VSA en die Verenigde Koninkryk die Frans-gesteunde Suid-Viëtnam in Saigon as die amptelike Viëtnamese regering. Die uitbreek van die Korea-oorlog in Junie 1950 het die beleidmakers in Washington, D.C. oortuig dat die oorlog in Indosjina 'n voorbeeld is van kommunistiese uitbreiding wat deur die Sowjetunie georkestreer word. Militêre raadgewers van die Volksrepubliek van Sjina het die Viët Minh in Julie 1950 in hul stryd teen die Franse begin steun. Sjinese wapens, deskundige raad en arbeiders het die Viët Minh van 'n guerrillamagte tot 'n volskaalse weermag help opbou. In September 1950 het die VSA 'n spesiale bystands- en raadgewersgroep saamgestel om die Franse versoek om hulpverlening, strategiese raad en die opleiding van Viëtnamese soldate, te oorweeg. Teen 1954 het die VSA reeds 300 000 kleingewere voorsien en sowat $1-miljard in steun tot die Franse militêre poging bygedra. Die VSA het toe reeds 80% van die totale kostes van die oorlog befonds. President John F. Kennedy se raadgewers het voorgestel hy stuur Amerikaanse troepe onder die dekking van vloedrampwerkers na Suid-Viëtnam, maar dit is geweier, maar hy het tog die militêre hulp verder vermeerder. In April 1962 het een van sy raadgewers gewaarsku dat die VSA eenvoudig net die Franse as 'n koloniale mag in die gebied gaan vervang, en "soos die Franse gaan bloei". Omverwerping en sluipmoord op Ngô Đình Diệm Die hopelose Suid-Viëtnamese leër was 'n bron van kommer vir die Amerikaanse generaals. Tydens die slag van Ap Bac het 'n klein groepie van die Viëtkong 'n baie groter en beter toegeruste

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Vir die kommunis hou die word “vrede” ‘n heel te maal ander betekenis in - HBH

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gevegsmag aangevat en gewen. Vir die Amerikaners het dit gelyk of van die Suid-Viëtnamese offisiere inderdaad huiwerig is om in gevegte betrokke te raak. Die Amerikaanse intelligensiediens, Central Intelligence Agency, het kontak gemaak met die generaals wat Diệm in 'n staatsgreep wou omver werp, en het dit duidelik gestel dat die VSA dit nie sal teenstaan, die generaals sal straf, of hulp aan Suid-Viëtnam onttrek nie. President Diệm is saam met sy broer op 2 November 1963 tereggestel. Kennedy was uiters geskok want hy het nie verwag dat Diệm doodgemaak sou word nie. Hanoi het die chaos in Suid-Viëtnam tot sy voordeel uitgebuit en sy steun aan die guerrillas verder uitgebrei. Suid-Viëtnam was vasgevang in 'n tydperk van ernstige politieke woelinge, soos die een militêre bewind na die ander oorgeneem het. Oorlog brei uit onder Johnson, 1963–1969 In die tyd toe Lyndon B. Johnson as president oorgeneem het, na Kennedy se dood, was hy nie juis betrokke by die beleid oor die oorlog nie. Die bordjies is egter vervang toe hy president word en hy het op 24 November 1963 verklaar: "Die stryd teen kommunisme moet kragdadig en met vasberadenheid voortgesit word." Na verskeie aanvalle op Amerikaanse lugmagbasisse, en die feit dat die Suid-Viëtnamese magte blykbaar nie in staat is om beskerming te bied nie, is daar op 8 Maart 1965 3 500 Amerikaanse mariniers ingevlieg. Dit was die begin van die grondoorlog in Viëtnam. Die mariniers se opdragte was aanvanklik om verdedigend op te tree, maar teen Maart 1965 is die eerste 3 500 vergroot na 'n aanvalsmag van 200 000 troepe op die grond. Nixon Doktriene / Viëtnamisasie Die Amerikaanse President Richard Nixon het in 1969 begin om die troepe te onttrek. Sy plan was om die Suid-Viëtnamese gevegsmagte op te bou sodat dit die beskerming van die land kan oorneem. Dit was Nixon se Viëtnamisasie-plan. Uittog van die Amerikaners: 1973–1975 Die meeste Amerikaanse troepe is in die finale jare van Viëtnamisasie uit die land gevlieg. Op 5 Maart 1971 land die Vyfde Spesiale Magte Groep by hul ou basis by Fort Bragg. Dit was die eerste Amerikaanse eenheid wat destyds in Viëtnam ontplooi is. Die val van Saigon Chaos, paniek en opstande was aan die orde van die dag soos histeriese Suid-Viëtnamese amptenare en burgerlikes desperaat probeer vlug het uit Saigon. Krygswet is afgekondig. Amerikaanse helikopters het koorsagtig en desperaat Suid-Viëtnamese, Amerikaners, en buitelanders uit verskillende dele van die stad, en uit die Amerikaanse ambassade se kompleks na veiligheid probeer verskuif. Operation Frequent Wing is tot op die laaste nippertjie uitgestel omdat die ambassadeur, Graham Martin, nie geglo het Saigon gaan val nie, en dat 'n ooreenkoms gesluit sou kon word. Op 30 April 1975 beweeg die Noord-Viëtnamese weermag die stad in en smoor enige weerstand vinnig in die kiem. 'n Tenk bars deur die paleis en om 11:30 hys die Viëtkong sy vlag. 3

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https://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vi%C3%ABtnamoorlog

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Jim Hooper besoek Koevoet Die voorligting bring ons nou by Jim Hooper. Vele vegters van die VSA het in ons oorlog belanggestel en vir hulself kom kyk wat hier aangaan en waarom ons so suksesvol is. Die Amerikaanse joernalis Jim Hooper het min bekendstelling nodig. Hy het ‘n ruk saam met Koevoet in die bos en die resultaat is ‘n ooggetuieverslag oor Koevoet soos vergestalt in sy gewilde boeke. Ons “ken” mekaar al jare en hy het die volgende artikel, op ons aandrang, oor sy broer vir ons gestuur. Die artikel is gebaseer op ‘n boek wat hy geskryf het. Ons lesers kry nou kans om te sien hoe die Amerikaners in hul oorlog opgetree het.

This is Jim Hooper Jim Hooper began his working life as a TV writer, then went on to build the world’s premier skydiving centre, making more than 3,000 freefalls. Giving it up to be a freelance war correspondent, he was the first journalist to embed with OPS K. His book Koevoet documented his five months embedded with the famed counter-insurgency unit in Ovamboland. That was followed by the better part of a year with Unita in central Angola. Another six months was spent in Bosnia covering all three sides in that war. He was later the first journalist that Executive Outcomes invited to accompany it operators in Sierra Leone. This article has been extracted from A Hundred Feet Over Hell, written about his brother’s tour in Vietnam.

Florida, USA

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Above: Namibia. Below: Bosnia

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Above: Angola.

MAIN STORY BY JIM HOOPER One-time rights to NONGQAI magazine4 Extracts from

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Many thanks Jim!

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A HUNDRED FEET OVER HELL Copyright © Jim Hooper Bill Hooper had just turned 19 when he received the letter to report for Army basic training. Two years later, he was a first lieutenant fresh out of Primary Flight training at Ft Stewart, Georgia, and wearing shiny-new pilot’s wings. Sent to Ft Rucker for advanced training, he was being introduced to the least sophisticated airplane in the US military. “Gentlemen, this is the Cessna O-1 Bird Dog,” the instructor said to the class. “It has no armour. It carries no offensive weapons. Its six-cylinder engine gives it a top speed of 100 knots, which is slower than the front-line fighter aircraft of the First World War. Empty, she weighs less than a VW Beatle. Full fuel tanks, pilot and observer, three radios and four loaded rocket tubes will add another 1,000 pounds – still lighter than most family cars. She’s a good airplane but, like all taildraggers, can be tricky when taking off or landing. You don’t fly a Bird Dog, you wear it. In this phase of your training you will learn how to fly it in combat and stay alive.” A month after completing the school, Bill stepped onto the blistering tarmac at the American-built Cam Ranh Military Air Base. Going through the administrative process for new arrivals, he was handed orders to the 21st RAC - Reconnaissance Airplane Company - at Chu Lai. His duties as a FAC – Forward Air Controller – was searching from the coast to a section of the mountains that ran the length of Vietnam. If he found enemy troops, all he could do was call for artillery fire. When close air support was needed, only US Air Force FACs were qualified to direct jet fighter-bombers. Although there were almost nightly mortar and rocket attacks on the Quang Ngai airfield, the flying was tedious and uneventful. Two months after arriving, he requested a transfer to the 220th RAC “Catkillers” 150 miles to the north. If he was looking for more action he could not have made a better choice.

Doc Clement – Catkiller 18 The 220th was headquartered in Phu Bai and covered the northern part of Quang Tri province. In 1968, it was the most fiercely-contested piece of real estate in the world; up to 70,000 Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army regulars hid in the mountains and under triple-canopy forests. During the Vietnam War more than 50% of all US casualties occurred in Quang Tri province. Wherever the Catkillers flew, they faced ground fire from a formidable and virtually invisible foe. Within that deadly environment, the Catkillers’ 1st Platoon had what was considered the most dangerous mission profile for Bird Dogs in the entire country – patrolling the so-called Demilitarized Zone. The DMZ was a tenkilometre-wide strip that sandwiched the Ben Hai River, the border between North and South Vietnam. It ran from the South China Sea westward into Laos, with some missions taking them across the river into “Tally-Ho”, the code word for North Vietnam. Quang Tri province belonged to the 3rd Marine Division and new arrivals were always surprised to learn that they had to qualify as Marine TACAs (Tactical Air Controller (Airborne) before being authorized to control air strikes when ground forces were engaged in close combat with the enemy. Of the 11 Reconnaissance Airplane Companies in Vietnam they were the only Army pilots to hold this Marine rating. The back seat of their Bird Dogs usually carried an aerial observer from the 12th Marine Artillery Regiment or the Army’s 108th Field Artillery Group, whose job was directing the batteries of big guns located just south of the DMZ. The pilot maintained contact with the Direct Air Support Centre at Dong Ha. DASC – pronounced “dask” – was tied to “Channel 109,” a radio beacon that served as

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the reference point when sending air support to where it was needed. No call had higher priority than “troops in contact.”5 * By the time Hooper reported to the 220th, “Doc” Clement had been a 1st Platoon Catkiller for three months. The short and muscular lieutenant with the gravelly South Carolina accent was held in awe for his courage and ability to run air strikes. Although the 220th was headquartered in Phu Bai, its 1st Platoon flew out of Dong Ha, just five miles south of the DMZ. Taking off for the late afternoon mission, Doc set course for his assigned search area. In the back seat was Marine Lieutenant Bob Happe, call sign “Southern Hotel.” But before reaching the Ben Hai a radio call came in from DASC. A six-man Marine Recon team – call sign “Mustang” - was in trouble and needed help. Happe dialled in the team’s radio frequency. “Mustang, this is Southern Hotel. Over.” He waited. Silence. “Mustang, Mustang, this is Southern Hotel. Over.” There was another long pause, then a whispered reply: “Southern Hotel, this is Mustang. Copy you Lima Charlie. We got gooks all around us. No contact yet, but we need some air right quick.” Doc called DASC to put air support on standby. At the same time, Happe was telling the nearest artillery battery to prepare for a fire mission. He switched back to the Recon team. “Mustang, this is Southern Hotel. We’re an O-1 Bird Dog 1,000 feet above the terrain. Advise when you have us in sight. Over.” A few more minutes passed. “Southern Hotel, we’re at your 11 o’clock.” A little rudder brought the nose to the left. “Mark, mark,” said the Recon Marine even more softly. Doc dipped a wing to see a figure lying in an old bomb crater, an orange recognition panel over him. He brought the throttle back. Engine noise faded and they were descending through 250 feet when the whispering stopped. “Contact! We’re taking fire!” Rudder pedal in, stick over and back to hold a tight orbit, Doc counted at least 25 enemy soldiers in the open, some within 20m of the crater. The North Vietnamese called it “grabbing the enemy by the belt,” a tactic used to prevent American air strikes for fear of killing friendlies. “Dong Ha DASC this is Catkiller One-eight. We have troops in contact on the 292 radial out of Channel 109 at 14 nautical miles. I need that air now!” When the controller asked how many flights he needed, Doc said, “Just keep ‘em coming.” “Mustang,” Happe called, “this is Southern Hotel. How’s your cover? Over.” “Southern Hotel, we got good cover, but we can’t hold on long!” Happe switched back to the Marine artillery battery at Con Thien. “Cherry Buster 6, this is Southern Hotel. Fire mission. Over.” He was giving the battery commander the coordinates when DASC confirmed that the first flight of fighter-bombers was wheels up out of Chu Lai. Doc shook his head. Chu Lai was 150 miles to the south, at least 15 minutes flying time for the jets. Something needed to be done now, anything to buy time. He lifted his M-16 from where it was slung on the map light

South Vietnam was divided into four Corps Tactical Zones, with I Corps – pronounced EYE Corps - the northernmost and IV Corps the southernmost. There were numerous Direct Air Support Centres throughout the country, each with its own identifying radio beacon. Dong Ha DASC and Channel 109, less than ten miles from the border, covered the northern part of I Corps. 5

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and chambered a round. A quick glance over his shoulder showed his backseater doing the same. “Ready to go, Hap?” “Let’s do it, Doc!” The Bird Dog came around in a steep diving turn and levelled off at 150 feet, well within range of an AK-47. One hand on the stick and the other holding the M-16 across his chest, Doc pushed the barrel out the window. Passing over the position, he rolled to the left. Army pilot and Marine observer emptied their magazines into the attackers. Taken by surprise, they scattered into the surrounding bush. Doc climbed away as Happe called for one gun in adjustment. The battery commander answered immediately. “Southern Hotel, Cherry Buster 6. Fire. Over.” “Roger, Cherry Buster. Fire. Wait.” Thirty seconds later, the 155mm shell exploded 300m from the crater. “Cherry Buster 6, this is Southern Hotel. Drop 200, right 100. Repeat.” As Happe walked the shells around the backs of the North Vietnamese Army soldiers Doc flew a horseshoe pattern to avoid the incoming artillery and keep the target in view. Then came the call he was waiting for. “Catkiller 1-8, this is Lovebug 202. Flight of two Fox-4s with four Delta 9s, 18 Delta 2-Alphas, and 30 minutes’ play time. Over.” The Marine flight leader had just told him that each of the two F-4 Phantoms was carrying four “Delta 9” napalm canisters, eighteen “Delta 2 Alpha” high-drag bombs6 and enough fuel to remain over the target for half an hour. Hermetically sealed in their airconditioned cockpits and pushed by two jet engines capable of 18,000-pounds thrust each, they waited for the sweaty army pilot to answer. When he did, they could hear the Bird Dog’s 215hp engine and wind through the open windows. “Roger, Lovebug 202,” Doc acknowledged. He scrawled the call sign on his windscreen with a grease pencil. “Is this the ‘Indian’ I’m talking to?” A week earlier, he had been the guest of honour at the Marine officers’ club in Chu Lai. The hangover had lasted two days, but he was sure he recognized the voice. “You got him, Catkiller.” “Roger that, Indian. Say your position. Over.” Strapped tightly into his ejection seat, Indian rolled the 50,000-pound Phantom into a steep bank. “Catkiller, this is Lovebug. I have a Bird Dog in a left-hand turn at my ten o’clock. If that’s you, we’re ready for a target brief. Over.” Doc tilted his head back and scanned the sky through the Plexiglas panels above the cockpit. Two Phantoms, trailing their signature dark exhausts, were curving over him at 4,000 feet. “Roger, Indian, we got a major shit sandwich here – gooks within 20m of friendlies, so I’m gonna need some real precision bombing. My heading will be 270. Your run-in heading is 090, with a right break. Understand that you’re not dropping this close to friendlies unless you have me in sight. I will be over the friendlies.” By protecting the Recon team with his own aircraft, Doc ensured that Indian and his wingman knew the exact location of their people below. Giving them, a west-to-east bomb run placed the South 6

D2-A - 250-pound bomb used for close air support at very low altitude. It had four paddle-like fins on the tail that opened as soon as it was released. These slowed the bomb enough to allow the attacking aircraft to escape before it hit and exploded. (There were instances when the fins failed to open and the attacking aircraft was destroyed by its own bomb.) Because the blades imparted an undulating nose-up, nose-down flight path, it was nicknamed “snake.” A mixed bomb load of high-drag bombs and napalm was “snake and nape.”

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China Sea a few miles straight ahead; if either Lovebug was critically damaged by ground fire “feet wet” was a far safer place to eject than over terrain teeming with the enemy. Instructions on which way to turn after the bomb runs kept them away from mobile antiaircraft guns north of the DMZ, less than a minute’s flying time away. So, there would be no confusion over which Lovebug he was talking to, Indian would be Dash-1, his wingman Dash-2. Doc climbed back to 500 feet. “Lovebug Dash-1, are you ready for my mark? “Roger, Catkiller, Dash-1 ready to observe your mark. You copy, Dash-2?” “Dash-2 copies.” Happe cut the artillery as Doc armed one rocket tube and pushed the nose over. “Hap, tell ’em to keep their heads down, this is gonna be close!” The solid-fuel propellant ignited in a shower of sparks, and the marking rocket streaked away. Seconds later, it hit 30m from the crater, exploding in a spray of burning phosphorus that instantly became an expanding cloud of white smoke. “Dash1, do you have my smoke?” “Roger, Catkiller, I have the mark.” “Dash-1, from my smoke, 12 o’clock, 30m with one nape.” “Twelve o’clock, three-zero metres, one Delta 9,” Indian confirmed. “Dash-1 turning final.” Doc made a tight 360 and levelled out on an east-to-west heading that would take him over the Marines. Tracers passed to one side. Ignoring them, he looked ahead to see Indian a mile-and-ahalf away at 1,500 feet and descending toward him at 350 knots. “Dash-1, this is Catkiller 1-8. Do you have me in sight? Over.” “Affirmative, Catkiller.” “Dash-1, the only way you will drop this close to friendlies is on top of me. You’re cleared hot with one nape on my position.” He watched the Phantom getting bigger. Four hundred feet from the target and just two seconds from the ground, Indian triggered the release and immediately started climbing. Doc saw the napalm canister leave the wing station and hauled the Bird Dog around to be in position for Dash-2. Indian’s nape hit 60m north of the Marines. A dark-orange fireball boiled upwards and across the landscape. “Doc!” said Happe over the intercom. “Mustang said that was a good hit, good hit!” Jet-black smoke capped the 2,000-degree inferno to his left. The Bird Dog bucked when it passed the edge of a rising column of super-heated air, and Doc caught a whiff of the jellied gasoline. As the crater and its Marines disappeared under the Cessna’s nose Indian’s wingman was head-on toward him in a 15-degree dive. “Dash-2, this is Catkiller. Do you have me in sight? Over.” “That’s affirm, Catkiller, I have you in sight.” “Roger, Dash-2. The only way you’re dropping this close to friendlies is on top of me. Let’s go with one nape at 12 o’clock, 25m from Dash-1’s hit. Your approach is good, you’re cleared hot.” “Roger, Catkiller. One Delta-9 at 12 o’clock, 25m meters, and dropping on your pos. Dash-2 is in hot.” The F-4 pilot released below 300 feet and brought the control stick back in a climbing turn to the south. Doc broke to the left. More tracers rose from AK-47s. He had completed his turn and was watching Dash-1 heading toward him when a second flight of air reported inbound. “Catkiller 1-8, this is Hellborne 412. Over.”

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Doc told the Hellborne flight leader to stand by, and went back to the job at hand. “Lovebug Dash1, do you have Dash-2’s hit?” “Affirmative, Catkiller.” “Then let’s go three o’clock, 25m, with one nape. Do you have me in sight?” “That’s affirm.” “Then you’re cleared hot.” The napalm rolled over the enemy position. “Good hit, Dash-1!” he barked. Then, to make clear that the next transmission was not for Lovebug: “Break, break. Hellborne 412, say your position.” The two Marine A-4 Skyhawks were at 18,000 feet on the 120-degree radial 5 miles from Channel 109. Doc made a quick trigonometry calculation in his head. He needed to position them safely outside Lovebug’s pattern but close enough to take over as soon as the F-4s were finished. “Roger, 412, proceed to the 350 at eight miles, Channel 109, descend and maintain 10,000. I will call you shortly.7 Break, break.” “Lovebug Dash-2, do you have me in sight?” “Affirmative, Catkiller.” “Then let’s go from Dash-1’s hit, three o’clock, 75m with one nape.” Sunlight glinted off the Phantom’s canopy. Three hundred feet above the ground, the incendiary bomb left its underwing hard point. Tumbling end over end, the tear-drop canister followed the same course, losing speed and altitude until a gush of flame ripped through the undergrowth south of the Marines. Doc saw a North Vietnamese soldier, burning napalm clinging to his back, running frantically away from the firestorm. The enemy had been thrown into confusion by the air strikes and the survivors were trying to regroup. More runs finished Lovebug’s napes, and Doc brought in the two F-4s one after the other with their snakes. At 500 feet the small, slow Cessna seemed an easy target, and dozens of tracers rose toward it. Doc held his course and watched Dash-2 make his last run. “Catkiller 1-8, Lovebug 202 is Winchester,” the code word meaning that the racks on both Phantoms were empty. Doc acknowledged and advised that he would relay the BDA—bomb damage assessment—later. “Understood, Catkiller. You have your hands full. Lovebug 202, out.” Light on fuel and no longer burdened by the weight and drag of almost six tons of ordnance under their wings, the two F-4s throttled up and were gone. “Doc,” Happe said, “Mustang says the gooks have moved up and to put the next ones closer!” With Lovebug clear of the area, Doc vectored the smaller Skyhawks into position. They had been monitoring the fight and understood what they had to do. “Hellborne 412, this is Catkiller 1-8. Are you ready for my mark? Over.” For the next 45 minutes, with comms on three radios and the intercom between front and back seats, Doc ran two more flights of Skyhawks. But the sun was dropping toward the mountains and shadows were lengthening. They had to get the team out before dark. Happe had already identified an open area large enough to accommodate a rescue chopper, but it was a good 400m to the northeast and blocked much of the way by almost impenetrable bush. Doc used Hellborne’s last

7

Doc is telling the Hellborne A-4 Skyhawks to orbit at 10,000 feet on the 350-degree radial eight nautical miles from the Dong Ha radio beacon.

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bombs to clear a ragged escape route. Minutes later, two more call signs joined the mix of radio traffic. “Catkiller 1-8, this is Chatterbox 3-2, flight of two orbiting five miles east of your position, with two Seaworthy guns. Over.” This was the Recon team’s ride home, Marine CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters escorted by Huey gunships. “Roger, Chatterbox, this is Catkiller 1-8. Stand by.” Then on the intercom, “Hap, get those guys moving!” “Mustang, this is Southern Hotel. Choppers inbound! Get going to your east!” The Marines broke out of the bomb crater, heading across freshly churned earth and burning undergrowth. But the enemy could see the approaching Sea Knight and half-a-dozen of them set off; one RPG could easily destroy the rescue helicopter. Happe switched to the artillery push. “Cherry Buster 6, this is Southern Hotel. From the last gun target line, add 200, right 50, four rounds of whiskey papa. Repeat. Over.” Five miles away, sweating crews rammed shells and powder charges home and slammed and locked the breech blocks. The gunners took a twist of the heavy lanyards around wrists and held them taut. “Fire!” The guns rocked under the recoil, and shells went moaning down-range. White phosphorus rounds impacted in quick succession, the clouds swelling to screen the approaching helicopters behind a dense wall of smoke One Chatterbox orbited away from the action, ready to take over if the other was hit. The lead chopper flared hard over the edge of the clearing. Before the nose wheel touched the ground six young Americans were diving into the open tailgate, and Chatterbox was off again. A quick pedal turn swung them away and they were thudding toward safety before the smoke screen had dissipated. When the last Hellborne Skyhawks headed back to Chu Lai, Doc lit his first cigarette since taking off that afternoon and turned for home. Fifteen minutes later, he was rolling down the Dong Ha runway. When he and Happe reached the line shack, six Marines were slumped outside. It was the Recon team. “They looked like hell warmed over,” Doc remembers, “covered in mud and dust, a couple of them with singed hair from the napalm, their fatigues in shreds. They crowded around us, shaking our hands. One of them said, ‘When we saw you that low with tracers all around your plane, we were sure you were going to get shot down, and that would be the end of our air cover. We couldn’t believe that you kept doing it! If that’s what your job is like, lieutenant, you’ll never get me in one of those Bird Dogs. No way!”’ “As tired as I was, I had to grin. I guess everyone has his own natural element that he’s comfortable in, and mine was definitely in the air. There wasn’t enough money in the world to get me to do what those guys did.”

Charles Finch – Catkiller 19 Like Doc Clement, Charlie Finch was another maverick in the 220th and the risks he took to protect American troops are still talked about more than four decades later. He was one of the “Myth Makers” a select group of men who earned the title. Even today, the Catkillers wonder how he survived. “When Hooper joined the 1st Platoon,” Finch remembers, “it was like he had been there for months. Sarcasm in the 220th just dripped, and normally the new guy would take it and not come back at you. Not Bill. He wasn’t cocky, just very confident and sure of himself. Within days, everyone knew him. Pilots were talking about Hooper, Wild Bill, Hoops; Hudson was calling him “Billy” like he had 23


known him for years. He gained instant respect. Maybe it was because he was younger and better looking than most of us, but I remember Doc telling me he was a good pilot, and Andy Anderson said he liked his spirit. And he was such a straight arrow. He would never allow a lie to go unchallenged, never back off from the truth, nor ever fail to take the blame if he screwed up. He had a quick temper and would get right in your face if you pissed him off, but he was equally quick to forgive. He was never full of praise for anyone. Hell, I could have won the Medal of Honour and he would have just thought it was a normal part of the mission. He was moody at times, but that was usually because of bad weather or an unserviceable airplane. And though you didn’t see him smile every day, when he did, it made the room light up. If you made Bill Hooper laugh, it was a good day. Some people saw the two of us as competitors. Certainly, we were both very focused, very determined, though we approached the job very differently. When I got to the flight line, I cranked and was gone: I knew where the enemy was, could always find a fight, and didn’t worry about where the Army or Marines wanted me to go. If I was supposed to fly high ship in North Vietnam, I could usually talk the low ship into swapping. I hated just watching the low ship, particularly if he wasn’t looking for a fight. Bill, on the other hand, was meticulous about planning, pre-flight, briefing his back seat and following the mission orders to the letter. Everything he did had a sense of purpose. Bill is alive today because of his attention to detail and his knowledge of his aircraft and his abilities. He was always prepared for an emergency, and some months later when his arm was almost severed, all of his self-discipline paid off. He wasn’t lucky—he was prepared.

Catkiller Down Bill Hooper: At the end of my second three-hour Tally Ho mission that day, I’d been relieved by Lee Harrison and his high ship,8 which was flown by the newest member of the 1st Platoon. My backseater and Lee’s, Steve Bezold, exchanged good-natured insults as we traded places near Fingers Lake and I returned to Dong Ha. After refuelling, and dropping off my observer, I taxied out and opened the throttle for Phu Bai. I was clearing the pattern when a mayday call snapped me to attention. It was Lee’s high ship, whose pilot was screaming that Harrison had been shot down, and pleading for help. I told him to get a fix on Lee’s location and hold over it until I arrived, then pushed the pre-set button on my radio. “Dong Ha DASC, this is Catkiller 1-2. I am off Channel 109 in aircraft 2646. I have no one in my back seat. I am responding to a mayday that Catkiller 4-9er has been shot down. I should be on station in 25 minutes. ETR to be advised. Over.” On the agonizingly slow flight, I listened to two Air Force F-4 Gunfighters that were already on the scene, making low passes in the face of very heavy ground fire. I crossed the Ben Hai River at 3,500 feet, still climbing. Scattered clouds earlier in the day had consolidated, and I was between layers when I saw a Phantom climbing hard out of the layer below. The courage I was witnessing was incredible. Mountains reaching to 3,000 feet lay just to the west, with the bottom of the lower cloud strata at 2,000 feet. Orientating themselves as best they could, the F-4 pilots were diving blind through it, then rolling inverted below 800 hundred feet to look for Lee as at least four multi-barrelled heavy machine guns took them under fire. They’d escape to the safety of the cloud cover, and then go in again.

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Missions into North Vietnam consisted of two Bird Dogs, the Low Ship flying at 3,000 feet and the High Ship at 6,000 feet. The primary task for the High Ship was keeping track of the Low Ship in case it was hit and went down.

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Lee’s high ship pilot hadn’t seen where my friend went down and was so confused and distraught over the radio that he was of no use. I ordered him back to Dong Ha. Gunfighter leader, low on fuel, gave me what information he had before breaking off. It wasn’t much to go on, but at least gave me some confidence that Lee had to be within a two-kilometre-square area. Sure that the white control surfaces of his Bird Dog would be fairly easy to spot, I didn’t think the search would take long. My efforts to raise him on his emergency radio were met with silence. By now, the sun was touching the mountains and visibility was fading rapidly. Descending through the lower cloud layer, I alerted the rescue teams at Dong Ha and Quang Tri. If there was some way to continue the search, I had a good—and possibly last—chance of finding him before he was captured. But to do it I needed light. I contacted the nearest artillery battery, explained what I needed and asked for two guns in adjustment; as soon as I found Lee, I would need two guns in effect to maintain a lighted umbrella for the rescue. Orbiting just under 2,000 feet, I saw the first two illumination rounds ignite inside the clouds, then emerge under their parachutes. It was now completely dark, and the ground fire had ceased. Staying 300-400 feet above the descending flares as I spiralled down gave me an excellent view of the terrain. When I reached 600 feet above the ground I began a slow climb back to altitude and gave the artillery a 250m easterly gun adjustment. By the time I reached the cloud base, two more rounds arrived and I began my next descent. I’d just started a third spiral when AA guns opened fire. As the bullets passed me, there was the attention-getting thud, thud, thud of 12.7 or 14.5mm rounds breaking the sound barrier. I was bewildered by their ability to track me, until realizing that my anti-collision and navigation lights were on. They didn’t provide much range information, but made a very effective bull’s eye. Cursing my stupidity, I hit the switch. Although the ground fire continued, they could no longer get a fix on me, and it never came close again. After the fourth set of flares, I shifted the search north by 250 meters and started incremental westerly adjustments of 250 meters. The thought of Lee and Steve on their own and possibly injured dug into my deepest fears. It could be me down there, praying that the circling pilot would see me under the next set of flares. An hour into the mission I received a call from another Catkiller orbiting south of the Ben Hai River. He passed on the order from our CO to terminate the search and return to Dong Ha. I clicked my mike switch. “Say again, Catkiller, I’m having reception problems but will continue to transmit in the blind assuming you are receiving.” As my search of each sector was completed, I marked it off on my map and moved with the flares to the next. I continued searching for three hours. The last flares were over a terrain feature I was sure I could find the next morning. Low on fuel and exhausted after almost nine hours in the air that day, I turned for home. Back in the Dong Ha line shack, I called Charlie on the landline to Phu Bai. Charles Finch: When I spoke to Bill he had just landed and was still in his mission mode, controlled and self-contained. But underlying his calm, precise description of what had happened was a tone of deep-felt anguish. He kept going over the details of where he had been, his search pattern, what he had seen—as though somewhere in all that we could figure out just where Lee and Steve had crashed. He had been flying all day and was clearly fatigued, but the cool, calculating warrior I’d known for barely a month was revealing a human side that I’d not seen. We kept going over all the details of what had happened that afternoon and evening. Hooper had done all he could, but not finding the aircraft was weighing very heavily. He seemed to be appealing for my assurance that we would find Lee and Steve. When I got to our orderly room, there was a lot of anger about Lee’s high ship failing to see where he went down. Major Wisby told everyone to shut up and began by saying that he would be joining 25


the search the next morning. Then he nodded at me and said that because of my familiarity with the area, I would be in charge. As I walked to the map, more people crowded through the door. I started circling where we had recently taken fire around Fingers Lake, and the locations of enemy artillery pieces we had destroyed. Pilots from the other platoons who had never flown up north seemed shocked by the number of circles. I told Wisby that I wanted Tank Meehan, the 12th Marines’ S-2 liaison officer, in my back seat and that Hooper and I would be the low ships. I also made it very clear that we would attract a lot of antiaircraft fire—12.7mm, 14.5mm ZPUs, 37mm, and possibly 57mm. Once we crossed the Ben Hai, constant changes in heading, altitude and airspeed would be essential. It was still dark at 0430 and I found no one in the latrine as I shaved. The company compound was equally deserted as I walked to the mess hall and found Tank and Major Wisby already there. Over a quick breakfast, I reminded them that enemy fire had been extremely heavy in the last week and many of us had taken hits. Wisby said he would be taking the photo bird. I was surprised at his choice; with a big camera pod on each wing, it was heavy, a gas-guzzler, and not good for manoeuvring when the enemy was shooting at you. I told him that he’d need to get plenty of altitude or we’d end up looking for him, too. He didn’t seem fazed, nor did Tank. With Tank’s ground-combat experience, he was someone you wanted with you in a bar fight or a foxhole. Heading north in loose formation, I looked across at Wisby’s airplane. As our CO, he was not expected to fly combat missions. Stepping in said a great deal about his character. When we landed at Dong Ha, we found a welcoming committee of pilots, observers, and crew chiefs. Bill Hooper looked like he hadn’t slept. Bill Hooper: I woke before dawn to a cloudless sky and watched three Bird Dogs touch down. Tank Meehan was in Charlie’s back seat, and three aerial observers from the 108th Field Artillery Group had been assigned to ride with me, Wisby, and the fourth airplane. Colleagues of Steve Bezold, they said his one brief transmission was, “We’ve been hit. We’re going down. I don’t think we’re going to make it.” Charles Finch: When we heard that, Bill and I knew that if Bezold made that call, then Lee had probably been incapacitated or killed. But it also meant Steve was alive and might have flown the aircraft to a reasonably safe landing. Images of what it must have been like in the cockpit when they were hit filled my mind and I could not erase them. I think Hooper also sensed the hopelessness. Finally, Wisby said, “Let’s go find Lee.” Tank and I did not talk on the way up. I always preferred a broken or scattered cloud layer to provide some cover when flying Tally Ho, but today was as clear as it had been in a month, which meant the NVA would spot us and be ready long before we got there. Bill and I were between 4,000 and 6,000 feet and Wisby and Bonning 2,000 feet higher when we crossed the Ben Hai. Behind me, Tank had binoculars to his eyes, and I was scanning from the side windows. The High Ships came up on the frequency at regular intervals to let us know they had us in sight. Bill Hooper: When we reached the terrain feature I’d marked the night before, Charlie began a westward search, while I hunted toward the east. Our arrival did not bring the immediate ground fire I had anticipated. In fact, it was so quiet that I was a little embarrassed for having given such dire warnings. Ten minutes after our arrival I told Charlie that maybe we weren’t going to be engaged after all. Charles Finch: Bill and I were talking about how quiet it was when the sky exploded around us. Every type of antiaircraft fire I had received in four months of flying the Z came racing up all at once and puffs of grey and black smoke filled the air around us. I was sure the NVA had found Lee’s aircraft and, knowing we would come looking for it, had pulled in as many antiaircraft weapons as they could. 26


Bill Hooper: The NVA normally used only 12.7mm and 14.5mm weapons to engage targets at our altitude, but this time we were also getting 37mm flak. I ducked when one detonated in front of me and I flew through a hail of shrapnel. It was the most intensive ground fire I’d ever experienced. Charles Finch: I caught a glimpse of Hooper surrounded by exploding flak to my east. Rolling through 60 degrees in a diving turn to throw their aim off, I looked down and there were the white ailerons of Lee’s aircraft directly below me. My call to say I had the aircraft in sight went unanswered; everyone was too busy dodging antiaircraft fire. There was a pause in the ground fire, and I made another circle, trying to spot any movement. I couldn’t make out the tail or windscreen, but the wings were still attached to the fuselage, which was upright like it had been parked in the trees. Then they found my altitude and opened up again. It was terrifying. Bill Hooper: Charlie announced that he had Harrison’s Bird Dog in sight. Closing the two miles between us, I heard him trying to raise Lee on his portable emergency radio. Because enemy troops might be too close for him to speak, we told him to key his mike three times, pause, and then repeat the signal, in which case we would wait until he could give us a verbal identification. Constantly changing altitude and heading, breaking hard one way or the other to evade the tracers and flak, we listened for any clicks or whispers on the Guard frequency. Talk to us, Lee! Charles Finch: With the sky filled with everything the NVA could throw at us, all four aircraft scattered and headed south, just looking to survive. I dove and crossed the Ben Hai no higher than 1,000 feet. The airplane had taken at least one hit, and Tank and I both were rattled. No one had gotten a grid reference. None of us wanted to face those guns again, but we had no choice. Bill Hooper: By now, cold logic told us that even if Lee and Steve were alive and uninjured, the likelihood of evading capture in an area controlled by the NVA was remote. But again, it came down to the question: What if it was me down there? What if I’d managed to stay hidden and my only salvation was the eyes of my friends? When we asked ourselves those questions, logic gave way to the brotherhood that only those who have shared combat can understand. Charles Finch: I climbed back to altitude and we turned north. The ground fire started again and intensified the closer I got to Lee’s aircraft. There was so much of it coming from so many different positions that I forgot about trying to locate them and just concentrated on trying to stay alive. To hell with it, I thought, and dove down to get a better look before having to break off and escape once again toward the DMZ, with Tank saying he’d managed to get a rough fix on it. Hooper and I tried flying toward the site at different altitudes and different headings and each time we were driven back by a wall of steel. Bill Hooper: I couldn’t believe it when Charlie rolled over and headed down. It took the North Vietnamese gun crews by surprise, and they failed to follow him until he had passed through about 1,500 feet, at which point several of the guns shifted to him. Charlie made two tight turns over the site and then dodged away to the south, miraculously untouched. Charles Finch: By now we had been airborne for almost two hours—much of that under extremely intense fire - and Major Wisby felt we had done all we could do. Hooper and I were reluctant to leave, and we loitered on station as Wisby and the other high ships turned toward Dong Ha. When we landed, we taxied directly to the flight line and shut down. A quick walk around my plane revealed several shrapnel holes aft of the rear seat. Still hyped with adrenaline, we couldn’t stop talking about the ferocity of the engagement. I had been shot at so much over the past four months that I accepted it as part of the job. But not today. Today was personal. Our relief at surviving was dampened by knowing that Lee and Steve were dead or facing brutal treatment at the hands of the North Vietnamese. 27


Night Mission Tasked with flying the next morning’s early patrol, Hooper was lying in the transient overnight tent at Dong Ha when the duty NCO stuck his head in. “Captain, there’s an emergency landline for you.” Three months after joining the 1ST Platoon, Bill was puzzled that anyone would call at this time of night. The Marine operations officer on the other end didn’t hesitate. One of their companies had collided with a large enemy force in the foothills about ten miles south-southwest of Dong Ha. On unfamiliar ground and unable to manoeuvre in the dark without the risk of being split up, they were asking for immediate air support. Jotting down the approximate grid references, call sign and frequency of the company’s tactical net, Hooper grabbed his helmet, survival kit and M-16. The crew chief had rolled his Bird Dog out of its revetment and they gave it a quick pre-flight. Holding a flashlight over the tactical map, Hooper drew a line from Dong Ha to the Marine company’s estimated position. What got his immediate attention were the 3,000-foot mountains just a couple of minutes’ flying time to the unit’s west. They ran roughly northwest-southeast, which meant that he and the mountains would converge the closer he got to the embattled company; the problem was that flying high enough to clear those mountains he’d have no chance of finding the Marines. Compounding the problem was that, aside from a magnetic compass, the only navigational aid in the Bird Dog was an ADF, which was unreliable due to signal reflection from the mountains. He would have to rely on dead reckoning—course, airspeed, and elapsed time—to find his way there. And if he made an error in navigation he’d never see the mountain he ran into. “I was in the air just before 2100 hours and contacted Dong Ha DASC to put two flights of air on standby, then levelled off at 800 feet and concentrated on tracking outbound from Channel 109. I keyed the mike and made my first call to Hammer 3-4 on the FM radio. The only sound in my earphones was static. Map case open on my lap, I examined the chart under the red map light. My course looked correct, but I had been outbound for six or seven minutes by now, and at 85 knots I should be a little more than halfway. I called again. “Hammer 3-4, this is Catkiller 1-2, an O-1 Bird Dog. Do you copy? Over.” “Catkiller 1-2! This is Hammer 3-4! I have you Lima Charlie! How me? Over!” The noise that accompanied that transmission reaffirmed my preference for flying. The roar of M-16s and M-60 machine guns filled the background. Men screamed instructions and obscenities. Hooper switched radios. “Dong Ha DASC, this is Catkiller 1-2. I have troops in contact on the 200degree radial out of Channel 109 at 12 nautical miles. Scramble two flights with snake and nape.” Back to the FM radio. “Hammer 3-4, this is Catkiller 1-2. Be advised, I am approaching you from the northeast. Do you have me in sight? Over.” I was counting on them spotting the rotating anti-collision light on the Bird Dog’s belly. “Negative, Catkiller, I do not have you! Over!” I glanced at my watch: twelve minutes since lift-off. Christ, I should be there, or damn close. I opened my right window and strained to see something in the black. Having flown over these foothills on many daytime missions, I knew they were covered with thick bush and tall trees, but nothing was visible. If I flew another five minutes—unless I was way off—I would have overflown them and have to turn around and try again. And somewhere just ahead was a stone barrier rising 2,000 feet above me. 28


“Catkiller, Catkiller!” He was almost screaming to be heard above the battle. “This is Hammer! We do not see you! We are turning on a red light, a red light!” “Stand by, Hammer. Negative on the light!” Worried that the enemy might spot it I had to give the Marines something to look for. From my left wing a white beam stabbed into the night. “Hammer, this is Catkiller 1-2. I have my landing light on. Do you have a visual? Over.” “Roger, roger, Catkiller! We have you in sight! You are directly to our east! Maybe one-half mile! Over!” “Airborne dust particles illuminated by the landing light were distracting. I flipped it off and turned a little nervously to the west. It was impossible not to think about those mountains.” “Catkiller, this is Hammer! We have lost you, we have lost you!” I hit the switch again. “Roger, Catkiller, we have you in sight! We’re a few degrees to your right and almost over us!” I looked down. They’d turned on the red light, and I banked hard to keep it in sight. The command element must have been in a small clearing, because I could see it during most of my orbit. “Roger, Hammer, I have your position. Over.” This was the most difficult situation I’d ever faced with troops in contact. Even more worrisome than the mountains were the possibility of friendly casualties. “Hammer, this is Catkiller. Give me your position relative to your beacon. Over.” “Catkiller, we are on a line approximately northeast to southwest! Our front faces the northwest! Over!” “Roger, Hammer. Stand by.” Dong Ha DASC had confirmed that a flight of A-4 Skyhawks would be over my position pretty soon. Waiting for their arrival, I tried to figure out how I was going to run them when my only point of reference was a faint red light in the middle of nowhere. If it were daytime, I’d have the fast-movers set up a holding pattern northwest of the target and bring them in parallel with the line of contact. But at night those mountains made that impossible—the Marine pilots wouldn’t be able to see them any better than I could. There was only one option, an orbit to the northeast that partially straddled the line of contact. This meant giving the pilots crosswind and base legs over friendly positions, which violated one of the cardinal rules of close air support. An equally critical factor was the elevation of the terrain below them. Their altimeters were set at Chu Lai, which was at sea level. The terrain here – which they couldn’t see – was higher. Misjudging their altitude above the ground by as little as 50 feet could be fatal when making target runs in total blackness. Looking at the map again, I narrowed my location as close as possible and counted the contour lines. Then my air was talking and it was game time. “Catkiller 1-2, this is Hellborne 252, flight of two Alpha-4s with eight Delta-2-Alphas and two Delta9s onboard and 25 minutes playtime. Over.” Given what I’d been hearing on Hammer’s net, Hellborne’s calm voice seemed oddly out of place. “Roger, 252, this is Catkiller. I’m an O-1 Bird Dog orbiting at 800 indicated on the 220 radial out of Channel 109 at 13 nautical miles. Over.” “Roger, Catkiller. We are at angels one-and-a-half. We do not have you in sight. We should be within two miles of you. Over.” I hit the landing land switch. “We have you in sight, Catkiller. Please advise target. Over.” “Roger, Hellborne. We have troops in contact. Line of engagement runs northeast-southwest. Terrain is approximately 320 feet. Look for a red beacon; that is the friendlies. We have 3,000-foot mountains a mile to mile-and-a-half west of the target. Please set up a left-hand pattern with your crosswind leg breaking to the east. Dash-1, you need to make a dry pass on a 210 with a left break.” 29


“Roger, Catkiller. Dry pass on a two-one-zero with a left break. Dash-2, you copy?” “Dash-2 copies.” This guy knew what he was doing and had already turned to the northeast to give him plenty of room to come in on the proper heading. I was holding tight over the target as he passed below me. As the second Skyhawk manoeuvred for his dry run I advised Hammer that we’d come in with nape first, dropping 75m west of his position. “Catkiller, this is Hammer! That’s too far! We’ve got them 30 to 40m to our front! Bring it in closer!” Closer? At night? Okay, they were the men on the ground. But if 75m was too far, then 30m was way too close under these conditions. Did I risk their lives by splitting the difference? Marine aviators were the best in the world at this business, but the decision on where Hellborne put his first nape— and the responsibility for its aftermath—would be mine alone. Dash-2 passed beneath me on his dry run, and I turned off the landing light, relying on my anti-collision lights to keep the A-4s oriented to me and the target. I had a solid fix on the beacon and knew it was the one thing I couldn’t lose. “Dash-1, this is Catkiller. Be advised: on your run-in heading, your target, three o’clock”—I took a deep breath— “five-zero meters. Nape first. Over.” “Roger, Catkiller, Dash-1 turning base. Target from the beacon three o’clock, five-zero meters, nape first.” The Skyhawk pilot had no room for error. He had to keep his eye on that small red beacon to make sure he was far enough to the right of it that his ordnance killed the enemy and not Americans. At the same time, he’d be monitoring his instruments—airspeed, artificial horizon, rate of descent and altitude. In a shallow dive at 300 knots—covering more than six miles a minute—he had to calculate where to release the Delta-9, at which point he’d have less than three seconds to recover; any hesitation would spread him and his A-4 into fragments of bone and flaming wreckage. Twenty seconds from engagement the Marine aviator broke the tension by muttering into his mike, “It’s times like this that make me wish I’d gone into the hardware business with my old man.” I couldn’t help grinning as somewhere out there in the dark he was setting up his approach. “Catkiller, Dash-1 turning final.” I was already on a reciprocal course, heading toward the light on the ground. “Roger, Dash-1. Tell me when you see the red beacon.” “Catkiller, I have the beacon.” Peering through my windscreen, I could make out the green and red wingtip lights approaching just to my left. “Dash-1, I have you, you’re looking good”—the moment of truth—“you’re cleared hot.” As he went under my left wing, all I could see were those nav lights and the dorsal anti-collision light. The lights begin to climb, and then the napalm impacted behind him, illuminating his departure with red-orange flame surging through the trees. The aviator with a dad in the hardware business announced he was clear and climbing through 1,000 feet. I held my breath. The next two seconds seemed an eternity. “Catkiller, this is Hammer! Good hit! We need the next one to our right! Over!” I started breathing again. Dash-2 radioed that he was turning base. I had completed a 360 to the left and was again on a reverse bearing of 30 degrees. With the napalm and burning trees, there was no question about the location of the target. “Dash-2, this is Catkiller. From Dash-1’s nape, six o’clock, 100m. Over.” “Roger, Catkiller, six o’clock, 100m. Dash-2 on final.” 30


“Roger, Dash-2, you are cleared hot.” When he passed under me, the stubby A-4 was suddenly silhouetted against the fire and just as suddenly disappeared. Behind him another gush of flame erupted. An ecstatic Hammer came up on the FM to say the nape had landed right where it was needed. Two more runs left walls of flame west of his company’s line. Outboard racks bare of napalm canisters, bombs were next. “Hammer, this is Catkiller. We’re coming in with the snakes. How much cover do you have? Over.” “Catkiller, we have plenty of cover! Give us 100m! Over!” “Roger, Hammer. Stand by.” Back to Hellborne on the UHF radio. “Dash-1, this is Catkiller. From your original impact, three o’clock, 50m, with all your snakes. Over.” Each Skyhawk pilot strung out his 250-pound bombs about 120m in front of the contact line. At that point a second Hellborne flight reported in. The surviving North Vietnamese had already disengaged, and I used the new arrivals to saturate the area out to about 250m to inflict as many casualties as possible. After the Skyhawks headed back to Chu Lai, I stayed over Hammer until he released me with some heartfelt thanks. Two hours after taking the call, I returned to Dong Ha and collapsed into my cot. Before falling asleep, I re-ran the action in my mind, analysing each decision and looking for where I might have made a better one. This was the job I was being paid to do. I loved it.

Photos

Marine F-4B Phantom pilot “Indian” with Doc Clement, Catkiller 18. 31


Above: Doc Clement in front seat of his O-1 Bird Dog. Below: Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, South China Sea in background.

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Above: Lee Harrison, Catkiller 49, lost over North Vietnam. Below: 1st Platoon pilots. 4th from left, Charles Finch; Bill Hooper resting elbow on Doc Clement.

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Above: Bill Hooper flying north to Tally Ho while back-seater checks comms with artillery net. Below: F-4B Phantoms ready for take-off from Da Nang, carrying 360-gallon fuel tanks outboard on each wing and 500-pound Snakes on bellies.

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Above: Hellborne A-4 Skyhawk banks away from Finch’s Bird Dog. Below: Napalm hitting NVA in trench line.

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Above: Flak damage. Patches over previous hits at upper right. Below: Crew Chiefs Dennis Jenkins and Rich Buster on Catkiller ramp at Dong Ha.

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Above: Bullet hole through right wing strut. Below: Horizontal stabilizer hit by 12.7mm round.

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Above: Regulations stipulated a minimum altitude if 3,000 feet when flying in North Vietnam. Bill Hooper at 1,000 feet while looking for targets. Below: From left, Captains Charles Finch and Bill Hooper receive Silver Stars, the US Military’s third highest decoration for valour in combat.

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Geagte Lesers: Terugvoering en kommentaar oor die storie sal waardeer word. Indien u hiervan hou sal Jim Hooper nog stories stuur. 38


SAP: GESKIEDENIS | HISTORY SAP: Motorfiets-opleiding: Nico Moolman Nico Moolman het ‘n aantal ou glas-negatiewe ontwikkel en hierdie juweeltjies ontdek wat hy met ons lesers deel.

‘n Boer maak ‘n plan. Wit gekalkte klippe en kalkstrepe is vir oefenbaan gebruik. 39


Let op die oorpakke – dis dieselfde as wat sers. Brighten dra in die laaste foto. 40


Tweede van links, die kwartiermeester destyds, lt.-kol. (later brigadier) WF Cooper.

Die finale produk. 41


Kommentaar deur HBH Jare gelede het ek wyle genl. Pat Dillon se skoondogter, mev. Anne Dillon, besoek. Sy was ‘n weduwee, die generaal se seun is oorlede. Mev. Dillon se Vader was ook ‘n polisieman. Toe ek Nico se foto’s sien het ek dadelik aan ‘n foto gedink wat ek by mev. Dillon gekry het van haar Vader, sers. GS Brighten. Hier pas die SAP die Yskor-installasies naby die SAP-depot op. Die SAP het aanvalle van die Ossewabrandwag probeer verhoed. Yster en staal vervaardiging is nodig vir oorlogstuig. Konst. Brighten is die bestuurder.

Vuller: “Bos-Hof”? Hofsitting in die bos: Sers. Brighten

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‘n Bestuurderslisensie vir Motorfiets en syspan: Maj. JJ van Rooyen

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Majoor Dudley Wattrus: ‘n Legende van die Transkei: Lucas Holtzhausen Ek glo nie daar is ‘n polisieman wat in die Transkei gestasioneer was en wat nie vir majoor Dudley Wattrus geken het nie. Ek het die voorreg gehad om onder hom te kon dien toe hy die distrikspeurhoof (DSO) op Kokstad was. Oom Dudley het elke maand vir ons kom kuier om die ‘dockets’ so bietjie te ‘slag’. Die ‘slagproses’ het altyd so twee dae geduur. Ons het vir hom ‘n bed gemaak in die takbevelvoerder se kantoor en elke aand gebraai. Ek het al geleer hoe om vir Oom Dudley die ‘dooie dockets’ te gee. Jy gee nie al daardie ‘dockets’ vir hom op eenslag nie, anders gaan hy nie almal ‘toe maak’ nie. Jy ‘mix and match’ hulle met die lewendige- of ‘hof-dockets’ dan kap hy hulle “undetected”. So halfpad deur die oggend sal hy sy pen neersit en sê: “Lukey lets go and catch some fish”. Hy het so wit Ford Granada gery en daarin was sy visstok, .22 geweertjie en vele ander goetertjies. Dan vat ek hom na een van die boere se damme toe en vang hy so paar swart baars. Na die vangs kom hy terug en berei die vis voor in die enkelkwartiere se kombuis. Hy sal dan al die lede op die stasie roep, uniform en speurders, om te kom smul. Dan vanaand braai ons onder die groot boom, almal is welkom. Ek onthou een voorval baie goed wat in die 70’s op St Faiths plaas gevind het. St Faiths het onder die Kokstad geval en het aan die Port Shepstone-distrik gegrens. Dit is geweldig heuwelagtig en selfs die Land Rovers was tot die uiterste beproef. Ons ontvang ’n opdrag van die DK Kokstad om na St Faiths te gaan om die plaaslike lede by te staan sodat hulle ‘n lyk van ‘n swartman kon gaan haal wat deur hulle geskiet was. Dit sou ‘n gesamentlike optrede saam met die Sheppie-manne gewees het. Die Kokstad kontingent was onder bevel van Oom Dudley terwyl die DSO van Port Shepstone, sy manne aangevoer het. Ons almal arriveer toe op St Faiths en gaan haal die lyk, geen probleme nie. Na afloop van die optrede word daar toe besluit dat ons almal gaan braai. Soos dit maar in die ver afgeleë dorpies is, is daar darem altyd ‘n slaghuis en drankwinkel naby. Almal ‘club’ toe in vir vleis en drank en Oom Dudley vra toe vir skaapdermpies en ‘n dik stuk steak. Toe die vleis opdaag vat oom Dudley die dermpies en trek dit so een maal deur sy vingers en gooi dit op die kole saam met die steak. Die DSO van Sheppie staan en bekyk die spulletjie so. Oom Dudley draai daai steak net eenmaal en toe sny hy hom en bied een stuk op sy mespunt vir die offisier aan. Die man het bleek geword om die kiewe en baie beleef die vleis van die hand gewys. Oom Dudley is seker al diep in sy 80’s woon tans op Molteno Groetnis Lucas Holtzhausen (Pietermaritzburg).

Police History: Sub Rosa Introduction by Hennie Heymans Over the years I have made a detailed study of South Africa’s National Security History and in the process, I have met interesting people and I have heard their stories. Some stories were farfetched and others helped to complete the picture. Fortunately, I made digital recordings of some conversations. We had good spies on the Boer-side during the Anglo Boer War, we had a Secret Police (Geheime Politiie) division under the auspices of the ZAR Attorney-General, Adv. Jan Smuts. During WW1 we had a couple of good operators in German South West Africa; Scotty Smith (I obtained his UDF Service Record) spring to mind and then off course there was “Hauptman” (later 44


Lt.-Col.) AP Scotland and Capt. (later Field Marshall) WE Ironside. Not forgetting that the SA Police had a vote for secret work before and during WW1. Even German spies were caught in South Africa. During WW2 we also had good operators like Capt. Jan Taillard. Only this week I received the following e-mail from Germany; I share it with you as I received it: Beste Henni Jy weet al wie ek is? Ek is Bernd, Robey se seun. een van jou tydskrifte wys ´n foto van my oupa (Meyder Johannes Leibbrandt hy is Robey Leibbrandt se pa). Jammer dat die druk van die foto sooooo swak en onduidelik is, die man daarop is amper nooit te erken nie. Het jy die oorspronklike foto ook? Kan jy asseblief een baie goeie fotostaat daarvan aan my stuur? Baie dankie by voorbaat. Groete en lekker Kerstyd vir jou Bernd9 Robey Leibbrandt was a well-known historical personality in South Africa’s national security history. Not only did my father know him and his brother, but also Head-Constable (retired) Claude Balfour Sterley and Lt.-General HV Verster knew them. Oom Claude was present when Robey Leibbrandt was arrested at Six Mile Spruit (Wierda Bridge). One-day Gen. Verster told me, in the presence of Oom Claude Sterly, the whole story of Robey Leibbrandt as he knew it. In his youth the Verster’s lived next to the Leibbrandt’s in Potchefstroom. Soon after Robey Leibbrandt was sentenced to death, Mr. Meyder Leibbrandt paid a visit to Lt.-Col. Frank Verster who was at that time the Deputy Commissioner of the SAP for Transvaal. After the interview Col. Verster undertook to visit Gen. Smuts about the death sentence. One has to take the war record of Mr. Meyder Leibbrandt into account. He fought valiantly in Gen. Smuts’ commando during the Anglo Boer War. Gen. Smuts listened carefully to Lt.-Col. Verster and had Robey Leibbrand’s death sentence commuted into a life sentence. Captain Jan Taillard Captain (later Lt.-Col.) Jan Taillard was one of our top covert operators and an unsung hero10. His actions in South West Africa changed the course of World War 2. After his “South West”-adventure According to a source, Mr. Louis Esselen11 instructed Capt. Taillard to “resign” from the SA Police and settle in Brits. (When the NP came into power during 1948 they did not recognise Capt. Taillard’s undercover service – a problem that affected his pension.) Not even the acting Commissioner of Police, Brig. George Baston, was aware of this move. Mr. Louis Esselen guided Capt. Taillard in the process and eventually Robey Leibbrandt was arrested. I have recordings of how Lance Sergeant (as he was then) Claude Sterley arrested Robey Leibbrandt in the presence of Capt. Jan Taillard at Six Mile Spruit (Wierda Bridge) on 24th of December 1941 during a pre-arranged arrest. Gen. Verster told me that his father, Lt.-Col. Frank Verster watched the proceedings whilst in the shadows. I have asked Bernd for a story on his father – HBH. His exploits took place during the tenure of Field Marshall JC Smuts - then PM of South Africa – HBH. 11 Mr Louis Esselen has kept out of the academic limelight; therefore, we do not fully appreciate his role as “political or national security advisor” during either WW1 or WW2. Prof. H Giliomee mentions that Mr. Esselen was provided with information by DMI not only for national security purposes but also information to be used against the opposition, Nationalist Party. Mr. Esselen was secretary of the United Party. (See: Giliomee: The Arikaners (Tafelberg) 2012 p 443 – HBH. 9

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The Leibbrandt Trap: Mr Harry Lawrence: Sunday Times: 1 April 1973

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We have a wonderful history to look back upon. For example, Dr. JFJ van Rensburg CommandantGeneral of the Ossewabrandwag (OB) fought against the Boer Rebels at the outbreak of the first World War. He wore khaki and was member of the Winburg Commando. 20 Years later he takes over the OB from Col. Laas. He was never interned during WW2 while his deputies were interned. Our history is not finally written.

Iets oor die polisie van Newcastle, KZ-Natal: Nico Moolman Nico Moolman deel graag met ons lesers die volgende foto’s wat hy in Newcastle opgespoor het. Ons moet onthou dat Vryheid en Utrecht deel van die ou ZAR, die Transvaal Republiek, was. Na die Anglo-Boere-oorlog is die twee distrikte as beloning vir die kolonie van Natal gegee. Die Natal Border Police het toe tot stand gekom en is eers later by die Natal Police ingelyf. Die Unie van Suid-Afrika het gedurende 1910 tot stand gekom. Die Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM) het in 1912 tot stand gekom en die Natal Police is deur die Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM) opgeneem en hulle het as ‘n militêre konstabelmag in Natal diens as die 2de en 3de brigades van die SA Berede Skutters gedoen. In Natal het die ZAP slegs die speurdiens, hofordonnanse en waterpolisie behartig. Die res van die provinsie was deur die UVM gepolisieer. Die foto’s is nie in kronologiese volgorde nie slegs omdat ons so min van die mense op die foto’s weet. Die kommentaar is deur HBH. Enige verdere kommentaar sal waardeer word.

Een offisier, een sersant en manskappe (troopers) van die Natal Mounted Police te Newcastle.

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Polisie of soldate te Newcastle – dit lyk soos die ingang van ‘n fort. Sersant het chevrons op beide arms – voetpolisie?

Opskrif: Natal Police 1915: Newcastle. Dit is korrek, die manne is NP - MAAR die datum kan nie 1915 wees nie. (Ek weet die NP het al in 1911 die nuwe ZAP uniform gedra. Die NP het die kenteken op die kant van die helmet op die pugaree gedra. Sien manskap wat sit se helmet.

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Een offisier, twee voet-sersante en manskappe. Let op die diensstreep van die “trooper”. [Die gebruik van diensstrepe het ook in die SAP neerslag gevind en is in die 1950’s gestaak.

Geen idee! – Lede met wit skoene, moubande en handboeie. My eerste gedagte is: Die lede is van gevangenisdiens – let op al die voetboeie en gevangenis instrumente. Of kan dit Utrecht & Vryheid Mounted Police wees? [“En met witskoene kan geen mens inbrekers vang nie!”]

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Offisier en OO’s van die Natal Border Police. (Die hondjie het nie stil gesit nie.)

Geen idee wat die “MM Police” was nie! Onder waarskynlik: “Mounted Police Quarters”. 56


Natal Border Police: HBH

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Natal Border Police: Nongqai 1913-03-1055a

Natal Border Police Camp, Vryheid: 1902 - 1903 58


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Lt.-Col. CW Lewis

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Natal Border Police op patrollie – vir wie moes hulle in toom hou? Die Boere of die Zoeloes?

1879: Newcastle Mounted Rifles: Nico Moolman

In hierdie geval verwys NMR na Newcastle Mounted Rifles en nie na die Natal Mounted Rifles nie!

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Genl.-Maj. JG Dartnell: Stigter Natal Mounted Police: Nico Moolman Die byskrif beskryf hom verkeerdelik as: “Col Dartnell - Natal Mounted Rifles”. Hy was in 1874 die stigter van die Natal Mounted Police. Die NMP het 20 jaar later die Natal Police geword. Genl. Dartnell is later as generaal aangestel en hoof van al die Natalse vrywilliger magte. Hy was ‘n ware Natal pionier. Hier dra hy die uniform van ‘n brigadier-generaal – HBH.

Die Natal Police was een van die keurmagte in die Britse ryk. Hulle was ‘n innoverende mag en het juis die “mounted” in 1894 van hul naam geskrap. Hulle het vingerafdrukstelsel voor Scotland Yard geïmplementeer. Hulle het vir ons die Nongqai nagelaat ... 62


Bendes - Kaapse Vlaktes: Fanie Bouwer Die bendeprobleem in die Kaapse Vlakte is wéér eens 'n kwessie wat die nuusblaaie haal. Die polisieminister, Fikile Mbalula, het belowe dat die weermag voor Kersfees beskikbaar gestel sal word om die polisie te help. Hy het ook gesê die staatspresident sal binnekort goedkeuring gee en dat die operasionele planne alreeds opgestel is. Die mense van die Kaapse Vlakte wag in spanning. Beloftes maak skuld, kan mens sê. Ek wil so 'n bietjie terug gaan na die verlede oor hierdie bendekwessie. Baie jare gelede - 1994 om presies te wees - het ek op ‘n stadium elke dag na Manenberg buite Kaapstad gegaan en saam met my ABS-polisiemanne vir ‘n ruk op die grond saam gewerk om vas te stel wat werklik aangaan en om die kultuur, as ek dit só kan stel, van bendegeweld van naderby te aanskou en te ervaar. Die bendeleiers maak groot geld. Dit is ‘n bewese feit. Die ekonomie van die onderwêreld het ‘n omset van miljoene rand per jaar. En dié aantrekkingskrag sal maar altyd daar wees. Ons, in die wit woongebiede in die Kaap, lees maar net hieroor of sien iets van bendes op TV, maar het inderdaad nie ‘n baie goeie idee oor wat werklik daar in die Kaapse vlakte aangaan, of wat die mense as gevolg daarvan moet deurmaak nie. En hoeveel mense en kinders het nie al oor die jare gesterf het in die bendegevegte nie? Nie net gevegte tussen mekaar nie - die wreedste moorde en verkragtings denkbaar word deur hierdie mense gepleeg. Ek dink die meeste moorde vind plaas wanneer die bendes mekaar takel wanneer hulle sien dat ‘n opponerende groep in “hulle gebied” verdowingsmiddels probeer verkoop. Dit is gewoonlik tydens hierdie oor en weer skietery waar onskuldige omstanders ook raak geskiet word. En dan is daar sommer baie ander redes wat ook ‘n skietery tot gevolg het. Ek het al gewonder wat hier in ons wit woongebiede sal gebeur as daar sê byvoorbeeld 2, 3 of 4 kinders dood geskiet word. Die hel sal seker los wees. En sal daar uitroepe vir massiewe polisieoptrede wees en sal die koerante letterlik dae aaneen daaroor rapporteer. En sal alle pogings aangewend word om toe te sien dat dit nooit weer gebeur nie. Tog, in die Kaapse vlakte, is dit al vir dekades lank amper ‘n daaglikse belewenis. Daardie tyd het dit gebeur – en vandag nog. Ek noem bendes en bendegeweld ‘n “kultuur”, want dit is maar seker wat dit is. Of is dit ‘n verskynsel? Oor dekades heen probeer die staat, die polisie, NRO’s, die Kerke en gemeenskapsleiers om “iets” aan die hierdie probleem te doen, maar sonder enige noemenswaardige sukses. Veral op die langtermyn. Daar word baie van die polisie verwag in hierdie verband. Die argument is: Vang hulle en stuur hulle tronk toe. Maar dit is nie so maklik nie. Dit is ‘n diepgewortelde sosio-maatskaplike probleem.

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Die polisie kan nie net daar invaar en links en regs arresteer nie. Hulle moet minstens ‘n misdaad teen iemand kan bewys. Jy kan ook nie soos met terroriste “arrest or shoot on sight” nie. Dit is ook nie ‘n misdaad omdat jy toevallig of vrywillig ‘n bendelid is nie. Dit is bekend dat baie sake in die howe skipbreuk lei as gevolg van die feit dat party ooggetuies wat verklarings aan die polisie afgelê het, eenvoudig op ‘n stadium voor die verhoor deur bendelede dood geskiet word. En omdat die mense bewus is hiervan, kom van die ooggetuies dus nie na vore nie. Hierdie hele spiraal van geweld veroorsaak ‘n gevoel van hulpeloosheid in die gemeenskap. Dan dink ‘n mens aan die gedwonge verskuiwings van mense na die Kaapse vlakte tydens die implementering van die destydse groepsgebiedewette. Dan is daar die armoede wat heers; die swak behuising en die werkloosheid en gepaardgaande armoede wat tot vandag toe nog ‘n ontsettende probleem is. Geen wonder dat die Kaapse digter Adma Small die volgende in sy gedig gesê het nie: “die Here het gaskommel en die dice het verkeerd geval vi’ ons daai’s maar al ….” (Vuller) SAP 1949: Durban-onluste

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Die SAP in die jare dertig: Nico Moolman

Bo: Voet- en beredepolisie by onbekende geleentheid. Let op die Britse vlag. Onder: SAP neem deel aan die Pretoria skou:

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1897: Claremont Poging: Gewapende Roof: Maj. Easton (Ondersoekbeampte) Hier is nog ‘n “ou” moord-en-roofsaak12:

Ons het verlede maand oor die “grondlegger” van die Kaapse “moord en roof”-eenheid, maj. George Easton berig HBH. 12

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African Policeman: Morten Kriek

[In my young days during the 1960’s African policemen carried knobkieries, assegais and bayonets. Only African detectives were armed. These ‘old’ policemen were excellent policemen! – HBH.] 68


British East African Native Police

Caption reads: “British East African Native Police” – Note they are armed as the old “Nongqai “was.

DIE VRYMESSELAARS IN NASIONALE VEILIGHEIDSVERBAND Nou onlangs vestig iemand my aandag op ‘n artikel wat in Die Bronberger verskyn het oor die Vrymesselaars. Ek het die nodige toestemming ontvang om die artikel hier onder aan te haal. Ek het nou die dag gelees hoe lede van die vrymesselaars aan beide kante tydens die Anglo Boereoorlog ooreengekom het, om nie die goudmyne te verwoes nie. (Kmdt. FET Krause – kommandant van Johannesburg het selfs ‘n Boere-generaal verhoed om te doen nadat hy drastiese maatreëls toegepas het.)13

VOORTREKKERS, GENERALS EN PRESIDENTE WAS VRYMESSELAARS News - Toeka se dae Tuesday, 27 October 2015 08:26 Angie Kleijn

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Sien ook: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5226207/Freemasons-blocking-police-reforms-equality.html

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Voortrekkers, Boeregeneraals, bekende dominees en selfs presidente was in die vormingsjare van Pretoria lede van ‘n wêreldwye organisasie, wat ook ‘n invloed op stigtingsvaders van Amerika gehad het. Die vrymesselaars sê dat hulle nie ‘n geheime organisasie is nie, maar ‘n organisasie met geheime. Was dit ‘n geheim dat Boeregeneraals en -offisiere soos Danie Theron, Piet Joubert, Piet Cronjé, Ben Viljoen, Louis Botha, JC Smuts14, dr WJ Leyds, SG Vilonel, JP Wessels, Ben Havenga, Philip Botha, HP van der Post, SPE Trichardt, Piet Visser, JH Olivier en George Band vrymesselaars was? Vrystaatse en ZAR-presidente wat vrymesselaars was, sluit in, presidente MW Pretorius, Jan Brand, FW Reitz en Francois Burgers; die waarnemende Vrystaatse president PJ Blignaut en waarnemende ZAR-presidente Schalk Willem Burger, Stephanus Schoeman en Daniël Jacobus Erasmus. Só sê dr Jan van der Merwe in sy artikels, ‘Vrymesselary voor die aanvang van die SuidAfrikaanse Oorlog’ en ‘Vrymesselary ten tye van die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog’. Jan het ’n doktorsgraad in antropologie. Hy was van 2007 tot 2009 ’n direksielid van die AfrikanerBroederbond. Hy is die voorsitter van die raad van die Anglo-Boere-oorlog museum in Bloemfontein en werk as navorser by die Mangaung Metro Munisipaliteit in Bloemfontein. Volgens Jan se navorsing was die volgende Afrikaanse taalvaders ook vrymesselaars: CJ Langenhoven, AG Visser, ‘Onse Jan’ Hofmeyr, Toon van den Heever, FW Reitz, AD Keet en AA Pienaar (Sangiro). Suid-Afrika se eerste staatspresident ná republiekwording, Blackie Swart, was ‘n vrymesselaar en so ook die latere Vrystaatse administrateurs, Cornelius Wessels en AEW Ramsbottom. Die lys van bekende Afrikaners wat by die vrymesselary betrokke was, is te lank om hier te noem. Dit strek van kolonel JCC Laas, die stigterslid van die Ossewabrandwag, Gustav Preller en advokaat Tielman Roos tot ‘n lang lys hoofregters, ministers en burgemeesters.

Drie vrymesselaar NG dominees: president Thomas Francois Burgers, David Pieter Faure en JJ Kotze. Regs is ds. David Pieter Faure. [Foto: www.boervolk.com]

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Ek kon non nooit ‘n akademiese- of primêre bron kry om hierdie feit te bevestig nie - HBH.

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Vrymesselaars Volgens Jan van der Merwe is die vrymesselaars ’n wêreldwye humanitêre organisasie. Hulle belangrikste funksie is om by gemeenskapsontwikkeling en liefdadigheidswerk betrokke te wees. Jy kan net ‘n lid word as jy uitgenooi word en ná afloop van ’n inlywingsproses. Slegs ’n bestaande vrymesselaar kan ’n lid voorstel. Nadat die aansoeker die losie besoek het, word sy aansoek verwerp of aanvaar deur ’n geheime stemming: ‘n swart bal tel vir ’n nee-stem en ‘n wit bal vir ‘n ja-stem. Die kandidaat word gediskwalifiseer as daar ‘n swart bal tussen die wit balle in die stemkassie is. Om as ’n kandidaat te kwalifiseer, moet jy: in ’n Opperwese glo; uit vrye keuse aansluit; minstens 18 jaar oud wees; vry wees (slawe mag nie lede word nie); geestesgesond wees en ’n goeie reputasie en moraliteit hê. Jy moet ook een of twee getuigskrifte van aktiewe vrymesselaars hê. Volgens Jan kan net mans vrymesselaars word, maar ander bronne sê daar is glo twee vrymesselaarsordes in SA waarin mans en vrouens gesamentlik deelneem en een orde net vir vrouens. Vrymesselaars kom as ’n losie bymekaar en die lede word as die losie beskou. Die private aspekte van die moderne vrymesselary hou met interne rituele verband, asook die metodes van herkenning van medelede binne die ritueel. Die vraag is hoe die vrymesselaarsbeleid waarvolgens ‘n lid se eerste lojaliteit aan ander vrymesselaars moet wees, die Engelse Oorlog beïnvloed het. Daar is glo een ding wat selfs Boere en kakies op die oorlog se slagvelde kon sê om mekaar as vrymesselaars te herken en die dood vry te spring: O, Here, my God, is daar geen hulp vir die weduwee se seun nie?

Thomas François Burgers was die vierde ZAR-president van 1872 tot 1877. [Foto: Wikipedia]. Begin Dit blyk dat vrymesselary, wat ten tye van die oorlog reeds bykans 130 jaar in die land was, toe groot aanhang geniet het. Die Nederlandse skeepskaptein, Abraham van der Weijde, het die aanvoorwerk gedoen vir die eerste Nederlandse losie, die Goede Hoop, wat op 2 Mei 1772 in die Kaap gestig is. Abraham Chiron, ’n amptenaar van die Nederlandse regering, is tot meester van dié losie verkies. Die eerste Britse anneksasie van die Kaap was in 1795. Op 28 Januarie 1798 het ’n Britse militêre losie, Africa No 1, ook bekend as De Afrikaan, vir die eerste keer by De Goede Hoop byeengekom. 71


Die eerste volwaardige Engelse losie, The British Lodge, is eers in 1811, ná die tweede Britse anneksasie van die Kaap, gestig. Die eerste Franse losie, die L‘Esperance, is in 1824 in Kaapstad geopen. In 1828 was daar drie Engelse losies in die Kaap en nog een, die Albany Lodge, is in Grahamstad gevestig. Die Nederlandse losies het ook uitgebrei en in 1834 is De Vereeniging Losie op Graaff-Reinet geopen.

Pieter Jeremias Blignaut was 'n politikus, staatsamptenaar, staatsekretaris van die OranjeVrystaat (1879-1902) en het twee keer as staatspresident waargeneem, eers na die dood van staatspresident Brand (1888-1889) en weer na die bedanking van staatspresident Reitz [Foto: Wikipedia] Groot Trek Die Groot Trek het van 1835 tot 1838 uit die oosgrensdistrikte van die destydse Kaapkolonie begin en verskeie Voortrekkers, soos Piet Retief, was aktiewe vrymesselaars. Piet het Dingaan in November 1837 ontmoet en 'n verdrag onderteken wat grondgebied aan die Voortrekkers sou toeken. Na twee dae se feesvieringe, op 6 Februarie 1838, het Dingaan Piet se geselskap vermoor en hulle beendere is by moordkoppie laat lê. In Desember daardie jaar het Andries Pretorius se kommando laergetrek in dié omgewing en ‘n paar trekkers is afgevaardig om die beendere te gaan soek en te begrawe. Piet Retief se oorblyfsels is op 21 Desember 1838 uitgeken aan stukkies van sy satyn onderbaadjie, ‘n verweerde leersak waarin die traktaat tussen hom en Dingaan was en sy waterfles met vrymesselaar-simbole. Volgens Denise Woods is vrymesselary se hoofsimbole op dié waterfles uitgekerf: die kompas, tekendriehoek, twee pilare van Boas en Jakin, die alsiende oog van Osiris, die son, die maan, die geruite vloer, ’n hamer en ’n driehoek met ’n straalson daaragter.

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Schalk Willem Burger, ’n militêre leier, advokaat en politikus, was die waarnemende president van die ZAR van 1900 tot 1902, terwyl Paul Kruger in ballingskap in Europa was [Skets: Ria Erasmus].

Sir Johannes Henricus Brand, bekend as Jan Brand, was die vierde staatspresident van die Oranje Vrystaat, van 2 Februarie 1864 tot sy dood in 1888. [Foto: Wikipedia]

Monument Denise Woods se boek, ‘Oes die stormwind van volksgodsdiens’, het in 2006 verskyn. Daarin sê sy dat die feesvieringe ter herdenking van die eeufees van die Groot Trek in 1938 en die inhuldiging van die Voortrekkermonument in 1949 vrymesselaar-eienskappe bevat het. Haar voorbeelde strek van die fondamentsteenlegging, die fakkelmarathon, die geloftes wat langs die ossewaroetes afgelê is en die lamp wat met die son se strale aangesteek is. Denise verwys ook na vrymesselaar-simbole en -elemente in die monument se ontwerp en op die reliëfpanele, soos die altaar, die sonstraal, die vloerpatroon, die moeder-en-kind-uitbeelding en die goewerneur se handsimbool. Dr. Alta Steenkamp, senior argitektuur-lektor aan die Universiteit van Kaapstad, sê dat die Voortrekkermonument toevallig soos ’n vrymesselaars-tempel lyk omdat mildelik geleen is by ontwerp-idees van die Duitse Leipzig-monument.

Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was die eerste ZAR-president. [Foto: Nation States].

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Argitek Argitek Gerhard Moerdyk is in 1936 as boumeester van die Voortrekkermonument aangestel, maar dit blyk dat die komitee vir hom gesê het dat die monument soos die een by Leipzig moet lyk. Alta sê dat hulle nie van die vrymesselaarsmotiewe bewus kon wees nie, omdat die vrymesselaars-tempel in die kelder van die Leipzig-monument eers ná die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gevind is. Gerhard Moerdyk het in ‘Die Vaderland’ van 1936 in ’n verduideliking oor hoe die monument moet lyk, gesê dat die Voortrekkers geen argitektoniese erfenis nagelaat het nie. Hy het gesê ’n mens moet eerder ’n verwysing in die Bybel vind, want dit is wat die Voortrekkers sou doen. Hy het na die Bybelse Abraham verwys en gesê daar moet ’n altaar gebou word om die Voortrekkers se opofferings te huldig, soos wat Abraham gedoen het. Hy het ook gesê dat daar baie sulke heiligdomme wêreldwyd is – die Mausoleum van Halicarnassus, die Altaar van Zeus, die Taj Mahal in Indië, die Dôme des Invalides in Parys, die Leipzig-monument en die Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne.

CJ Langenhoven en sy vrou Kommandant-generaal Louis Pieter Arnoldus (Piet) Cronjé, by die kerk in Oudtshoorn op Botha. [Foto: Wikipedia] ZAR generaal. [Foto: Vertroue die huweliksdag van hulle in God en die Mauser] dogter, Engela, in 1926 [Foto: Wikipedia] Terug ‘n Honderd jaar voor Gerhard Moerdyk dié verduideliking gegee het, was die Groot Trek in volle swang en daar was spanning tussen Engelse en Nederlandse Vrymesselaar-losies in die Kaapkolonie. Die spanning het in die 1840’s toegeneem, veral nadat sir Christoffel Brand, vader van die latere Vrystaatse president, Jan Brand, grootmeester van al die Nederlandse losies in Suider-Afrika geword het (1847 tot 1874). In dié tyd het die Nederlandse losies na Willowmore, Richmond, Paarl, Somerset-Oos, Adelaide en Malmesbury uitgebrei. Jan Brand is op 5 April 1865 tot president van die Oranje-Vrystaat verkies en talle losies is geopen, waarvan dié in Bloemfontein, Philippolis, Winburg, Jagersfontein, Smithfield en Ficksburg onder die eerstes was.

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Losies is ook in die ZAR, waar vrymesselaar Marthinus Wessel Pretorius president was, gevestig. Die eerste een, Flaming Star of Africa, is op 22 Mei 1865 in Potchefstroom gestig. Die Skotse en Britse losies het gesê dat nuwe Nederlandse losies glo onwettig gestig is. Met die vorming van onafhanklike provinsiale losies in die ZAR, Oranje-Vrystaat en Natal, het ’n behoefte ontstaan dat meer streek-grootlosies gevorm moet word en dat Suider-Afrika sy eie verenigde grootlosie, onafhanklik van Engeland, moes hê. Dié beginsel is glo deur die Engelse losies as ongewens verklaar.

Petrus Jacobus (Piet) Joubert ‘n Beeld van Piet Retief by die was kommandant-generaal Voortrekkermonument. [Foto: van die ZAR van 1880 tot Wikipedia]. 1900. [Foto: Wikipedia].

Genl. BJ (Ben) Viljoen. [Foto: EL Jackson, St Helena: The Historic Island, Ward, Lock & Co, London, 1903.]

Goudstormloop Vrymesselaars mag glo nie politiek in hulle losies bespreek nie, maar die ontdekking van diamante en goud en die Engelse imperialiste se pogings om die twee Boere-republieke, die ZAR en die Oranje-Vrystaat, van hulle vryheid te beroof, moes sekerlik spanning tussen Nederlandse en Engelse losies veroorsaak het. Die Britse regering het die gebied rondom Kimberley (Griekwaland-Wes) in 1870 geannekseer. Op 28 Junie 1872 is ’n Engelse losie, die Cosmopolitan, in Kimberley geopen. Volgende op die anneksasie-lys was die ZAR. Shepstone het op 22 Januarie 1877 met 25 berede polisiemanne en agt amptenare in Pretoria aangekom om “sekere griewe met president Francois Burgers te bespreek”. Die ware doel was egter anneksasie. In die begin van 1879 was daar drie Nederlandse losies in die ZAR: Aurora in Pretoria, Flaming Star in Potchefstroom en Oranje in Rustenburg. Daar was een Engelse losie, die Transvaal, wat in 1878 in Pretoria gestig is. Die ZAR-volksraad het in Desember 1880 vergader, krygswet is afgekondig en die eerste skote van die Eerste Vryheidsoorlog is afgevuur. Die Boeremagte het die Engelse op 27 Februarie 1881 by Amajuba verslaan en die ZAR het sy onafhanklikheid teruggekry. 75


Ná dié oorlog was daar ‘n depressie van 1882 tot 1886 en honderde vrymesselaars was verplig om te bedank en tientalle vrymesselaarslosies het gesluit.

Piet Retief [Bron: SA History].

Kommandant-generaal Stephanus Schoeman, bekend as ‘Stormvogel den Noorden’, was waarnemende staatspresident van die ZAR van 6 Desember 1860 tot 17 April 1862 [Foto: Wikipedia].

Rhodes In 1890 het ’n invloedryke vrymesselaar, Cecil John Rhodes, die premier van die Kaapse parlement geword. Hy het die steun van JH Hofmeyr, wat toe die meester van die Nederlandse losies in die Kaap was, se Afrikanerbond politieke party gehad. Vrymesselary in Suid-Afrika het in 1890 sy eerste joernaal gekry, die ‘SA Freemason’. Die redakteur, W Darley-Hartley, was ’n mediese dokter van Oos-Londen en ’n Rhodes-ondersteuner, en het met sy joernaal gepoog om al die losies in Suid-Afrika onder een verenigde losie te kry en onafhanklik van die vrymesselary in Engeland te maak. Hy wou Rhodes die grootmeester hiervan maak. Dié idee is by ’n konvensie op 18 Oktober 1892 in Kimberley bespreek waar 227 losies vir ’n verenigde losie gestem het, 241 was daarteen en 25 losies het buite stemming gebly. Die Nederlandse losies, onder hoofsegsman, ds. DP Faure, was by die Kimberley-konferensie teen dié gedagte gekant. Intussen is twee nuwe Nederlandse losies in die ZAR gevestig, die Libertas in Krugersdorp en De Broederbond in Pretoria. In 1892 was die ledetal van die Nederlandse losies 587. Drie nuwe Engelse losies is in Mei 1889 in die ZAR gestig: die Johannesburg in Johannesburg; die Royal Albert in Klerksdorp en die El Dorado op die myndorpie Malmani. Die Skotse losies het gevolg en die Golden Thistle is in November in Johannesburg gestig. In 1893 het Londen toestemming gegee om nog Engelse losies in die ZAR te vestig: Die Gold Field in Johannesburg; asook die Boksburg-, Jeppestown-, Germiston- en Zoutpansberg-losies.

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Intussen het een van die grootste opstekers vir Rhodes se Jameson-inval, JE Green, in Londen aansoek gedoen om ’n streek-grootmeester vir die ZAR verkies te kry. Londen het ingestem, en George Richards is verkies.

Danie Theron, kommandant van die Wielrijders Rapportgangers Corps, 1899. [Foto: Wikipedia]. Inval Rhodes het gevrees dat die ZAR met sy goud en ’n eie spoorweg na Delagoabaai, sy wil op die Britse gebiede sou kon afdwing. Die spoorlyn tussen Pretoria en Delagoabaai, wat die ZAR onafhanklik van Britse hawens sou maak, is in 1895 in gebruik geneem. Rhodes se plan om dit te keer was die Jameson-inval in 1895. Na die mislukte Jameson-inval is vrymesselaar streek-grootmeester, George Richards, in hegtenis geneem. Hy is later vrygelaat nadat hy ’n boete van meer as 2 000 pond vir sy aandeel in die mislukte Jameson-inval betaal het. Sy betrokkenheid by die mislukte opstand en die Jameson-inval het tot ’n hewige debat binne vrymesselaarskringe gelei. Die Engelse losies het sy gedrag goedgepraat en dit was duidelik dat lojaliteit aan die Britse kroon vrymesselarybeginsels oorskry het. Jan van der Merwe sê dit is insiggewend om daarop te let dat die persone aan Boerekant wat primêr vir die oorwinning oor Jameson verantwoordelik was, generaals Piet Cronjé en Piet Joubert, altwee aktiewe vrymesselaarlede was. Altwee was betrokke by die vrymesselaars tot ná die Engelse Oorlog, en het selfs op St. Helena ’n vrymesselaarswerking bygewoon, terwyl Jameson daar as krygsgevangene aangehou is. Die mislukte inval het vêrreikende gevolge gehad. Generaal Cronjé se oorwinnings het burgers geïnspireer en die ZAR en Vrystaatse Republiek het in 1897 ’n verdediging- en aanvalsverbond gesluit. Die Kaapse Afrikanerbond, wat die ZAR voorheen gekritiseer het, het sy steun aan Rhodes onttrek en hy was verplig om as premier van die Kaapkolonie te bedank.

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Joernalis Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Onze Jan) was Francois Petrus (Toon) van den Heever, digter by ‘De Zuid-Afrikaan’, ‘Ons Land’ en die ‘Zuid- en Hertzogprys-wenner. [Foto:Geni.com]. Afrikaansche Tijdschrift’. [Foto: Wikipedia]. Oorlog In 1898 het die Engelse konstitusie uit 24 losies bestaan met ’n 1 838-ledetal. Elf van dié 24 losies was in die ZAR. Nadat die krygswet in 1899 afgekondig is, het die meeste van die vrymesselaarslosies in die Boererepublieke hulle werksaamhede gestaak en baie van die uitlanders wat aan die Engelse losies verbonde was, het die ZAR verlaat. Die eerste gevegte van die Engelse Oorlog was op 20 Oktober 1899 by Talana, naby Dundee. Die gevegte het van hier af na Ladysmith verskuif waar kommandant-generaal Piet Joubert, ’n vrymesselaar van De Broederband-losie in Pretoria, betrokke was. Jan van der Merwe sê dat die Boeremagte nooit enige skade aan enige van die vrymesselaarslosies in die oorlog aangerig het nie. Die enigste aangetekende geval van poging tot skade deur Boerekrygers was in Dundee waar Boererebelle een keer die meubels in ‘n vrymesselaarslosie probeer plunder het. In die Britse publikasie, ‘Freemason’, van Julie 1902 word berig dat die Boere geboue met ’n erkende verbintenis tot vrymesselary by meer as een geleentheid van vernietiging gered het. Tog het die Britse troepe hulle skuldig gemaak aan vandalisme en plundery van vrymesselaargeboue en is baie losies deur die Britte ook as hospitale, store of kantore gebruik.

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Charles Robberts (Blackie) Swart, die eerste Digter Andries Gerhardus (AG) Visser, bekend staatspresident van die Republiek van Suid- as die Sanger van Suikerbosrand. [Foto: ZuidAfrika van 1961 tot 1967. [Foto: Wikipedia]. Afrikahuis.[ Samewerking Volgens vrymesselaarsbeleid behoort ‘n lid se eerste lojaliteit aan ander vrymesselaars te wees. Dit het Boereverkenner, kaptein Danie Theron, wat ’n lid van die Krugersdorpse losie was, goed besef. Hy het ‘n trein, wat op pad na Johannesburg was, gebuit en 47 Britse gevangenis op ’n medevrymesselaar, kolonel JG Stowe, se versoek vrygelaat. Stowe, die konsul-generaal van die VSA in Suid-Afrika, was ‘n passasier in dié trein se salonwa. Dit lyk asof Danie een van die min vrymesselaars was wat dié beleid gevolg het. In 1899 het die grootlosie van die Nederlande 2 000 guldes gestuur om die nood net onder Hollandse vrymesselaars te verlig. In 1901 is ’n verdere 8 300 guldes gestuur. Meer as £10 000 is deur die Engelse Stigtingsvrymesselaars in Suid-Afrika ingesamel vir hulle eie broeders se noodverligting, maar daar is gespesifiseer dat geen van dié geld ter verligting van die nood van Skotse, Ierse of Hollandse vrymesselaars gebruik mag word nie. •

Mense wat meer hieroor wil lees kan gaan kyk na: AA Cooper se boek, ‘The Freemasons of South Africa’, wat in 1986 deur Human & Rousseau uitgegee is; OH Bates se boek, ‘The Lodge De Goede Hoop’, wat in 1947 deur Struik uitgegee is; of TN Cranstoun-Day se boek, ‘The British Lodge No 334 and English Freemasonry at the Cape of Good Hope, 1795–1935’ wat in 1936 deur Collins Books uitgegee is. http://www.bronberger.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3021%3Avoortrekk ers-generaals-en-presidente-was-vrymesselaars&catid=50%3Atoeka-se-dae&Itemid=76

Kommentaar oor die vrymesselaars: HBH My Vader was ‘n Vrystaatse-plaasseun wat gedurende 1938 by die polisie aangesluit het. Die polisie het, nadat hy uitpasseer het, hom na Durban verplaas. Toe breek die tweede wêreldoorlog uit. Beide 79


my Oupa Heymans en Ouma (gebore Faure) was weeskinders en oudinwoners van die Britse konsentrasiekampe tydens die Anglo Boere-oorlog. My Ouma het my Vader versoek om nie die “Rooi Eed” te teken nie. Sy het egter nie met die bevelstruktuur van die SAP tred gehou nie. Na strawwe strafmaatreëls, en dit lyk my dit het van plek na plek verskil, het hy onder dwang die eed geneem. Hy is 1918 gebore en is pas 21 jaar oud in Desember 1939. Later het hy lid van die vrymesselaars geword. Ek het hom gevra waarom hy lid geword het? Sy antwoord was dat lede van die “CPS” (Civlian Protection Services) wat die SAP tydens die oorlog ondersteun het, hom gewerf het. My vader was diaken in die NG Kerk. Op ‘n stadium is alle vrymesselaars gevra om die ampte van diaken en ouderling neer te lê indien hulle vrymesselaars is. Sy naam was toe in die kerk afgelees. Dit het my vreeslik ontstel want ek het gedink dis ‘n skande! Natuurlik het ons familie, soos baie ander Suid-Afrikaanse families, familie aan albei kante van die kulturele-spoorlyn: Rooi lussies teenoor Ossewabrandwag en vrymesselaars teenoor die Afrikaner Broederbond en dan het ons nog Engelse, Iere en Skotte ook in die familie! (Party het aan Boerekant geveg.) Ek het later lid van die veiligheidspolisie geword. Ek het by ander lede gehoor dat die vrymesselaars ‘n volksvreemde organisasie was. Ek het my vader gekonfronteer oor die vrymesselaars en hy het toe aan my genoem dat, indien die vrymesselaars iets verkeerd doen of iets wat landsveiligheid sou raak, ek die eerste sou wees wat daarvan sou hoor. Dit het my baie gerus gestel. Ek het alles oor die vrymesselaars, waarop ek my hande kon lê, gelees. Ek is bewus van die Illuminati en verskillende samesweringsteorieë.15 Ek is ook bewus van die goeie wat hulle doen.16 Vrymesselaars in die SAP Baie lede van die Mag was vrymesselaars. Brig. BF “Ampie” Kotze was jare gelede ons groepshoof. In sy jong dae was hy ‘n klerk in die SAP-kollege. Hy vertel as klerk het hy gesien as hulle die “pos oopmaak” dat baie lede van die kollege-personeel destyds lede van die vrymesselaars was. Uit die aard van die saak weet ek van twee kommissarisse wat vrymesselaars was en een eersteminister wat na bewering lid was. Dié kommissaris van polisie het later ook lid van die Afrikaner Broederbond (AB) geword. 17 Op ‘n besoek aan die VSA het ek eendag die museum van die vrymesselaars in Washington, DC, besoek. Ek het aan een van die werknemers genoem dat my Vader ‘n vrymesselaar was. Sy reaksie was indien ek lid was, hulle baie ‘deure vir my sou kon oopmaak’. Ons het hoofkantoorberiggewers gehad. Ek het ‘n bron hanteer wat later ‘n “RS” geword het en nog later selfs ‘n senior offisier in die veiligheidstak geword het. Nou, die man was lid van die vrymesselaars en hy het my baie dinge vertel. Die persoon het beweer dat hy in opdrag, lid van die vrymesselaars geword het. Baie offisiere is natuurlik valslik beskuldig dat hulle vrymesselaars was. Dit is so dat baie offisiere en onderoffisiere lede van die organisasie was. Daar was ook baie weermaglede – veral in die vloot – wat jare gelede lede van die vrymesselaars was. Daar was ook baie stories in omloop dat party kollegas aan beide organisasies behoort het. Ek het nooit lid van enige geheime organisasie of organisasie met geheime, geword nie. My leuse was ‘n polisie-offisier dien die hele gemeenskap. Lt.-genl. JJ Viktor het altyd met ‘n vonkel in die oog gesê: “‘n Polisie-offisier behoort slegs aan die

Tydens my nagraadse studies was my professor ‘n voormalige hoof van inligting (SAW) en ons het oor die onderwerp gesels. Ek het nie nader aan die waarheid gekom nie – HBH. 16 Dit is die plig van die historikus om die verlede te verduidelik – nie om verskoning aan te bied nie – HBH. 17 Lees gerus JHP Serfontein se Brotherhood of Power – HBH. 15

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NG Kerk en die offisiersklub te behoort!” Hy was natuurlik ‘n kenner van die AB en ‘n diep studie in die verband onderneem. Ander organisasies In Durban waar ek groot geword het, was die Sons of England ‘n bekende organisasie maar dit lyk my die organisasie het ‘n stille dood gesterf. Twee ander organisasies waarin ek vanuit ‘n historiese oogpunt belangstel is die Ossewabrandwag en die Torch Commando.18

ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE-OORLOG Sexton, Soldier, Spy, Scout. The Anglo-Boer War Adventures of Captain JJ Naudé, DTD: Compiled by M Naudé Jacobus Johannes Naudé was born at Smithfield, Orange Free State in 1876. After attending school at Edenburg he relocated to the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek where he worked as an attorney’s clerk and studied part-time. His first experience of military service was during the Malaboch War in the Zoutpansberg as a member of Commandant Steenkamp’s commando. Little is known of his experience during this campaign, except that he carried a Whitford rifle. In 1896 he was mobilised again in reaction to the ill-fated Jameson Raid. It was during the war of 1899-1902 however that he was to discover his niche as scout and spy. The first battle of the war occurred at Talana near Dundee. To his dismay, Naudé found himself allocated to a non-combatant role with Van der Merwe’s Field Ambulance. He narrowly avoided capture. Unbeknown to him at the time it would be the first of many close calls and narrow escapes. At Willowgrange (near Estcourt) he was allowed to join a combat unit. Along with a few others he volunteered to conduct reconnaissance patrols into the Natal interior, behind the British lines, in the area between Mooi River and Pietermaritzburg. The scouting party returned to Ladysmith, besieged by the Boer Forces. Disillusioned by the siege tactics, he left for the Colesberg front where he served under Veldkornet Swart under General Lemmer’s forces. He was again involved in scouting activities. In 1900 he was granted special leave to travel to Pretoria to acquire equipment for scouting work. While trying to return to the front, he only managed to get as far as Brandfort. Bloemfontein had fallen to the British. He stayed in Brandfort for a while with a force under General de Wet before joining the Irish Brigade. This was a multi-national, pro-Boer formation under command of Colonel John Finnemore Blake, a West Point graduate. The Irish Brigade became famous for its reconnaissance work. Naudé served under Captain John Hansell, an Irish-American “soldier of fortune”. “He is the coolest, most determined and daring young man I ever saw, and I believe he is the most wonderful spy known, when all the circumstances are considered” John F. Blake A West Pointer with the Boers (1903)

18

Ek sou meer oor hierdie organisasies wou weet – HBH.

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With the British Forces closing in on Pretoria, Naudé was left behind in order to act as a spy following the British occupation. He was part-time koster or sexton of the Dutch Reformed Church in the centre of Pretoria and the belfry of the church made a useful observation post from which he noted troop movements around the city. A number of firearms were also hid in the ceiling of the church.

• Pretoria: Special Mounted Police (British) Following the occupation of Pretoria, he joined the Special Mounted Police that had been formed by the British to maintain law and order and was even promoted to sergeant! His service in this force caused him animosity from some Boers who regarded him a collaborator or even a traitor. His service in the police provided excellent cover however and allowed him to become acquainted with British military customs and etiquette. He was also instructed in drill by a former British South Africa Police trooper. These lessons would serve him well in future days when impersonating a British officer!

• Kapitein en Hoofd Speciale Diensten A network of civilian spies was set up in Pretoria but was however betrayed leading to the execution of Adolf Krause. Naudé left Pretoria as a result. In 1901 he was appointed as Kapitein en Hoofd Speciale Diensten [Captain and Head of Special Services] by Commandant-General Louis Botha. Despite a bounty on his head, Naudé entered and escaped from occupied Pretoria on ten separate occasions. A new network of spies was established; most of them women. The workings of this network are described in The Petticoat Commando (or Die Kappiekommando in Afrikaans). The women prove dinstrumental in sending information out of Pretoria. Some single ladies were on friendly terms with English officers, attending dances and the like. These occasions were useful for eavesdropping. Information was often smuggled out of the city by Naudé and his team. The ladies also corresponded with family and friends overseas. Messages were often written in between the lines of innocent conversation using secret ink. Railway schedules and a nominal roll of Boers who had joined the British forces were among the useful items smuggled out. Captain Naudé acquired British uniforms and accoutrements. This enabled him and one of his men to masquerade as “an English officer and his batman” and brazenly walk the streets of Pretoria. When not working in the city, Naudé and his men operated as conventional scouts. The Boers had a number of specialist scouting units. Units usually had 50 to 100 men on strength and were usually commanded by a kapitein [captain]. Officers held military-style rank (e.g. luitenant, kapitein) rather than commando titles (e.g. veldkornet, commandant) and sometimes wore distinctive uniforms. The most famous of these units was arguable Theron se Verkenningskorps commanded by the legendary Captain Danie Theron. They operated mainly in the Free state and wore khaki uniforms with green facings. Captain Naudé’s reported directly to Commandant-General Botha. It is interesting to see that the “reconnaissance commandoes” of old were also considered to be “Chief of Army units” back then. Naudé avoided capture and surrendered after the end of hostilities. At the time his unit was operating with the Heidelberg Commando. Soon after the end of the war, the Military Governor, General Maxwell, arranged to meet Naudé. The general was apparently curious to meet the 26-year-old who had so successfully avoided capture. During the meeting the governor requested that the former scout and spy be kitted out with 82


a British uniform so that he could see for himself how convincing Naudé’s impersonation of a British Officer was. After the war, Captain Naudé issued each of his men with a printed and signed Certificate of Service. Naudé sought new employment armed with a handwritten testimonial from General Louis Botha. Botha soon became Prime Minister of the Transvaal Colony and in 1910 of the Union of South Africa. Naudé found work in the Railway Department until the First World War interrupted, but that is another story19. In the 1920s the Union government finally instituted some awards to recognise service in the former Boer Forces during the war of 1899-1902. In addition to the campaign medal for the Anglo-Boer War, Jacobus Johannes Naudé was awarded the Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst [Decoration for Devoted Service]. The DTD was considered to be “the Boer DSO” and in fact ranked immediately above the DSO in the Union of South Africa’s Order of Precedence. References The preceding article is a condensed account based on a variety of sources, including the secondary sources listed below as well as documents held by the National Archives. • • • • •

Blake, J F (1903). A West Pointer with the Boers. Angel Guardian Press. Boston. Brandt, J v W (2000). Die Kappiekommando of Boerevrouwe in Geheime Diens. Protea. Pretoria. Malan, J (1990). Die Boere officiere van die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog 1899-1902. Van der Walt. Pretoria. Scholtz, G D (2001). In Doodsgevaar. Protea. Pretoria. Van Bart, M & Scholtz, L (2003). Vir Vryheid en Reg. Tafelberg. Cape Town.

Major J J Naudé commanded Naudé’s Scouts, SA Intelligence Corps, was mentioned in dispatches and awarded the French Croix de Guerre. 19

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British Army: Regimental Pet: Morten Kriek

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British Army: Anglo Boer War: Morten Kriek

Armoured Train

Caption reads: “Troops on the way up country.” 87


Caption reads: Colt Gun in action near Standerton August 1901.

Caption reads: Pom-pom crossing a drift.

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Saldanha Bay: Boers vs Royal Navy: Nico Moolman

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ZARP: Johannesburg: Nico Moolman

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Wet & Orde: Assistent-Veldkornet: Pieter Roos: Krokodilrivier: ZAR

Assistent-veldkornet Pieter Roos - ZAR – Krokodilrivier.

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1905: TROOPING THE COLOUR: PRETORIA

Trooping the Colours, Pretoria. 1905. It was presented to then Governor-General, Lord Selbourne. Friedel Hansen.

UNIE VERDEDIGINGSMAG | UNION DEFENCE FORCE

Ons veiligheidsmagte gedurende 1914 – 1918. Geen verdere besonderhede nie, waarskynlik op pad na Duits-Oos Afrika. Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman.

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SADF: BUSH WAR | SAW BOSOORLOG K-k vraag sit! Steve de Witt Reprinted with kind permission from “The Observation Post” by Peter Dickens and with permission from Steve de Witt. Kak vraag, sit! Steve De Witt "Decades ago we came barrelling around a corner in Onjiva and drove into a T-34 tank. We were just a SAI section in a Buffel. This was a seriously unequal encounter. Like when Bismarck concussed himself bouncing off Eben Etzebeth. You get two kinds of leopards, Oom Schalk Lourens said, one with more spots and one with fewer spots. But when you come across a leopard in the bush you only do one kind of running. And that's the fastest kind. The same applies to a T-34 tank. If you're in a Ratel I guess it's different. I hear they knocked out quite a few T-34s. If you're an NSM Bokkop in a Buffel, there's nothing you learnt in bush-alley shooting that can help you. You become acutely aware of your shortcomings when facing a Russian tank. A bunch of R4's, an LMG and a shotgun don't get you far. I suppose we could've used our pikstel knives as well but this wasn't the time to check inventory. They said don't volunteer for anything in the army but in that moment your body commits treason against you. Your anus volunteers to open right there and then in the Buffel. That's a secondary and unimportant reaction. Your first response is to scream at the driver to Reverse! All of you, screaming the same thing simultaneously. At the same time, you duck down behind the steel plating. A T-34 cannon is pretty intimidating when you're facing it from the front. And when it's job is to erase you from the planet. Not that ducking down helps much. There's also that little round bubble on the T-34 with a short barrel poking out. You don't know if it's a 7.62 or a 20mm or even a 30mm cannon. Whatever, you suspect it can fire big chunks of Siberian lead right through your Buffel. Christo, our driver, was now under severe pressure. He had a bunch of screaming, sh*tting maniacs behind him and a Russian tank in front. Pressure wasn't Christo's thing. He was everyone's buddy but had cracked in ‘Basics’. They were chasing us around with bed frames at 1am when Christo gave in. Sat down, lit a cigarette and told the Instructors to f-off. THAT was something to witness. Another story for another day. Point is, he couldn't take the punch, they said. Let's keep him away from contacts. Make him a driver. So much for that theory. But now Christo had the chance to redeem himself. Pretty easy, you might think. Just hit reverse gear and back up around the corner. Maybe his hesitation was influenced by 10 infantrymen and a sergeant yelling at him in 3 languages - English, Afrikaans and Nuwe Vloekerei. The last is when you spontaneously construct sentences consisting only of swear words. Bad ones that make you cry when confessing to the Dominee. He also cries. 93


Some of the swear words are old, the stock ones in your vocabulary. When they don't work and Christo is grinding the gears trying to find Reverse, you spontaneously invent new words. These involve a combination of the driver's, your own and everyone else's mother, including the T-34's. The amazing thing is that this new language works. Christo hammered us into Reverse, popped the clutch and we shot backwards faster than a T-34 projectile goes forwards. Straight into a line of Buffel’s behind us that veered left and right to avoid a crash. This caused Onjiva's biggest traffic snarl-up since Antonio the Porto arrived with fresh veggies from Lubango. On top of the skidding and sliding Buffels a company of Bokkops jumped up shouting: “What's Your <Nuwe Vloekerei> Problem!?” Kak vraag sit. Go round the corner and see for yourself. ... So last month I walked around London's Imperial War Museum looking at nice war things like Spitfires and bent steel girders from the World Trade Centre and suicide bomber vests and stuff. Relics from other people's wars. Then you walk around a corner straight into the barrel of a T-34 tank. Deja vu. Instinctively I ducked and shouted out the same Nuwe Vloekerei I'd used many years ago. I didn't know those words were still in my vocabulary. A museum guide smiled and helped me off the floor. He told me the tank fought at Stalingrad where they defeated the Nazi Panzers. I told him I know this tank. And asked him to take the picture. “We don't get many visitors who fought against a T-34”, he said. I had to correct him. “You don't get many visitors who ran away from a T-34”, I said. Written by Steve De Witt and published on The Observation Post with his kind permission. Editor - Sometimes we get a gem of a story, and this one from the heart of a veteran SADF national serviceman who has "been there, done that and got the T shirt" fighting on the Angola/Namibia (SWA) Border, thank you Steve De Witt for this bit of "truth" and sharing your story in such an amusing and interesting way with The Observation Post.

Nongqai’s thanks to both Steve de Witt and Peter Dickens from The Observation Post.

SOUTH AFRICA: CRIME AND THE MEDIA Moorde op Suid-Afrikaanse plase duur voort. Dit is eienaardig, toe ek ‘n kind was het ons dikwels op ons familie se verskillende plase gekuier. Die opstal se deure was nooit gesluit nie ek het altyd veilig gevoel as ons op een plaas in die buitekamer geslaap het. Daar was altyd ‘n hegte band tussen die boer en sy plaaswerkers.

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Gedurende 1961 stig die SAKP sy gewapende vleuel Mkonto weSizwe (MK).20 Dit is my gevoel dat plaasaanvalle hier in die 1980’s meer op die voorgrond getree het. (Miskien was dit omdat ek op die NAS-GOS gedien het en alle onrus voorvalle daar aangemeld was, ek weet nie.) Destyds het die plaasmoorde en -aanvalle my laat dink aan die dae toe ons in Rhodesië gedien het. Vandag is dit my gevoel die plaasaanvalle erger as in die destydse Rhodesië en Suidwes-Afrika of selfs die Maumau-aanvalle in Kenia gedurende die 1950’s. Vir jare was ons al lede van die veiligheidspolisie blootgestel aan propaganda. Die spreekwoordelike duisendjarige vrederyk was belowe. ‘n Lid van ‘n intelligensiediens het ons voorlig m.b.t. die nuwe regering: “Hulle sal ‘n legitieme regering daarstel, hulle sal verantwoordbaar en deursigtig wees. Die mooi boodskap is afgesluit met “en sal ons teen die hele wêreld rugby kan speel!”. Dit het my diep bekommerd gelaat. (Dink maar aan die waardesisteem destyds en wat vandag alles aangaan.) Lees mens die volgende berig dan wonder mens of die polisie ernstig is om die aanvallers aan te keer? (Sien dele in geel gemerk.) In een geval is die verklaring van die oorledene se gade nog nie eens afgeneem nie? Hoe werk dit? Swak polisiëring kan vigilante optrede tot gevolg hê. Is die staat ernstig om die plaasaanvalle af te weer?

Racially charged farm murders rock SA 2017-12-26 08:58

A bakkie emblazoned with an anti-farm murder slogan. (James de Villiers/News24)

20

Sien: South African Communists Speak 1915 - 1980

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Tzaneen - "They beat him with a pole... and you could hear the bones breaking," said Debbie Turner, recounting her husband's murder in a slow, defiant voice. She refuses to talk about him in the past tense and sleeps with a photo of him close by. "I miss him so terribly - it's just so hard," she said, sitting in front of the frail-care unit that has been her home since the attack at their farm. Robert "Oki" Turner, 66, was beaten to death before her eyes six months ago on their isolated stretch of mountain land in Limpopo province. He was one of the latest victims of a long campaign of violence against the country's farmers who are largely white. Racial tensions The rural crime epidemic has inflamed political and racial tensions nearly a quarter-of-a-century after the fall of apartheid. Farm murders are just one issue that reveals how South Africa is struggling with violence, an economic slowdown and divisions along race lines. The Turners moved to the verdant region, half-way between Kruger National Park and Zimbabwe, some 30 years ago. On their property, which spans dozens of hectares, they grew gum trees which they sold to craftsmen or for firewood. "Until about four or five years ago, we were very open. We didn't have a key for our house - we would go away and nothing would have happened," she said. But then the extreme violence that had long afflicted major cities engulfed rural areas like theirs. Break-ins, hostage takings and killings became common - with attackers often making off with just a few hundred rand, a mobile phone or a hunting rifle. Battleground The Turners were targeted after nightfall on June 14 when two armed men stormed their farm. Debbie was alone after her husband stepped out to fix a water tap. "They said: 'We want money.' I said: 'I haven't got money,'" recounted Debbie. "They dragged me all over the house and put me under the shower and turned it on and left me for 15 minutes. "Then they decided to try to rape me. I said: 'Please don't rape me, I've got HIV.'" Sometime later, Oki was found slumped motionless covered in blood after being savagely beaten by the attackers searching for the key to the couple's safe. He died in hospital a few hours later. Dozens of white farmers are murdered in similar circumstances in SA every year. In the absence of detailed statistics, the scope and scale of the crimes has become a battleground. "Farmers are living in remote areas, they are far from police stations," said AfriForum vice president Ernst Roets. 96


"There are political factors that play a role here. We are concerned about hate speech, political leaders who... would say for example: 'The white farmers should be blamed for everything.'" 'Radical economic transformation' He is particularly damning of Economic Freedom Fighters leader Julius Malema, who has called on his followers to "retake the land" from whites. In 2012, President Jacob Zuma sang a struggle-era song containing the words "shoot the farmer, shoot the Boer". Agriculture, like much of South Africa's economy, remains in the hands of the white descendants of colonial-era settlers. White farmers control 73% of arable land in the country compared with 85% when apartheid ended in 1994, according to a recent study. Calls for "radical economic transformation" to benefit the black majority have gained traction as unemployment has soared. They are frequently coupled with accusations that the white minority control a disproportionate share of the nation's wealth. That narrative has alarmed many white rural communities. "We're being hunted," said Pauli, a 43-year-old farmer who declined to give her surname. Farm murders More militant white farmers describe the violence they face as "genocide" and use the casually racist rhetoric of the apartheid era. "They [black people] truly think that we have stolen the country from them," said Limpopo-based farmer Gerhardus Harmse. "We built this country, show me anything, any place that the blacks built - there isn't any. They cannot build, they destroy." The radical fringe has become increasingly vocal. In November, some supporters flew the apartheid-era flag during a protest against farm murders. The demonstration called on the government to guarantee farmers special protection - something that Police Minister Fikile Mbalula categorically refused. "All deaths of all South Africans must be met with disgust," wrote Mbalula in a Twitter post. "My problem is that farm murders are racialised and politicised." While black farmers have so far been largely reluctant to march with their white colleagues, they face many of the same risks. "We don't feel protected by the government," said Vuyo Mahlati, president of the African Farmers Association of South Africa. "We need to deal with everyone trying to utilise farming as a centre of a right-wing political discourse. That we are not going to allow." Feeling abandoned by the government, many white farmers have taken steps to protect themselves. Some patrol their land under moonlight, pistols tucked into their belts, to deter would-be attackers. 97


Others undergo commando training in anticipation of the worst. Among them is Marli Swanepoel, 37, who owns a farm in Limpopo. "You have to be prepared. You have to protect yourself," said the mother-of-three. Hans Bergmann was recently assaulted on his farm, but takes a different approach. Some weeks ago, armed men broke in to rob his safe, tied him up and shot him in the foot. "In South Africa everybody thinks farmers have a lot of money," he said. Bergmann, who is in his 60s, declines to carry a gun or abandon his land. "I just accept it... where do I go from here if I leave the farm?" he said. Debbie Turner is scathing of the police who have yet to catch her husband's killers - or even take a statement from her. "It shows that what happened that night doesn't mean anything to these people," she said. "I'm angry against those people who killed my husband. Sometimes I wish they could hang them." But she will not be leaving any time soon, vowing: "One day I will go back to the mountain." https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/racially-charged-farm-murders-rock-sa-20171226

TRUE COMERADESHIP: KAMERAADSKAP EN OMGEE Charity begins at home. “But some things did not change... Courage, for instance. Dedication to a cause. Comradeship. When they were strong and pure, when they came from deep in the bone, those qualities could hold fast against all odds.” ― Juliet Marillier, Raven Flight

A walk down memory lane: Ben Kruger (USA) on Eugene de Kock As the year comes to pass I find myself in contemplation while walking down memory lane. The past 12 months were at times tumultuous. A friend, great man, warrior and sheepdog had it rough. To me there are the 007’s of fiction and the Sheepdogs of reality who guard the innocent. Let us remember Col. Eugene de Kock. To the best of my knowledge the most highly decorated officer in the history of the SAP (South African Police Force). He who devoted his life to the protection of his country. He who voluntarily served 10 terms in Rhodesia fighting terrorists to protect the innocent. He who was a founder member of the “notorious” Koevoet Unit and the architect of its tactics. During its existence Koevoet was the most effective anti-terrorist unit known. During that time Eugene took the Honey Badger as his personal identifier. That animal known for its fearless pursuit in all its endeavours. Eugene and certain colleagues were tasked to blow up the ANC offices in London, a task 98


successfully performed. What is not common knowledge, is that on the flight back to South Africa a known target for elimination was identified on the same flight, however the opportunity to perform that task did not materialize. Sometimes the even the Honey Badger is thwarted.

Ben (left) and Eugene (right). Jim Hooper, international known author of Koevoet and some other books, describes Eugene de Kock as one of the most impressive people he ever met, someone who garnered the utmost loyalty from most who were under his command. It is appropriate to mention that from his days as station commander at Ruacana, Lucas Kilino, a former FNLA operative, was his right-hand man. The two of them performed stellar over border operations on their own (probably unauthorized) before the existence of Koevoet. Lucas was later killed in Angola. Sadly, the man who dedicated his life to the protection of his country was rewarded with a 212-year prison sentence for his efforts. His severance package from the SAP was used to get his wife and two sons out of South Africa to safe haven in Europe. The Honey Badger lost all. He served his time in prison with as strong a demeanour as only the Honey Badger can. After receiving parole, the Honey Badger stumbled, he is suffering severe PTSD and depression. He lost all, his wife his sons and his once undeniable resilience. He is now in need of support from the people he once protected. The picture is of Eugene and myself circa April 28 2015 when he was still planning on building himself a new life, sadly it was only a few months later the “‘Black Dog” got the better of the Honey Badger.

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If you ever slept safely in your bed because of the work Eugene and his team did or if you have any compassion for a Sheepdog and have a few bucks to spare, kindly make a direct donation to EA de Kock, FNB current account # 62 183 285 256; Branch code: 250 655; and SWIFT code FIRNZAJJXXX for international transfers Take note that all donations are paid directly to Eugene’s personal account there is no third-party fund on his behalf. “Legionary life is beautiful, not because of riches, partying or the acquisition of luxury, but because of the noble comradeship which binds all Legionaries in a sacred brotherhood of struggle.” ― Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, For My Legionaries

POLICE INTERNATIONAL UNITED KINGDOM Ms. Cressida Dick: The Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police Commissioner Dick is the first woman who became commissioner of police in the UK. (South Africa was the first to appoint a woman as national commissioner and general in the South African Police Service.) Cressida Dick From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cressida Dick, CBE QPM Commissioner Cressida Rose Dick, CBE, QPM (born 16 October 1960) is a British senior police officer, currently the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in London. She is the first woman to take charge of the service, being selected for the role in February 2017 and taking office on 10 April 2017. Early life 100


Cressida Dick is the third and youngest child of Marcus William Dick, Senior Tutor at Balliol College, Oxford, and Professor of Philosophy at the University of East Anglia, and Cecilia (née Buxton), an Oxford historian. She was born and brought up in Oxford, England. Before joining the police, she worked in a large accountancy firm. Police career In 1983, Dick joined the Metropolitan Police as a constable. In 1993, she joined the accelerated promotion course at Bramshill Police College, and in 1995, transferred to Thames Valley Police as a superintendent. She was operations superintendent at Oxford, and later, area commander in Oxford for three years. In 2000, she completed the strategic command course and, in 2001, she was awarded a Master of Philosophy in criminology from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, graduating with the highest grade in her class. In June 2001, she returned to the Metropolitan Police as a commander, where she was head of the diversity directorate until 2003. She then became the head of Operation Trident, which investigates gun crimes within London's black community. In the immediate aftermath of 21 July 2005 London bombings, she was the gold commander in the control room during the operation which led to the death of the Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes, wrongly identified as a potential suicide bomber (from which the inquest jury specifically exonerated her). In September 2006, the Metropolitan Police Authority announced her promotion to the rank of deputy assistant commissioner, specialist operations. On 30 June 2009 the Metropolitan Police Authority announced her promotion to assistant commissioner, in charge of the Specialist Crime Directorate. • • •

In July 2011, Dick was appointed assistant commissioner, specialist operations. In February 2013, she was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the United Kingdom by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4. She holds the Queen's Police Medal for distinguished service.

It was announced in December 2014 that she would retire from the police in 2015 to join the Foreign Office, in an unspecified director-general level posting. She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2015 New Year Honours for services to policing. On 22 February 2017, the Home Office and the Metropolitan Police jointly announced that Dick would be appointed as the next Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police by the Queen, on the recommendation of the Home Secretary Amber Rudd. She assumed office on 10 April 2017; her first official engagement was that afternoon being at the funeral of PC Keith Palmer, the officer killed in the 2017 Westminster attack. Dick came out as gay in April 2017, making her the highest-ranked lesbian officer in British police history. Her partner Helen is also a police officer. Dick is negotiating with the government in an effort to increase funding for the 'Met'. She said to the LBC, "[Terrorism] is a shifting threat, not a spike, that puts a strain not just on counter-terror police but neighbourhood officers. This is not sustainable for my police service." Dick fears the Metropolitan Police will need to find £400 million per year savings in addition to the £600 million annual savings they have already found. She fears this will make fighting crime harder. Dick said, “I find it incredible to think that anybody would think that over the next four or five years we should lose that much extra out of our budget. Honours

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Ribbon

Description

Notes • • •

Commander Civil Division 2015 New Year Honours

Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal

• •

2002 UK Version of this Medal

Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal

• •

2012 UK Version of this Medal

Order of the British Empire (CBE) Queen's Police Medal (QPM)

Police Long Service and Good Conduct Medal

Law and REC-ORDER! Scotland Yard equips 21,000 front-line officers with bodycams in the world's largest roll-out costing £10million • • •

London's Met Police hope roll-out of cameras will increase public trust in police Comes as force reveals complains against officers were down 22 per cent Met said more than 1.6 million videos have been recorded since it began scheme

By STEWART PATERSON FOR MAILONLINE PUBLISHED: 21:38 GMT, 11 December 2017 | UPDATED: 21:46 GMT, 11 December 2017

Scotland Yard today announced that 21,000 front-line officers have been given body-worn cameras — the largest deployment of its kind in the world. The capital's Metropolitan Police confirmed it was nearing completion of a £10 million year-long scheme to roll out the camera across the force. The project is designed to increase public trust in the police and, today, mounted police officers were being equipped with the devices. It comes as the force revealed figures showing that there were 3,515 complains against officers in the year up to October 2017.

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The capital's Metropolitan Police confirmed it was nearing completion of a ÂŁ10 million year-long scheme to roll out the camera across the force.

Constable Yasa Amerat and Constable Craig Pearson wearing their body-worn video cameras. The Met hope the project will increase the public's trust in the police

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This was a fall of 22 per cent compared to the previous 12 months, during which there were 4,501 complaints. Commander Neil Jerome, who is spearheading the roll-out of the body-cams, said: 'Clearly it is difficult to attribute this reduction entirely to body-worn video but we know it is leading to a reduction in complaints, which is good news. 'These cameras give us quality evidence immediately and allow us to capture a victim's account with all its emotion and context.' The cameras will also be given to a final 1,000 officers from the Met Police's royalty, specialist and diplomatic protection commands early next year.

The force said more than 1.6 million videos have been recorded since it began rolling out the cameras, and now submits 4,500 clips to the CPS each month.

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Chief Inspector Neil Sawyer, PC Green and PC Mohammed Azir pose wearing body-worn cameras at Brixton Police Station. A further 535,000 clips have been retained for evidential and policing purposes. The force says a delay in the role-out has been caused by difficulties relating to installing the devices at sites including Buckingham Palace. Body-worn cameras were crucial during the terror attacks at Westminster and London Bridge, Mr Jerome said, helping to identify attackers and establishing the threat had been eliminated. The force said more than 1.6 million videos have been recorded since it began rolling out the cameras, and now submits 4,500 clips to the CPS each month. A total of 535,000 videos have been retained for 'evidential or policing purposes' to boot. Sophie Linden, deputy mayor for policing and crime, said: 'Body-worn video is a huge step forward in bringing our capital's police force into the 21st century. 'From training new recruits to scrutinising stop and search, body-worn video is being used in a range of different ways by our police officers. However, Renate Samson, of Big Brother Watch, told the Evening Standard: 'We keep hearing from police forces that body-worn video is brilliant but we have asked police forces for information to support this and not one could give data to show, for instance, that it is increasing the number of convictions.' 105


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5168907/Met-Police-equips-21-000-officers-body-cams.html

AUSTRALIA: POLICE DOGS From elephant tea parties to packing rabbits for export: These fascinating photos reveal how we lived, worked and played with animals in the early 20th century • • •

These vintage Australian photos show our complex relationship with zoos, circuses and animals of all sizes Cats, dogs, wombats, a leopard and elephants feature in our revealing black-and-white collection Take a look at what life was like in New South Wales in Australia at the start of the last century

(Abridged report.)

Photo 1: Barking down the receiver: This image by Sam Hood shows police dog Tess in New South Wales in 1935. She was one of the first police dogs in the country and was often in newspaper headlines for crime-battling skills, according to the Sydney Morning Herald.

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Photo 2: Happy to help: Zoe the Australian police dog wore a radio receiver backpack. This picture was taken by Sam Hood in 1939. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-5135823/Fascinating-animal-photos-Australia1920s.html

INDIA: POLICE ELEPHANTS Send in the tusk force! Elephants are used by Indian police to smash illegal forest homes built on protected land •

Elephants are being used as bulldozers in a process to evict people living illegally in Indian forest • The area in Assam state is protected and the illegal homes have forced the elephants out of their habitat • Police were riding on elephants which drove dwellers from their home and demolished the huts By SARA MALM FOR MAILONLINE PUBLISHED: 16:52 GMT, 1 December 2017 | UPDATED: 16:52 GMT, 1 December 2017 Indian police are using elephants to help them demolish illegal forest dwellings built in a wildlife sanctuary. This week, police on elephants evicted hundreds of people from the protected forest area in the country's remote northeast. The unauthorized settlements had been built in the elephants' natural habitat, and as a result the residents were forcing the pachyderms to leave in search of food. 107


Reclaiming its land: A policeman guides his elephant to demolish huts which forest officials claimed were illegally built at the Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary in Guwahati, India.

Demolisher: An elephant is used to demolish a house during an eviction drive inside Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary on the outskirts of Gauhati, Assam, India. 108


Big move: Indian police on Monday took the unusual step of using elephants in an attempt to evict hundreds of people living illegally in the protected forest area in the country's remote northeast. Authorities are planning to demolish about 1,000 bamboo and tin huts, and work started on Monday. Police used bulldozers and the elephants in a show of force, and the forest dwellers responded by hurling rocks. Police commissioner Hiren Nath said five protesters were injured in a scuffle after police used tear gas in the Amchang forest area in Assam state. It is not known what will happen to the residents or if the government will provide any aid or new homes for them.

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Protest: Police used bulldozers and the elephants to drive out the residents and demolish the homes, but some of the forest dwellers protested and responded by hurling rocks.

Authorities are planning to demolish about 1,000 bamboo and tin huts, and work started on Monday.

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Easy work: Most of the houses had been build using bamboo leaves and corrugated iron, and was easily pulled apart by the elephants as they went through the makeshift 'village'.

Taking action: The area inside Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is an elephant habitat and the unauthorised settlements were forcing the animals to leave in search of food, officials said.

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There have been many incidents in which wild elephants have entered villages, destroying crops and even killing people. Nath said the police action followed a court order to clear the forest of illegal encroachment by Thursday. The eviction drive is being carried out by wildlife wardens, with police providing protection against possible attacks by angry residents.

Police officers look on as an elephant walks though the ruins of the illegal dwellings inside Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary on the outskirts of Gauhati, Assam.

Clever gal: This elephant uses its trunk to move debris around while demolishing a brick hut. 112


Damage done: As a result of the illegal dwellings, there have been many incidents in which wild elephants have entered villages, destroying crops and even killing people.

Push! It is not known what will happen to the residents or if the government will provide any aid or new homes for them. Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5137081/Elephants-act-bulldozers-demolish-illegal-foresthomes.html 113


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: JAILS How America's toughest jail turned hookless Abu Hamza's hair white in just two years: Haggard hate preacher's only view of the world is a brick wall he views through a four-inch window in his concrete solitary confinement cell • •

Hamza's lawyers have claimed he would return to HMP Belmarsh 'in a second' He is being held in the ADX, 100 miles south of Denver, America’s most secure prison, reserved for ‘the worst of the worst’ • Hamza complains that his tiny cell is unsuitable for a double-amputee and that the stumps of both his arms are regularly becoming infected By TOM LEONARD IN NEW YORK FOR THE DAILY MAIL PUBLISHED: 00:13 GMT, 30 December 2017 | UPDATED: 04:30 GMT, 30 December 2017 Gone is the belligerent and imperious stance he would strike as he preached his vile beliefs outside his North London mosque. Gone, too, are the hooks — where once his hands had been — that he’d brandish to add weight to his threats and to enhance his general malevolence. And gone must be a good five stone from his once portly figure. Prison rations have done him some good, at least. Abu Hamza, the notorious hate preacher and former imam of Finsbury Park mosque, who for so long was the most terrifying visible embodiment of Islamist extremism in Britain, cuts a pathetic figure as he poses for a new picture taken after two years of solitary confinement in a U.S. prison.

At 59, his hair and beard are white and his expression as forlorn as his appearance, the ugly stumps of his arms brutally exposed. And that is precisely his cynical intention — to present himself to the world as a victim of savage American injustice

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Extradited from Britain in 2012 and convicted two years later in New York on 11 counts of terrorism, for which he received a life sentence, Hamza released the picture to bolster his legal bid to get out of America’s toughest prison, the forbidding ADX Florence in Colorado. He and his lawyers claim the prison breaches his human rights under European law to be protected from ‘inhuman and degrading’ treatment, and contravenes U.S. guarantees made to win his extradition. If he could, Hamza would return to complete his sentence at Belmarsh (Britain’s most secure prison, where he previously served seven years) ‘in a second’, say those lawyers. No wonder: U.S. court documents reveal in detail some of the ‘perks’ Hamza enjoyed in Belmarsh, including the use of two specially-adapted cells and daily visits by a health care aide who did cleaning chores and saw to his hygiene needs. It certainly begs the question: what must life be like inside ADX Florence, better known as ‘Supermax’ and once described as ‘a clean version of Hell’, to make Hamza so desperate to leave? The answer will no doubt bring some satisfaction to those who watched Hamza make a mockery of British justice during his eight-year battle against extradition. ‘The Supermax is life after death,’ says Robert Hood, its former warden. ‘In my opinion, it’s far worse than death. As soon as they come through the door... you see it in their faces. ‘That’s when it really hits you. You’re looking at the beauty of the Rocky Mountains in the backdrop. When you get inside, that is the last time you will ever see it.’

Hamza is being held in the ADX (which stands for Administrative Maximum Facility) at Florence, 100 miles south of Denver, which cost $60 million (£44.5 million) to build and opened in 1994. It is America’s most secure prison, reserved for ‘the worst of the worst’.

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The ADX (which stands for Administrative Maximum Facility) at Florence, 100 miles south of Denver, cost $60 million (£44.5 million) to build and opened in 1994. It is America’s most secure prison, reserved for ‘the worst of the worst’. Its 410 inmates are delivered in buses, armoured cars and even Black Hawk helicopters to the sprawling 37-acre facility — nicknamed the ‘Alcatraz of the Rockies’ — where squat brick buildings are surrounded by a dozen tall gun towers and heavily armed patrols circulate continually. This is a facility designed to cut its occupants off from the outside world, not just from fellow humans but from even a glimpse of the sky. Visitors have commented on its pervasive and eerie quiet. Many of the inmates — including Hamza — spend 23 hours a day alone in 7ft x 12ft concrete cells. Meals are slid through to them via small flaps in the doors. Beds are concrete slabs covered with a thin mattress and blankets. Furniture is an immovable concrete desk and stool. There is a combined lavatory, sink and drinking fountain and — very occasionally — a small black and white TV showing carefully chosen educational and religious programmes.

Through his lawyers Hamza complains that his tiny cell is unsuitable for a double-amputee and that the stumps of both his arms are regularly becoming infected. 116


A slit of a window allows in a small amount of daylight but has little more than a view of a brick wall. At Belmarsh, Hamza was able to communicate to some degree with other jihadis by banging on the water pipes. That is impossible at ADX because the walls are so thick and cells are sound-proofed. If an inmate needs a doctor, a consultation is provided remotely through teleconferencing. There is a daily recreation hour when exercise is permitted — in solitude, in an outdoor cage that sits in a concrete pit. But when prisoners are taken outside their cells they wear leg irons, handcuffs which may be attached to belly chains to further limit movement — and of course are escorted by guards at all times. Hundreds of CCTV cameras monitor their every move as they pass through metal doors which open and close along their route.

But when prisoners are taken outside their cells they wear leg irons, handcuffs which may be attached to belly chains to further limit movement — and of course are escorted by guards at all times. That, then, is what an inmate at ADX can expect. For terrorists such as Hamza there are additional restrictions. They are held in a prison within a prison, the dreaded Special H-Security Unit (or H-Unit), for prisoners whose communication with the outside world must be even more severely curtailed. Some in H-Unit don’t even have contact with guards when they exercise — their cells have automated chutes that open on to private exercise yards. 117


H-Unit prisoners can only be visited by their lawyers and immediate family, speaking over telephones through reinforced glass windows. All conversations are monitored, except official consultations with their lawyers. Abu Hamza may not even know the names of his fellow inmates in H-Unit, though some may have been inspired by him. They include the British ‘shoe bomber’ Richard Reid, who tried to detonate an explosive device packed into his shoes while on a flight from Paris to Miami; the 9/11 plotter Zacarias Moussaoui, and Ramzi Yousef, who masterminded the 1993 bombing of New York’s World Trade Centre in which six people died and more than 1,000 were injured.

For terrorists such as Hamza there are additional restrictions. They are held in a prison within a prison, the dreaded Special H-Security Unit (or H-Unit), for prisoners whose communication with the outside world must be even more severely curtailed. A layout of his cell is pictured above.

Both Reid and Moussaoui were known to have been influenced by Hamza’s hate-filled sermons. The harsh regime at ADX has made it an obvious target for human rights campaigners. In 2014, Amnesty International condemned the prison in a report entitled: ‘Entombed: Isolation in the U.S. 118


federal prison system’. It claimed solitary confinement and sensory deprivation had a devastating effect on prisoners’ mental and physical health, and constituted a breach of international law. Two years earlier, a class action lawsuit on behalf of mentally ill prisoners at ADX claimed many of them ‘interminably wail, scream and bang on the walls of their cells’ or mutilate their bodies with whatever objects they can find. It is alleged that there have been at least six inmate suicides since the institution opened. Reid is the most recent of hundreds of inmates to have staged hunger strikes in protest at their treatment. However, prison authorities insist even inmates in the H-Unit can write and post letters, exercise in their cells, talk on the phone for up to 30 minutes a month and even write books should they wish. And they point out that ADX has not experienced the terrible violence between prisoners and against guards that is widespread at other U.S. prisons. A lawyer with America’s biggest human rights group, Human Rights Watch, concedes that ADX might be brutal, but is certainly a formidably well-run operation. It’s clear from independent reports of the regime at ADX that Hamza and his lawyers probably have not exaggerated his experiences of captivity in the letters and court papers submitted in support of his appeal. Whether or not he deserves those conditions is another matter. Through his legal team Hamza, who says he lost his forearms and one of his eyes in an accidental explosion when working for the Pakistani Army in the 1990s, complains that his tiny cell is unsuitable for a double-amputee and that the stumps of both his arms are regularly becoming infected.

The harsh regime at ADX has made it an obvious target for human rights campaigners. In 2014, Amnesty International condemned the prison in a report entitled: ‘Entombed: Isolation in the U.S. federal prison system’. 119


The court papers claim that Hamza, who also suffers from diabetes and the skin condition psoriasis, must take at least two showers a day because of a neurological condition that causes excessive sweating. Even his lavatory is unsuitable — he needs a special one designed for a double-amputee rather than the handicapped version with railings he has been given, they insist. The sanitary provisions, say his lawyers, even breach the U.S. Constitution amendment covering ‘cruel and unusual punishment’. The legal papers include a rambling 128-page handwritten letter, largely devoted to re-fighting his previous court case, in which Hamza (also known as Mostafa Kamel Mostafa) moans that he hasn’t been given a writing desk or even a pen suitable to use with his prosthetic hand (an admission that contradicts the impression given by the new picture that he’s been left only with his stumps). ‘Also, the Deft [defendant’s] skin problem does not allow him to wear the prosthetics for more than half an hour at the time and rest for the same,’ Hamza adds in spidery, almost illegible writing. Hamza’s 2014 court case in New York was marked by his sycophancy towards the judge and lawyers — in stark contrast to his once blowhard antagonism against the U.S. — and in this latest correspondence he once again shows his grovelling tendencies, calling the appeal judges ‘wise’, ‘learned’ and ‘respected’. In plainer language, his lawyers draw attention to the stark differences between Hamza’s treatment at ADX and his experiences at Belmarsh — once dubbed ‘Britain’s Guantanamo Bay’ and home to many convicted terrorists —where he was assured of medical attention worthy of an expensive private care home. ‘Mostafa was visited by a health care aide daily, and a nurse and/or physician approximately 4-5 times a week,’ they say.

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His lawyers draw attention to the stark differences between Hamza’s treatment at ADX and his experiences at Belmarsh — once dubbed ‘Britain’s Guantanamo Bay’ and home to many convicted terrorists —where he was assured of medical attention worthy of an expensive private care home.

‘The health aide attended to Mostafa’s hygiene needs. The aide cleaned the cell, washed the dishes, made the bed, prepared hot drinks and made sure he had adequate fluids to drink from a container provided to him.’ It goes on: ‘Similarly, either the health aide or the nurse applied medication to Mostafa’s stumps on a daily basis.’ None of these visits were supervised by guards, they say. Hamza was also allowed to spend around six hours a day ‘co-mingling’ with other inmates, and those inmates were allowed to help him with his daily routine, the lawyers continue. None of that, they note, is possible in H-Unit at ADX Florence. Given what has recently been reported about Belmarsh, that may be just as well. A former inmate, a Muslim who was serving time for bank fraud, recently claimed Belmarsh, where inmates held on terrorrelated offences are allowed to mix freely with other prisoners, was ‘like a jihadi training camp’ where extremists ‘brainwash young prisoners to spread the terror message across the whole prison system’. A group of jihadists calling themselves ‘The Brothers’ appear to ‘almost have the run of the prison’, he claimed. Hamza’s lawyers fail to mention some of the other Belmarsh benefits their client might now be missing. Two cells were kitted out with special taps, shelves and clothes pegs for his ease of use. He would be moved between these cells so that he wouldn’t be inconvenienced when guards conducted routine searches for contraband. It seems that every effort was made to avoid offending him while in residence. The Home Affairs Select Committee even visited him in his cell seeking his views on radicalisation and respectfully referred to him as ‘Mr Abu Hamza’ throughout its report. The Taxpayers’ Alliance estimate that Hamza cost Britain at least £2.75 million in legal fees, welfare payments and council housing for him and his family — he has a total of eight children by two wives. The cost of keeping him locked up in Belmarsh was an estimated £500,000. At least this new — and no doubt expensive — legal campaign to transfer him back to a British prison is being paid for out of U.S. public funds. Hamza’s lawyers say he is ‘hopeful’ for his appeal — but that optimism may be misplaced. He raised a similar protest when fighting extradition to the U.S. — claiming that putting him in ADX would amount to torture — and even the European Court of Human Rights rejected that.

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So, the imam who has previously described Britain as the ‘inside of a toilet’ may have to put up with life in Supermax for a few more years yet, and it’s hard to find even a smidgen of sympathy for a man whose creed is rooted in soliciting murder and inciting racial hatred. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Hamza sneered: ‘Many people will be happy, jumping up and down at this moment.’ Learning of his new life in one of the world’s toughest prisons may induce a similar and widespread reaction now. Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5222101/Hate-cleric-Abu-Hamza-wants-return-cushy-UKjail.html Kommentaar: HBH Veral sedert 1961 toe die destydse NP-regering sy veiligheidsmaatreëls in werking gestel het die Weste (en veral Brittanje en Nederland) skerp daarop gereageer. ‘n Veelvoud van organisasie soos bv. Amnesty International, die Wêreldraad van Kerke, Defence and Aid Fund en honderde geestelikes het Suid-Afrika se veiligheidswetgewing en die regering verdoem. Publisiteit, in verskeie mediums is wêreldwyd versprei om die saak te dien. Apartheid is as misdaad teen die mensdom verklaar. [By veiligheidshoofkantoor het ek kartondose vol protesbriewe, bv. aan die ministers van polisie en justisie, gesien. Die wêreld was baie erg teen ons beleid gekant!] Ons veiligheidsverhore was in “gewone” oop howe – meestal toeganklik vir die publiek. Tydens ons veiligheidsverhore was diplomate en die media teenwoordig. Die persone in die beskuldigdebank het finansiële steun ontvang ten einde die beste regslui te kon bekom. Ons regters het baie billik bereg. In skrille kontras vind verskeie “veiligheidsverhore” gereeld, veral in Brittanje, feitlik ongemerk plaas en geen haan kraai daaroor nie. Ek vra maar net: Is dit omdat die beskuldigdes Moslems is? Waarom die groot verskil tussen wat in die RSA gebeur het en wat tans, bv. in Brittanje gebeur? Waarom word terrorisme nie ‘n misdaad teen die mensdom verklaar nie? Kyk wat in die VSA, Brittanje, Europa, Turkye, Egipte, Israel en elders met reëlmaat voorkom. Wie sit agter die aanvalle? Die tronk omstandighede in bostaande artikel is myns insiens onmenslik. Geen mens behoort so aangehou te word nie. Sou ons dieselfde in ons tronke gedoen het, sou die duiwel los gewees het! •

Ek wonder wat gebeur as Hamza dringend na die toilet moet gaan – sonder hande?

GERMANY: NAZI JAILED 'Bookkeeper of Auschwitz', 96, must be jailed for his role in Nazi mass murders, court rules after lawyers argued his four-year sentence would 'violate his right to life' • • •

Oskar Groening was sentenced in 2015 over role in Nazi murders at Auschwitz But legal arguments have delayed the start of the 96-year-old's imprisonment A court has now rejected argument that jail would violate Groening's right to life 122


â&#x20AC;˘

He was known as the 'bookkeeper of Auschwitz' for counting victims' cash taken

By JULIAN ROBINSON FOR MAILONLINE and REUTERS PUBLISHED: 12:33 GMT, 29 December 2017 | UPDATED: 03:18 GMT, 30 December 2017 A 96-year-old German must go to jail for his role in Nazi mass murders, a court has ruled after lawyers argued his four-year sentence would 'violate his right to life'. Oskar Groening was known as the 'bookkeeper of Auschwitz' for his job counting cash taken from victims of the notorious camp in Poland during the Second World War. He was sentenced to four years' jail in 2015, but wrangling over his health and age have delayed the start of his imprisonment.

Oskar Groening was known as the 'bookkeeper of Auschwitz' for his job counting cash taken from victims of the notorious camp in Poland during the Second World War.

Today, Germany's constitutional has ruled that he must go to jail after refusing to overturn a lower court ruling. The court rejected the argument by Groening's lawyers that imprisonment at his advanced age would violate his right to life, adding that the gravity of his crimes meant there was a particular need for him to be seen to be punished. 'The plaintiff has been found guilty of being accessory to murder in 300,000 related cases, meaning there is a particular importance to carrying out the sentence the state has demanded,' the judges wrote, upholding the Celle regional court's ruling. 123


There is no further appeal to the constitutional court's ruling. The ruling does leave open the possibility that Groening could be released if his health deteriorates.

Groening, who admitted he was morally guilty, said he was an enthusiastic Nazi when he was sent to work at Auschwitz in 1942, at the age of 21. He came to attention in 2005 after giving interviews about his work in the camp in an attempt to persuade Holocaust deniers that the genocide had taken place.

In a 2015 court battle seen as one of the last major Holocaust trials, prosecutors said although Groening did not kill anyone himself while working at Auschwitz, in Nazi-occupied Poland, he helped support the regime responsible for mass murder by sorting bank notes seized from trainloads of arriving Jews. Groening, who admitted he was morally guilty, said he was an enthusiastic Nazi when he was sent to work at Auschwitz in 1942, at the age of 21. He came to attention in 2005 after giving interviews about his work in the camp in an attempt to persuade Holocaust deniers that the genocide had taken place. Some six million Jews were murdered during the Holocaust carried out under Adolf Hitler Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5220781/Court-rules-Bookkeeper-Auschwitz-96-jail.html

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INTERNATIONAL: 2018: NEW YEAR Ring of steel around London as armed police take to the streets with dogs and vehicle barriers are erected after ISIS threaten to unleash 'New Year's Eve hell' in the capital • • •

Police armed with rifles and sniffer dog units will be patrolling London's streets Security ramped up as 250,000 people flock to city's landmarks this evening Scotland Yard Police revealed there will be less officers on duty than last year

By ALEX MATTHEWS and AMANDA CASHMORE and LARA KEAY FOR MAILONLINE PUBLISHED: 22:26 GMT, 30 December 2017 | UPDATED: 23:09 GMT, 31 December 2017

Officers are pictured riding police horses21 through the streets of central London tonight.

21

One wonders what the police dogs and police horses think about humans on New Year’s Eve? – HBH.

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Barriers are erected around the Metropolitan Police's HQ, New Scotland Yard, in light of an ISIS threat on London.

Armed officers are pictured standing with dogs near Istanbul's Taksim Square as people remember the Reina nightclub gun attack, which left 39 people dead and 79 wounded

New York counter terrorism squad are on guard to protect the famous Times Square celebrations when the New Year arrives. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5223537/Streets-London-lined-barriers-NYE.html 126


LETTER BOX | BRIEWEBUS Adv. Len Els skryf soos volg: “As adjunk-prokureur-generaal, Bophuthatswana, het ek moordwapens versamel in sake waar ek 'n hangpaal gekry het.” Hier is ‘n foto van sommige moordwapens. Mens wonder of daar nie ‘n bewysstukstoor is wat nooit ‘n Okapi-mes as bewysstuk gehad het nie?

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Kerswense: Brig. en mev Johan & Dalene Giliomee: Kaapse-Suidkus

Thesis: SAPS Chaplain Charisse le Roux To Dear Hennie Heymans, Do hope this finds you well! I have attached a copy of my Thesis on "The Badge, The Bible and Suicide in the South African Police Service." I will also forward a copy of my Masters in which I wrote a Case Study, (with regards to a member [name withheld], who shot his three children then tried to shoot himself, he was sentenced to life) on. This is what I have been doing for almost 21 years as a Chaplain, my heart bleeds for them as wounded soldiers! I pray that you and your family will have a most prosperous new year and know that the best is yet ahead. May you have good health and a strong mind. May the Lord continue to grant you with His wisdom and knowledge, guide and protect you and give you His peace. Gods richest blessings, Kind Regards, Charisse Le Roux â&#x20AC;˘

Thesis received with thanks! Suicide nationally was a great problem in the former SA Police. We do hope that this problem is now adequately addressed in the new SAPS! I am looking forward to study the thesis once I have completed my editorial duties.

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Nuwejaarswense: Genl. Johan van der Merwe

Magazine: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Military Despatchesâ&#x20AC;? 2018 For Military Despatches contact Matt at: matt@hipe.co.za

HUMOUR Russian Military Academy: Deon Potgieter The commanding officer at the Russian Military Academy (the equivalent of a 4-star general in the U.S.) gave a lecture on 'Potential Problems and Military Strategy'. At the end of the lecture, he asked are there questions? An officer stood up and asked, "Will there be a third world war? And will Russia take part in it?" The general answered both questions in the affirmative. Another officer asked, "Who will be the enemy?" The general replied, "All indications point to China". Everyone in the audience was shocked. A third officer remarked, "General, we are a nation of only 150 million, compared to the 1.5 billion Chinese (an odds of 10 to 1). Can we win at all, or even survive?" 129


The general answered, "Just think about it this for a moment: In modern warfare, it is not the quantity of soldiers that matters but the quality of an army's capabilities. For example, in the Middle East there have been a few wars recently where 5 million Jews fought against 150 million Arabs (an odds of 30 to 1), and Israel were always victorious." After a small pause, yet another officer from the back of the auditorium asked: "Does Russia have enough Jews?

Die eerste klip: Danie Marais Danie vertel: In die Kaap het ons natuurlik ook al die jare ook 'n "petty hof" waar "klein" sakies verhoor word. Juffrou x verskyn voor die hof op 'n aanklag van prostitusie. Sy pleit skuldig en nadat die landdros haar skuldig bevind het, vra hy of sy iets oor die vonnis wil sê. "Ja djou hônnor, sê sy, "ek wil net sê dat die hof eers Johannes 9 vers 18 moet lees voordat jou hônnor my straf"! Landdros: "Nou wat staan daar?" Beskuldigde: "Lat hy wattie sonde hettie, die eerste klip gooi"!

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LAST POST

Een van die ou legendes in Pretoria, Dave Pretorius, is Kersdag oorlede. Ons eer sy nagedagtenis.

LEDE OORLEDE IN 2017: ANTON M UYS Hennie, hierdie vir jou bekom met goedkeuring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Danie Kapp. Opgestel en geplaas deur Anton M Uys op die "South African Police Veterans" blad met opskrif: LEDE OORLEDE IN 2017. Anton skryf soos volg:

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Ek het die afgelope jaar rekord gehou van alle lede wat hier gerapporteer is as oorlede. Dit kan wees dat ek iemand gemis het en vra sommer byvoorbaat om verskoning. Kyk na die name en bring hulle weer vir 'n oomblik in herinnering Naam Datum Oorlede Kaptein Willem Steyn 26 Januarie AO Duncan Vertue 8 Maart Sers. George Vis 8 Maart Kapt. Johan Huisamen 13 Maart AO â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pannieâ&#x20AC;? Pansegrouw 14 Maart AO Holder 23 Maart William du Randt 24 Maart Hugo Hanemann 5 April Kol. Vic McPherson 19 April Karl Wepener 27 April Kst. Christopher Mouton 17 April Sers. Michael van der Watt 04 Mei GAF van Niekerk 08 Mei Ken du Preez 12 Mei Ettiene Malherbe 10 Mei Wieland Wagener 13 Mei Piet Byleveld 24 Mei Kapt. Faan Smith 24 Mei Gretha Nel 28 Mei Kst. Inocent Buthelezi 24 Mei (Aan diens) Kol. Flip Lourens 3 Junie AO Rud Botha 11 Junie Poens Prinsloo 15 Junie Genl.-maj. M J Rust 19 Junie AO Sasha Naidoo 29 Junie Kapt Reid 01 Julie Lt.-genl. JJ Viktor 05 Julie Kapt. Marnus Nagel 11 Julie Kapt. Abrahams 12 Julie 132


Kol. Sakkie Morkel 14 Julie AO Gerald Boucher 17 Julie A/Siebrits 22 Julie [sic] Lena Uys 23 Julie Kapelaan Matie van Niekerk 25 Julie Kol. Louis Malherbe 26 Julie Kapt. Alca Austin 28 Julie AO Calla Gertsner 28 Julie Kol. Dries van Sittert 29 Julie Kol. Sarel Olivier 31 Julie AO Jaco van Niekerk 07 Julie AO Z M Saag Human 10 Julie Deon Houy 11 Julie Kol. Alec Kriel 19 Augustus Kapt. Bill Fourie 21 Augustus Genl.-maj. Karl Husselman 22 Augustus Kol. Sakkie Human 22 Augustus Jaco Barnard 23 Augustus AO Flip Snyman 29 Augustus Kol. Nick de Beer 4 September Kol. Nic de Beer 5 September AO Fox Joubert 6 September Kol. Lourens le Roux 15 September Kapt. Jan Louis van Rooyen 16 September Kol. Koos van der Lith 16 September Lappe Laubsher 23 September – nie ‘n lid van die mag gewees nie. Kol. Loekie Jordaan 10 Oktober Supt. GJ Brummer 10 Oktober Hans Jordt 16 Oktober AO L P C van Schalkwyk 18 Oktober Kapt. A G Visser 23 Oktober Kapt. Ockie Brits 5 November 2017 133


Genl. Davis 5 November Brig. Kush Wilken 10 November Kapt. Dennis Crew 18 November Brig. Janna van der Colff 26 November Kol. Douw Steenkamp 28 November Graham Dwyer 29 November AO Lappies Labuschagne 4 Desember Johannes (Rassie) Erasmus 10 Desember AO Carl de Does 12 Desember Lt,-kol. Andre Radley 20 Desember Brig. Eric von Molendorf 22 Desember Kol. Dave Pretorius 25 Desember. Herman Erasmus 29 Desember.

2017: WE WILL REMEMBER THEM! | ONS SAL HULLE ALTYD ONTHOU: SALUUT Request | Versoek We sent out the following request | Ons het die volgende versoek uitgestuur: VERSOEK: “Ons sal hulle onthou!” Skink ‘n sopie teen sononder op Sondag 31 Desember 2017 en drink op ons kamerade wat ons voorafgegaan het. Neem ‘n foto en stuur vir my asb. Kom ons kyk of ons ‘n ketting reg om die wêreld kan maak! REQUEST: “We will remember them!” Please lift your glass at sundown on 31 December 2017 to remember fallen comrades. Please take a photo (and say where) and send to me for publication in the Nongqai. Let’s see if we can cover all continents and go around the world! Barry Taylor (SAP – Ret): Thailand Die wêreld draai mos van oos na wes en vanuit die ooste: Beste Brigadier, Hier is twee foto’s van my waar ek en my vriendin se broer op al die lede van die SAP ‘n glasie klink. Hy was nogal beïndruk met die gebruik en het toe ook ‘n glasie geklink op die vlieëniers en ander mense wat hulle die jaar verloor het in die Thailandse Lugmag. Barry Taylor.

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Gina Truter (SAP): Springs

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Gavin Tischendorf (SAP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ISU): Australia

Gavin Tischendorf: Salute! 136


AH Vosloo: Naboomspruit

Bob Timms: Durban (SA Navy & Police)

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Admiral Errol Massey-Hicks: SAN (Ret)

Col Len Els (DMI & JAG)

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HJ van Staden: Gauteng

Paul du Preez (SAP) & Dean Saunders (SAP): Hermannsburg KZN

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Kol Marius Morland (SAP): Wes-Rand

Lt.-kol. “Piet-Patu” van Zyl (SAP): Mpumalanga

Piet skryf: “Brig. Hennie, My foto vanaf ‘The Rest’ in Nelspruit. Walk Tall!” 140


Mnr. Ryno Human: Wes-Rand

Ryno Human van die Wes-Rand skryf hy was nie in die Magte nie, maar roep sy Vader (SAP) en Oom (SAW) in herinnering!

Lt-Colonel (Dr) Charisse Le Roux, SAPS: Paarl Lifting up our glasses on 31 December 2017, we salute all our police officers across the country of South Africa to the world those that have gone on retirement, ill health and ex members and families, our thoughts and prayers are with you. From Paarl, Boland, Western Cape. Lt-Colonel (Dr) Charisse Le Roux, SAPS Academy, Paarl. (Chief Chaplain).

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SLOT / END Geagte leser: Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese dokument ons maak van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie. Dear reader of this quasi-historical document: please note we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Hennie Heymans: No 43630 (M). 142

Profile for Hennie Heymans

Nongqai Vol 9 no 1  

South Africa: Police & National Security History

Nongqai Vol 9 no 1  

South Africa: Police & National Security History

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