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Who are we? We are an informal group of police and defence veterans as well as civilian researchers who would like to foster an interest in South Africa’s police, defence and national security history from 1652 with cut-off-date 1994; when the new South Africa came into being. As veterans we only tell and explain what we did; for we were the “on the spot” eyewitnesses! In fact we are the ones you saw on TV and in the news reels of the time following orders from parliament. However we have to debate the incidents because our memory is fallible as we grow older. In the terms of the day "we earned the T-shirt and right to tell our stories for you to enjoy with malice towards none." We all can learn from the past.

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Revival of the “Old” Nongqai

We have attempted to revive the spirit of the old “Nongqai” – to conserve our southern Africa national security history. We also pay homage to our departed comrades.

There is no longer a SA Police Force Museum Since 1652, the date from which we kept records, the records show that policing in southern Africa was relatively good! Bad apples were kicked out. Later we got Inspector King from the UK. Our first detectives were not bad either, taking into consideration the limited forensic assistance available. We are attempting to conserve and preserve our national security history. So much is owed to so few – those few who formed a dotted line between peace and total anarchy.

Administration We are mainly a “one-man-show”, so if we do not respond immediately to your email – please send a reminder to heymanshb@gmail.com or enongqai@gmail.com or phone Hennie Heymans at 012-329-4229. We were “fighters” and not “writers”. As we mellow with time, we have not become very good “clerks”. History is such an all absorbing subject; we have do much reading, research, scanning, liaison and other tasks - so sometimes we tend to forget, however that’s one of the ‘bonuses or plights’ when we get old.

Help, please!   

We also need knowledgeable persons for our website which is a virtual museum and archive. There is also a vacancy for a Honorary Blog Master; and a Honorary Graphic artist.

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Legalities This publication is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all developments in policing/ national security or to cover all aspects of those referred to. Readers should take legal, medical and/or other advice before applying the information contained in this publication to specific issues or transactions. The Nongqai contains various and sundry personal opinions of different correspondents and neither the compiler of the Nongqai nor the Nongqai will be held responsible for any of their comments which is entirely their own and not necessarily that of eNongqai or its publishers.

The Colour of the South African Police Force

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Welcome Welcome to this issue; apart from our usual articles we take a look at the SADF’s top brass as it was during 1970. From 1970 to the 2nd of February 1991 a lot of water has flowed into the ocean. If we could go back to 1970 what would we have done different? What did we learn from the past?

Front Cover A hasty snapshot before departure somewhere in Southwest Africa (now Namibia) of the then minister of Law & Order, Louis la Grange, and the Commissioner of Police, Gen MCW ‘Mike” Geldenhuys and their entourage on a visit to the boys on the border.

Durban Borough Police

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Contents Who are we? .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Revival of the “Old” Nongqai .......................................................................................................................... 3 There is no longer a SA Police Force Museum .............................................................................................. 3 Administration ................................................................................................................................................ 3 Help, please! .................................................................................................................................................. 3 Legalities ........................................................................................................................................................ 4 The Colour of the South African Police Force ................................................................................................ 4 Welcome ........................................................................................................................................................ 5 Front Cover .................................................................................................................................................... 5 Durban Borough Police .................................................................................................................................. 5 1970: Ons SAW-ysters ................................................................................................................................. 10 Inleiding .................................................................................................................................................... 10 Our Top Brass: Via Frans Erasmus.............................................................................................................. 10 Gen CR Hiemstra: Commandant-General ................................................................................................ 12 Admiral HH Bierman: Chief of the Navy .................................................................................................... 16 Gen JP Verster: Chief of the Air Force ..................................................................................................... 18 Lt-Gen CA Frazer: General Officer Commanding, Joint Combat Forces ................................................. 19 Lt Gen WP Louw: Chief of the Army ......................................................................................................... 21 Lt Gen WR Van der Riet, Chief of Defence Staff ...................................................................................... 22 Maj Gen GHF Markgraaf: Chief of Personnel ........................................................................................... 23 Maj Gen RCJ van der Byl: Quartermaster General................................................................................... 23 Maj Gen CR Cockcroft: Surgeon General SADF ...................................................................................... 24 Maj Gen E Pienaar: Comptroller ............................................................................................................... 24 Maj Gen GD Moodie: Chief of Army Staff ................................................................................................. 25 Maj Gen PM Retief: Director General: Civil Defence ................................................................................ 25 Maj Gen HA Kotze: Chief of Army Administration ..................................................................................... 26 Maj Gen RF Armstrong: Chief of Air Staff, Air Force HQ .......................................................................... 26 Maj Gen JG du Preez: Chief of Supporting Services, Air Force HQ ......................................................... 27 Rear-Admiral J Johnson: Chief of Naval Staff .......................................................................................... 27 Maj Gen JH Robbertze: Deputy Chief of Defence Staff (Planning & Operations) ..................................... 28 Maj Gen HP Laubscher: Deputy Chief of Defence Staff ........................................................................... 28 Maj Gen FW Loots: Director Military Intelligence ...................................................................................... 29 Rear-Admiral MR Terry-Lloyd: SA Armed Forces Attaché, London. ......................................................... 29 6


Kommentaar deur Hennie Heymans ..................................................................................................... 29 1899 - 1902 Anglo Boer War: Nico Moolman ............................................................................................... 32 Tempe ...................................................................................................................................................... 32 Ventersburg (OFS): Scorched Earth Policy .............................................................................................. 32 Irish hospital.............................................................................................................................................. 33 Bitter Surrender: Bitter Oorgawe............................................................................................................... 33 Monuments to Pres Steyn & Chief Commandant CR de Wet ................................................................... 34 An ode to the Vierkleur (OFS Flag) ........................................................................................................... 35 1906: Fischer residence: Bloemfontein: Nico Moolman ............................................................................... 36 The Prayer of a Horse / Die Gebed van die Perd ......................................................................................... 36 Behind Wire- Trooper Ockert Maritz and three fellow Springboks escape from Outjo, German Soutwest Africa. 10 Marathons in 10 Days. Gerald L’Ange ........................................................................................ 37 27 January to 6 February 1915 ............................................................................................................. 37 1907: Miners Strike at the Kleinfontein Gold Mine ....................................................................................... 39 1940 Airborne Troops................................................................................................................................... 39 1940 Airborne Police Troops ................................................................................................................. 39 1960 Cato Manor: Eric van Niekerk.............................................................................................................. 40 Cato Manor: Aftastings van ongedateerde koerantuitknipsels .................................................................. 40 The Cato Manor Massacre and the Untold/Forgotten Story: Eric van Niekerk ............................................. 58 Wyle lt-kol Daan Wessels: Hennie Heymans ............................................................................................... 62 Inleiding ................................................................................................................................................. 62 Ondersoekbeampte: Moord op die Polisie ............................................................................................ 63 John Wahl: Operation Savannah 1975-1976: Gerrie Hugo and Leon Bezuidenhout ................................... 65 Corporal John Wahl. Forgotten and unknown hero of Operation Savannah ............................................ 65 Dawid Lotter: Landmynkraters .............................................................................................................. 70 John Wahl, fighter and farmer .................................................................................................................. 74 John Wahl: South African Police ........................................................................................................... 74 John Wahl: South African Army ............................................................................................................ 74 40 Years later ........................................................................................................................................ 74 The Bush War / Die Bosoorlog ..................................................................................................................... 75 Kwanyama-taal op Zulu Papa: SAP Koevoet-radionet: Tom Kautondoka en Joseph Bernabe ............... 75 Narsiso ‘Gomie’ Gomes: A Portuguese-speaking S African War Hero: One among many .......................... 78 Leon Bezuidenhout ............................................................................................................................... 78 Oud-SAP-Lede Liefdadigheidstrust: Jaarlikse Skaapbraai ........................................................................... 81 We will remember him: No W89397 IF van Zyl ............................................................................................ 82 SAP Badge: Gavin Forrester ........................................................................................................................ 82 Not a single school was burnt during 1976, says Zuma ............................................................................... 83 7


Filler: SACP: Calvinia: Manuel Ferreira .................................................................................................... 84 Die 1976-onluste / 1976 Riots: Lovedale...................................................................................................... 85 Die 1976-onluste / 1976 Riots: Soweto ........................................................................................................ 88 June 16 Soweto Uprising as told in Court ................................................................................................. 88 PAC, Zephaniah “The Lion of Azania” Mothopeng ................................................................................ 88 Youth and the National Liberation Struggle .................................................................................................. 90 The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising ........................................................................................................ 90 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 90 Bantu Education Policy ......................................................................................................................... 91 Pre-apartheid education of Africans ...................................................................................................... 91 Bantu education and the racist compartmentalizing of education. ........................................................ 91 Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising .................................................. 92 Strikes in the Schools ............................................................................................................................ 93 Cape Schools Join the Revolt ............................................................................................................... 93 The NUSAS Issue ................................................................................................................................. 93 Down with Afrikaans.............................................................................................................................. 93 June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising ............................................................................................................ 94 Timeline of June 16 ............................................................................................................................... 96 Events on June 17 ................................................................................................................................ 99 Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit... Kiss-inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 19 .................. 100 Events on June 18 .............................................................................................................................. 100 June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties ......................................................................................... 101 Response to the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in exile ........................................ 120 Military Response: Camps in exile ...................................................................................................... 121 References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994 ............................................... 122 Soweto-jeugdag – die ware oorsprong: Thys Human................................................................................. 122 Soweto 1976 ....................................................................................................................................... 124 Slotsom ............................................................................................................................................... 124 Nota oor inval in Angola ...................................................................................................................... 124 Die 1976 Soweto Onluste: Lt-kol Philip Malherbe ...................................................................................... 125 Onderhoud wat Philip Malherbe met Maj Marius Heystek, Veiligheidstak Soweto in 1977 gevoer het: .. 131 ʼn Spoorweg polisieman se verhaal 1954/56: Dr Dawid Lotter .................................................................... 132 Rekruut-konstabel Lotter: Spoorwegpolisie ............................................................................................ 132 Diens op die Kaboes............................................................................................................................... 133 Spoorwegkollege: Polisie-opleiding ........................................................................................................ 134 Anthology: Nubes Belli: Bush War poems compiled by Dawid Lotter ......................................................... 138 Nubes Belli: Voor- en agterblad ................................................................................................................. 139 8


1964: Instuksies na SAP-kollege: Hennie Heymans .................................................................................. 140 Treinkaartjie na SAP Kollege ..................................................................................................................... 141 SAP 228: Bedkaart: SAP Kollege ........................................................................................................... 141 Oudpolisieman word skrywer: Henk Heslinga ............................................................................................ 142 Plaasmoorde: Die slagting van wit boere in syfers ..................................................................................... 143 EMPD Superintendent accused of rape must step down – Michele Clarke................................................ 144 Richard Rademan ...................................................................................................................................... 144 Opinion: Randolph Vigne ........................................................................................................................... 145 Namibia Support Committee ................................................................................................................... 145 Donald Woods ........................................................................................................................................ 145 African Resistance Movement ................................................................................................................ 145 PAC ........................................................................................................................................................ 145 New African ............................................................................................................................................ 145 Bessie Head ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Liberal values.......................................................................................................................................... 146 Swallows ................................................................................................................................................. 146 Marital endurance ................................................................................................................................... 146 News & Analysis......................................................................................................................................... 147 Brigadier General Leon Eggers arrested - SANDF ................................................................................. 147 Dis ʼn kwade dag: Sirkulêre op Face Book: Wees versigtig vir die Polisie .................................................. 148 Militêre Veterane ........................................................................................................................................ 149 Mangaung is die hoofstad van seksuele misdrywe .................................................................................... 151 Peter A Dickens: 100 Year Commemoration: South Africans: Somme & Battle of Deville Wood Service .. 151 Afsterwe: Lt Genl James Kriel: SALM ........................................................................................................ 152 21 Maart 1960: Sharpeville ........................................................................................................................ 152 Slot ............................................................................................................................................................. 152 Contact details / kontakbesonderhede ....................................................................................................... 152

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1970: Ons SAW-ysters Inleiding Oud-soldaat Frans Erasmus (foto) het via nog ‘n “ou” soldaat en skrywer, Tony Fernandes, vir ons ʼn ou tydskrif, PERSONALITY, gedateer Februarie 1970, gestuur. Frans was ons behulpsaam om ou historiese grammefoonplate na digitale formaat om te skakel. Ons bou ook ‘n argief op van historiese gebeure wat op grammefoonplate vasgelê is. Ook het ons heelwat ou SAP & SAW musiekplate in digitale formaat opgeneem. Die goed is ryk aan nostalgie. So beskik Frans Erasmus oor die ganse reeks van “Squad Cars” wat op Springbok Radio uitgesaai was. Ons webmeester Glenn Elsden gaan die “Squad Cars” reeks met ons polisie-webtuiste koppel.

Wat vir ons Nongqai-lesers van belang is, is drie artikels in hierdie PERSONALITY: -

“Our Top Brass” ‘n artikel oor die SAW wat ons hier aanhaal ‘n Lang foto-artikel oor die stryd in Angola deur die Portugese ‘n Artikel oor Tsafendas wat ons in die spesiale Nongqai oor die Moord op Dr Verwoerd sal aanhaal.

Our Top Brass: Via Frans Erasmus

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Gen CR Hiemstra: Commandant-General

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Toe was mnr PW Botha sommer net: “Mr Piet Botha ...intelligent, pragmatic and demanding� - HBH 15


Admiral HH Bierman: Chief of the Navy

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Gen JP Verster: Chief of the Air Force

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Lt-Gen CA Frazer: General Officer Commanding, Joint Combat Forces

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Lt Gen WP Louw: Chief of the Army

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Lt Gen WR Van der Riet, Chief of Defence Staff

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Maj Gen GHF Markgraaf: Chief of Personnel

Maj Gen RCJ van der Byl: Quartermaster General

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Maj Gen CR Cockcroft: Surgeon General SADF

Maj Gen E Pienaar: Comptroller

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Maj Gen GD Moodie: Chief of Army Staff Gen Ian Gleeson tells us that Gen Moodie reached the ripe old age of a 100!

Maj Gen PM Retief: Director General: Civil Defence

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Maj Gen HA Kotze: Chief of Army Administration

Maj Gen RF Armstrong: Chief of Air Staff, Air Force HQ

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Maj Gen JG du Preez: Chief of Supporting Services, Air Force HQ

Rear-Admiral J Johnson: Chief of Naval Staff

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Maj Gen JH Robbertze: Deputy Chief of Defence Staff (Planning & Operations)

Maj Gen HP Laubscher: Deputy Chief of Defence Staff

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Maj Gen FW Loots: Director Military Intelligence

Rear-Admiral MR Terry-Lloyd: SA Armed Forces Attaché, London.

Kommentaar deur Hennie Heymans Vergun my enkele kritiese opmerkings: Baie van hierdie generaals en admiraals het later vir verskillende redes baie bekend geword. Hulle CV’s beïndruk veral hul leierskap, akademiese opleiding; buitelandse stafkursusse en gevegsondervinding. 29


Genl Hiemstra was ʼn uitstaande persoonlikheid maar ongelukkig het hy as soldaat sy Afrikanerskap hoër as sy Suid-Afrikanerskap en sy plig as soldaat geag. M.i. is mens eers Suid-Afrikaner en dan Afrikaner. Kortweg gestel: As ʼn land oorlog verklaar dan moet die soldaat (en die polisieman) wat trou gesweer het, sy plig vervul. In geswore lede van die verskillende magte het geen keuse nie, dis hoe dit is! Dis immers ook waarom ons daar is! Dan kom ek na die tyd van nasionale diensplig: Almal wat diensplig moes doen, moes dit doen! Geen uitsonderings. (In teenstelling is daar tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog slegs van vrywilligers gebruik gemaak.) Op versoek van die kommissaris van polisie, genl Van der Merwe, het ek eenmaal ʼn delikate saak, op versoek van die HSAW, oor ‘n dienspligontduiker ondersoek. Die saak is taktvol en met deernis ondersoek en daar is op ‘n “wen-wen”-situasie besluit. Mense destyds, soos die mense van my geslag, kan nie keuses maak as dit by oorlog kom nie. Ja, ek het genl Hiemstra se outobiografie gelees. Ek is jammer maar hy moes gaan “veg” tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog, hy moes nie sy plig ontduik het nie. Die Vloot en die lugmag het deurwinterde offisiere, wat aand die oorlog deelgeneem het, gehad. Mens kan net hulde bring aan hulle want ons het ʼn wonderlike vloot en lugmag gehad! Ons lugmag, letterlik met meuseumstukke, was die beste in Afrika. Die goeie mediese diens wat ons ervaar het, is die produk van goeie beplanning. Ons vergeet so maklik, die nuwe 1 Mil en dat die SAGD onder mnr PW Botha tot volle weermagsdeel verhef is. Inligting: Ken mens die stories en lees mens die boeke dan sien mens dat daar geen liefde tussen AMI en die nuut-gestigte Buro vir Staatsveiligheid onder luit-genl HJ van den Bergh1 en AMI was nie. Die SAW was baie krities oor die Buro vir Staatsveiligheid in die algemeen en luit-genl Van der Bergh in die besonder. Almal van ons het ook die “skinderstories” gehoor oor die gevegte. Lees asb Days of the Generals en ook PW Botha se boek: Stem in die Wildernis (deur dr Daan Prinsloo) oor die gevegte. So ver my kennis strek is ek nie bewus dat die Buro vir Staatsveiligheid, Nasionale Intelligensie en die SuidAfrikaanse Polisie ooit militêre inligting in die openbaar gekritiseer het nie. Nie is alles is altyd waar, wat in skinderstories genoem word nie. Die kern van ons inligtings-probleme kan teuggevoer word na die 1950’s. In 1947 het genl Smuts die aanhef tot oktrooi van die VN geskryf en presies ‘n jaar later het Indië vir Suid-Afrika in die VN aangeval, Toe die NP aan bewind gekom het in 1948 het die stryd ondergronds erger begin woed. Daar was selfs kommuniste in die UVM. Dis diè tyd en weer in 1960 toe ons die referendum gehou het om republiek te word, was dit die tweede geleentheid wat ons moes benut om ‘n Sentrale Burgerlike Inrigtingsorganisasie te stig. Daar is geen rede waarom die polisie, NI en AMI op mekaar se tone moes trap nie. Die polisie se werk is hof-gerig, die weermag het inligting nodig om ons te beskerm teen buitelandse aggressors. ‘n Sentrale Burgerlike Inrigtingsorganisasie het alle soorte inligting nodig – inligting van staatkundige (politieke), ekonomiese, maatskaplike en van veiligheid- en sielkundige aard nodig; want hulle is verantwoordelik vir sielkundige oorlogvoering en koverte aksie. ʼn Sentrale Burgerlike Inrigtingsorganisasie met die hulp van die weermag se spes-magte kan en moet koverte aksie doen. (Dit is nie ʼn polisie taak nie.) Genl “Pop” Frazer was ʼn kenner op die gebied van rewolusionêre oorlogvoering. Ons het almal sy boek en sy handleiding ter bekamping van die rewolusionêre aanslag bestudeer. Hy was lank in Engeland, sekerlik 1

Almal praat van “genl” van den Bergh, sy werklike rang is luitenant-generaal. Hy is nooit tot “vol generaal” bevorder nie. Die Buro was ‘n burgerlike organisasie. Bron: Sy aansoek om toelating tot die generaalsklub van die SA Polisie – HBH.

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het hy gesien hoe die Britse inligtingsdienste werk. Ek wonder tog waarom het ons nooit die Britse geïntegreerde inligtingsmodel gebruik nie? Ek stem saam met die SAW dat daar ʼn derdemag moes wees – iets tussen die weermag en die gewone polisie “in blou”. Die polisie het oorspronklike jurisdiksie om enige kriminele sak te ondersoek, derhalwe as die derde mag terroriste of oproermakers doodskiet is dit die gewone polisie se taak om die “skietery” te ondersoek en die resultaat van hul ondersoek aan die prokureur-generaal voor te lê. Dit is my mening en gegrond op die praktyk dat ons juis vandag baie misdaad het omdat ons in die polisie agv binnelandse stabiliteit mannekrag moes afstaan vir grensdiens en bekamping van onluste. Ons het klassieke polisiëring verwaarloos. Ons het ook lank nooit ʼn formele hoof van die uniformtak gehad nie. TIN-hoofkantoor het net manne van die afdelings, distrikte en stasies geëis. Daar moes ʼn eie TIN-eenheid met vaste diensstaat gewees het. Miskien te wydte aan swak beplanning in die SA Polisie self. Binnelandse beveiliging moes deur die derdemag verrig gewees het. Terreur en insurgensie is egter gewone misdaad en ‘n “gewone” polisie taak – dis eintlik ʼn regsplig wat op die polisie rus om “binnelandse veiligheid te handhaaf.” Die derde mag is maar net ʼn gewapende konstabelmag (constabulary of gendarmerie) en verrig hierdie pligte tov binnelandse veiligheid en samel inligting in mbt terreur en oproer. Die gewone polisie kla terroriste aan. (In my jeug het ons in Durban die SAP, die spoorwegpolisie, die waterpolisie, Durban Stadspolisie, Natal Provinsiale Verkeer, Militêre polisie, Wetstoepassers van die Administrasierade ens gehad. Elke agentskap het sy eie taak gehad en as daar bv geskiet was, het die SAP ondersoek. Almal is by die plaaslike SA polisiestasie aangekla en aangehou – die spoorwegpolisie het bv nie eens ‘n eie RAA of eie selle gehad nie. [Aan die einde van die dag het die plaaslike aanklagtekantoorsersant, beklee met gesag en verantwoordelikheid, besluit of hy klagtes aanneem of weier en of hy ‘n ander agentskap se prisoniers gaan toesluit.] Dis hier waar probleme op inligtingsterrein ontstaan: Die polisie moet net inligting insamel om sy saak in die hof te bewys. Wat die politieke inligting betref is dit die taak van siviele inligtingsorganisasie om dit in te samel en nasionaal te vertolk. Hulle moet dan ook jaarliks en wanneer dit nodig is ‘n nasionale bedreigingsontleding voorlê. Die polisie gebruik dit om sy getalsterkte uit te brei en die bedreiging die hoof te bied. ‘n Afskrif van elke geheime of vertroulike verslag moet met die Sentrale Burgerlike Inrigtingsorganisasie gedeel word. Wedersyds is daar verpligtinge, hulle moet ingelig word en hulle moet die algehele voorligting doen – behalwe die militêre bedreiging wat die weermag self moer doen. Finale woord: Die SAW het ook die polisie voor 1966 opgelei in die bekamping van terreur, hulle het krygstuig ontwikkel en dit eintlik ʼn plesier gemaak om te gaan veg. Daar was genoeg kos, daar was “rat packs” ontwikkel en mens het geweet indien jy beseer word jy as ‘n “casevac” afgevoer sou word na ‘n hospitaal. Die weermag het ‘n ware volksleër opgebou en ten spyte van sankies ʼn gedugte arsenaal opgebou waarmee ons almal die land verdedig het. Ons dank aan almal wat reeds van die vroeë tye af die nodige beplanning en ontwikkeling gedoen het sodat ons “vas: kon staan en ons plig kon uitvoer. Slot: Suid-Afrika het nog altyd rede gehad om trots te wees op sy al die lede van sy veiligheidsmagte en ons salueer hierdie 1970 SAW-generaals wat met voorbedagte rade die grondslag gelê het vir die nuwe SAW; wat een van die beste in weermagte die wêreld sou word! Ons het ʼn gedugte teenstander geword en ook bygedra om die Groot Beer, Rusland, op sy knieë te dwing na sy avonture in Afghanistan en Angola.

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1899 - 1902 Anglo Boer War: Nico Moolman Tempe

Stables and tents at the British Military camp Bloemfontein, this is where the Tempe army base began

Ventersburg (OFS): Scorched Earth Policy

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How civilised British soldiers can burn God’s House is a mystery 32


Irish hospital

Bitter Surrender: Bitter Oorgawe

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Destroying Boer Weapons

Monuments to Pres Steyn & Chief Commandant CR de Wet

Pres MT Steyn, Deventer, Nederland

Genl CR de Wet - Hoge Velheuwe, Ndl

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An ode to the Vierkleur (OFS Flag)

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1906: Fischer residence: Bloemfontein: Nico Moolman

Fischer- familie se woning in Aliwalstraat 73, Bloemfontein,

The Prayer of a Horse / Die Gebed van die Perd

There is something about the outside of a horse that is good for the inside of a man – Winston Churchill. 36


Behind Wire- Trooper Ockert Maritz and three fellow Springboks escape from Outjo, German Soutwest Africa. 10 Marathons in 10 Days. Gerald L’Ange 27 January to 6 February 1915

By and with permission of Gerald L’Ange (from his book “Urgent Imperial Service”) In the darkness the four prisoners had no difficulty in finding the hole in the fence that was to be their gateway to freedom. They had worked on it surreptitiously for days, waiting until the German guards moved away before tugging at the barbed wire and thorn branches, slowly enlarging the hole until they judged it big enough to wriggle through. Then they had covered it again to wait for the right moment. They had chosen the Kaiser's birthday, January 27, as a good time because the Germans were known to celebrate the occasion in fine style and the guards would probably be less alert than usual. Even on an ordinary day vigilance was slack, for the Germans did not seriously expect any of the South African prisoners to try to escape into the wilderness beyond the wire. When they had arrived at the camp at Franzfontein near Outjo the commandant had told them that the best guard was the desert outside, and that belief had clearly influenced the sentries. But in planning their escape the prisoners had forgotten about the moon. On the Kaiser's birthday it was large in the clear sky and bathing the whole camp and the desert outside in bright light. The attempt was postponed for three days. They were an oddly assorted group, united mainly by their common desire to escape. Sergeant A McKenzie of the Upington Commando was the senior man. Corporal H J McElnea of the 1st Imperial Light Horse had been captured near Garub while serving with General McKenzie's force. His horse had been shot from under him in a skirmish. Rifleman 0 C Maritz was a sturdy Dutchman from the 1st South Af rican Mounted Rif les. Rif leman FM Frantzsen was a powerfully-built Dane who had somehow landed up in the Veterinary Reserve Corps. They had planned their escape with care. Water was their main worry. Each man had in one way or another acquired three water bottles. They had also made crude but effective water bags, sewn together from stolen canvas, scraps. There were two bags for each man. Their only food was sixty `vetkoeke' — two-ounce pieces of dough fried in oil — that they had secreted. And they had half a bottle of rum stolen from the Germans. The night of the escape was blessedly dark, and they squeezed through the hole in the fence without being seen. But in their frantic wriggle through the thorns and barbed wire their supplies were seriously depleted. Some of the water spilled out of the bags and several of the water bottles and ten of the vetkoeke and the bottle of rum were left behind in the fence as they ran into the night. It was a sorry start to a journey they knew must take them across more than a hundred miles of desert and semi-desert before they reached the safety of the Union positions. How they would make it with their derisory supply of food and water must have weighed agonisingly on their minds as they stumbled on through the night. 37


Then the first miracle happened. It rained — the first rain recorded in the area for several years. The steady downpour continued for hours, obliterated their footprints and made it impossible for the Germans to track them. Sucking up water from the little pools that collected in the rocks, the men squirted it into their water bags until they were full again. They walked all night, heading due west towards the coast and stopping only to eat. For thirty-six hours they walked in the rain, sleeping fitfully in the downpour and racked by rheumaticky pains. The clouds cleared and they walked on, through mountains, sand flats and brush country; then more mountains. Their feet suffered increasingly. Then their boots began to come apart, torn on the jagged rocks. They saw lion spoor, and a new anxiety was added to their burden. When the skies cleared, heat and thirst became serious. McElnea began to lag behind, his feet bleeding through his shredded boots. Maritz took off his own boots and gave them to McElnea and walked on barefoot. They were now passing through the coastal desert and their water was finished. McElnea began to act strangely, constantly throwing away his hat. Each time Maritz retrieved it and put it back on his head. And then, when they paused for a rest, they realized that McElnea was no longer with them. He had become separated from them in the maze of rocky hillocks through which they were passing. A search found no sign of him, and the others decided to press on to the coast, which they knew must now be near, in the hope of finding food and water and then returning to look for him. When they stumbled down to the sea they saw buildings in front of them. They had reached the coast at the old whaling station at Cape Cross. The buildings were badly damaged (presumably from the shelling by Albion) but there were tanks containing water. Af ter relieving their thirst, they collected limpets from the rocks and boiled them in an old pot found in the wrecked buildings. They had also found half a bottle of seal oil and with this they improvised a lamp, which they put in a window that night in the hope that McElnea would see it. In the morning Maritz and Frantzsen went back to look for McElnea, and near the beach they found the lid of a tin of foot-powder that he had been carrying. But of McElnea himself there was no sight, and they returned to Cape Cross.' Next morning the three filled their water-bags and headed south along the beach towards Swakopmund. Next day they came across footprints and followed them, hoping that they had been made by their missing companion. The following afternoon they saw what looked like a rag on a pole, about half a mile inland. When there was no response to their waving they walked on. Then McKenzie said he could see someone lying beside the pole and they went to have a closer look. It was McElnea, lying in a scooped-out hollow. He was alive but in bad condition after having gone without water for two days. When he recovered somewhat after a drink of water, he explained that, thinking he was going to die, he had stuck up the driftwood pole and attached an improvised flag to it and then, scraping a shallow grave, had lain down in it. Maritz now saw a seagull that seemed unable to fly. He chased it and killed it with a stick, and it was boiled in salt water in the old pot. It did not go far between four starving men, but the food gave McElnea enough strength to stagger on. 38


But soon they could not find even limpets to eat and when their situation was beginning to look really serious they saw Swakopmund in the distance. Hardly had they begun rejoicing, however, when they saw a German patrol cantering towards them. After enduring so much they were going to be recaptured, with salvation in sight just down the coast! But fortune had not finished with the gallant group. A South African patrol galloped up from Swakopmund and the Germans retreated. McElnea was too weak to continue walking and had to be lifted onto a horse, but the others made it to Swakopmund on foot — ten days after escaping from Franzfontein. They had walked more than two hundred and seventy miles from the hole in the prison fence.

1907: Miners Strike at the Kleinfontein Gold Mine

Acknowledgement: Ms J Bosch

1940 Airborne Troops Although unpublicised, South Africa had an illustrious role in the field of airborne operations. As such, during 1940, it was a concept ahead of Allied military thinking. 1940 Airborne Police Troops In June 1940, eight aircraft transported a company of Transvaal Scottish from Zwartkop Air Force Base to Pietersburg and back to Zwartkop Air Force Base with instructions to secure the airfield against a fictitious Fifth Column attack. On 1 July 1940, Colonel FW Cooper, a SAP officer, was instructed to train 2 battalions of the Police Brigade for the airborne occupation of Lourenço Marques. This training was deemed necessary should the need arise to prevent Lourenço Marques being used by the Germans. 39


Between 9 and 15 July 1940 exercises were held at both Waterkloof and Wonderboom Air Force bases. Thereafter standard operating procedures (SOP) were drawn up for the rapid deployment of air landed troops.2 Two other policemen, Robey Leibbrandt was trained as a German paratrooper and jumped in Germany while Oom Fred Geldenhuys, then RSM of 2 SAP, without training jumped in Italy to rejoin the Partisans.

1960 Cato Manor: Mnr Eric van Niekerk Geagte Hennie, Ek het so pas verskeie koerant uitknipsels van die seun van my ou boesemvriend HR “Ets” Willemse ontvang. Hy, Ets is ‘n paar jaar gelede aan kanker oorlede. Hy het all hierdie uitknipsels vergader en bewaar met die uitdruklike opdrag om dit een dag aan my te besorg. Ek verwag ook om die oorspronklike deur die pos te ontvang wat ek dink miskien ietwat meer duidelik sal wees, veral die opskifte. Ek sal waardeer om weer met jou te kan praat en my onderneming om jou te ontmoet bly staande. Ek het nog so baie wat ek graag met jou wil deel omdat ek die indruk kry dat jy werlik in hierdie tragedie belangstel. Ek stuur apart hiervan vir jou die uitkipsels, en wil graag jou kommentaar hoor. Groete Eric van Niekerk

Cato Manor: Aftastings van ongedateerde koerantuitknipsels

Linker ry wat draers is: Konstabels Krugel, Blackie Swarts en Eric van Niekerk. Regter ry draers, heel voor: Konstabel Andre Fivaz.

2

http://samilitaryhistory.org/8/p08febne.html

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Die drie polisiemanne is konstabel Rheeder, wyle SHK Ben Werner en wyle konstabel GJ Joubert. [S/hoofkonstabel Werner se naam verskyn nie op die ererol nie.]

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Kwa Tickey herberg – hier het mens trippens betaal om te oornag.

Een van die moordtonele: Kyk na al die klippe en die polisiepet! [Eric van Niekerk dink dit was Louis Kunneke se moord. Sy kop was verbrysel.] 43


Manne is aangetree – Eric was hier teenwoordig.

Lede van die Mag, ‘n Saracen en ‘n skare in Cato Manor – Eric van Niekerk was hier teenwoordig.

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Wyle konstabel Gerrie Joubert

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Polisie se lyke word gehaal

Eric van Niekerk was hier teenwoordig toe die foto’s geneem is - HBH.

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By Cato Manor polisiestasie. Let op hoe die lede hul broekspype in hul kouse insteek. (Dit was ‘n ergernis om met volle wintersdrag ‘n booswig te arresteer wanneer mens hom moes agtervolg deur nat gras, dou bedrupte gras of deur die bos. Mens moes gereeld droogskoonmaak. Daar was destyds nie ‘n geskikte werksdrag nie.)

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Let weer op hoe vuil die omgewing is waar ons moes werk. Ons praat met brig Izak Bosshof wat ook daar was: “Ons was maar kinders!” het hy vertel.... 52


Eric van Niekerk met hemp en Willie ‘Ets’ Willemse reg voor hom – HBH.

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Daan Wessels was later ‘n luit-kol in die Veiligheidstak, Port Natal. Hy was ‘n goeie polisieman, speurder en kollega. (Sien berig oor Daan Wessels.) 56


Konstabel Willem Visser – later ‘n bekende speurder in Durban. Hy was later ʼn brigadier in die uniformtak te Soweto.

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The Cato Manor Massacre and the Untold/Forgotten Story: Eric van Niekerk Cato Manor a shanty town on the outskirts of Durban, KwaZulu Natal in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s was managed by the Cato Manor Police station under the command of W/O Mickey Doo3 a “no nonsense” but “non interfering” individual ably assisted by two “Raiding Sqauds” formed to endeavour to maintain a semblance of law and order in a somewhat chaotic environment. Cato Manor consisted mainly of shacks many, many of these and a few shops usually owned by Indian traders. The infrastructure was poor almost non-existent. The area was mostly inhabited by migrant workers from all corners of the rural areas in the country, usually to seek employment. As could be expected these migrants encouraged their families to join them in these somewhat less habitable conditions; only to cause even more chaos. The Police Station and its function at the time were unlike any other of its kind by any degree of comparison. These two “raiding squads” were manned by a large Chevrolet truck each and each with a Saracen. Much planning was discussed before we entered the area for the purpose of ridding the place of criminals. 3

WO Mickey Doo was an athlete and he use to run past our house in Marine Drive on the Bluff in Durban. My father Sgt Heymans always greeted him, however I never knew him well. His father, Head Const Doo OF Compol Building, was one of the founders of the Widows & Orphans Fund – Hennie Heymans

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The ANC then banned, was also active in Cato Manor for their own purposes. During the week the area became relatively manageable but mostly uncontrollable during weekends when thousands descended upon Cato Manor to visit the many shebeens resulting in drunken orgies lasting all week-end. The area was also inhabitated by prostitutes and criminal elements too many to recall. In order to control the influx it was required to carry an I.D. commonly referred to as a “dompass”. Failure to produce such document was a criminal offence. Possession of “white” liquor was also banned, yet the shebeens flourished, charging exorbitant prices which usually led to conflict. These raiding squads were often attacked causing us (the Police) to abandon our duties jumping in the trucks and retreating to safety. Protest action was also at the order of the day, burning municipal busses, Indian owned busses and looting the shops. The monitor we used was to determine whether there were murders in the course of a weekend, anything from three to four and even more, because without these we were made aware that trouble was brewing. In order to expand on the full conditions in Cato Manor one would need volumes to explain. As a young policeman it was more adventure, despite the prevailing dangerous conditions. Both these two raiding squads were under the overhaul command of Major Jerry van der Merwe, a world war two veteran. Nicknamed “Voete” van der Merwe, a quite a fearless individual who enjoyed respect among the troops. He was a likeable fellow. Often referred to as: a “Riot Expert”. Now all of this brings us to the fateful day on January 24 1960. It all started as a normal working day for “Squad B” whose turn it was to operate. Our colleagues in “Squad A” had their weekend off. As fate would have it I worked on the Saturday prior to the incident when I was advised to start new duties on the Monday 26th as a crew with Const. Charles Behrens on the van used for attending to day to day requirements, usually associated with running a Charge office. This man and I formed a close relationship whilst we still stationed at Mayville prior to our transfer to Cato Manor. The raiding squad went about their usual business, making arrests and having them transferred in the raiding truck to Cato Manor police station for processing, these actions were always under chaotic conditions, especially when these hordes arrived at the Charge Office, many more deserving cases were set free to ease the pressure on the charge office personnel. On Sunday the 24th of January 1960 all hell broke loose in Cato Manor when the raiding squad were attacked, as mentioned before, this on its own did not cause initial alarm as one could almost venture to say that we were used to such behaviour. On this occasion however things proved different. Sgt Winterboer had left the squad behind in order to transport the prisoners to the “station” and to assist in the charge office; this was not unusual and had been done many times before. Regrettable the only Sten Gun had been left in the truck, since in the execution of their duties it was considered unnecessary and besides it was cumbersome to carry, remember there was much running and chasing involved to round up the culprits. In the course of several minutes it was realised that the situation had got out of hand and it was decided to un-cuff the arrested prisoners and to seek shelter. In Kwa Tickey almost in the heart of Cato Manor were several iron shacks used by construction workers where the squad took shelter, by then the mobs had become hysterical and frenzied crowds descended on these shelters and started breaking down the doors armed with pangas and whatever they could lay their hands on, weapons were never in short supply. Inside these shelters it was decided to make a run for it to try and reach safety. It was the last courageous decision they ever made. The mobs showed no mercy in slaying these young individuals as they were attempting to reach safety. Gerrie Joubert almost escaped the mob until he was ushered by a black to hide in his shack, and in doing so he waited behind the door and proceeded to stab him repeatedly in the back, something like 17 stab wounds, causing him to collapse and die. All four white and five black policeman 59


were killed in their pursuit to reach safety. These members were hacked butchered and one had his head pulverized with a rock. Today one does not wish to dwell on the merits of the raids carried out in those days as compared to conditions today, suffice to say we were all young chaps, adventurous who merely carried out the duties expected of us. On a more positive note, we refer to the only survivor Andries Rheeder who survived with horrendous injuries. During the aftermath when the bodies were being recovered a miraculous event happened, when one Willie Krugel entered the shack where the chaps tried to take shelter, in the corner he found just a heap of stones that had been hurled through the broken open windows and door, as he was to leave the shack he heard a noise and turned back inside when he heard a sound from underneath these rocks, which he proceeded to move and discovered Andries Rheeder, unconscious and severely injured. He was immediately placed into a police van and rushed to Addington Hospital with Const. Lourens (Nickname Dompass). Although he survived he never was the same again. The tragedy of this event should not be ignored. Those comrades both black and white should be remembered and honoured. In honour of: Constables GJ Joubert, LW Kunneke, PJ Rademan and CC Kriel and our trusted black colleagues; Sgt Buhola, Const Jeza, Const Mtetwa, Const Dhludhla and Const Mzuza.

Mnr Eric van Niekerk afgetrede bankbestuurder; woonagtig te Haenertsburg. As jongeling was hy ‘n SAP-lid gestasie te Cato Manor. ‘n IB-inskrywing4 het hom gered van die onluste op 24 Januarie 1960. 4

IB = informasieboek – Hennie Heymans.

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Mnr Eric van Niekerk wys met heimwee na The Natal Mercury die Maandag-oggend na die bloeddorstige aanval op ons lede. Ons het ‘n tegniese onderhoud met Eric gevoer wat ons digitaal bewaar in MP3formaat. Op die onderste foto is verskillende koerantsnitte van verskeie koerante oor die dood van die polisiemanne. Opmerking Hennie Heymans: Tydens die “Slag van Cato Manor” op 24 Januarie 1960 het ons die 9 lede op een slag in die uitvoering van hul pligte verloor (botsings uitgesluit.) 5 Een lid was baie ernstig beseer, ons twyfel of hy ooit na die aanval volkome herstel het. Voorlopige ondersoek dui daarop dat die slagting by Cato Manor gelykstaan met grootste verliese (botsings uitgesluit), nie eens tydens die 2de wêreldoorlog 5

Ons moet ook in gedagte hou dat die sersant-in-bevel na die voorval selfmoord gepleeg het – Hennie Heymans

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het ons so baie op een dag verloor nie. Tydens die “Rooi Revolusie aan die Rand”6 het ons ook op een dag (1922-03-10) 9 lede verloor, op 1922-03-11: 7 lede en op 1922-03-12: 7 lede. Ons ander groot tragedie was die skietery van 5 polisiemanne (en ander mense); onder die polisie was ʼn kaptein, ʼn hoofkonstabel, twee sersante en ʼn konstabel. (Ons sal bietjie na die Zarps se ongevalle tydens die konvensionele fase van die Anglo Boereoorlog kyk,)

Diè goed wat ons help om geskiedenis te skryf. Sommige skêrsnitte bestaan slegs uit foto’s, ongelukkig is die berigte bv agter die foto’s op die volgende bladsy nie bewaar nie.

Wyle lt-kol Daan Wessels: Hennie Heymans Inleiding Oom Daan was ‘n speurder in murg en been. ‘n Goeie speurder wat sommer so deur jou kyk en dan voel dit of hy jou gedagtes kan lees. Ons was kollegas te Durban Veiligheidstak. Oom Daan kom van die plaas Kiesbeen; kyk as u nou van Harrismith na Van Reenen ry, dan is die afdraai na Kiesbeen links; reg oorkant die motorhawe op verbypad by Swinburne. Genl Pat Dillon, sy broer Mickey Dillon, At de Villiers en my Vader kom van daardie geweste, almal lede van die Mag geword. Almal “Rooi Eed” geneem in 1939. Ook wyle genl Herman Stadler se oorlede gade, is ʼn meisie van Swinburne. Daardie manne wat van die Oos-Vrystaat kom is harde manne! Gebrei op die plaas, hulle was nie ‘body builders’ nie, maar natuurlike sterk mense geseën met hoë intelligensie en goeie (vuis)vegters! Baie mense vergeet dat die Dillon’s aan Boerekant tydens die Anglo Boere-oorlog geveg het. Genl Dillon was ʼn man met ʼn BA van die Universiteit van Natal; benewens sy oorlogsdiens as offisier in ʼn Britse Regiment tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog; was hy ook die bevelvoerder van die polisie by die Slag van Ongulumbashe; hy was ʼn Roomse Katoliek en in die tyd was daar baie gepraat van die “Roomse Gevaar”; toe genl Dillon afgetree het, is die ere-rang van luit-genl aan hom 6

Engelse geskrifte praat van “Red Revolt on the Rand” - HBH

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toegeken. Dit is die omgewing waar, en die mense tussen wie, Oom Daan opgegroei het. Mens is mos produk van jou omgewing. Ondersoekbeampte: Moord op die Polisie Oom Daan vertel dat elke moord op die polisie te Cato Manor afsonderlik ondersoek is, in polisietaal: Daar was nege moord-dossiere; dws nege klagtes van moord. Hy het een van die nege moord dossiere gedra. Daar was toe nie ‘n moord en roof afdeling nie. Hy het die saak ondersoek waar ons kollega in Kwa Tickey vermoor is. Kwa Tickey was ‘n herberg en mens het 2 1/2 sent – destyds ‘n tiekie genoem – betaal het om daar te slaap. (Daar as 80 tiekies in ‘n £ pond). Vir Jonathan Pittaway se boek wat nou ter perse gaan; KOEVOET: The Men Speak het ek met Oom Daan gaan gesels om te hoor wat by Cato Manor plaasgevind het. Die onderhoud met Oom Daan het in Engels plaasgevind: “It was after World War Two and people were poor. People were flocking to towns and cities in search of work. Cato Manor became over crowed with many tenants and squatters. Prostitution and the illegal sale of liquor were rife. This poverty caused tension; the fear of resettlement as well as the official harassment which had lain behind the previous year’s unrest in Cato Manor would play an underlying part in the coldblooded murder of nine policemen early in 1960. On Saturday 23 January 1960, while a small group of policemen were engaged in routine crime prevention operations in Cato Manor. The little group of Policemen was unexpectedly attacked by a crowd of aggressive people. In order to prevent further trouble the policemen then immediately withdrew from the area. Under the impression that the attack had been an isolated incident, they were sent back to Cato Manor the following day, Sunday 24 January, to carry on with their crime prevention operations. A police unit consisting of seven white and seventeen Zulu policemen went on a liquor raid on the next day, which initially proceeded without any incidents. Later in the afternoon, eighteen members of the unit patrolled the area on foot and moved in the area of Shumville. While searching a Shumville shebeen, Constable Msomi accidentally stepped on a woman’s foot. This lady screamed loudly and loudly demanded an apology. Constables Joubert and Biyela, who were also present, immediately apologized on his behalf. The woman, however, was still yelling in spite of the apology, a policeman slapped her in the face in order to calm her down. The small group of policemen withdrew by leaving her yard. She was agitated and followed them into the street. She then threw a bottle at them. She allegedly shouted that the policemen should be beaten up and killed! Her loud yelling attracted the attention of other people, who began surrounding the policemen while pelting them with stones. The police party was forced to seek cover in shacks called “Kwa-Ticky”. (It was a boarding house and it cost a Ticky to sleep there – that’s how the name originated.) At that stage a crowd of about 800 people had assembled. Some of them were armed with sticks, stones and pangas. The crowd broke the doors and windows of the two shacks and attacked the Police with rocks and iron bars. The cornered policemen were again pelted with stones. One attacker was shot and killed while the police spent all their rounds by firing all their rounds into the air through the roof! One Zulu Constable was hidden by a friendly lady in a nearby shack while Constable Shandu, snatched up a door, hurled it at the attackers and managed to escape. Although he was seriously injured he succeeded in contacting his colleagues at the police van for help. 63


However the attack was so fierce that the van was forced to turn back and police reinforcements had to be summoned by radio. In the meanwhile the policemen cornered in Kwa-Ticky when their ammunition ran out, broke out of KwaTicky and fled for dear life! When reinforcements eventually arrived and entered the township, they found the badly mutilated bodies of nine young policemen who had been stoned and hacked to death. All the white members of the police squad had been killed. While suffering from injuries Const Kunneke was murdered by a large rock which was thrown on his head. Constable Joubert was presumably murdered by a group of men who was sitting under a tree out while drinking beer. They killed him when he came near them. In spite of our investigation we failed to identify the group who were drinking under the tree. However about a month later, the same group sat under the same tree when lightning struck and they were killed. Const Rademan nearly succeeded to escape from Kwa-Tickey but he unfortunately ran into a shebeen where he was beaten to death. Newspaper reporters who went in after the killings described the scene as being ‘like an abattoir’. Nine constables managed to escape with their lives, although some sustained serious injuries. Each policeman’s murder was investigated separately and I was one of the detectives who investigated a murder of a policeman who was killed that day. In our follow-up operation, thirty-one people were arrested. These thirty-one persons were directly connected with the murders of the policemen. The accused were tried and found guilty. Ten men were sentenced to death and twenty-one were sentenced to imprisonment with sentences ranging from one to fifteen years.”

Lance Corporal H. W. W. Heinze: Capt (SAN) C Ross Goeie Dag Brig. Gedurende my tyd by die “Commonwealth War Graves Commission” was die graf van Lance Korporaal H. W. W. Heinze in die Kerkstraat Ou begraafplaas my verantwoordelikheid. Sy grafsteen lees Transvaal Police en hy is 09 November 1914 oorlede. Sy graf is in die Polisie gedeelte van die begraafplaas, saam met ander lede van die Transvaal Police waarvan sommige ook gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gesterf het. Hulle is egter nie Statebonds grafte nie. Iemand het in my tyd genoem dat Heinze moontlik tydens die Rebellie gesterf het en dis hoekom hy ʼn Statebondsgraf het. Kan u dalk meer lig werp op l/kpl Heinze? Groete, Charles. 

Wie kan help?

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John Wahl: Operation Savannah 1975-1976: Gerrie Hugo and Leon Bezuidenhout

Corporal John Wahl. Forgotten and unknown hero of Operation Savannah John Wahl as a young Armour soldier (Ca. 1976)7 By Gerrie Hugo and Leon Bezuidenhout: 23 February 2015 With a coup de tat and the so-called “Carnation Revolution” on 25 April 1975, the end of Portuguese colonialism would soon come to an end. In a rich country such as Angola it would not be easy. With Angola’s strategic location and the interests of the big role players of the Cold War, it would inevitably lead to a clash of ideologies. Even inside Angola, three different freedom movements were active, each with their own international partner. The MPLA was funded and armed directly from Moscow and Havana and many African countries already under the influence of communism also supported them. Opposed to this, the American CIA secretly supported the FNLA and Unita. Zaire, (currently the Congo was also a proFNLA supporter). South Africa, with interests in South West Africa (Namibia), would always support a pro-western government in Luanda. Their money, like the Americans, was on the FNLA. Before long the three Angolan groups started fighting amongst themselves. The instability created opportunities for international involvement. The Portuguese, through individuals and in groups, were also involved. A lot was at stake. It became clear early on that blood would flow and that international interference would take place on an ever widening scale. The South African Defence Force had already explored the whole of Angola in search of water and other strategic points as early as 1973. It was clear to the South Africans by the middle of 1975 that should they want a sympathetic government in Luanda, they would have to help. However, they were not willing to become involved on their own. The South Africans had good relations with the Americans. The Chief of the South African Defence Force, General Magnus Malan had attended the General Staff Officers Course in America. Pik Botha, the South African Ambassador at the UN was also on good terms with the Americans. Against this background, the Republican government in America was fed up with war. America was on its way out of Vietnam and as long as someone else was willing to fight for them, they did not want to become involved. It was here that 7

It appears to be a SA Police ID photograph - HBH

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the South Africans became involved albeit unwillingly. The South Africans were furiously anti-communist en wanted to keep the communists out of Namibia at all costs. Conversely the Americans could deal communism a blow without becoming directly involved and without openly supporting the South African Apartheid government. The Americans would supply the money and the South Africans would have the blood on their hands. Unfortunately the plan did not completely work out that way. A new American government and a fed up American public and a communist imperialist Cuba, would throw a spanner in the works. The table was set for a war in Africa not seen since the Second World War. Everyone and his allies would be involved. The South African operation was named “Operation Savannah�. The operation was planned to install the FNLA as the government in charge and to kick the MPLA and their communist supporters out of Angola. The operation would start in July 1975 but it quickly developed into a full blown secret war. The climax of the operation would be from the end of 1975 to February 1976.

Dressed in green prison uniforms. The forgotten soldiers of Operation Savannah

Initially this secret operation was planned for a very limited period. However, it quickly changed and the actions were prolonged to 1976 when the scheduled elections and peace negotiations between the conflicting parties in Angola failed. The number of South African soldiers who took part in Ops Savannah is on record as being 2 600 but this number is misleading. All the supporting elements as well as the Citizen Force units used during the last phases of the operation who never experienced the sharp end of the action are also mentioned. The core fighting elements were National Servicemen of the time and they were incredible. Not because of their leaders but despite them. These young men were robbed of the identity and their pride. They had to sign documents stating that they were not South African troops should they be captured. This absolved the South African Defence Force and the politicians of the day. At that stage most of them were actually too young to sign such a declaration but 66


that did not stop the SADF. In effect, they were demoted to the status of mercenaries by their own Defence Force and could nothing in terms of the Geneva Convention.

Foreign uniforms, foreign steel helmets and foreign weapons – and the SADF made them sign themselves out of service. Now they were just numbers. South African mercenaries of the SADF.

This action by the SADF and the politicians is still a mystery. Did they really think that they would take over Angola with 1 500 fighting men? Did they think there would be no casualties or that no South Africans would be captured? Did they really think the operation would stay secret? The documents pertaining to the operation was a secret for more than forty years. For those who were there the memories and experiences were never secret. It was always reality and mostly a nightmare. It is one of the most treacherous deeds on earth when an army denies its own troops. That is precisely what happened here. Issued with green uniforms (only one pair) as worn in South African prisons by prisoners, Bata track shoes, with only a book number as identity and without personal weapons, they were flown into central Angola.

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Green prison uniforms and "liberated" motor bikes

Fred van Loggerenberg’s pocket Bible with the charcoal inscription

There they started fighting in the dark and were exceptional in completing their task. Most of the time they were kept in the dark by their leaders and were not even aware of other flanking units and formations. Most probably the leaders thought that the less they knew, the less they could say should they be captured. Something that was a reality and that also happened. In one case, a young South African Troop, Fred van Loggerenberg, wrote the date and the place in his pocket Bible with a piece of charcoal. He hoped that should he die, someone would give it to his parents so that they could see where he was. That the South African decision makers had made a mistake was quickly evident. The troops were called up eighteen months earlier and in some cases deployed after less than five month’s training. Furthermore they were trained in counter insurgency warfare. Suddenly these young troops were in the middle of fights with tanks and other armoured vehicles. The young South African Artillery came from a completely different era. Some of the cannons were Second World War 25 Pounders. They had to fight against an enemy that was better equipped than them with surplus equipment. The South Africans were defenceless against the Stalin Organ red rye rocket launchers. The same went for the artillery. The South Africans were so affected by these weapons, that when they returned, they designed and built the best of both these weapons in the world. But they needed it then and did not have it.

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An Eland 90 crossing a temporary bridge After the ineffective Second World War 25 Pounders were somewhere in Angola. replaced with 140mm cannons, things were a bit better.

The South African intelligence was also deficient. Ebo was attacked without knowledge by the South African officers of what was going on in and behind the town. Some national servicemen also had their term of service extended for three months with a stroke of a pen. Some were placed under armed guard upon returning to their units so that they could not talk to the new intake or other personnel not involved with Savannah. There was never a parade. Most of them never received their Pro Patria medal with Cunene clasp. They were never allowed any resolution and in effect were sent home from their units while the SADF wiped its hands of them. Some were not even paid for their operational service. The fighting was heavy. Food was scarce and nearly all of them suffered from dehydration and diarrhoea as a result of rations way past their shelf and expiry dates. Sometimes they had to make do without the correct ammunition but they did not cease to amaze. There were good Permanent Force leaders but they were the exception rather than the rule. With this then my ode to the national servicemen of long ago and one exceptional Permanent Force member, Corporal John Wahl. As a young corporal he looked after his troops, saw to it that they were fed, built up morale and even stopped them from getting killed. All his troops came back alive. For his death defying actions he never got any recognition, not even a thank you. John Wahl, in front left with his section after withdrawing from Angola. Nkurukuru 1976. Thank the Lord for social media that can now correct this injustice. It must be mentioned that the leadership of the day were very unwilling to be involved.

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In three incidents during Ops Savannah from the September 1975 to December 1975 John Wahl proved that he was a man of steel. His actions can only be described as death defying and he never even received a medal. The SADF and the leaders of the day should be ashamed. The incidents were as follows: 

A rescue attempt of stranded Technical Service Corps personnel during the night near a place called Roberto Williams - between Silva Porto and Lobito. This while the enemy was close at hand. His section leader was not with them. He went to pick up the people with two vehicles and brought them to safety at Alto Hama. His actions in the death acre of the enemy at Ebo. During the whole fight he was in the midst of the enemy death acre. On several occasions het rescued men, brought them to safety and returned. He also provided covering fire for two other rescue attempts. By nightfall he had to replace the barrel of his machine gun. It was completely burnt out. Having faced bullets and bombs in the heat of the whole battle, John Wahl was given no recognition. Officers who were one to two kilometres away were decoration for heroism. His singlehanded rescue of an Engineering Corps officer from a mine field early on 29 November 1975. The officer unknowingly walked into a mine field and one of his legs was blown off. He was in shock and bleeding to death. Without thinking of his personal safety John walked into the mine field and pulled the officer out and saved his life.

All these actions can be corroborated by eye witnesses and records to the fact. Dawid Lotter: Landmynkraters Dawid Lotter wrote a poem about John Wahl. He describes his actions as follows: My poem ‘Landmynkraters’, is based on the true experiences of John Wahl, an Armour troop sergeant on Operation Savannah, during the Bush War in 1975. I wrote this poem ‘Mynkraters’ as a result of a specific incident where he rescued an Engineering officer who had lost his leg. Both of them survived but both of them were left with permanent scars. The Engineering officer lost a leg and John still has the wounds of war that to this day, haunt him. John is one of quite a few soldiers from Ops Savannah, who received no recognition for their heroism. John summarizes his feelings on the day in the minefield as follows:”It was the loneliest day in my life. Far in the distance are people waiting and in the middle of the field is me. You think about a lot of things – and wonder. My main thought was, what have I done and what am I doing here. Also I felt like some coffee. With this poem I salute John Wahl and the others who like him, gave their all and to this day received no recognition. ’Landmynkraters’ In the beginning Operation Savannah was the conventional war of the Bush War for South Africa. In a few short months one of the last colonial powers in Africa withdrew and left their colony to its own devices. The desperate white Portuguese colonialists left all their belongings and fled after 500 years of peace. It was the end of Portuguese Angola and the beginning of Cuban Angola. South Africa, with outdated weaponry, took communism on. This poem is bases on the real experiences of John Wahl during Operation Savannah.

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A landmine explodes The blow was far and distant When we reached the crossroad Shortly before Ebo south Two Eland’s moved forward And swept for mines over the road Only found a buddy next to the road With blinding tears in eyes Crying he pointed us To where his officer in sight Lay caught in a minefield Without foot – bleeding and scared I - with Merthiolate and bandages Searching with stick in bare hands Through minefield without pause Crawling – creeping inch by inch Next to a boot without a sole With grasping hand And pleading eyes He asks for my pistol Pushed his hand away firmly In the gaping wound one at a time Closed off spurting veins Bound the rest with bomb dressings Two hours we waited Supported him with all our strength So that his hope did not fail Before the Puma came to fetch him Two lonely men Caught by narrow boundaries From hope to despair Knotted together in one emotion Together we fought the pain Together through the viciousness Over war and the endeavour Fierce – with austerity And later wondered frozen Over nothing at all From south – two hours later The Puma came Hands and ropes that rescue All clothed in a whirlwind And left me behind cold In the tangible quiet 71


Now I am unbearably tired From tree to tree Every step careful - soft Back to where the Elands wait Later at dusk I leave the group I wanted to cry Alone But I could not! I wanted to scream With every step But I could not! Blunt Defused Has the cry in my humanity Become part of my soul? **** I can say That I do not see the hero That day in die minefield I was untouched in flesh With landmine craters on my soul Dawid Lotter’s book of poetry can be ordered at lotterdh@gmail.com 

These poems of war are a must read for everyone who were involved in the Bush War as well as their friends and family.

Eland 90's would be the tip of the spear for South Africa. This photo was taken at Santa Comba in central Angola.

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Gerrie Hugo, who was the gunner of the squadron’s Second in Command’s command vehicle during Operation Savannah, describes the actions of John Wahl at Ebo on 23 Nov 1975 as follows: John Wahl saved our lives. After being shot out by the 76mm for the first time, we were as good as dead. We were stranded in death’s acre which was being covered by intense anti-tank weapons. We wanted to go and help our guys who had already been shot out. The next shot aimed at us by the 76mm would have killed us. Our main weapon was out of action because it was hit on the muzzle. However, John was in a good covering fire position and shot out the 76mm. that gave us time to slowly withdraw under heavy RPG, small arms and 122mm fire. During the rest of the attack John Wahl launched actions in the death acre. It took several hours. He neutralized several anti-tank weapons and on two occasions saved the lives of two of our guys. The first time was to save the life of Cpl Gert Botha. The second time he saved the life of Giel Visser. That time he went in without his gunner to make space for Giel in his Eland 90. Therefore, at the time he was without a weapon for that rescue.

Of the 13 South African armoured vehicles at Ebo only five would leave the battle unscathed. Forty years later this is the wreck of one that stayed behind at Ebo.

John and his crew was the last serviceable vehicle to leave the death acre at Ebo. The evening after the fight he had to throw away the barrel of his Browning machine gun. It was completely warped because of all the rounds fired through it. The total loss of life on the day, South African and including UNITA and the FNLA is not accurate but is thought to be somewhere in the seventies. 73


A group of Savannah veterans are in the process of writing this history because the previous writers did not have all the facts. It was an honour and privilege to serve with John. I am extremely proud to call him my friend. I do not know a braver person than John Wahl and we owe hi our lives. He has nothing further to prove and deserves the highest decoration possible. All attempts to right this wrong have thus far failed. Mainly because of a lack of interest from those who are still able to do something about it.

John Wahl, fighter and farmer

John Wahl: South African Police John Wahl was born in Bloemfontein. He attended Grey College until 1968. After school he joined the South African Police and was stationed in Natal. From there he served in the Caprivi and in Rhodesia several times. John Wahl: South African Army After five years with the police, he joins the SA Army in 1975. As a member of 1 SSB he completes the Phase 1 Course at Infantry School and at the School of Armour. In September 1975, he leaves for the border a troop sergeant for Operation Savannah. After Operation Savannah he rises in rank to Sergeant Major first class and is deployed on the border several times more. He leaves the SADF in 1998 to be a farmer. He lives on his farm near Upington in the Northern Cape. 40 Years later The Voortrekker Monument has presented the annual Springbok Vasbyt 10/25 road race since 2006. The Club is a registered member of the ASA and independent of the Voortrekker Monument, although the 74


Monument and the Club work closely together. The ‘Springbok Vasbyt’ is the biggest off road race in South Africa. It has been sponsored by Afriforum for the past five years. The ‘Springbok Vasbyt’ was conceived to give recognition to unknown soldiers who have not been honoured. Since the first race a series of unknown South African soldiers have been honoured. The rules are simple. The person may only have the rank of captain or less, the person must be unknown and lastly the person could never have been decorated officially for their heroism. It was only a question of time before the soldiers of Ops Savannah received their due respect. The case of John Wahl made it easy. He satisfied all the criteria and he was willing to be the ‘face’ of the Ops Savannah veterans. Die 2015 medal, like all the previous medals, is a once off medal. It depicts John Wahl in 1976. In the background is the pocket bible of Fred van Loggerenberg.

The place name “Sela”, actually spelled “Cela” and date has been written with charcoal.

On this day, 29 November 1975, John Wahl rescued a wounded officer from a mine field.

Lastly the medal depicts an Eland 90 armoured car crossing a temporary bridge in Angola.

It is a privilege to be able to honour such a humble man after 40 years. It is not only John Wahl who gets recognition but all the young men who took part in Operation Savannah. Some paid with their lives, other with their bodies but most of them were left with a scar on their souls. We honour the unknown and forgotten heroes of Operation Savannah and most of all John Wahl. Copy right: Leon Bezuidenhout & Gerrie Hugo 23 February 2015, Pretoria: leon@mboneni.co.za

The Bush War / Die Bosoorlog Kwanyama-taal op Zulu Papa: SAP Koevoet-radionet: Tom Kautondoka en Joseph Bernabe Vertelde maar ongepubliseerde Sisingi Kamogo-storie - Ek het die storie gelos vir 'n boek in die toekoms.

Leon Bezuidenhout

23 Jun (13 days ago)

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Twee grotes Een storie: Kwanyama op die radio’ Tom Kautondoka en Joseph Bernabe, Zulu Papa Die ooste van Kavangoland het pragtige bome. Sommige baie groot. Van hierdie bome was pragtige skadubome, en ons sou dikwels op ‘n stil oggend, diep in die bos, onder een gaan stop om ‘n bietjie te rus, of somtyds om ontbyt te eet. Soms om planne te maak of om die taktiek te verander. Nodeloos om te sê daar het altyd stories opgekom. Soos die een wat Joseph Bernade aan my vertel het: Ons span Zulu-4 Sierra, was een oggend onder so ‘n boom. Joseph Bernabe was ‘n voormalige Unita-vegter wat sy goed gevat en by die Suid-Afrikaners aan die anderkant van die grens gaan aansluit het. So eindig hy by Koevoet. Hy was ʼn besondere dapper man en ‘n puik vegter (warrior). By hom sou ek persoonlik baie leer. As die man meer taalvaardig was, kon hy heelwat verder gekom het. Maar sy Portugees was baie beter as sy Afrikaans, en in ʼn Koevoet opset was Portugees nie veel werd nie. Bernade was vroeer deel van Zulu Papa in Ovamboland. Saam met hom in die span was Adjudant Offisier Tom Kautondoka. AO Kautondoka was een van die eerste swart Koevoetlede en was oral bekend as “Ou Tom”. Ons jong mannetjies het met groot agting na die man gekyk. Hy was in die jare 80 alreeds in sy vyftigerjare. Bernabe was ook so ‘n paar jaar ouer as ons. Zulu Papa het naby Okakfiya gewerk, noord van Oshakati Cuca. Hulle was besig om inligting op te volg nadat daar vroeër ‘n groot kontak was tussen PLAN en ‘n ander Zulu-span. In hulle soektog kry hulle uiteindelik drie spore. Hulle was besig om die spore uit te klaar toe daar met eens ‘n reuse aanval op hulle is. “Die mortiere en kleingeweer vuur het op hulle geval soos reën”. Behalwe vir die mortiere het PLAN ook met RPG’s, AK’s en SKS’e op die span geskiet. Dit was ‘n aggressiewe en moordende aanval. Die span het egter hulle rug styf gemaak en terug baklei. ʼn Span waar in Kautondoka en Bernabe was, was geen walkover nie. Beide die witbevelvoerder en ander wit-lid in die span was krities gewond, en so was die kommunikasie terug na Koevoet gesny. Al die karre was uit aksie en die span se mobiliteit effektief geëlimineer. Hulle groot sterkpunte, naamlik die beweeglikheid en vuurkrag van die karre se gewere was geneutraliseer. Tensy iemand toe tree om die situasie om te keer was die Koevoet-span op die punt om totaal uitgewis te word. Dit is hier waar die “ou man” bykom. Hy was die senior-swart-adjudant en hy neem in die chaos onmiddellik die beheer oor. Hy was ʼn man wat nog pyp gerook het. Soos ʼn generaal, pyp in die een hand, het hy sy jong polisiemanne hergroepeer en met ʼn gedetermineerde teenaanval begin. Vuur-in-beweging. Tree vir tree word PLAN uit hulle aanvalsposisie terug gedryf, totdat hulle uiteindelik die aftog breek. PLAN was numeries baie sterker en goed bewapen maar die aggressie van die Swart Koevoet-lede in die teenaanval was een te veel vir hulle. Vir die jong swart Koevoete was dit ʼn geveg om die lewe. Rug teen die muur. As PLAN hulle oorrompel overrun het, was hulle dood. Met die skote wat nog rondom hulle klap klim Kautondoka terug in die “bevelskar” en vat die radio. Sy Afrikaans was nie baie goed nie. “Julu- Julu- Julu- Papa” Roep hy na Oshakati. Hy kry geen antwoord nie. Hy probeer weer, maar sonder sukses. Dan sê een van die ander lede hy moet ʼn ander roepsein probeer. Julu-tu, Julu-tu- Julu Papa” roep hy. Hierdie keer na Eenhana. “Zulu-Twee, stuur Zulu Papa” kom die antwoord - soos ʼn engel uit die hemel. 76


“Julu Papa, Papa kom weeruit kondaka twasitaka: omukunda Ohakafiya; Embuku dafa vakwetu valemana; tumako engamtjopa dilineoko!” antwoord A.O Kautondoka eers in Afrikaans en dan die res in Kwanyama. “Ons kom weer uit; Ons was in ‘n kontak in die omgweing van Ohakafiya. Die “Boer” (wit bevelvoerder) is dood en so ook ‘n klomp ander lede; Stuur 4 gunships” In die Ops Kamer by Eenhana verstaan die radio operateur niks behalwe die woord ‘kondaka”- kontak. Soos blits is hy by die deur uit en kry een van die swart polisiemanne wat daar naby met iets anders besig is. Met die swart lid is hy terug na die radio. Hierdie keer is die gesprek in Kwanyama. “Julu Papa, Julu Papa, Julu-tu popya mwameme” “praat my broer”, begin die nuwe radio operateur. “Julu Papa; Lombwela Kandoya mewana alombwele embulu vakwevafa vamwe; valemanayilem mutu kwafele; natango tuli mo kondaka”. “Sê vir Kondoya by Eenhana, dat die blankes dood is; Ons het dringend hulp nodig; Ons is steeds in ʼn kontak”. Die reaksie was oombliklik en beslissend. Die spanne wat naby werk word onmiddellik gestuur as versterking. Van die Lugmag se kant word guships gestuur om die ondersteuning te gee vir die span op die grond. ‘n Puma word ook onmiddellik gestuur om die gewondes te casevac. So word die kontak dan op die spits gedryf. Vir hierdie daad van leierskap is daar nooit enige dekorasie of aanprysing gegee nie. Die leierskap wat AO Kautondoka aan die dag gelê het, was prysenswaardig. Wat moes uitloop op ʼn verwoestende nederlaag vir Koevoet, is verander deur die veggees en leierskap van een man. En die ondersteuning van ander, helde soos Joseph Bernabe. Storie deur Sisingi Kamongo enkele maande voordat hy oorlede is, redaksie, Leon Bezuidenhout 2013 

(Dis ‘n mooi storie! Ek het “Shorty” deur Leon ontmoet. Shorty het my eenkeer diè storie in ‘n skooloefeningboek gewys. Dankie Leon.)

Leon Bezuidenhout

Wyle Sisingi Kamongo alom bekend as “Shorty”.

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Narsiso ‘Gomie’ Gomes: A Portuguese-speaking S African War Hero: One among many o desconhecido herói durante Operação Savana, soldado de língua portuguesa do Batalhão 32, Koevoet Leon Bezuidenhout With over 500 years of Portuguese influence in southern Africa, and two Portuguese colonies, the Portuguese impact on the sub-continent was always going to be substantial. In the regional competition for power, coupled with ethnic divisions which paid no heed to international borders, the military situation was always going to be fluid. What happened in one territory inevitably spilled over into another. And good fighting men were always going to be in demand. The story of ‘Gomie’ Gomes is only one of many of the fighting men of Africa; men who grew up in a Portuguese colony, who were absorbed into a fighting force, and who eventually practised the only thing they knew: war, for their adopted country, but often more for their unit. Like the French Foreign Legion, for these Portuguese black Africans the unit became their family and their home. The politics around it was secondary, if of any value whatsoever. What is remarkable is what these men sacrificed for their new country, South Africa. Some experienced frontline combat for over fifteen years, constantly at war with the enemy, sometimes as far as ‘the other side of the river’. Many paid the highest price and are buried in northern Namibia or southern Angola. But the survivors were, without exception, tragically abandoned by the South Africans, used and rejected. Angola was a Portuguese colony for hundreds of years, exploited not only for its mineral and natural wealth but also for its people. For decades the slaves of the New World came from the interior of Africa, places like Angola. By the 1950s, colonial Portugal, like the rest of the colonial powers, was under pressure: the winds of changes were blowing and Africa was screaming for independence. In Angola three liberation movements were formed, all embarking in the early 1960s upon armed resistance against the Portuguese: the Soviet-backed MPLA, the Chinese-backed FNLA and UNITA. The FNLA had its support base in the north and east, UNITA in the southeast of the country, with the MPLA primarily centred round the capital Luanda. Narsiso Gomes was born in 1946 in Mushiko, Luena in the east of central Angola, not far from the Congolese border. His parents were ethnic Chokwe but all the children learned Portuguese, the lingua franca of such a large, diverse country. At 17 he was press-ganged into the FNLA and taken over the border, ending up at Lubumbashi in the southern Congo, close to the Zambian border. Here, at Chapa camp, the recruits were trained in guerilla warfare for ten months. The instructors were French-speaking whites, mercenaries in the pay of Congolese President Mobuto Sese Seke, a staunch supporter of the FNLA. The French instructors identified the young Gomes as a potential saboteur and so he was trained intensively in the ‘art’ of wrecking railway lines. In 1965 Gomes was deployed into Angola to fight the Portuguese. For the next ten years he fought countless actions against the colonist army and committed many acts of sabotage on the country’s infrastructure. Many of his comrades were killed but as a capable guerilla Gomes always managed to disappear into the bush to fight another day. By 1975 the scattered FNLA groups were consolidated. In Portugal the guard had changed and Angola became independent in November 1975 as the three factions inside Angola fought it out for the spoils. But foreign support for the three protagonists had also changed. The Americans, South Africans and Israelis took over support of the pro-Western Holden Roberto and his FNLA. The MPLA continued to draw its support from the Soviets, with UNITA likewise receiving succour from the Eastern Bloc and within a few days, changing sides to join the South Africans. Gomes’s first encounter with white South Africans soldiers was at Bie in 1975. From here the FNLA force was taken to southern Angola to await further instructions when South African Special Forces operators suddenly arrived on the scene. How exactly FNLA troops led by FNLA officers changed to FNLA troops led by white South Africans is detailed by Colonel Jan Breytenbach, the commanding officer of the time, in his 78


books. By the time the FNLA troops had been retrained and re-equipped by the South Africans, there was no longer any dispute as to who was in charge. The reconstituted FNLA unit became known as ‘Zulu Force’ and was to take part in the 1975 South African invasion of Angola, Operation Savannah, with Gomes fighting in every major engagement such as Sa da Badeira, Macemedes, Catengue and Lobito. However, when the South Africans withdrew, at the behest of the CIA, the FNLA troops were left in the lurch, forsaken by their political leaders, Roberto and Chipenda. They belonged to nobody; nobody wanted them, so Breytenbach had them transferred across the Kavango River into South West Africa where they were reformed as Bravo Group, later to become 32 Battalion of the South African Army. The buffalo would become their badge, their existence and their reputation. They were then moved to the Caprivi and later to Rundu. For these men from Angola, this was only the beginning of fifteen years of combat with their new unit. For the following eight years, Gomies, in Platoon 1 of Alpha Company 32 Battalion, was involved in all the bigger – and many lesser known – operations. He was there during the attack on Savate; when the battle ended that afternoon the enemy, FAPLA, the MPLA’s military wing, had a serious bloody nose. He was there at Eheke when Operation Kropduif went pear-shaped; it was a victory but a worthless one. Cuvelai, Ione, Mupa, Cahama, Namacunde Xangongo and many other places would all see Gomies and the Portuguese-speaking soldiers fighting against FAPLA, SWAPO and the Cubans. When the South Africans attacked Techamutete from the ‘wrong side’, the north, it was a complete surprise to the FAPLA defenders. Gomies was there too. But the constant fighting and the long periods that the 32 Battalion troops were deployed placed immense pressure on the men. Gomies was already thirty-seven, having been a soldier for nineteen years, sometime guerilla, sometime infantryman, but all the same a fighting man. He was tired of being deployed for months on end, weary of carrying heavy packs. He was looking for a way out. In 1983 he began investigating the idea of driving rather than foot-slogging into battle. At the South West African Police counter-insurgency unit in Oshakati worked his wife’s cousin, Warrant Officer Lukas Kilino. Kilino had previously been an FNLA officer and a 32 Battalion NCO before joining Koevoet. Gomies went to see him about a transfer to the police. Kilino personally completed the forms for him and in 1983 his transfer to Koevoet took place. No longer would he be six months away from home, no longer would he lug forty-kilogram packs on his back. For the next six months he was re-trained – again. He was then attached to a new fighting team, ‘Zulu November’, trained by Sergeant Boesman Pretorius. When they were eventually deployed Gomies became the gunner for Car 3 and for the remainder of the war he was a mounted machine-gunner. Occasionally though, he would join the rest of the men on foot, but no more serious walking and no more heavy backpacks and mortars to carry. He fought in dozens of contacts against SWAPO. At the big fight at Kahenge he was present when WO Bennie was killed in action. In 1986 he took part in the battle at Oshana Shanandjili when four Koevoet teams contacted a major SWAPO force. Thirty-seven SWAPO troops were killed in the engagement, one of Koevoet’s biggest clashes with SWAPO in the unit’s history. In early April 1989, SWAPO, in contravention of UN Resolution 435, invaded Namibia. In the bloodiest action of the twenty-three-year-long conflict Gomes was there, behind his machine gun on his Casspir. Shortly after SWAPO’s April 1989 invasion was crushed, Koevoet demobilized. In the newly-independent Namibia, under retributive pressure from SWAPO and with little opportunity, most Koevoet men made a break for the South African border. At Upington Gomies and others were collected by the South African Police, trained again and redeployed as ‘Special Police’. He worked out of Moordkop near Rustenburg, in Pongola, KwaZulu-Natal, on the Swaziland border and any other place where they were needed. SWAPO’s nemesis was now eradicating crime in the form of stock theft, dagga plantations and the like. In 1994, the South African Police and the government sold these men out for a better relationship with the ANC. They were paid miniscule severance packages and left to get on with their own devices. Gomies left the police 79


and went into the private security industry. For more than fifteen years he had fought South Africa’s battles. For five more years he protected its citizens. In 1999 his three decades of active service caught up with him. His health was such that he could no longer work. He returned to Vingerkraal near Warmbaths where today he lives in a shack, without any police or army pension.8 Like so many others. But he remains a proud man, a man who fought the good fight and never lost a battle.

Narsiso ‘Gomie’ Gomes 8

Die Nongqai laat maar net sy kop in skaamte laat sak indien die bewerings waar is. Die totale besef van wat “ons” gedoen het dring tot ons deur. Ons het die manne soos veghoenders laat baklei ... vir Judasgeld. Vandag is die “kopgeld” weg en waar is die manne? Aan hul eie lot oorgelaat deur die vorige politieke bestel – Hennie Heymans.

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Oud-SAP-Lede Liefdadigheidstrust: Jaarlikse Skaapbraai

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We will remember him: No W89397 IF van Zyl

Under the heading Cato Manor we read that Mrs Crous (mother of Const Rademan) lost three of her four sons. In the case of the late Const Van Zyl his sister tells us when the Chaplain stopped at their house they knew one of the brothers was killed or injured. In this case it was Const Van Zyl – it is alleged that he died in a watch tower on the border, when that was hit by a missile. They lost another brother who was serving in the SADF, he died in a vehicle accident.

SAP Badge: Gavin Forrester

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Not a single school was burnt during 1976, says Zuma African News Agency (ANA)- June 16, 2016 Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter

President Jacob Zuma addresses thousands gathered at Orlando Stadium to commemorate the 40th anniversary of June 16 uprising. Photo: ANA President Jacob Zuma urged youngsters and communities to take a leaf from the students who took part in the protests of June 16 in 1976 and refrain from damaging property. ”Not a single school was burnt during 1976. The conduct we see today is unacceptable. Why destroy schools? Where are children supposed to go after that? There is something wrong with us. We cannot say there’s something sober about such actions,” said Zuma. He said destroying clinics, trains and factories during protests for service delivery was not helpful. ”We need to discuss this as a country, sit down, talk about this and discourage it. Resources that are meant to bring development are diverted to rebuild all that has been destroyed. These acts indicate that we are going astray,” he said. He said, however, that the struggle for opportunities and better lives for all continued, and that the sacrifices of the class of 1976 were not in vain because the apartheid regime was defeated. ”Race no longer determines where one lives or where one goes to school or church, or what work one can do. Black people no longer have to carry passes or seek permits to live and work in urban areas.” 83


Turning to student funding, Zuma urged the National student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) beneficiaries to pay back monies owed to the scheme, to enable those who need funding to study. A commission has been appointed to look into free higher education, he said. ”We know that many more students are still struggling to afford tertiary education because they come from poor families. We appointed a judicial commission to look into the feasibility of free higher education for the country. I look forward to receiving the commission’s report and recommendations.” Thursday marked 40 years after the June 16 uprising by students against Afrikaans as a medium of instructions at black schools. The uprising began in Soweto and then spread countrywide in 1976. Students in Soweto had planned to meet at Orlando Stadium on the day and embark on a peaceful march to education authorities, when they were confronted by police who ordered them to disperse. They refused to disperse and threw stones at the police who then opened fire, killing and injuring some of the youngsters. Many young activists were forced into exile to escape the wrath of the then apartheid government. Pieterson, after whom the Soweto memorial was named, was the youngest victim killed during the uprising. The iconic photograph of the 12-year-old Pieterson, carried by Makhubo with Pieterson’s sister running alongside him, became a worldwide symbol of the students uprising and their struggle against the apartheid regime and education system. South Africa Today – South Africa News http://southafricatoday.net/south-africa-news/not-a-single-school-was-burnt-during-1976-says-zuma/

Filler: SACP: Calvinia: Manuel Ferreira

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Die 1976-onluste / 1976 Riots: Lovedale Dr GD “Gerrit” Theron het die volgende skêrsnitte ingestuur:

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Die 1976-onluste / 1976 Riots: Soweto June 16 Soweto Uprising as told in Court PAC, Zephaniah “The Lion of Azania” Mothopeng Posted by Mayihlome under Feature Articles, Historical Perspectives | Tags: June 16 1976, Mark Shinners, Motsoko Pheko, PAC, Zephaniah “The Lion of Azania” Mothopeng |

Zephaniah “The Lion of Azania” Mothopeng9 “You Mothopeng, acted to sow seeds of anarchy and revolution. The riots you engineered and predicted eventually took place in Soweto on June 16 and at Kagiso the next day.” These are the words of Judge Curlewis in the Supreme Court of South Africa in a secret court hearing on 1 July 1979. He was sentencing to imprisonment for the Soweto Uprising(June 16) the following accused Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders and members: Zephania Mothopeng 30 years, Moffat Zungu 7 years, Michael Matsobane 15 years, Daniel Matsobane 12 years, Marks Shinners 12 years, John Ganya 11 years, Benny Ntoele 10 years, Johnson Nyathi 10 years, Themba Hlatswayo 8 years, Goodwill Thlale 8 years, Julius Landingwe 8 years, Sithembele Khala 7 years, Goodwill Moni 7 years, Zolile Ndindwa 7 years, Jerome Kodisang 5 years and Hamilton Keke 5 years. As we mark the 36th anniversary of the Soweto Uprising, it is important that suppressed facts and truth about this inspiring history of political bravery and heroism by the youth of this country are revealed and recorded for posterity and for humanity in general. In the Supreme Court of South Africa at Bethal, Judge Curlewis found for the apartheid regime’s prosecution in 1979, that the Pan Africanist Congress played a leading role in the Soweto Uprising which erupted on 16 June 1976. Evidence before Judge Curlewis showed that the PAC organised and fixed the date on the Soweto Uprising. Several witness testified how PAC under the leadership of Zephania Mothopeng organised the Soweto Uprising. For instance, Adam, one of the witnesses testified before court that in one of the underground

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Hy was deur V/Tak Natal te Pietermaritzburg aan gehou – Hennie Heymans.

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meetings of the PAC disguised as the Young African Religious Movement (YARM), Mike Motsobane introduced PAC leaders as from Soweto. Adam told the court that one of them stood up and said, “This is Uncle here, pointing at Zephania Mothopeng Accused Number One.” This PAC leader then addressed the meeting. He said that students were to organise riots. They must start simultaneously throughout the country. When the riots begin students must organise things like stay-away from school and from work. Apartheid government property must be destroyed in order to cripple the economy of the country. It is the aim of the riots. A date will be set and the students at Kagiso must start, Judge Curlewis was told this is what Mothopeng said. Indeed, when sentencing the 17 accused members of the PAC to a total of 162 years, the Judge referring specifically to Zephania Mothopeng said, “You Mothopeng acted to sow seeds of anarchy and revolution. The riots you engineered and predicted eventually took place in Soweto on June 16 and at Kagiso the next day.” Application on behalf of the 17 PAC accused to appeal was heard in the Supreme Court of South Africa Appellate Division on the 16th July 1979. This court dismissed the appeal of the accused the same day. It affirmed the judgement of Justice Curlewis when among other things, he said, “It should be clear that these incidents are not something the witness invented or that he can invent nor is there a reason to do so. The details of the incident and their sequence the contents of what was told he did not suck this out of his thumb. No matter how desirous he was of being released and getting indemnity.” Judge Curlewis found that there were 86 PAC co-conspirators in the organising of the Soweto Uprising. Some of them were: Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (Kimberly), Potlako K. Leballo, T.M. Ntantala, Elias Ntloedibe (Tanzania), Joseph Mkhwanazi, Joe Moabi, Gasson Ndlovu (Swaziland), Solly Ndlovu, Isaac Mafeche, Sabelo Phama, Baldwin Hlanti (Botswana) and Mlamli Makwetu (Transkei). Four other people that the apartheid regime’s prosecution said conspired in the Soweto Uprising were women named as Victoria Makhetha, Beauty Mofokeng, Leanah Mawela and Felicia Sehume. Commenting on the Bethal trial of 18, A.P Mda lawyer and political scientist wrote, “Mothopeng will go down in the history of South Africa as the leader who orchestrated the Soweto Uprising in 1976. He operated quietly from his private quarters in Soweto right under the nose of apartheid security police. He gathered groups of youths around him, injecting them with the spirit of African nationalism and Pan Africanism. The cells he was able to form multiplied rapidly. Underground the movement grew in scope and depth and converged with the patriotic efforts of Steve Biko of Black Consciousness Movement, who was later to receive injuries while in the custody of the South African secret police.” Reporting the PAC court case on the Soweto Uprising the Sunday Times of 1 July 1979 said: “South Africa’s biggest terror trial and one of the longest in the country’s judicial history wound up this week when the Pan Africanist Congress supporters were jailed for underground activities. They were sentenced to a total of 162 years imprisonment. The statistics of the trial have set their records. It has taken 165 court sitting days. 5200 pages of evidence and argument were recorded and 86 co-conspirators were involved in the entire trial including the marathon 21 hour judgement held in camera.” Judge Curlewis further said, “And then the last thing that I would like to mention here…is Pan Africanism is the goal of the Pan Africanist Congress….They propagate and promote the concept of Pan Africanism. This is also prominent throughout the existence of the Pan Africanist Congress…from the beginning the aims of the organisation were radical in the sense that they strove for a fundamental change.” For his part Sobukwe said, “In Sharpeville we overcame the fear of the consequences of disobeying colonial laws….It became respectable to go to jail and emerge as what Kwame Nkrumah called ‘prison graduates.’ The white man now, in Soweto had to fall back on his ultimate weapon the gun….Soweto has been a lesson in overcoming the fear of the gun. And now that he relies on the gun and we too, can get the gun, confrontation is inevitable.” 89


How long shall the verdict of Judge Curlewis which the Appeal Court found reason to interfere with; be ignored in order to falsify the history of Soweto Uprising for cheap political propaganda and promotion of ignorance nationally and internationally? The Court Record of the Supreme Court of South Africa is available for anyone to read the facts about how, why and who organised the Soweto Uprising. Calling June 16 “Youth Day” is a deliberate attempt to hide the real history of Soweto Uprising. By Dr. Motsoko Pheko (The writer is author of several books such as HIDDEN SIDE OF SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICS and TOWARDS AFRICA’S AUTHENTIC LIBERATION) 

More information on the PAC’s role in the June 1976 “Riots” is required, please – Hennie Heymans

Youth and the National Liberation Struggle

The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising Introduction The June 16 1976 Uprising that began in Soweto and spread countrywide profoundly changed the sociopolitical landscape in South Africa. Events that triggered the uprising can be traced back to policies of the 90


Apartheid government that resulted in the introduction of the Bantu Education Act in 1953. The rise of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the formation of South African Students Organisation (SASO) raised the political consciousness of many students while others joined the wave of anti-Apartheid sentiment within the student community. When the language of Afrikaans alongside English was made compulsory as a medium of instruction in schools in 1974, black students began mobilizing themselves. On 16 June 1976 between 3000 and 10 000 students mobilized by the South African Students Movement’s Action Committee supported by the BCM marched peacefully to demonstrate and protest against the government’s directive. The march was meant to culminate at a rally in Orlando Stadium. On their pathway they were met by heavily armed police10 who fired teargas and later live ammunition on demonstrating students. This resulted in a widespread revolt that turned into an uprising against the government. While the uprising began in Soweto, it spread across the country and carried on until the following year. The aftermath of the events of June 16 1976 had dire consequences for the Apartheid government. Images of the police firing on peacefully demonstrating students led an international revulsion against South Africa as its brutality was exposed. Meanwhile, the weakened and exiled liberation movements received new recruits fleeing political persecution at home giving impetus to the struggle against Apartheid. Bantu Education Policy The word ‘Bantu’ in the term Bantu education is highly charged politically and has derogatory connotations. The Bantu Educational system was designed to ‘train and fit’ Africans for their role in the newly (1948) evolving apartheid society. Education was viewed as a part of the overall apartheid system including ‘homelands’, urban restrictions, pass laws and job reservation. This role was one of labourer, worker, and servant only. As H.F Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu Education Act (1953), conceived it: “There is no place for [the African] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in the European community”.• Pre-apartheid education of Africans It is mistaken however, to understand that there was no pre-apartheid educational marginalization of black South Africans. Long before the historic 1948 white elections that gave the Nationalist Party power, there was a system of segregated and unequal education in the country. While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected. Financial underprovision and an urban influx led to gravely insufficient schooling facilities, teachers and educational materials as well as student absenteeism or non-enrolment. A 1936 Inquiry identified problems, only to have almost nothing done about these needs. Bantu education and the racist compartmentalizing of education. In 1949 the government appointed the Eiselen Commission with the task of considering African education provision. The Commission recommended 'resorting to radical measures' for the 'effective reform of the Bantu school system'. In 1953, prior to the apartheid government's Bantu Education Act, 90% of black South African schools were state-aided mission schools. The Act demanded that all such schools register with the state, and removed control of African education from the churches and provincial authorities. This control was centralized in the Bantu Education Department, a body dedicated to keeping it separate and inferior. Almost all the mission schools closed down. The Roman Catholic Church was largely alone in its attempt to keep its schools going without state aid. The 1953 Act also separated the financing of education for Africans from general state 10

This is pure propaganda. The police at a lower level are always armed, not necessarily “heavy armed”, neither did the SA Police have a licence to kill at will. -– HBH.

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spending and linked it to direct tax paid by Africans themselves, with the result that far less was spent on black children than on white children. In 1954--5 black teachers and students protested against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement was formed to provide alternative education. For a few years, cultural clubs operated as informal schools, but by 1960 they had closed down. The Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand). Separating tertiary institutions according to race, this Act set up separate 'tribal colleges' for black university students. The so-called 'bush' Universities such as Fort Hare, Vista, Venda, Western Cape were formed. Blacks could no longer freely attend white universities. Again, there were strong protests. Expenditure on Bantu Education increased from the late 1960s, once the apartheid Nationalist government saw the need for a trained African labour force. Through this, more African children attended school than under the old missionary system of education, albeit grossly deprived of facilities in comparison with the education of other races, especially whites. Nationally, pupil:teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rota basis. There was also a lack of teachers, and many of those who did teach were underqualified. In 1961, only 10 per cent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of high school]. Black education was essentially retrogressing, with teachers being less qualified than their students. The Coloured Person's Education Act of 1963 put control of 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools also had to be registered with the government. 'Coloured' education was made compulsory, but was now effectively separated from white schooling. The 1965 Indian Education Act was passed to separate and control Indian education, which was placed under the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SAIC took over certain educational functions. Indian education was also made compulsory. Because of the government's 'homelands' policy, no new high schools were built in Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there. Then in 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the Bantu Education system to meet business's need for a better trained black workforce. 40 new schools were built in Soweto. Between 1972 and 1976 the number of pupils at secondary schools increased from 12,656 to 34,656. One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school. Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising An increase in secondary school attendance had a significant effect on youth culture. Previously, many young people spent the time between leaving primary school and obtaining a job (if they were lucky) in gangs, which generally lacked any political consciousness. But now secondary school students were developing their own. In 1969 the black South African Student Organization (SASO) was formed. Though Bantu Education was designed to deprive Africans and isolate them from 'subversive' ideas, indignation at being given such 'gutter' education became a major focus for resistance, most notably in the 1976 Soweto uprising. In the wake of this effective and clear protest, some reform attempts were made, but it was a case of too little, too late. Major disparities in racially separate education provision continued into the 1990s. When high-school students in Soweto started protesting for better education on 16 June 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. It is commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honours all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education. 92


In the 1980s very little education at all took place in the Bantu Education system, which was the target of almost continuous protest. The legacy of decades of inferior education (underdevelopment, poor self-image, economic depression, unemployment, crime, etc.) has lasted far beyond the introduction of a single educational system in 1994 with the first democratic elections, and the creation of the Government of National Unity. Strikes in the Schools Presumably, not all students of the earlier generation 'worshipped the school authorities'! The first, recorded stoppages of lessons, (always called strikes in the South African newspapers), and the first riots in African schools occurred in 1920. In February, students at the Kilnerton training centre went on a hunger strike 'for more food'... read on Cape Schools Join the Revolt The school students in Cape Town reacted to the news they heard of events in Soweto. A teacher at one of the Coloured schools was later to write: 'We haven't done much by way of teaching since the Soweto riots first began. Kids were restless, tense and confused. 'There is no similar record of what the African children thought, but it is known that they were aware of the extra police patrols that were set up in the townships following June 16. After the first shootings in Cape Town, a teacher at one of the schools recounted... read on The NUSAS Issue Throughout the 1960's black students campaigned for the right to affiliate to the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and just as steadfastly, the move was vetoed by the campus authorities. NUSAS was also keen to welcome the colleges into their fold. Not only would this make it the largest student organisation in the country, but it would also bring into the liberal ''old all student opponents of the government's apartheid policy.... read on Down with Afrikaans Countdown to conflict: The main cause of the protests that started in African schools in the Transvaal at the beginning of 1975 was a directive from the Bantu Education Department that Afrikaans had to be used on an equal basis with English as one of the languages of instruction in the department's secondary schools... read on The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”•. Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands”• to attend the newly built schools there.

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The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students. To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: "The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. "In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis.... In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language". Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets. June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. 94


The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”•. Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands”• to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students. To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: "The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. "In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis.... In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language". Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor. 95


The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets. Timeline of June 16 It is hard to get a clear picture of what exactly happened on the day of June 16th. Most of the information comes from eyewitness accounts of students who participated, journalists who were on the scene, as well as the police reports on the events. As with all history, a lot depends on the perspective of the person telling the story as well as those who have subsequently written about it. Some accounts directly contradict each other. We are not endeavouring to write an objective account but are providing a platform for people to tell their own stories which we hope will form an accurate portrayal of events. Please send us an e-mail us and tell us if any of the information is factually incorrect. 07:00 Not all the children who were to participate in the march on June 16 knew about it on the morning of the 16th. For many it was an ordinary school day. But, by this time, students were feeling very frustrated and dissatisfied with the Bantu education system in general and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. It was exam time for the senior students and many were scared that they would fail the exams if they would have to write in Afrikaans. Nonetheless the march that was planned by the Action Committee of the Sowet Students Representative Council (SSRC) was well organised and was to be conducted in a peaceful way. The leaders of the original march, mainly came from two high schools, Naledi High in Naledi and Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Sfiso Ndlovo argues, however, that the main centre of organisational activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, close to Vilakazi Street in Orlando. Phefeni was certainly close to the railway station from which many students got off their trains to join the march. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to march from their direction and pick up students from the schools on their way. The Morris Isaacson students were to march from their school doing the same until they met at a central point where they would proceed peacefully together to the Orlando Stadium. Other schools also were part of the original plan but it is not clear that the students at all those schools were fully aware of the march. 07:30 The first students to gather together were at Naledi High. The mood was high spirited and jovial. At assembly the principal gave support to the children and wished them good luck. The first chairperson of the Action Committee, Tepello Motopanyane addressed them and informed them that discipline and a peaceful march were to be the order of the day. Meanwhile, at Morris Isaacson students also gathered. They were also addressed by one of the leaders of the Action Committee, Tsietsi Mashinini, and then set out. On the way they passed by other schools, where some were waiting and those who were not were recruited on the spot to join.

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"We were singing and it was jovial, the mood, exciting and with the placards we started going."- Dan Moyane Morris Isaacson High School "The first time we heard of it was during our short break. Our leaders informed the principal that students from Morris Isaacson were marching. We then joined one of the groups and marched." - Sam Khosa Ibhongo secondary School In the end there were 11 columns of students marching to Orlando Stadium to meet at the central point of "Uncle Toms" Municipal hall. Before this point, there had been some minor skirmishes with police but it was here that police stopped them, barricading their path. Other schools had been stopped by the police earlier on and had dispersed but managed to join later. It is hard to determine how many students there were, estimates range from 1 000 to 10 000. 09:00 The march was halted and some people helped Tietsi Mashinini climb up onto a tractor so that everyone could see him when he addressed the crowd: Brothers and Sisters, I appeal to you-keep calm and cool. We have just received a report that the police are coming. Don't taunt them, don't do anything to them. Be cool and calm. We are not fighting. It was a tense moment for both the police and the students. Police reports stated that the situation was explosive and they retreated to await further reinforcements. 97


09:30 The students carried on marching until they got to what is now Hector Petersen Square, close to Orlando High School. The march came to a halt again. Different reports of what actually started the shooting have been put forward.

"Despite the tense atmosphere the students remained calm and well ordered. Suddenly a white policeman lobbed a teargas canister into the front of the crowd. People ran out of the smoke dazed and coughing. The crowd retreated slightly but remained facing the police, waving placards and singing. A white policeman drew his revolver. Black journalists standing by the police heard a shot: "Look at him. He's going to shoot at the kids". A single shot ran out. There was a split seconds silence and pandemonium broke out. Children screamed. More shots were fired. At least four students fell and others ran screaming in all directions." Brooks & Brickhill Whirlwind before the storm, 1980 98


12:00 After the first massacre, the students fled in different directions. Anger at the senseless killings inspired retaliatory action. West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) vehicles and buildings were set alight and burned to the ground, a white WRAB official was pulled out of his car and beaten to death, bottlestores were burned and looted. Other encounters with the police occurred where more students were killed especially in the vicinity of the Regina Mhundi church in Orlando and the Esso garage in Chiawelo. As students were stopped by the police in one area they moved their protest action to others. By the end of the day most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, which was relatively quiet during the morning, had felt the impact of the protest. For the students at some schools, this was the first they heard or saw. Schools were closed early at about 12:00 and many students walked out of school to a township on fire. "It was past twelve, past twelve to one. Sister Joseph allowed us to go home, because now it was chaos around. So when we went home we could see that now cars were burning, especially the company cars, those from town, those owned by whites". As more students were let out of school they joined those protesters that were closest to them. Some accounts see the events of the afternoon to be chaos or a "free for all" especially on the basis that bottlestores and beerhalls were raided and looted. The apartheid press certainly tried to portray it that way. It was clear that the events of the afternoon were not organised and an atmosphere of panic and defiance existed. However, others argue that the students attacked targets for political reasons and were disciplined in who and what they attacked. A white university student who was sympathetic was actually taken to safety by the schoolchildren themselves. It was overwhelmingly, WRAB structures and cars that were razed. One black owned business was attacked, the shop of Richard Maponya but this was deliberate. Maponya was a wealthy businessman who was despised by most people because "he exploits us and is a sell out". There probably was an element of free for all in the looting of bottlestores. Many students came home with booze and a lot of people enjoyed the results of the plunder. But people had long seen alcohol as a method used by the apartheid government to try and make black people apathetic. Most of the beerhalls were built by the municipality. People were shouting "less liquor, better education". There were probably different motivations at play in the raids of the bottlestores. In any political protest there are those that are more politically motivated and disciplined than others, to see it as one or the other is to misunderstand the nature of political mass action. Fires continued blazing into the night. At 21:00 Armoured Police cars later known as Hippos started moving into Soweto. Official figures were that 23 people had been killed, but some reports estimated that it was at least 200. It is hard to know how many people had been killed because of police efforts to cover up the number of people who died. Events on June 17 The second day... was marked by uncontrollable fury and burning hostility...Police also assumed another attitude. They shot at random, and at anyone who would raise a fist and shout "Power", into their face Many others joined the original protesters. Not everyone had heard about Hector Petersen and the others who were killed yet, but the word was spreading. The following day I pick up stones. I joined the struggle....On the 16th I just came home and stay...because we formed the slogan "an injury to one is an injury to all" So we were supposed to be there. - Solomon Marikele Rhulane Senior Primary The heavily biased Cilliers Report for this day sums up the events. Schools, trains, buses, delivery vehicles, West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) buildings, cars of business people, all were targeted. The fury and frustration that had been simmering amongst township youth had free reign. There was enormous police presence on the morning of the 17th 1500 police armed with sten guns, automatic rifles, and hand 99


machine carbines had taken up strategic positions in the township. Helicopters flew overhead. The army was on standby. The police force had never developed other methods of crowd control other than the use of live bullets. The police shot at people indiscriminately and casualties were even higher than the day before. The violent reaction of the police only made the children angrier. At a press conference Mr. Manie Mulder announced that nearly all the WRAB buildings in Soweto had been destroyed. This amounted to 21 offices being burnt down, 10 being plundered, 3 schools burnt as well as unknown numbers of municipal halls, beerhalls, bottlestores. The Rand had lost value overnight. Thousands of workers had refused to go to work. It was indeed a crisis for the Apartheid government. It was also a serious loss of face in light of US Secretary of State, Henry Kissingers impending visit to South Africa. Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit... Kiss-inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 1976 To add to this, 300 predominantly white Wits students marched through the city centre to protest the killing of schoolchildren. As they marched through the streets they were joined by many black workers. At this point the political leadership of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC), SASM and other organisations were desperately trying to take leadership of the protest and to channel the anger of the youth and to give the movement political direction. The ANC in exile called for immediate international action and the intensification of economic sanctions. The protest action also spread to other townships around Soweto. In Thembisa, students organised a solidarity march, which, although heavily guarded did not result in violence. In Kagiso, police tried to stop a gathering of students and adults; the result was a forced retreat and the destruction of WRAB buildings, vehicles and schools. When the police returned with reinforcements, they shot indiscriminately into the crowd, killing at least five people. Events on June 18 On the third day of the Uprising 18th June, the situation in Soweto was still volatile. Outside butchery in Moroka there were some fatalities. Fires were blazing in many Soweto townships, like Zola, Ikwezi, Moletsane, Naledi and Tladi. Administrative buildings, wine stores and beer halls, which were hated by the young people, were also set on fire. Buses and cars running through Soweto were burned. Police intensified their terror in trying to return the situation to normality in the township. However this angered the insurgents young people and brought them up against heavily armed police. They used stones to counter armoured police cars, helicopters and guns. At about 10 a.m the chairman of the West Rand Administrative Board (WRAB) Manie Mulder was in Soweto to asses the situation. He was escorted by a large police vans. All the WRAB owned cars that had escaped being burned were taken out of Soweto after Mulder's visit. The columns of cars drove past Orlando police station into the direction of Johannesburg. But in general the action on this day had already moved to the East and West Rand and Alexandra townships as well as other parts of the country. The people in other parts of the country were not revolting to pledge their solidarity with the people of Soweto. They shared the same problem, the same sorrows and the same causes of resentment and rebellion. A general stawaway was organised in Alexandra Township 100


and four people were killed when the police opened fire on marching residents. The government, which for the first time publicly addressed the issue, and justified the harsh measures taken by the police. There were some reports of students seizing weapons from police and using them to shoot back. June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties Place of Name Age Date death

Cause of death

Adams, Sandra Joyce

Kew Town

15

16.9.76

Shot in front of head (ricochet) on 3rd floor balcony

Adriaanse, Noel John

Hanover Park

13

2.9.76

Shot through left side of head

Africa, Pieter

Montagu

24

11.9.76

White Supply. Details of death under investigation

Albern, Bazil

Elsie's River

16

9.9.76

Shot to side of abdomen

Allie, Abduraghman

Ravensmead

7.9.76

Shot in chest from front

Appolis, Christopher

Menenberg

10.9.76

Shot in head from front, Jordaan Road

August, Victor L.

Gugulethu

31.12.76

Reported missing during December disturbances

Bakubaku, Golden

Nyanga

26.12.76

Killed by migrant workers

Balnardo, Gary Sandy

Grassy Park

19

16.9.76

Shot through buttock and chest from front, at Head Road.

Barnes, Isaac

Bonteheuwel

16

25.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Barnes, Sydney

Gugulethu

32

26.8.76

Beaten to death by group of migrant workers

Barron, James

Soweto

26.12.76

Shot through the head

Bezuidenhout, Isaac

Mosselbay

14.9.76

Burried

Bota, Michael

Nyanga East

26.12.76

Shot dead

Botha, William

Nyanga

26.12.76

Killed by migrant workers

Botha, Neville, J.G.

Retreat

20

8.9.76

Shot in stomach from front

Buba, Lawrence

Philippi

14

9.9.76

Shot in chest from front

Buthelezi, Leonard

Soweto

39

4.8.76

Gunshot wounds to the head and body

16

101


Name

Place of death

Buthelezi, Joyce

Age

Date

16

26.12.76

Shotgun wounds to chest and head when police fired on students at Sekano-Ntoane High School Shot in chest from front

Carolissen, Gasant

Hanover Park

21

2.9.76

Carolissen, Ronald C.

Stellenbosch

22

9.9.76

Cezala, Bonekeli Cloete, Joseph E.

Cause of death

31.12.76

Reported missing in December disturbances

30

9.9.76

Shot in cheek and abdomen from front and in back and neck from behind

Cook,, Faried

Manenberg

16

9.9.76

Shot in neck from behind

Cooke, Rodney

Bontehewel

24

25.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Dajee, Bhanudey

Retreat

37

8.9.76

Shot in lungs and heart

Daniels, Patrick J

Elsises' River

24

9.9.76

Shot in back of head

Daniels, John

Retreat

35

8.9.76

Shot in left side of chest

Daniels, Kammips

Cleetesville

33

7.9.76

Shot dead

Davids, John

Menenberg

16

9.9.76

Shot in head from behind, in Thomas Avenue

Davids, Mogamat Rushaad

Athlone

24

27.12.76

Shot in back

Dlanza, Dennis Bantu

Langa

22

27.12.76

Shot in Langa

Dondi, T.S.B.

Gugulethu

16.9.76

Shot

26.12.76

Shot dead

9.9.76

Inquest revealed that she died after seven pellets from a shotgun had been fired at her. The magistrate found that nobody could be held responsible for her death. She had been among a group of people throwing stones. Shot dead

Domtsa, Mellville N.

46

Dube, Yvonne

Paarl East

45

Dunga, Gidliza

Epton

1.12.76

Dithipe, Elifas

Kagiso

31.12.76 102


Place of death

Age

Dladla, Baby

Soweto

28

Dlamini, Emmanuel

Soweto

26.12.76

Edelstein, Melville Leonard

Soweto

16.6.76

Eesterhuizen, Johannes Hendrik

Soweto

26.12.76

Elliot, Charles

Manenberg

16

9.9.76

Shot in abdomen from font

Essop, Dawood

Bonteheuwel

30

25.8.76

Shot in back

Ferguson, Herry A.J.D

Hanover Park

30

2.9.76

Shot through lungs from behind

Finch, Alfred A.

Retreat

15

9.9.76

Shot in right side of chest from front

Fish, Edward

Ravensmead

25

7.9.76

Shot in right side of chest and abdomen from front

Fisher, Ivy

Langa

32

12.8.76

Shot in right side of head

Follie, Enoch

Soweto

18.6.76

Shot above the heart

Garnie, R.W.

Alexandra

26.12.76

Shot in right shoulder

Gasnola, Suleman

Lansdowene

9.9.76

Shot in chest from side

Gcwabe, Abel Daniso

Gugulethu

1.11.76

Shot dead

Genu, Fetras

Gugulethu

12.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Name

17

18

Gincana, Atwell

Date 14.6.76

Cause of death Shot through the head

18.6.76

Gishi, Jackson Gobile, Christopher

Gugulethu

Godwe, Jeffery

Soweto

Gonxeka, Sidney Z.

Langa

67

27.12.76

Under investigation

26

21.8.76

Shot in abdomen from front

18.6.76 18

28.12.76

Shot dead

103


Place of death

Age

Gule, Petrus

Soweto

15

26.8.76

Gumata, Jumba

Soweto

26

26.12.76

Gushamn, Mhlangabezi E

Gugulethu

28

11.8.76

Shot in head from front

Guwa, Nelson

Gugulethu

48

26.12.76

Axed to death by migrant workers

Harris, Ronald

Silvertown

25

16.9.76

Shot in chest from front

Hlakula, Stanley Mlamli

Gugulethu

26

27.12.76

Shot dead

Hoogaardt, Spasiena

Hugenot, Paarl

15

9.9.76

Shots

Hlatshwayo, Joyce

Soweto

Hlongwane, Johannes

Soweto

43

12.9.76

Hlongwane, Petros

Soweto

29

25.7.76

Hlokwane, N.C.

Alexandra

Isaacs, Colin

Retreat

Isaacs, John

Name

Date

Cause of death Gunshot wound of head

26.12.76

26.12.76

Crushed by bus

31

9.9.76

Shot in neck from behind

Manenberg

15

9.9.76

Shot

Jacobs, Shaheed

Distirct Six

15

3.9.76

Shot through side of neck and chest at corner of Sackville and Vincent Streets, Cape Town.

Jacobs, Mervyn

Elsies' River

16

8.9.76

Shot in back

Jacobs, John

Manenberg

15

9.9.76

Shot in arm and chest from left at Green Dolphin Bottle Store, Jordaan Road.

Jelems, Government

Nyanga

27.12.76

Shot and axed to death

Johnson, Erol

Manenberg

4.2.77

Shot in stomach

Jonas, Lawrence

Nyanga

26.12.76

Killed by migrant workers

Kahn, Nazeem

Manenberg

16.9.76

Shot in chest and abdomen from an angle

26

104


Place of death

Age

Kalakahla, Samson Fantu

Soweto

26

25.8.76

Kalane, George

Soweto

15

26.12.76

Kamesi, Andries

Gugulethu

25

11.8.76

Shot in head from front

Kamfer, Christiaan B.

Ravensmead

16

7.9.76

Shot in chest from front

Khalipha, Richard

Nyanga

4months 15.1.77

Khan, Naziem

Manenberg

15

16.9.76

Kleinschmidt, Amgeline

Elsis' River

31

8.9.76

Shot in back of head

Komani, Brian

Nyanga

27

26.12.76

Shot dead

Kumalo, Joseph

Gugulethu

22

3.9.76

Shot in abdomen from front

Kwisomba, Harry

Gugulethu

30

26.12.76

Shot to death

Name

Kambule, Eliakim Sutu

Date

50

Cause of death unknown

Multiple injuries to body

Kekane, Andries

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Kekane, Shadrack

Soweto

26.12.76

Keokame, Marshall

Soweto

16.6.76

Kgampe, Philemon

Soweto

26.12.76

Kgapule, Edward

Soweto

26.12.77

Kgate, Sydney

Cause of death

46

Shot dead

Kgoadi, Gustov

Soweto

26.12.76

Kgokong, Linda

Daveyton

31.12.76

105


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Kgongoana, Ariel "Pro"

Soweto

16.6.76

Kgupisi, Herbert

Soweto

26.12.76

Khaje, Sydney Kabelo

Soweto

47

26.12.76

Shot

Khambule, Godfrey

Soweto

12

24.8.76

Gun shot wounds when police fired at crowd

Khoza, John

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Khumalo, Columbus

Soweto

26.12.76

Khumalo, Daniel

Soweto

24

19.6.76

Multiple injuries to body.

Khumalo, Nehemiah M.

Soweto

24

21.6.76

Stabbed above the heart.

Koalana, Doctor

Soweto

26.12.76

Koalana, Willy

Soweto

26.12.76

Kobedi, Kabelo

Soweto

25.6.76

Koloane, David D.

16

24.8.76

Gunshot wound. Police alleged at inquest that he attacked a policeman with an axe

Kolonga, David

Mamelodi

Kubeka, Johannes

Soweto

24

16.7.76

Khubeka, Hilton

Soweto

19

17.6.76

Khubeka, Robert

Soweto

24

26.12.76

Khubeka, Zabulon

Soweto

47

22.8.76

Kumalo, Zolile

Soweto

Kunene, Edward

Soweto

42

18.6.76

Stabbed twice on left side of chest

27

17.6.76

Shot

Kunene,

31.12.76 Gunshot wounds to left leg. Died of haemorrhage

Stab wounds

106


Place of death

Age

Kwadi, Gunston

Soweto

32

26.8.76

Kwinana, Gregory

Soweto

38

17.6.76

58

17.9.76

Multiple wounds to stomach Shot and teargassed

Name

Date

Cause of death

Norman

Laaka, Erick Lebelo, Abiel

Soweto

20

4.8.76

Leburu, John

Soweto

23

18.6.76

Leburu, Nathaniel

39

Ledwaba, Jacob

Soweto

Lee, Ralph, R

Retreat

Gunshot wounds to head

Bullet through spinal cord 26.12.76

34

Leepo, Junior

8.9.76

Shot in neck from front

19.1.77

Burnt to death by petrol bomb

Lengwali, Patrick

Soweto

11.1.77

Lengwathi, Patrick Themba

Soweto

16.6.76

Lepota, David

Shot

26.12.76

Leroke, Hermina

Soweto

Lesele, Tutu John

Langa

Lesejane, Ashely

Moepong

31.12.76

Lesumi, J.

Soweto

26.12.76

Letlaku, J.

Soweto

26.12.76

Letleka, Dominic

Soweto

4

18.6.76

Letsholo, Peter

Soweto

21

25.8.76

Leukes, Owen

Bonteheumwel 17

26.12.77 45

11.8.76

Shot in calf, buttock and chest from behind

Assaulted by hostel inmates with choppers

Reported in official police list as a casualty not resulting from police action. 107


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Limba, Cyril Ivan

Manenberg

18

9.9.76

Shot in back and small of back at Vistula Tavern Bottle Store

Linda, Petrus King

Soweto

26

26.12.76

Killed by gunshot.

Lloyd, Jan

Soweto

Louw, Samuel

Gugulethu

Lucas, Cornelius

Mosselbay

Lutiya, Wiseman

Gugulethu

22

11.8.76

Luphindo, Inspector

Soweto

24

2.7.76

Lupiwane, Goowill

Soweto

35

18.2.77

Luvatsha, Reginald

Soweto

26.12.76

Luvatsha, Thembo

Soweto

26.6.76

Bullet wounds below stomach

Mabandla, Selby

Soweto

58

26.12.76

Chopped on head when hostel dwellers attacked Soweto Residents

Mabaso, Erick

Soweto

18

26.12.76

Mabaso, Mathabeni

Soweto

26.12.76

Mabaso, N

Soweto

26.12.76

Shot

Mabena, Peter

Soweto

26.12.76

Stabbed

19.6.76

Stab wounds in chest - died during riots

Mabitsa, Steven

26.12.76 42

11.8.76

Shot in chest from front Died prior to September 15

58

Maboya, Bennet

Soweto

26.12.76

Maboya, Bernard

Soweto

26.12.76

Mabuku, Glagys

Soweto

26.12.76

Mabunda, Sam Boy

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Shot in abdominal cavity

Fractured skull

108


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Mabuya, B.

Soweto

26.12.76

Mabuza, Patrick

Soweto

Mabuza, Shadrack

Mamelodi

Mabyka, Gladys

Soweto

Madibo, P.

Alexandra

26.12.76

Madikane, Daniel

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Madzivhandla, Patrick

Soweto

26.12.76

24

Bullet wound to mouth and shoulder

17.9.76 31.12.76

26

18.2.77

Madupe, Johannes

Shot in left shoulder

Disappeared during June 1976 in Ga-Rankuwa. Police have no further records

Maepa, Simon

Soweto

26.12.76

Maga, Dane

Alexandra

26.12.76

Magadani, Florence

Soweto

26.12.76

Magagula, Petrus

49 Soweto

26.12.76

Mahasha, Daniel

Soweto

26.12.77

Mahlaba, David

Soweto

Mahlambi, Pauline

Soweto

Mahlaza, Raymond

Soweto

Mahlinza, Maxwell

Soweto

Mahopo, G.

Soweto

24

Bullet wound

Shot dead

Mahapo, Godfrey

Mahurawe, Titus

Cause of death

26.12.78 26.12.79

Bullet wound on thigh.

24

17.6.76

Shot in hip

24

17.6.76

Shot in hip

26.12.76

Shot

13

Shot in the back.

109


Place of death

Age

Maichetha, Walter

Soweto

15

Mailangwe, Richard

Soweto

26.12.76

Maipa, Simon

Soweto

26.12.77

Majambela, Archibald

Gugulethu

23

11.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Majamba, Douglas

Philippi

20

12.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Majeka, Rebecca

Langa

37

11.8.76

Shot through neck from behind

Majoko, Daniel

Soweto

Majola, Nongoentu

Soweto

Majola, Boy

Soweto

Majola, Titus

Soweto

Makaluza, Ellen

Gugulethu

Makundayi, Monica

Gugulethu

Makate, Washington

Name

Date

Cause of death

26.12.76

26.12.78 28

8.8.76

Shot dead by Railway police

26.12.76 15

19.7.76 26.12.76

Axed to death by migrant workers

5

26.12.76

Shot dead

Soweto

26

25.8.76

Shotgun pellet wounds to both legs. Died of haemorrhage.

Makari, Abraham

Soweto

43

18.2.77

Stab wound

Makate, Washington T

Soweto

26.12.76

Shot through the neck.

Makgabane, Peter

Soweto

26.12.76

Makgetle, David

Soweto

26.12.76

Makhabane, Petrus K.

Soweto

26.12.76

Makhari, Abraham

Soweto

Makhetha,

Shot in chest and stomach

33

26.12.76

15

26.12.76. Bullet wound 110


Place of death

Age

Makhotla, Makhosi

Soweto

41

7.9.76

Malindisa, George

Soweto

23

31.7.76

49

24.7.76

Head and body injuries Beaten to death by group of migrant workers

Name

Date

Cause of death

Percy

Mamogobo, Ezra

Gunshot wounds to abdomen

Maneli, Gladwell, V.

Gugulethu

2.1.77

Manale. Herbert

Soweto

26.12.76

Manganyi, Victor

Soweto

26.12.76

Manhayi, Arthur

Soweto

24

24.8.76

Chopped to death, allegedly by hostel dwellers

Mankayi, Benjamin

Soweto

39

23.8.76

Stabbed during attack by hostel dweller.

Mankayi, Gideon

Soweto

39

24.8.76

Cut across the head with sharp instrument

Maphalala, S.

Soweto

27.8.76

Shot

March, Phillip

Soweto

16

20.6.76

Shot thrice through the head.

Marney, Alfred

Retreat

18

16.9.76

Shot in small of back

Maseko, Sara

Soweto

46

17.6.76

Fatal gunshot wounds to thighs. Died of haemorrhage

Maseko, Sylvester Vusi

Soweto

21

20.9.76

Gunshot wounds to the head.

Masiba, Nkululo, S.

Gugulethu

22

11.8.76

Shot in right shoulder from behind

Masimango, Bernard

Soweto

26.12.76

Masuku, Themba

Soweto

26.12.76

Masenya, Grace

Soweto

26.12.76

Mashaba, Johannes

Soweto

22

26.12.76

Strangulation 111


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Mashiane, F.B.

Soweto

26.8.76

Mashinini, Morris

Soweto

26.12.76

Mashombo, Ben

Soweto

26.12.76

Masilela, Aby

Soweto

Masilo, Boas Sydney

Soweto

26.12.76

Masilo, E.N.

Soweto

24.8.76

Masinga, David

Soweto

19

16.6.76

Masuiga, David

Soweto

19

16.6.76

Mathabathe, Aaron

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Mathagane, Elifas

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Mathebula, Jacob Sydney

Soweto

22

4.7.76

Shot through leg

Mathebula, Josiah

Soweto

54

26.12.76

Spinal cord injury

Matheson, Reginald C.

Retreat

18

8.9.76

Shot in back, neck and head from behind

Mathobela, Johan

Soweto

19

12.8.76

Matimela, Lazarus

Mamelodi

Matlhaku, Samuel

Soweto

Matome, Mackenzie

Soweto

26.12.76

Matsabu, Abel Jan

Soweto

26.12.76

Matsapola, E.

Soweto

26.12.76

Matsepe,

Soweto

26.12.76

24

26.12.76

Shot

Multiple injuries

Chopped by hostel residents

31.12.76 66

26.6.76

Two bullet wounds

112


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Jeffrey Matsunyane, James Sello

Soweto

26.12.76

Shot in the back, the bullet went through the body

Mavimbela, Sipho

Soweto

18.6.76

Shot through chest

21

31.12.76

Reported missing in December 1976

19

8.9.76

Shot in back

18

14.9.76

Gunshot wounds while allegedly sabotaging a railway line before he fled from constable who shot him.

18

8.9.76

Went to visit friend at 6pm. 8.9.76. His was found in the mortuary the next day.

15

1.12.76

Shot dead

Matyeni, Wellington K. May, Nicholas

Retreat

Mazomba, Boy Charles Mazwai, Zizwe

Gugulethu

Mbali, James Mbatha, Ames

Mamelodi

Mbatha, Dumisani Isaac

31.12.76 16

25.9.76

22

24.10.76

Mbatha, Sipho Clement

Soweto

Mbebe, Frank

Soweto

26.12.76

Mbeki, Princess

Soweto

17.9.76

Police fired on crowed of students at SekanoNtoane High School. Gunshot wounds.

Mbele, Aaron

Soweto

26.12.76

Struck by bullet.

Mbele, Simon

Soweto

24.10.76

Died of bullet wounds in the head and chest.

Mbengwane, Stanley

Soweto

28

26.12.76

McDeci, Richard

Manenberg

35

9.9.76

Shot in back

Mchunu, Moses

Soweto

12

26.12.76

Gross mutilation of the head.

Mda, John

Soweto

32

17.6.76

Gunshot wounds to chest and lungs

Mdayi, Dambile, S.

Langa

24

11.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Menwe, Peter

Soweto

Multiple shotgun wounds in chest and abdomen.

26.12.76 113


Name

Place of death

Mevana, David

Soweto

Meyer, Karel

Sheerwood Park

Mhlanga, Samuel

Soweto

Mhlongo, Felix

Age

Date

Cause of death

26.12.76

Shot through sternum

45

9.9.76

Shot in right buttock from behind

17

26.12.76

Fractured skull

Alexandra

18.6.76

Shot - wounded in lung, heart and spinal column

Miller, Lord

Soweto

26.12.76

Mithi, Lily

Soweto

26.12.76

Mjamba, Douglas

Gugulethu

20

12.8.76

Mkafulo, Cajulo

Langa

36

11.8.76

Mkhize, Tusokwakhe

Soweto

Mkhotlana, Elias

Moletsane

43

26.12.76

Mkhwanazi, Israel

Soweto

26

26.12.76

Mkhwanazi, Lindiwe

Soweto

26.12.76

Mkwanzi, L

Soweto

26.12.76

Mlangeni, Lea

Soweto

26.12.76

Mlangeni, Mbopha

Soweto

Shot through back and heart from behind

26.12.76

Stab wounds

Shot

18

14.9.76

Mlilo, Amos

30

24.8.76

Police told inquest court that he could have been a victim of hostel dwellers in Soweto.

Mlotshwa, Derrick

23

14.9.76

Multiple bullet wounds to chest

26.12.76

Bullet wound through the side Left for soccer practice on 9.9.76. His body was found in the mortuary the next day.

Mmutle, Dennis

Soweto

Mncedisi, Mazwi

Gugulethu

16

9.9.76

Mncube, Gideon

Soweto

20

15.7.76

114


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Mnculwane, Mantombi

Soweto

Mngemane, Morris

Soweto

Mngoma, Tenson

Soweto

Mngomezulu, Simon

Soweto

29

18.6.76

Moatlhudi, Agnes

Soweto

10

26.12.76

Moatse, Titus

Soweto

15

19.7.76

Modisane, Samuel Oupa

Soweto

19

24.8.76

Modise, Peter

18

Cause of death

26.12.76

Shot

20.6.76

Five bullet wounds.

26.12.76

60

Bullet wound through the heart. Was found dead in the street not far from his house. He was hit by some pellets when the crowd dispersed. Head injuries

Modise, J.

Dobsonville

26.12.76

Shot in the stomach

Modukanele, Isaac Rasebata

Alexandra

26.12.76

Shot

Modukanele, Jacob

Soweto

26.12.76

Moerane, Jacob

Soweto

Mofokeng, R.A.

Soweto

Mogapi, Samuel

23

4

Mogapi, Stephen

19.6.76

Burnt under vehicle

17.6.76

Stabbed with bottle

5.3.77

Shot in head

26.12.76

Mogola, Johannes

Soweto

26.12.76

Mogotsi, Nchimane Philemon

Soweto

26.12.76

Mofokeng, Raymond

Soweto

Mohamme, J.

Soweto

14

25.8.76

Gunshot wounds to chest and neck

24.8.76

Stabbed in the stomach, face sliced off 115


Name Mohapi, Steven

Place of death

Age

Soweto

58

18.2.77

Head injuries

16

23.9.76

Died of bullet wounds to lung

Mohapi, Jacob

Date

Mohlabane, Mphele

Soweto

26.12.76

Mohwaduba, Simon

Mabopane

31.12.76

Mokgatle, Mohatle Moses

Soweto

Cause of death

47

26.12.76

Stab wounds

Mokobi, Cornelius

24

30.8.76

Found dead with shotgun wound in chest

Mokoena, Moremane

14

Two bullet wounds to chest and leg

Mokoena, Amos

Soweto

26.12.76

Mokoena, Moses

Soweto

26.12.76

Mokoena, Vincent

Soweto

26.12.76

Molapo. Lobian

Soweto

26,12,76

Molefe, John

Soweto

19

25.6.76

Molefe, Peter

Soweto

21

26.12.76

Moleko. Hendrick

Soweto

Moloi, Joseph Karabo

16

Moloi, Philadelphia

17

18.6.76

Shot in the stomach

29.9.76

Bullet through stomach Shot dead

Mononyane, Joseph S.

Soweto

18.6.76

Montjane, Elijah

Soweto

26.12.76

Mooketsi, Johan

Soweto

26.12.76

116


Name

Place of death

Age

Morolong, Bruce

Date

Cause of death

31.12.76

Reported missing after December disturbances

23.9.76

Stabbed and beaten to death

Morolong, J.P.

Soweto

Moses, Phillip

Ravensmead

41

7.9.76

Shot in stomach from front

Mosie, Ezekiel, Z. X.

Langa

18

12.8.76

Shot in head from front in front of Langa Police Station

25

25.8.76

Gunshot wound to chest Gunshot wounds

Mothutsane, Petrus Motsweni, Daniel Nethan

Soweto

25.9.76

Mphetha, Lawrence

Soweto

26.12.76

Mphithi, Joseph

Soweto

Mpinga, Joseph

Soweto

Mpusula, Simon

Soweto

Mshelwane, Lawrence

Soweto

27

26.12.76

Gunshot wounds to abdomen

Mshudulu, Welili R

Gugulethu

23

11.8.76

Shot in chest from front

Mrwebi, Daniel

Gugulethu

23

12.8.76

Shot in stomach from front

Msimanga, Mbekiseni

Soweto

Mteto, Temba

Gugulethu

Mthembo, John

Soweto

Mthembu, Reuben

Soweto

Mthemba, Mzinane

34

25.9.76 26.12.76

26.12.76 21

31.8.76 26.12.76

19

26.12.76

27

14.9.756

Body was found after crowd dispersed Attacked by thugs

Mthombeni, M.

Soweto

26.12.76

Mtshadi,

Soweto

26.12.76 117


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Simon Mubuya, Bennett

Soweto

26.12.76

Mukel, Dennis

Soweto

26.12.76

Muller, Jurie

Elsies' River

Mutlane, Herman

16

9.9.76

42

Mvukuse, Rebson, T

Gugulethu

Mzwamadoda, M.B.A.

Langa

Mzila, Hezia

Soweto

Mziwoke, Jan Lloyd

35

Shot in side of head and upper body Bullet wound through head

17.9.76

Shot

11.8.76

Shot in right shoulder from behind

26.12.76 35

18.6.76

Nabuka, Ambrose

Soweto

26.12.76

Nare, Michael

Mamelodi

31.12.76

Ncube, Daniel

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndau, Herbert

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndebele, Zuzele

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndibongo, Michael

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndingane, Mzimkhulu

Gugulethu

11

14.9.76

Ndlela, Hector

Soweto

20

26.12.76

Ndlovu, H.J.

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndlovu, Jimmy

Soweto

26.12.76

Ndlovu, Lesley Hastings

Soweto

17

16.6.76

Ndlovu, Obed

Soweto

16

26.12.76

Ndlovu,

Soweto

36

18.6.76

Gunshot wound to chest

Bullet wound to hip

Shot in stomach from front

Bullet wound to forehead

118


Name

Place of death

Age

Date

Cause of death

Timothy Ndou, Herber

Soweto

26.12.76

Nduna, Sifanelo K.

Langa

38

11.8.76

Shot in small of back and loin from behind

Ndunga, Nicholas S.

Gugulethu

22

11.8.76

Shot in chest from front at bottle store

Ndzube, Norman B.

Gugulethu

4.12.76

Shot dead

Ngaba, Wellington

Soweto

26.12.76

Shot

Ngabi, Joseph M.

Camps Bay

22

11.8.76

Shot dead

Ngcobo, Oben

Soweto

17

26.12.76

Nqcobo, Thuthuka

16

15.9.76

Nqcobo, Eric

16

Gunshot wounds Shot in head

Ngemane, Morris

Soweto

Ngobeni, Harry

Soweto

Ngobeni, Johannes

Mabopane

31.12.76

Ngoma, Tennyson

Soweto

26.12.76

Ngubene, Aaron

Soweto

26.12.76

Ngubene, Vusimuzi

Soweto

Ngwenya, Amon Vusi

Soweto

Ngwenya, Stanley

Soweto

34

17.6.76

Nhlapo, Timothy

Soweto

31

26.12.76

Nixkey, Basil W.

Manenberg

41

9.9.76

26.12.76 26

34

26.12.76

26.12.76 26.12.76

Shot in back at Green Dolphin Bottle Store 119


Place of death

Age

Nkabinde, Fanyana

Soweto

17

Nkambule, David

Soweto

Nkangana, Zacharia

Nyanga

Nkata, Samuel

Soweto

26.12.76

Nkofu, Mnyane, Jacob

Soweto

26,12,76

Nkomo, Eric

Soweto

17

26.12.76

Nkonyane, Norurau

Soweto

34

10.8.76

Nkosi, Jacob

Pretoria, Mamelodi

Nkosi, Monica

Soweto

6

1.8.76

Nkosi, Patrick

Soweto

20

23.8.76

Nkuta, Gordon

Soweto

19

25.7.76

Nkutha, H.P.

Alexandra

Name

Date 26.12.76

Cause of death Stab wounds to chest and heart

26.12.76 18

26.12.76

Shot dead

31.12.76

26.12.76

Bullet wound through neck. Shot when fled from arrest

Shot

Response to the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in exile June 16 marks the commemoration of National Youth Day in South Africa. This is the day the country reflects on the massacre of school children during the Soweto Uprising of 1976. The response of the organisations in exile can be understood in the context of the events that took place on the day. The students had organised a peaceful march against the Afrikaans Medium Decree, issued in 1974, which made it mandatory for Black schools to use the Afrikaans language as the medium of instruction in Mathematics, Social Sciences and Geography at the secondary school level. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of then Bantu Education, was quoted as saying: “I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I’m not going to. An African might find that ‘the big boss’ spoke only Afrikaans or spoke only English. It would be to his advantage to know both languages.”• The policy was deeply unpopular since Afrikaans was regarded by some as the language of the oppressor. It was against this background that on 30 April 1976, students from the Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike and boycotted classes. By 16 June, their rebellion spread to other schools in Soweto. Incidentally, the student-organised mass rally on this date turned violent, as the police responded with bullets to stones thrown by the angry students. Many students were shot. The official death toll was 23, but it could have been higher than 200 because the incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed more lives. The first student to be shot on that fateful day was 15-year old Hastings Ndlovu. However, the killing in the same incident of Hector Pieterson, aged 12, and in particular the 120


publication of his photograph taken by Sam Nzima, made him an international icon of the uprising. It became the major rallying point of the struggle against apartheid. Military Response: Camps in exile The incident triggered widespread violence not only in Soweto but also throughout South Africa. For the political organisations in exile, notably, the African National Congress(ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress(PAC), the Soweto unrest in June 1976 provided a golden opportunity both for recruitment and military training of young men and women. Many Black people felt in danger of being arrested by the police and further underground activities were launched as a result of this threat. Discreet recruitment operations culminated in many incensed students taking up arms against the government, and being sent for military training. Hence the mushrooming of military camps such as Mkhumbane in Temeke (Tanzania) outside the country, under the command and mentorship of Ntate Mashego and the Engineering camp in Angola. Recruits were advised on how to unlawfully cross the border(s) into Botswana, Swaziland, Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where they received military training. It is essential to note that the accession to power of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) in Mozambique and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola in 1975, together with the exodus of thousands of young people in the months following the Soweto uprising, created favourable conditions for the resumption of sabotage activity in South Africa, especially after the collapse of the ANC/Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) joint operation (i.e. the Wankie Campaign). These developments were followed by the infiltration of trained fighters back into South Africa, bombings of white installations and the subsequent arrest and trials of antiapartheid activists. Clearly, an issue that gave rise to a vast number of trials under security legislation was the massive recruitment of people and their transportation out of South Africa. While there is certainly some indication that this was already on the increase prior to June 1976, the revolts of 1976 gave an enormous boost to the activity of organisations recruiting members for military training. This is especially so in the case of the ANC, but there is also some evidence that PAC activity had been revitalised to some extent. As a result, there were many South Africans in ANC and PAC training camps. The period also witnessed a large number of trials against recruitment for military training. Those who were brought to trial for this offence seemed to reach a peak in 1977 and the first part of 1978. Many trained guerrilla fighters returned to South Africa, often wielding a large quantity of arms, explosives and ammunition. This group included the Black school children who fled or were recruited in the wake of the June 1976 rebellion. Their activities gave rise to a number of trials as exemplified by the case of Petrus Bushy Molefe, aged 22, who underwent training in East Germany, and was charged for sabotage and terrorism under the Sabotage and Terrorism Acts of June 1962 and June 1967 respectively. Related to this was the large quantity of arms and ammunition found by police in their attempts to uncover guerrillas in the urban areas and in clashes in the rural areas. It is important to note that most of the arms caches that were uncovered comprised weapons originating from the then Soviet Union, and the Eastern bloc countries, which suggests that the West was not prepared to lend similar support to the Southern African liberation movements.< On 30 November 1976 a group of armed guerrillas clashed with the South African Police near Bordergate, on the Swaziland/South African border. A hand grenade was detonated by one of the guerrillas, injuring two policemen, and allowing the insurgents to escape. Shortly before this incident a railway line near Dikgale, in the Pietersburg district, was damaged in a successful sabotage attempt. From December 1976, in a series of raids covering Johannesburg, Soweto, Alexandra, Rustenburg, Odi, Nebo, Pietersburg and Sekhukhuniland, security police detained a number of ANC activists. Towards the middle of 1977 twelve accused activists, who included Mosima Gabriel “Tokyo”• Sexwale, were charged under the Terrorism Act in the famous trial of the “Pretoria 12”•. They were mainly accused of being members or active supporters of certain unlawful organisations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Russia and China such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party(SACP) and Umkhonto we Sizwe(MK). They were also alternately charged with endangering, in various ways, the maintenance of law and order in South Africa; undergoing military and other training; possession of explosives, ammunition, firearms and weapons; harbouring and rendering assistance to guerrillas; as well as taking part in the activities of a banned organisation. On the whole, they were accused of conspiring to overthrow the white government and were all convicted on the main count of sedition. 121


Thus, the response of the political organisations operating in exile was one that was premised on mobilisation, recruitment of people and the organisation of the armed phase of the struggle from outside in order to topple the apartheid government. Clearly, the events of the Soweto revolt and the response from the liberation movement in exile are not isolated developments. They have their roots in the spirit of resistance to the growing crisis of apartheid. The collective resistance to oppression and exploitation in South Africa also fundamentally underpins the relationship that was forged between internal and external forms of organisation after this incident. It led to major transformations in the strategies of the various exiled liberation movements more in accordance with the changing conditions in the country. A militant approach, that found expression in the recruitment and subsequent training of the cadres in neighbouring as well as some European and Asian countries, was emphasised. References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994      

Brits, J. P. (1995). The Concise Dictionary of Historical and Political Terms, London: Penguin. Christie, P. (1991). The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa, Johannesburg: Sached Trust/Ravan Press. Cross, M. (1992). Resistance and Transformation: Education Culture and Reconstruction in South Africa, Johannesburg: Skotaville. Howcroft, P. unpublished South African Encyclopaedia papers. Kallaway, P. (ed) (1984). Apartheid and Education: The Education of Black South Africans, Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Saunders, C. & Southey, N. (1998). A Dictionary of South African History, Cape Town: David Philip.

Last updated : 13-Jun-2016 - See more at: http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/june-16-soweto-youthuprising#sthash.yKxMtt8N.jewIWSA7.dpuf http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/june-16-soweto-youth-uprising

Soweto-jeugdag – die ware oorsprong: Thys Human

Posted By: Thys Human 16 JUNE 2016 Op hierdie 40ste herdenking van die Soweto-opstand, is dit gepas en nodig dat die werklike oorsaak van daardie opstande weer eens duidelik gestel word: Dit was nie die gebruik van Afrikaans as onderrigtaal soos vandag steeds valslik beweer word nie. Dit was ‘n regstreekse gevolg van PW Botha se onwettige en uiteindelik mislukte aanval in Angola wat tot gevolg gehad het dat die wêreld vertel is dat die SuidAfrikaanse soldate uit Angola verslaan en weggejaag is en die indruk wêreldwyd, maar veral in Afrika en hier in Suid-Afrika geskep is dat die Afrikaner kwesbaar is.

122


In vandag (16 Junie) se Naspers-blaaie is daar weer ‘n artikel onder die opskrif “Bloed vloei oor Afrikaans”. Dit is ‘n liegstorie wat nou al 40 jaar lank verkondig word en wyd geglo word – veral danksy die soort berigte in Afrikaanse media. Maar dit bly ‘n liegstorie en ‘n verdoeseling van die ware feite. Die liegstorie probeer veral oor die jare steeds vir dr. Andries Treurnicht, latere leier van die KP, die skuld gee vir die opstand van Soweto se jeug. Feit is dat Treurnicht slegs die adjunk-minister van Bantoeonderwys op daardie tydstip was en dat die besluit dat Afrikaans saam met Engels en waar moontlik die swart kind se moedertaal, as onderrigtaal gebruik moet word vir sekere vakke, reeds aan die begin van 1975 – LW ‘n goeie 18 maande voor Junie 76 – geneem is en geleidelik geïmplementeer is. Treurnicht was bloot die adjunk aan wie die taak toegeken is. Die vraag kan met reg gestel word hoekom daar nie dadelik na die Kabinetsbesluit oor Afrikaans opstande begin het nie? Die antwoord moet egter teruggevoer word na die einde van 1975 toe Angolese troepe op SA wagtroepe by die Calueque-dam net noord van die Suidwes-Angola-grens geskiet het. Met totale minagting van ‘n kabinetsbesluit vroeër in 1975 dat slegs wapenhulp aan Jonas Zavimbi en Holden Roberto gegee mag word en geen, herhaal geen, SA troepe in Angola ingespan mag word nie, het PW en sy tog so gretige weermaghoof Magnus Malan, ‘n mengelmoes van taamlike flentergat swart Portugese soldate en ‘n klompie Boesmans in Angola ingestuur om die Angolese te verjaag. Hulle het dit ook goed gedoen, maar hulle toe in die Kubaanse soldate vasgeloop. Net daar is PW en sy generaals gedwing om SA troepe met pantserkarre en selfs Mirage-vliegtuie in te span. Angola is behoorlik binnegeval – maar sonder die medewete laat staan nog goedkeuring van John Vorster en die kabinet. (Sien nota onderaan). Ondanks uiters moeilike omstandighede met vol riviere en ook sterk weerstand deur die Kubane, het die Suid-Afrikaanse gevegsgroep tot op die drumpel van Luanda beweeg. PW het aan Vorster en kie vertel dat dit net ‘n verkenningsgroep, ‘n “recce group” is totdat Lang Hendrik met een sy besoeke aan die CIA se man in Zaïre hoor wat aangaan en toe na Vorster is met die inligting dat dit ‘n hele brigade is wat PW daar ingestuur het en dat dit Suid-Afrikaanse troepe is wat Angola feitlik beset. Vir iets soos drie weke of langer kamp die SA soldate uit net buite Luanda voordat die Amerikaners by monde van die State Department amptelik aankondig dat hulle die Suid-Afrikaanse optrede afkeur. Vorster en kie besluit om hul troepe terug te trek en dit word ook gedoen. Daar is ordelik teruggetrek met enkele agterhoede-gevegte wat deeglik gevoer is – en daarvoor moet Magnus en sy topbevelvoerders erkenning kry. Van vlug en uit Angola gejaag was daar hoegenaamd geen sprake nie – maar dit sou SA se vyande, buite én binne die land – nie afsit nie. Benewens die feit dat die MPLA en die Kubane toe tot teenaan die Kunene trek en Swapo se terroriste kort op hulle hakke kampe in die suide van Angola en net noord van die Suidwesgrens kan inrig, gaan daar dwarsdeur die wêreld en ook in SA ‘n koor van stemme op wat jubelend juig: Die Boer is kwesbaar! Die Boere is deur Afrika in Angola verslaan en uit die land gejaag! Daar moet ook onthou word dat die gewone man in Suid-Afrika nie van hierdie dinge geweet het nie totdat Vorster vroeg in 1976 ‘n openbare aankondiging daaroor gemaak het. PW het met sy wette wat enige berigte oor weermagaksies verbied het, gesorg dat die kiesers nie weet van sy oorlogeskapades nie. Om presies te wees, selfs die volle kabinet het nie geweet dat SA troepe in Angola geveg het nie. Maar ek het daarvan geweet want ek het toe in Londen gesit as Perskor se Europese korrespondent. Ek het elke dag die vloedgolf berigte in die Britse pers gesien. Veral die Financial Times in Londen het besonder goeie kontakte in Zaïre en Zambië – en waarskynlik met die CIA in daardie lande – gehad en sy berigte was deurentyd in die kol. Ek het feitlik elke dag berigte na Suid-Afrika geteleks (geen e-pos, ens. in daardie dae nie!), maar dit is nie gebruik nie weens PW se sensuur. En ná die aankondiging dat die troepe teruggetrek word, het die berigte oor die “neerlaag” van die SA troepe en die “kwesbaarheid” van die Afrikaner in oorvloed in die buitelandse media verskyn. 123


Soweto 1976 Enkele weke na Vorster se aankondiging, het die onrus onder swart skoliere begin. Berigte oor wanneer die eerste skoolboikotte en opstande begin het, verskil, maar volgens Wikipedia was daar reeds in April 76 betogings, klasboikotte en selfs geweld, soos skole wat afgebrand is. Die storie is versprei dat die swart skoliere in opstand gekom het teen regeringsbesluite dat Afrikaans saam met Engels die onderrigtaal in sekere vakke moet wees. Daar was baie duidelike bepalings dat moedertaalonderrig eintlik die belangrikste was, maar die feite rondom die hele kwessie is so verdraai dat baie mense in Suid-Afrika en selfs ondersteuners van die NP geglo het dat die taalstorie waar was. Maar ek dink nie daai taalstorie was ooit die ware of hoofrede nie. Ek dink dit was, tipies van swart Afrika, bloot ‘n handige verskoning om hul werklike oogmerke te verdoesel, nl. om die Boer, die Afrikaner-regering wat na hulle mening kwesbaar was, te vernietig. Dit is tog so tipies van swart Afrika om hul eintlike oogmerke so te verdoesel. Dit word vandag nog gedoen met liedjies soos “Kill the boer” wat eintlik teen wittes en in besonder Afrikaners gemik is. Die onrus en geweld het veral in Junie 1976 opgevlam en daar is ‘n hele aantal mense gedood – sommige van hulle wittes en selfs ‘n paar wit polisiemanne wat glo met assegaaie doodgesteek is, maar ook ‘n hele aantal swartes wat doodgeskiet is in reaksie deur die polisie. Vreemd dat die dood van wittes en polisiemanne vandag totaal verswyg word! Die onrus en geweld is egter betreklik gou deur die veiligheidsmagte vasgevat, maar wat gebeur het, het Suid-Afrika dwarsdeur die wêreld oneindig groot skade aangedoen. Die wêreld is vertel dat die wit regering sonder meer swart skoliere doodskiet en doodmartel – soos in Steve Biko se geval. Soweto ’76 het ook groot skade aan John Vorster se premierskap aangerig. Daar was baie duidelik bitter min vertoue in sy oordeelsvermoë en in sy durf om sterk op te tree. Dat hy versuim het om sterk teen PW Botha op te tree oor sy totaal onwettige en onnosele misbruik van SA troepe, het sterk teen Vorster getel in die binnekringe. En Vorster se swakheid het PW en sy trawante se hand versterk om met hulle finale uitklophou te kom om Vorster en sy kroonprins Connie Mulder uit die kussings te lig en beheer oor die NPregering te verkry. Slotsom Dit was dus nie Afrikaans as onderrigtaal wat tot Soweto 76 aanleiding gegee het nie. Dit was PW en sy gereelde pogings om die bynaam Piet Wapen “waardig” te wees, wat regstreeks en onregstreeks daartoe aanleiding gegee het. En dit was helaas die begin van die einde van Afrikanerbeheer oor die land. Van daar af was dit net een steil afdraande na 1994. Nota oor inval in Angola Daar is verskeie bewyse dat Vorster en die Kabinet nie van die inval geweet het nie. My goeie vriend en kollega van destyds, At de Beer, wat Perskor se man in Washington was, het blykbaar by Pik (wat toe ambassadeur in die VSA was) gehoor dat die ding selfs vir die kabinet stilgehou was. Eschel Rhoodie vertel in sy boeke, “Die Ware Inligtingskandaal” en “PW Botha, The Last Betrayal” dat sy minister, Connie Mulder, en van sy kabinetskollegas nie amptelik daarvan geweet het tot kort voor Vorster se aankondiging nie. Met my terugkeer na SA einde 1979, het ek as redakteur van Oggendblad direksievergaderings van Perskor bygewoon. Op een daarvan het ek kans gekry om met MC Botha, destydse minister van swart sake, hieroor te gesels. Hy het bevestig dat die kabinet nie ten volle ingelig was nie. Hy self het eers van die SA troepe in Angola gehoor toe hy ‘n vergadering van die SA Veiligheidsraad moes bywoon en iemand dit toe daar ophaal. “Ek was diep geskok dat PW en sy generaals sulke dinge kon doen en toegelaat was om dit te doen,” het hy toentertyd aan my gesê. Ek wou baie graag oor hierdie dinge skryf toe PW en sy 124


handlangers met hulle “nuwe bedeling” idees begin het, maar ek is afgeraai om dit te doen want PW en sy manne was in totale beheer en hulle sou my op een of ander manier die stilswye opgelê het. http://praag.co.za/?p=38840&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+pra ag+%28Pro-Afrikaanse+Aksiegroep%29

Die 1976 Soweto Onluste: Lt-kol Philip Malherbe Aangeheg vermelde verslag "Soweto 1976 Onluste" asook foto’s van die skoliere wat militêre opleiding ontvang het en as terroriste wapentuig saamgebring het. Afhangende van jou spasie - kan jy plaas wat jy wil. Verduideliking van fotos  cor = DLB bevattende cotex, kleefmyne, TNT, & handgranate  dem1 & 2 = Demolisielading met Russiese geskrif  dlb 1 - 3 = DLB opening na gat onder grond (het 3 gate onder grond gegrawe, 1 het hulle bewoon, 2 het hulle springstof en wapentuig geberg en 3 is aangewend indien een van die vorige twee ontdek is ), no 2 is die kamer onder die grond en no 3 is 'n vuilgoedblik se deksel wat hul met grond en gras bedek het om die opening te bedek. Ongelukkig het ek nie 'n foto van die plastiese lugpyp wat tussen hoe gras of riete uitgesteek het nie.  ed = elektriese springdopie, 'n gewone springdoppie met veiligheidslont (om 'n lading springstof - die bom - te laat detoneer) en 'n elektriese tydmeganisme wat aan die elektriese springdoppie gekoppel is  vtcg = uitbeelding voor die Polisiestasie te Oudtshoorn (1985, wonder of dit nog bestaan? van die V\Tak wat Kommuniste se hamer en sekel breek;  spyker= plankbom bevattende plastiese springstof (PE 4) met metaal skrapnel  vupg 1 & 2 RPG 7 vuurpyl lanseerder & RGP 7 vuurpyl

Laat 1976 nadat ek verplaas is na die Veiligheidstak, Soweto, het ek ‘n onderhoud met lt. Attie Trollip (agetree as ‘n brig en hierdie jaar oorlede) gevoer (vermelde verslag is egter verlore nadat my vorige skootrekenaar “gecrach” het) rakende omstandighede wat vermelde onluste geaktiveer het. Ekself was nie direk betrokke in Soweto op 16 Junie 1976 nie, was gestasioneer te Florida en my opdrag die betrokke dag was om die pad van Dobsenville na Roodepoort en Florida te bewaak om te verhoed dat die stakende massa na die omliggende dorpe marsjeer). Lt. Trollip het my die volgende meegedeel: 

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Kapt Simon Bekker se beriggewer het hom meegedeel dat die skoliere van Soweto plakkate voorberei het om op Woensdag 16 Junie 1976 vreedsaam deur die strate te loop en te betoog teen die gebruik van Afrikaans in die swart skole; Skoliere het op die skoolgronde bymekaar gekom met hul plakkate en die strate ingevaar; Dr Melville Edelstein wat jare diens in Soweto verrig het en vergesel was van twee kliniek Susters, het per voertuig verby ‘n skool (Ek vermoed dit was by Naledi hoërskool) gery, van die skoliere het die voertuig onder klippe gesteek, die doktor het stilgehou en die skoliere het al drie se dood veroorsaak deur hul met klippe te gooi. Die een suster het nog voor haar dood uitgeroep: “But we are English” (vermoedelik nadat sy die opskrifte op die plakkate gelees het, dr. Edelstein se kop is met ‘n groot klip vergruis; Skoliere het daarna by biersale (wat opgerig is vir ontspanning ) ingebreek en drank gesteel en begin drink, daarna is die biersale aan die brand gesteek en vernietig; 125


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Daarna is staatsvoertuie onder klippe gesteek en die wat geforseer was om stil te hou is aan die brand gesteek; SAP lede het gepoog om hul mandaat van Wet en Orde te handhaaf nadat openbare geweld uit gebreek het.

Ek was laat 1976 tot middel 1985 by die Veiligheidstak Soweto betrokke, ek was verbonde aan die Ondersoek-tak asook die aangewese Springstoflid (1980-85). Na die onluste het is verskeie skoliere deur die ANC gewerf vir militêre opleiding in die buiteland o.a. Rusland, Oos-Duitsland, Tsjeggo-Slowakye, Tanzanië en Angola. Van al die terroriste wat gearresteer is en ondervra is en wat in die hof verskyn het (ek het dit met die ander ondersoekbeamptes uitgeklaar) – het nie een gemeld dat enige politieke organisasie vermelde Soweto 1976 onluste beplan het nie. Voor die voet het hulle gemeld dat dit ‘n vreedsame optog sou wees met geen geweld wat deur die studente (Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC), gereël is. Die aansprake van politieke organisasies dat hul agter die beplanning gesit het blyk dus onwaar te wees. Dit laat my aan terroriste organisasies dink wat voor die voet aanspraak maak dat dit hul organisasie is wat verantwoordelik is wanneer daar ‘n bom, ontplof. Om bovermelde punt te staaf meld adv. Mahlodi Maofhe in ‘n onderhoud aan Jan de Lange (Rapport, 2016-06-12, p4, “16 Junie het sy doel verloor”) dat hy destyds in matriek in ‘n skool in die Suide van Soweto die skool se hoofverteenwoordiger in ‘n komitee van leerlinge was wat vermelde optog die rampspoedige dag gereël het. Dit sou ‘n gedissiplineerde optog gewees het en hy was een van die wat die optog gelei het. Die kinders se reëlings was so deeglik dat hulle selfs van die onderwysers oortuig het om ook aan die optog deel te neem. Tydens ons vorige optogte was daar nooit sprake daarvan dat ons sou verbrand of beskadig nie. As hulle nie op ons geskiet het nie sou, sou alles maar weer aangegaan het asof niks gebeur het nie. Daar is verkillende weergawes hoe die skietery begin het. Een daarvan is dat ‘n polisiehond die kinders begin storm het en dat die hond aangeval is. Toe begin die polisie skiet. Toe die skietery waarin Hector Pietersen (13) dood is bekend geword het dit ‘n waansinnige woede onde kinders laat posvat. Daarna was daar geen spreke meer van redelikheid nie. Ek was by waar dr. Edelsteijn ‘n sosioloog wat 18 jaar ‘n maatskaplike werker onder arm gemeenskappe in Soweto was, met klippe doodgegooi is. Ek sukkel van dag nog om te verstaan waarom die regering juis daardie dag oorlog verklaar het teen kinders in skooluniforms. Ons het geen misdaad gepleeg nie – net geloop en gesing dat ons geregtig is op gelyke onderwys van goeie gehalte. Sowel as die onderhoud wat Luyolo Mkentane ‘n verslaggewer met Joe Motsogi ‘n suksesvolle toer operateur gevoer het. (STAR, 2016-06-17, p8, “Tour operator still in touch with June 16, 1976”) Motsogi meld dat hy destyds tydens 1976 ‘n militante student leier was. “He makes sure that the tourist understands that the protest was not planned by any political organisation. It was initiated by students. I was a student at the time. I was a leader at my school. Like the many who was detained, I was detained as well. We were saying apartheid was an illegitimate government. It was not elected (by the majority of the people). We were militant; we were fighting the apartheid government. Ek is al verskeie male gevra wat my mening rakende die sneller was wat die onluste veroorsaak het. My standaard antwoord is dat dit daar ‘n paar insidente was, een scenario mag wees dat dit vergelyk kan word met ‘n student wat sy hele lewe lank met ‘n ou Volkswagen oor die weg gekom het en op ‘n dag 126


nadat hy ‘n bottel drank klaar gemaak het, oorhandig iemand aan hom die sleutel van ‘n Maserati met die versoek – vat die kar vir ‘n “spin”.

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cort: Terroriste Springstof en Wapens (Russiese vervaardig) uit 'n DLB gelig in Soweto -agter 'n rol swart knallont ("cortex") toegedraai met wit plasties en rooi maskeerlint;

Voor die rol knallont verskyn vier SPM "limpet" kleefmyne (het magnete aan die onderkant van die myn om te heg aan metaaloppervlaktes), tussen 2 van die kleefmyne kan die verpakking in Rooi waargeneem word van die kleefmyn ontstekers;

Voor die kleefmyne is daar 'n klomp Geel / Ligbruin TNT springstofblokkies, die swart kol op die blokkies is die gaatjie waar die springdoppies in geplaas word;

Voor die blokkies TNT verskyn daar nege F1 handgranate met swart stofproppies op;

Voor die handgranate verskyn die handgranate se ontstekers (springdoppies wat geaktiveer word deur die ringetjies te verwyder;

Voor die handgranaat ontstekers verskyn daar loodstafies (verskillende diktes) - hoe dikker die loodstafie, hoe langer vat die staaldraadjie (wat geaktiveer word met die trek van die veiligheidsring) wat deur die loodplaatjie moet sny, om die slagpen te aktiveer na die springdoppie, wat teweeg sal bring dat die myn detoneer; 127


ď&#x201A;ˇ

Langs die TNT blokkies, aan die linkerkant, verskyn die SPM kleefmyn ontstekers uit hul Rooi verpakking met Wit tabelle wat aandui hoe lank die staaldraadjie sal neem om deur die verskillende loodpstafies te sny = tydperk tot detonasie.

Dem 1 (bo) en dem 2 (onder): SZ 3 (3 kg) Russiese Demolisielading, gat word aangedui waar ontsteker in geplaas word. Sykant van demolisielading met Russiese skrif.

dlb 1 - 3

ď&#x201A;ˇ

dlb 1 - 3 = DLB opening na gat onder grond (het 3 gate onder grond gegrawe, 1 het hulle bewoon, 2 het hulle springstof en wapentuig geberg en 3 is aangewend indien een van die vorige twee ontdek is ), no 2 is die kamer onder die grond en no 3 is 'n vuilgoedblik se deksel wat hul met grond en gras bedek het om die opening te bedek. Ongelukkig het ek nie 'n foto van die plastiese lugpyp wat tussen hoe gras of riete uitgesteek het nie.

Gat, opening na blyplek onder grond, waar van die terro's geskuil het na hul militĂŞre opleiding in afwagting van opdragte wat hul teikens sou behels het. 128


Foto gemerk dlb2: Spasie onder grond, waar terro's vertoef het, uitgevoer met plasties

Toon vuilgoedblikdeksel wat opgevul word met grond en gras en dan boop die gat geplaas word om die ingang te kamoefleer.

Ed: Elektriese springdoppie "detonator", 'n elektriese tydvertragingsmeganisme wat nadat dit aan 'n battery gekoppel word 'n sekere tyd neem om 'n elektriese stroombaan deur te laat wat die springdoppie sal aktiveer en die plofstof (bom) sal detoneer. Spyk: 'n plastiese springstof geprakseerde toestel (bom) dui die Geel Plastiese springstof PE 4 aan wat boop 'n plank geplaas word, in die springstof is skroewe en ander metaaldeeltjies ingebed, wat skrapnel 'uitskiet' sodra die bom detoneer, die toestel is met plasties en foelie 'tinfoil' bedek is, op die voorgrond verskyn twee Russiese PMN Bruin Personeelmyne

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Tas (met 'n vals boom) wat terro's in Soweto gebruik het om wapens, plofstowwe, literatuur en geld in te smokkel. Foto gemerk tas2 = Binnekant van tas met vals bodem.

Foto gemerk vtcg = Deel van 'n metaalpaneel wat opgerig is voor Oudtshoorn Polisiestasie, foto in 1985 geneem, wat 'n V/Tak lid uitbeeld wat Kommunisme 'vernietig' deur 'n hamer en sekel te breek

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Russiese RPG 7 vuurpyllanseerder gevind in terro DLB in Soweto

RPG 7 vuurpul in plastiese verpakking

Onderhoud wat Philip Malherbe met Maj Marius Heystek, Veiligheidstak Soweto in 1977 gevoer het: Soweto het in 1904 tot stand gekom me die groot plaag wat in Johannesburg uitgebreek het. Die eerste voorstede was Pimville en Klipspruit. Met die uitbreek van die tweede wêreld oorlog het daar ʼn “Industriële Revolusie” in Johannesburg (JHB) plaasgevind. Dit het veroorsaak dat duisende swart gesinne opgetrek het na Johannesburg op soek na werk, voldoende behuising was nie beskikbaar nie en plakkersdorpe het soos paddastoele opgespring. Eers in 1951 het die sentrale regering ingegryp en huise gebou. Wetgewing is ingedien om swartes toe te laat om as bouers opgelei te word. Dit het egter nie die onmiddellike probleem opgelos nie. Die tweede deurbraak was toe die Sentrale Regering in1953 sy “Site and Service”-wetgewing geproklameer het. Die het ege bring dat JHB munisipaliteit die reg verkry het om grond in die omgewing van swart woongebiede aan te koop. Die grond is in erwe van 70 vt x 40 vt opgedeel en aan swart mense gegee. Johannesburg munisipaliteit het die proses geadministreer. Die beplanning was om tydelike huise op die agterste gedeelte van die standplase sou bou, waarna bewoners agterna behoorlike huisvesting sou kon oprig. Lopende water en 131


spoeltoilette is vir die tydelike huise daar gestel, wat meegebring het dat alle toilette in Soweto buite geleë was aangesien alle tydlike huise later afgebreek is (sou word?) om plek te maak vir volwaardige huise. 

Wat is die volle waarheid van die Soweto-onluste?

ʼn Spoorweg polisieman se verhaal 1954/56: Dr Dawid Lotter Brigadier Hier is die paar wat ek kon opspoor. Ek plaas ook die wat reeds op FB geplaas is, want FB compress die kwaliteit. Hierdie is in groot formaat om plasing in Nongqai te vergemaklik. Ek sal bietjie soek vir nog treinfotos en aan u e pos. Ek wil nie te veel Pol Kol foto’s op die FB Gp plaas nie. Die manne - soos ek sien soek treine en nie polisiemanne nie. Ek sal soos u versoek het n stukkie skryf. SAS Pol Kol 3 en 4 is van my pa. Die ander is seker maar vriende. SAS Pol Kol 2 en 5. Op Pakdril is hy heel regs. Ge-awol toe my ma met my verwagtend was. En die PolKol se straf was nie lig nie. Groete Dawid

Rekruut-konstabel Lotter: Spoorwegpolisie Terwyl ek stoorkamer uitpak kom ek toe af op foto’s van my pa Izak Lotter. Foto’s van sy vroeë dae as stoker op die SAS&H en daarna as spoorwegpolisieman. Na st 8 het hy skool verlaat en by die spoorweg begin werk as ʼn stoker. Dit was tydens hierdie tyd wat hy my ma ontmoet het. Hy het op Kaboes diens geland, en was te lang tye van Klerksdorp af weg na die sin van ʼn verliefde jong man. So ʼn kaboestrip het 48 tot 72 uur geduur op die Klerksdorp tot Kimberley lyn. Hy sluit toe aan by die spoorwegpolisie in die hoop om op Klerksdorp gestasioneer te word. Die troukoors het toe hoog geloop. Hy het by die Kollege op Enslinpark aangemeld vir sy konstabel opleiding. Ek het hom nooit gevra hoe lank dit was nie, maar dit het ʼn hele paar maande geduur. Tydens hierdie kursus het hy uitgeblink in al sy vakke, maar moes die prestasie van beste student prysgee weens sy gewoonte om afwesig met verlof te gaan, of soos hy dit genoem het “AWAP”. Die liefdes trekpleister in Klerksdorp was eenvoudig te sterk om te weerstaan. Hy is toe as konstabel uitgeplaas na Klerksdorp-stasie. Dit was hier waar hy en my ma toe getroud is. Die vreugde was egter kortstondig want hy word toe verplaas na Kimberley. Intussen raak moeder swanger en Kimberley was nie ʼn baie aangename ervaring vir die jong getroude paartjie nie. Na vele vertoë word sy versoek om ʼn verplasing terug Klerksdorp toe geweier. Dit word net slegter toe hy Warrenton toe verplaas word. Hy besluit om uit die diens te bedank en gaan werk by Vaal Reefs Goudmyn as myner. Sy grootste selfverwyt in sy later jare was dat hy nie vasgebyt het by die Spoorweg nie. Hy is op die ouderdom van 56 jaar in 1994 oorlede aan Phthisis oftewel myntering.

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Diens op die Kaboes

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Spoorwegkollege: Polisie-opleiding Die foto’s gee ons ‘n konsep van die opleiding tydens die 1950’s van die vorige eeu.

Pakdril by SAS-polisiekollege 134


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Anthology: Nubes Belli: Bush War poems compiled by Dawid Lotter Hallo Hennie Aangeheg die manuskrip. Jy is welkom om dit te gebruik soos jy goed dink. Ek het jou ook gead op die Balsakfondsgroep. "Pending Admin approval" Daar sal meeste van jou antwoorde op jou vrae kry. https://www.facebook.com/groups/1409747335986549/ Die verspreider is Bushwarbooks https://www.warbooks.co.za/products/nubes-belli-oorlogswolke-clouds-ofwar-compiled-by-dawid-lotter?variant=4330686787 Nubes Belli is an anthology of Bush War poems compiled by Dawid Lotter. With 340 pages of poems from the soldier on the ground with one poem to contribute, and also known published poets like Len Els, Manie Jackson, Derek Lawler, Chas Lotter, Dawid Lotter, Eddie Morrison, Oswald Rall Theart, Anthony Turton. The proceeds of this project goes to 32 BN VA and Balsakfonds as a fundraising project to assist military war veterans. The book can be ordered through Buswar Books. Laat weet asb of jy die manuskrip kan aflaai, anders stuur ek n link. Groete Dawid Dawid Lotter M.Sc. , Ph.D. Lifemetaphor Klerksdorp (018) 469 2257 / 0797774125

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Nubes Belli: Voor- en agterblad

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1964: Instuksies na SAP-kollege: Hennie Heymans

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Treinkaartjie na SAP Kollege

SAP 228: Bedkaart: SAP Kollege

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Oudpolisieman word skrywer: Henk Heslinga Henk Heslinga <Henk@agriinspec.co.za> Hi Hennie, Aangeheg die voor en agter blaaie van my twee boeke. My laaste boek is ʼn bundel van 13 kortverhale in fiksie oor vervloë se misdaad maar gebaseer naby aan die werklike. Baie Moord en Roof stories. Ek het byvoorbeeld die stories van Kerkstraat bom, Jhb. Landdroshof bom, Sharpeville en Cato Ridge gevat en die daders en beplanners daarvan nagevors en n storie rondom hulle doen en late geskryf. Ek dink dit is lekker leesstof en daar is ʼn paar dinge waaroor ek skryf waarvan die gewone leser en/of polisieman nie van geweet het nie. Daar is ʼn stukkie grensoorlog ook in en ook lekker bloed en doppies oor Moord en Roof. Ek bemark die boeke @ R 220.00 plus posgeld. Groete

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Plaasmoorde: Die slagting van wit boere in syfers Daar is ‘n aansienlike toename in plaasaanvalle in Suid-Afrika sedert 2012 sê die Transvaalse Landbouunie (TLU SA). Die statistiek sluit plaasaanvalle en moorde in wat sedert 1990 tot Junie 2016 plaasgevind het. ‘n Totaal van 1 824 moorde is aangemeld tydens plaasaanvalle sedert 1990 asook 3 933 aanvalle. Van die 1 824 moorde, was 1 170 slagoffers boere, 491 was direkte familie van die boere, 141 was werkers op die plaas en 22 was besoekers. Volgens die tweejaarlikse opname, toon 2012 (174 aanvalle) ‘n beduidende toename in vergelyking met die 96 aanvalle in 2011. In 2013 weer het die getal gestyg tot 231 slagoffers wat aangeval is. In 2014 het dit gestyg tot 279. ‘n Rekordhoogtepunt is in 2015 aangeteken toe 318 mense aangeval is op hul plase. Vermoedelik is die meeste slagoffers wit en Afrikaans. In terme van plaasmoorde, was 2002 die bloedigste jaar met 119 mense wat hul lewens verloor het in plaasaanvalle. Tot dusver is daar 2016 ‘n verbysterende 188 aanvalle waarin 39 mense gedood is, aangeteken. Gauteng het die hoogste moordsyfer met 499 aanvalle en 413 moorde sedert 1990. Hierdie jaar is daar 14 moorde en 40 aanvalle alleen reeds gepleeg. Die provinsie met die minste aanvalle en moorde is die Noord-Kaap met 46 aanvalle en 26 moorde sedert 1990. http://praag.co.za/?p=39261&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+pra ag+%28Pro-Afrikaanse+Aksiegroep%29

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EMPD Superintendent accused of rape must step down – Michele Clarke EMPD Superintendent accused of rape must step down 7 July 2016 Ekurhuleni Metro Police Department (EMPD), Superintendent (Major) Adam Cummings remains in the employ of the EMPD, despite having three criminal charges of rape against him. His most recent arrests were on 28 April 2015 and on 11 of February 2016. This was revealed to the DA in a written response from Community Safety MEC, Sizakele Nkosi-Malobane. MEC Nkosi-Malobane confirmed that Mr Cummings has not been suspended. A pre-suspension hearing was held and there were apparently no grounds on which to suspend Mr Cummings. According to the MEC, the Independent Police Investigation Directorate, the National Prosecuting Authority and the SAPS are currently investigating the charges against Mr Cummings. Ekurhuleni residents’ safety should be the first priority of the EMPD – to have an alleged rapist in the employ of the EMPD does not instil confidence in the work of the metro police. Mr Cummings should do the honourable thing and step down from his position as Superintendent at the EMPD, until investigations have been concluded. Issued by Michele Clarke, DA Gauteng Spokesperson on Community Safety, 7 July 2016 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/empd-superintendent-accused-of-rape-must-stepdown?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=6739f43954DHN_8_July_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-6739f43954-130042309

Richard Rademan Dear Hennie I regularly read the Nongqai (e-copy) on the Maleoskop site on Facebook. I think there is really some good stuff which has long been forgotten. Is this magazine ever published? In particular I would really like to get a printed version of the June vol 7 no 7 edition. I think some of these would also make great gifts as well. I look forward to hearing from you. Best regards, Richard Rademan

Dear Richard Subscribe to the magazine by going to ISSUU which is the platform which hosts the NONGQAI. The magazine can be off loaded there - I see somebody or an institution regularly offers a printed version. We are basically a "one-man"-show; you however may off load it as a PDF & have it printed. Thanks for your support! Best wishes Hennie Heymans

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Opinion: Randolph Vigne

Rob Turrell | 25 June 2016 Randolph Vigne (1928-2016): in memory The first thing I noticed about Randolph Vigne, who has died aged 87, was his voice. It was fruity and rich and loud. Although South-African born, he spoke like an Englishman. He even looked like an Englishman. He frequently wore a bow tie and rode around London on a Dutch bike. It was easy to hear how he could be imperious or commanding but I cannot recall him ever being irritable or bad tempered.

Namibia Support Committee I can't remember exactly where and when I met him, but it was in London in the 1980s. I had completed a SOAS PhD in African history; his interest was fixed on Namibia and he was a leading light in the Namibia Support Committee. He had formed a strong personal bond with Sam Nujoma, the leader of the South West African People's Organisation, whose biography he wrote many years after Namibian independence in 1990 and which unhappily remains unpublished.

Donald Woods I remember going to a reception at his grand terraced-row triple-storied flat in South Kensington and being surprised to meet Donald Woods on the top floor hogging the canapĂŠs. It must have been at the time Cry Freedom (1987), based on Woods' relationship with Steve Biko, was about to be released or had been released and Woods had become something of a celebrity. It was a gathering of South Africans and I can remember an acquaintance whispering to me: "this is the Liberal Party in exile".

African Resistance Movement I knew about Randolph's role in the Liberal Party - he was a party leader, he stood for parliament in the Gardens seat, and he was a member of the African Resistance Movement (his involvement was to shape the remainder of his life) - but he was very Catholic in his friendships.

PAC I was puzzled though by his support for the PAC rather than the ANC. He was not so much opposed to the ANC as opposed to the SACP. He simply loathed Communism. He believed in individual freedoms and human rights for all. Communism was the complete denial of these freedoms. And the ANC was in an alliance with the SACP, hence partly his preference for the PAC. But he never held my Marxist world view against me.

New African My friendship with him began over the Southern African Review of Books. In the late 1980s I started the Southern African Review of Books and he introduced me to a number of writers - Lewis Nkosi, Arthur Maimane - who then wrote for the Review. In the 1960s he had run a small literary magazine called the New African and his knowledge of African literature and politics was vast. The New African was a seed bed for the African Writers Series that his great friend, James Currey, edited at Heinemann publishers in the 1960s and 1970s, some 270 novels from some 25 African countries. 145


Bessie Head I tried to build a journal readership into a book publishing series but without success. Still Randolph believed in me and together we published A Gesture of Belonging (1991), Bessie Head's letters to him. He recognised her talent in Cape Town and supported her emotionally and financially in her Botswanan exile.

Liberal values Where did his profound belief in liberal values come from? I'm not sure. The son of a Kimberley auctioneer, he was educated St. Andrews in Grahamstown and then at Oxford, returning to Cape Town in the 1950s to work for the publisher Masker Miller (sic). It took great courage and deep belief to risk his family and his life for his commitment to race equality. Like Braam Fisher he took the most dangerous of all stands against the values of the small elite to which he belonged. He was solidly grounded in his family and this showed in the strength of his relationships most notably with his wife, Gillian. Dublin born, the daughter of an English army surgeon, she was always outspoken and often outrageous. Gillian didn't share all Randolph's ideas and beliefs but their relationship was the stronger for it.

Swallows I can remember attending their fifty-year wedding anniversary at the Gold Museum in Cape Town in 2003. It was a raucous gathering, outside in the open at the back, over which Gillian presided with gaiety and humour. They had become swallows, nesting for the summer in an ordinary suburban bungalow in Fishhoek where Randolph took great joy in swimming at the beach, and flying back for the other summer to a flat in Deal in the south of England.

Marital endurance I also recall attending their sixty-year wedding anniversary at Alphen Hotel in Constantia, held inside a private room in the restaurant on a hot and sweaty evening in 2013. I forget who his best man was but his speech was as short as their marriage was long. The key to marital endurance, he said, quoting Ogden Nash: "Whenever you're wrong, admit it; Whenever you're right, shut up." I'll miss his chatty emails with their antique inflection and dated tone: "We look forward to seeing you both -6.30ish. Kind thought about a bottle. Welcome but not necessary ..." An educated man, a true friend, a great South African. Rob Turrell is the founder of the Southern African Review of Books. http://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/randolph-vigne19282016?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=72600e011fDHN_27_June_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-72600e011f-130042309 POLITICS

Kobus Marais | 26 June 2016 146


SANDF Chief R500k jaunt: DA to seek answers from Minister Nqakula 26 June 2016 The DA will submit Parliamentary Questions to Department of Defence and Military Veterans, Minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula regarding the costs and purpose of the trip undertaken by Chief of the SANDF, General Solly Shoke, along with his wife and three other military officials to Paris and subsequently Cuba. We will also request the Chairperson of the Portfolio Committee on Defence and Military Veterans to demand an explanation from the Minister as to why she approved these costs. The DA will not be satisfied with previous answers that such information cannot be divulged “in the interests of national security” – this has simply become the favoured way by Minister Nqakula to cover up details of government corruption. In yet another spectacular instance of wasteful spending in the approved a costly overseas trip by the. The six-day trip to Cuba earlier this month had a R500 000 price tag. This covered air travel (business class for the General and his wife), a 5-star hotel in Havana and an Audi A6 to drive around in. Surely such excessive luxury is not necessary especially when Treasury has tried to implement austerity measures. Key Defence areas are being neglected to allow senior officials to live a life of excess. Essential equipment is falling apart, and we are struggling to manage peace-keeping commitments. For instance the protection of the ocean economy – which is supposed to be a government priority – is woefully unprotected. The first milestone of the Defence Review is to arrest the decline in our military capabilities, not to increase our capacity whilst key machinery is not functioning and is badly maintained. Earlier this month the DA noted with concern that Minister Nqakula had vigorously defended the decrease in the total number of flying hours for training and other mandatory defence needs that has been slashed to 5000 hours but the VVIP transport allocation receives a 200-hour bump. Once again, the ANC comes first, and the people of South Africa come last as VVIP transport is reserved for the likes of the ANC bigwigs and acolytes such as General Shoke. The DA will not rest until the Minister and all those involved are exposed and disciplined for reckless spending of state funds on travel and personal expenses. It is outright unacceptable that money is wasted on government executives whilst many workers in the military are struggling to put food on the table. Statement issued by Kobus Marais MP, DA Shadow Minister of Defence and Military Veterans, 26 June 2016 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/sandf-chief-went-on-a-r500k-jaunt--kobusmarais?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=72600e011fDHN_27_June_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-72600e011f-130042309

News & Analysis

Brigadier General Leon Eggers arrested - SANDF News24 | 07 July 2016 General Officer Commanding SA Army Signal Formation facing fraud and corruption charges 147


SANDF general arrested on fraud, corruption charges Johannesburg – A senior SANDF general was arrested on Thursday in connection with alleged fraud and corruption. "Following a lengthy joint investigation between the Military Police and Defence Intelligence Divisions of the South African National Defence Force into alleged fraud and corruption activities, Brigadier General Leon Eggers, the General Officer Commanding SA Army Signal Formation was arrested earlier today," the SANDF said in a statement on Thursday. Eggers appeared briefly in the Commercial Crimes Court. No further details were provided. This article first appeared on News24 – see here. http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/brigadier-general-leon-eggers-arrested-sandf?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=6739f43954DHN_8_July_2016&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-6739f43954-130042309

Dis ʼn kwade dag: Sirkulêre op Face Book: Wees versigtig vir die Polisie Die item doen die rondte op Facebook.

Zelda Strydom 21 Februarie 2015 · AANDAG: Wees asb versigtig vir polisie en metro wat jou langs die pad wil aftrek, my vriendin was vanoggend in ʼn situasie waar sy oppad was werk toe en net skielik toe is daar polisie met sirenes agter haar, sy het darem kop gehou en hulle mooi laat verstaan dat sy nie gaan aftrek nie, sy gaan tot by die naaste polisiestasie, waarna die een baie kwaad geraak het, toe sy by die polisiestasie kom was sy al in ʼn toestand....hulle het uitgeklim en haar kar "deursoek" (daar was niemand en niks in die ronte nie) dit is wel bevestig by polisie dat daar wel polisie beamptes is wat gesoek word in die saak, wat vrouens aftrek en hulle dan beroof, hulle is opsoek na die polisie beamptes. WEES ASB op julle hoede en hou kop. Gaan tot by die naaste polisiestasie, klim uit sluit jou kar, maak seker jy het n registrasie nommer of "van-nommer" gaan binne in die stasie en meld dit aan....hulle kan jou maar volg tot binne as hulle dan regtig ʼn voet het om op te staan. DIS JOU REG VIR JOU VEILIGHEID....Stuur asb hierdie boodskap so wyd en suid soos jy kan...jy weet nooit wanneer jy iemand se lewe kan red en wanneer dit eendag met iemand van jou kan gebeur nie.

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Militêre Veterane WEL EN WEE VAN DIE MILITÊRE VETERANE : BERIG 09/2016 WEE VAN DIE VETERANE

35. Harvards by Sentrale Vliegskool (SVS) Theuns Prinsloo van die SALM vertel “... dat die foto hieronder op LMB Langebaanweg tydens een van die Republiekfeeste of die SAW se 50ste verjaarsdagfees geneem is. Dit is egter in die vroeë 1960s aangesien die C130 nog sy silwer kleure vertoon. Hierdie foto weergee `n tipiese werkdag by die ou SVS en daar is miskien meer Harvards op die foto as wat die SALM se totale inventaris vandag is! Tot vandag, word die Harvard beskou as een van die beste opleidingsvliegtuie wat ooit vervaardig is. Dit was `n voorreg om hierdie vliegtuig te kon vlieg. Die algemene gevoel was dat ‘... as jy `n Harvard kan vlieg, dan kan jy enigiets vlieg".

36. Soweto Town Council Asks SADF Troops to Stay in Soweto In Angel’s MN it was stated that in Jun 1986 there were many neck lacing incidents in Soweto, with people being brutally killed. The Soweto Civic Association (SCA) demanded that the SADF should withdraw its troops from the township and that the councillors resign. On 04/06/1986 the Soweto Town Council rejected the demands made by the SCA and asked the SADF to remain in the Soweto Township as long as people were being ruthlessly killed. The Council declared that such demands made by SCA were not from an organization that loves the people of Soweto and was emphatic that the troops should remain in Soweto”. 42. Nongqai : Tydskrif oor Ons Land se Veiligheidsinligting Hennie Heymans van die ZARPe is die redakteur en noem dat hy ‘n artikel oor vroue in die Weermag en Polisie wil skryf. Hy benodig insette en noem dat President Kruger se ZARP reeds vroue-ondersoekers te Marshallplein, terwyl die Natal Police vroue as verpleegsters in diens gehad het. Vroue het ook vir die UVM in Duits Oos-Afrika as verpleegsters gedien. In beide WO1 en WO2 en daarna is vroue as lede van die Militêre Polisie aangewend. Vroue het ook by die SAV en by Afd Inl en die weermagsdele se inligtingorganisasies gewerk. My e-posadres is heymanshb@gmail.com”. 43. Betrokkenheid van die SALM by Sharpeville Hennie Heymans noem dat hy besig is “… met 'n spesiale uitgawe van die Nongqai. Ek lees in ou verslae van die SAP dat die SALM ook by die bekamping van die oproer by Sharpeville en omgewing gedurende 1960 betrokke was, deurdat hulle verbyvlugte nogal gehelp het om die skares uiteen te dryf. Enige inligting van ooggetuies oor die rol van die SALM hiertydens sal waardeer word, sodat dit by die spesiale uitgawe ingesluit kan word”. 44. Special Edition of the Nongqai on 'The Fighting Police of Southern Africa' Hennie refers to the “… special edition of the Nongqai which will focus on the ‘Fighting Police of Southern Africa’. Since Oom Jan van Riebeeck landed at the Kaap, we have had police in one form or another right up to this day. We have been excellent, we have made some bad mistakes, however, we have had only 149


one mission, namely to serve and protect. There has always been a symbiotic relationship between the Police and the magistrate, the veld-cornet and the Commando's, as well as a close relationship between the Colonial Police and the Imperial Troops. Police were established in various forms, first in the Cape Colony and later in Natal. The Boer Republics had their own police and North of the ZAR we had the British South African Company Police, later the famous BSAP of Rhodesia. The police also invaded other countries, like the Mashonaland Mounted Police that invaded the ZAR during 1896 as the Jameson Rebellion and the Natal Mounted Police which invaded the ZAR when Sir T Shepstone annexed the ZAR. Because of fiscal restraints the British found it cheaper to have police forces which could double up as soldiers, as the Natal Mounted Police, while great areas of South Africa was policed by the military in the form of the Cape Mounted Rifles and 2 and 3 Bdes of the SA Mounted Rifles. Later Police on the sub-continent were used in both world wars, in many cases as mounted infantry and in intelligence and since 1960 in a counter-insurgency role. We have to tell our side of the story in the various wars, revolts and revolutions and contributions are requested. Articles may be in Afrikaans or English but many of our readers are in the USA, Australia, Europe and even in Croatia & Russia, and their Afrikaans is not what it should be. Articles are requested from our colleagues in die SADF and their views, comments and impressions in this matter would be appreciated”. 54. Procedure for Applying for Medals * The medals which can be applied for are the Pro Patria with or without Clasps and or attachments, Southern Africa Medal , General Service Medal, Unitas Medal and the Long Service Medals. * Veterans requiring medals must apply to the SA Legion on the e-mail address at medals@salegion.org or by fax to 086 403 7879. The application form is then forwarded to the applicant for further processing before submission to the SANDF. * Assistance with this medal application process is limited to Veterans, while serving members of the SANDF or Reserve Forces have to apply through their respective units. 55. Outstanding Medals Lgr Riana Venter van Zyl of the SA Legion also reports that “... the SA Legion had on request of three Military Veterans applied for their medals, but due to changes in their contact details, we are not able to get hold of them. Should the SA Legion not be able to contact and deliver them within the next 30 days, the medals must be returned to SANDF’s Medals and Awards Section. These three medals were awarded according to General Order 187/2010 dated 26/11/2010 to the following members: Force Number 68114768RF 05555479PE 88459920

Name Col S du T van der Walt WO2 MD Bradshaw Mr SJ van der Merwe

Medal Good Service Silver Good Service Silver GSM

Obtaining outstanding medals is an intensive and time consuming process with which the SA Legion assists Military Veterans out of goodwill. If a member is deceased, the member’s next-of-kin may receive the medal and certificate posthumously. Due to a shortage of miniature medals, only Officers and Warrant Officers will be issued with these medals. NCOs and Privates will be issued with their miniature medals as soon as additional stock is received. Our telephone number is 011-486 4533 and fax number is 011-486 2855”. 150


62. Webblad van die SAWV Daan Nell van die Springende Seiners verwittig dat alhoewel die Nuusbrief nou weer direk aan lede versprei word, die Militêre Veterane se Wel en Wee steeds op die SAWV se webblad op die Internet by www.sawv.co.za of die SA Infanterie-vereniging se webblad by http://www.sainfantry.co.za/index.php/news.html. gelees kan word. Op die SAWV se webblad kan ook ‘n vorige kopie gevind word.

Mangaung is die hoofstad van seksuele misdrywe Mangaung is die hoofstad van seksuele misdrywe in Suid-Afrika, het skokkende syfers getoon. Die misdaadstatestiek van nege groot stede in die land is vervat in die verslag, State of Urban Safety in South Africa, wat aan die begin van die maand vrygestel is. Dit wys dat die aantal seksuele misdryf-sake in Mangaung landwyd die hoogste is en dat die koers waarteen dit die afgelope dekade gestyg het, hoër is as die gemiddelde nasionale koers. Inbrake by huise landwyd het ook skerp toegeneem, maar Mangaung het steeds die hoogste inbraaksyfers. Die verslag het ‘n analise van misdaad en geweld, asook die impak daarvan gedoen, wat insluit die vrees wat dit by inwoners inboesem. Die hoogste aantal moorde is in Kaapstad aangeteken en, volgens statistiek, staan slagoffers van misdaad in Johannesburg ‘n groter kans om geroof of gekaap te word. Behalwe vir veediefstal is die grootste persentasie misdaad in stedelike gebiede aangemeld. http://praag.co.za/?p=39280

Peter A Dickens: 100 Year Commemoration: South Africans: Somme & Battle of Deville Wood Service

Peter A. Dickens het South African Legion se plasing gedeel.

South African Legion 11 Julie om 08:32 VM. We are proud to bring you the full service of yesterday’s 100 Year Commemoration of South Africans on the Somme and the Battle of Deville Wood Service - hosted by the Legion and held at Thiepval in France. It was a stunning tribute to the Fallen, we were proud to fly our flag and give homage alongside the standards of British and South African military veteran’s organisations. Enjoy what was an emotional and highly moving day for us all. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yxw0BeAw1N0&feature=youtu.be

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Afsterwe: Lt Genl James Kriel: SALM Dit is met leedwese dat ons kennis neem van genl Kriel se afsterwe. [Jandre du Plessis berig op Face Book: “R.I.P. Lt Genl James Kriel. You were one of the great SAAF Chiefs. We have just received the sad news from Nellie, wife of Lt Genl James Kriel, that he passed away this morning.”

21 Maart 1960: Sharpeville Wie was daar? Stuur asb aftastings van u foto’s, stuur vir ons u herinneringe van Sharpeville. Vertel ons wat daar gebeur het – ons is op ons self aangewese om ons eie nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis te bewaar.

Slot Dankie dat u help om die geskiedenis lewendig te hou ... Identifiseer solank u privaat foto’s – identifiseer die datum, die plek en die tyd – identifiseer die mense op die foto’s en die fotograaf. Bêre u dokumente, sakboeke, dagboeke, foto’s, koerante, plakboeke ens – al die goed is belangrik om ons geskiedenis te bewaar en in die toekoms reg te vertolk. Bewaar die verlede!

Contact details / kontakbesonderhede Hennie Heymans: enongqai@gmail.com / Glenn Elsden: glenn.elsden@gmail.com Nico Moolman: lingloi@telkomsa.net / www.nicomoolman.net Greetings – Groete Salute! Saluut! Hennie Heymans No 43630 (B) © 2015 / 2016

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Profile for Hennie Heymans

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