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NONGQAI Vol 9 No 5 Contents PUBLISHER | UITGEWER .............................................................................................................. 8 AIM | DOEL ...................................................................................................................................... 8 POLICY | BELEID ............................................................................................................................ 8 WELCOME | WELKOM.................................................................................................................... 8 ELEKTRONIESE-BEDIENING: NONGQAI SE KAPELAAN: KOOT SWANEPOEL ........................ 9 VOORBLAD | FRONT PAGE: GENL/GEN JV VAN DER MERWE ................................................ 10 1990–1994: Genl. JV van der Merwe ..................................................................................... 10 From Africa’s Heat to Europe’s Snow: Meeting Gen. Van der Merwe: Col Williamson ........... 10 Veelpartyberaad van Suidwes-partye in Genève: Genl. Johan van der Merwe ...................... 12 BESOEK ONS WEBWERF | VISIT OUR WEB SITE ..................................................................... 13 POLICE HISTORY | POLISIEGESKIEDENIS ................................................................................ 16 Operation Koevoet ......................................................................................................................... 16 How it all began: Mike Williams .............................................................................................. 16 Koevoet – Experiencing South Africa’s Deadly Bush War: Jim Hooper .................................. 17 Die Casspir: Kol Dieks Dietrichsen ................................................................................................ 36 2


Inleiding .................................................................................................................................. 37 My Meganiese Agtergrond ...................................................................................................... 37 Toekenning van die Eerste Casspir’s aan Koevoet-lede ........................................................ 38 Identifikasie van ‘n Hoë Risiko ................................................................................................ 38 ‘n Luik vir die Bestuurder ........................................................................................................ 38 ‘n Onbeskermde Oordraratkas Gee Probleme ........................................................................ 38 ‘n Uitweg om die Effek van RPG 7-Vuurpyle te Verminder ..................................................... 39 Die Uitwerking van Mopani-stompe op die Casspir se vooras word gefnuik ........................... 40 ‘n Treinspoor vir die Voorste Buffer was sterker maar die Enjin leef Swaarder ...................... 41 ‘n Casspir toegerus met ‘n 20 millimeter Lugafweerkanon...................................................... 41 Die Eerste Casspir met ‘n Swaarloop Browning ..................................................................... 42 Die Tru-spieëls word Beskerm ................................................................................................ 42 Die Casspir’s kry ‘n Tweede Spaarwiel ................................................................................... 42 Braairoosters van Blesboksykante .......................................................................................... 42 Herstel tydperk van Enjin-oorverhitting word verkort .............................................................. 43 Evaluasie van ‘n nuwe Model Casspir in Pretoria ................................................................... 44 Ander Casspir-verhale van ‘n meganiese aard .............................................................................. 44 Ons is hier om terries te skiet, nie om beeskampe te maak nie .............................................. 44 Ons eie Koevoet-motorhawe .................................................................................................. 45 World War ll: Military Medal for a Dundee Police Sergeant and a War Hero Captain with an unmarked grave ............................................................................................................................. 47 No. 31758 and No. SAP196295 Sergeant NF Vassard, MM, and No. 7704 Captain WJV Visser, MC, of the SA Police and SA Police Battalion during World War II: Captain Andre Van Ellinckhuyzen (SAPS) ............................................................................................................. 47 Photo album: Capt. Visser ...................................................................................................... 50 Photo album: Sgt Vassard ...................................................................................................... 51 Nog Polisie-geskiedenis | More Police History ............................................................................... 52 Konst. HT Gouws: Dr Rodney Warwick .................................................................................. 52 Rus in Vrede: Mev. Heila Killian: Springs................................................................................ 53 Die Beste Klubspan Ter Wêreld .............................................................................................. 54 1959: Die Pretoriase Polisie-Rugby Klub ................................................................................ 56 Robert M Sylvester: CMR: Albert Caldwell ............................................................................. 58 Konstabel Venie Paolonie ....................................................................................................... 59 Book: The other side of the Story ........................................................................................... 60 1955: Amptelike naam: Veiligheidstak .................................................................................... 60 Mev. Winnie Mandela: My eerste ingeperkte persoon om te besoek: Philip Malherbe ........... 61 SWAP: Gawie Botha besoek Namibië .................................................................................... 62 Afsterwe: Kol Alwyn Lesch...................................................................................................... 63 3


POLICE AND THE PRESS ............................................................................................................ 63 Momberg denied bail, pending leave to appeal ...................................................................... 63 Update: Vicki Momberg........................................................................................................... 64 Up to 1 in 10 victims of sexual violence lack victim friendly interviewing rooms in 2016/17 .... 65 Police a 'matrix of corruption' - IPID's McBride ....................................................................... 66 Peter Jacobs to head Crime Intelligence - Bheki Cele ............................................................ 68 JMPD officer shot dead outside her home .............................................................................. 69 SAPS supplier threatens to shut down justice system if police don't pay by midnight ............ 70 SAPS supplier threatens to shut down justice system if police don't pay by midnight ............ 70 SAPS fails to combat drug problem in Eldorado Park – Michele Clarke ................................. 72 Big corruption widespread in SAPS - Robert McBride ............................................................ 73 Shocking increase in farm attacks - Agri SA ........................................................................... 74 ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE OORLOG ........................................................................ 75 Nico Moolman se Argief ................................................................................................................. 75 Hoofkommandant CR de Wet ................................................................................................. 75 Genl. Koos de la Rey .............................................................................................................. 76 Utrecht: Kruithuis .................................................................................................................... 77 ZAR Staatsartillerie ontplooi in die OVS ................................................................................. 77 ABO: St Helena ...................................................................................................................... 78 Die "Lekker Sectie” Orkes ....................................................................................................... 79 Genl. & mev. Cronje: St. Helena ............................................................................................. 80 Kapt. Kroon: ZAR Staatsartillerie op St. Helena ..................................................................... 80 Breakfast: Harrismith .............................................................................................................. 81 RSA: MILITARY & THE MEDIA ..................................................................................................... 81 AfriForum asks reasons from Defence Minister over racist statements .................................. 81 Financial misconduct by Defence employees requires action – Kobus Marais ....................... 82 Rampant financial misconduct by Defence employees requires urgent action ....................... 82 RSA: MILITARY HISTORY ............................................................................................................ 83 National Salute ....................................................................................................................... 83 Ranks: General | Generaal : Mark Naude ............................................................................... 84 The South African Air Force is established ............................................................................. 85 SADF in Angola ............................................................................................................................. 86 The Battle of Cassinga: Mr Jim Harwood................................................................................ 86 Family of SA paratrooper relieved that his remains are coming home after 40 years ............. 89 The ‘Battle’ of Cuito Cuanavale .............................................................................................. 89 The Myth of Cuito Cuanavale ................................................................................................. 90 A Russian View of Cuito Cuanavale: J Pittaway ..................................................................... 92 4


1881: Boer shells .................................................................................................................... 92 The Observation Post .................................................................................................................... 93 The day the SAAF nearly killed Jan Smuts: Peter Dickens..................................................... 93 The Observation Post: Who is Peter Dickens? ....................................................................... 96 Rommel’s aide-de-camp was a South African: Peter Dickens ................................................ 96 RSA: INLIGTING | INTELLIGENCE ............................................................................................. 101 Spioene en Informante: ‘n Polisieperspektief: Genl. Johan van der Merwe .......................... 101 Inligting en Spioenasie: ‘n Nasionale perspektief: Brig. Hennie Heymans ............................ 103 Inleiding ................................................................................................................................ 103 Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR) ......................................................................................... 103 Kapt. Danie Theron ............................................................................................................... 104 1913 Stigting van die SAP .................................................................................................... 105 Eerste wêreldoorlog .............................................................................................................. 106 Alexander P Scotland, OBE .................................................................................................. 107 Duits Oos-Afrika .................................................................................................................... 108 Kommunisme ........................................................................................................................ 108 Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM): Militêre Inligting ................................................................... 110 Koue-oorlog en kommunistiese ekspansionisme .................................................................. 110 Boekie: Lenin & Stalin on Propaganda ................................................................................. 111 1950: Openbare veiligheid en wetgewing ............................................................................. 113 James Bond-era ................................................................................................................... 114 Administratiefregtelike handelinge ........................................................................................ 115 SAW: Militêre inligting ........................................................................................................... 116 Sentrale inligting: Buro vir staatsveiligheid............................................................................ 116 Republikeinse Intelligensiediens ........................................................................................... 117 Sanhedrin ............................................................................................................................. 117 Die nasionale veiligheidsbestuurstelsel (NVBS) ................................................................... 117 “Insight: Espionage”: Jonathan Ancer: Sunday Times: 25 June 2018 .................................. 119 STRATCOM | STRATKOM .......................................................................................................... 123 What Viv (sic) McPherson told the TRC about Winnie .......................................................... 123 Sunday Times: 15-04-2018................................................................................................... 128 What Paul Erasmus told the TRC about Stratcom and Winnie ............................................. 129 Persverklaring deur die Stigting vir Gelykheid voor die Reg ................................................. 129 Press Release by the Foundation for Equality Before the Law ............................................. 129 HNP: Winnie Mandela: Vals Mediadekking........................................................................... 132 SPIOENMEESTERS: HENNING VAN ASWEGEN ...................................................................... 134 Inleiding: Die taal wat spioene praat ... ................................................................................. 134 5


Van 1894 tot 2018 ................................................................................................................ 134 Wie en wat is ‘n spioen? ....................................................................................................... 134 ‘n Hand in ‘n handskoen ....................................................................................................... 134 Frontorganisasies ................................................................................................................. 135 Alexey Kozlov – die KGB spioen wat Afrikaans kon praat ........................................................... 135 Die Kozlov-geval in intelligensie-konteks .............................................................................. 135 Kozlov se modus operandi.................................................................................................... 136 Kozlov by Rietvlei ................................................................................................................. 136 Die KGB as geldbron vir die ANC/SAKP............................................................................... 137 Van der Mescht en Kozlov se uitruiling ................................................................................. 137 Eerbetoon vir ‘n onsusksesvolle spioen ................................................................................ 138 Die Russiese spioen majoor Alexey Michailovitch Kozlov, kol Hannes Gloy en ek: Johan Visage ................................................................................................................................... 138 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF SOUTH AFRICAN INTELLIGENCE ............................................... 139 Fraser goes “rogue”: Intelligence boss blocked investigation, conducted campaign of intimidation, claims Inspector General. ................................................................................. 139 Arthur Fraser vs Inspector General of Intelligence: Court date set ....................................... 139 SACP calls for decisive action to get to the bottom of Arthur Fraser’s conduct at the State Security Agency and what actually he could be trying to conceal ......................................... 141 Arthur Fraser ......................................................................................................................... 142 Decision to shift Arthur Fraser to DCS wrong – John Steenhuisen ....................................... 142 The EFF Condemns the Move of Arthur Fraser to the Correctional Services ....................... 142 REGSPLEGING | ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE .................................................................. 143 Matatiele: Danie Marais ........................................................................................................ 143 Port Elizabeth: Danie Marais ................................................................................................ 143 AfriForum files corruption charges against Shaun Abrahams ............................................... 144 Correctional Services head must explain series of jailbreaks – James Selfe........................ 145 POLICE INTERNATIONAL .......................................................................................................... 146 •

France: Terror Victim ............................................................................................................ 146 Peter Hitchens: Why did French hero Arnaud Bertrame give his life to save others? Christianity ............................................................................................................................ 146

Israel: Drones ....................................................................................................................... 149 Siege in Gaza: Twelve killed by Israeli forces, 370 injured and DRONES drop tear gas on thousands of Palestinians as they swarm the border, burn photos of Trump, and vow to protest for weeks until US embassy moves to Jerusalem ..................................................... 149

MILLITARY INTERNATIONAL ..................................................................................................... 150 •

Military History: RAF ............................................................................................................. 150 How the slaughter of 18 London school children in a German bomber raid led, 100 years ago this week, to the birth of the RAF .......................................................................................... 150 6


1918: The role of Gen Smuts in the formation of the RAF .................................................... 160 Excerpt: History of the Royal Air Force ................................................................................. 160 •

UK: First Black Army Officer ................................................................................................. 162 MPs call for the first ever black officer in the British army to be given the Military Cross after he gave up his football career with Tottenham to fight in the First World War ...................... 162

WWll: Colourised photos....................................................................................................... 166 Diversity on the front line: Colourised photos shows WWII allied soldiers including a US serviceman sharing a cigar with a Gurkha and the female French Resistance fighter who captured 25 Nazis ................................................................................................................. 166

Rhodesia............................................................................................................................... 176 Rhodesian Corps of Engineers Veterans Memorial service: Paul Els ................................... 176 Rhodesia's unlikely revolutionary: Peter Mackay .................................................................. 177

BRIEWE | LETTERS .................................................................................................................... 182 Mrs. W Mandela and the SA Police: Gen. Johan van der Merwe ......................................... 182 Mnr. JS Kloppers .................................................................................................................. 182 Headquarters, Transvaal Bischoffs: Jim Findlay .................................................................. 183 Diagram: SAP-kenteken: Herman Bosman........................................................................... 183 Detective Sergeant Johannes Cornelius Engelbrecht: Judy Letard ...................................... 184 SLOT / END ................................................................................................................................. 184

Vrywilliger: Ons is op soek na ‘n grafiese kunstenaar om ons te help met SAP-uniforms, medaljes, -kentekens, -vuurwapens en -vervoer edm van die voormalige SA Polisie en vorige SA polisiemagte. 7


PUBLISHER | UITGEWER The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and this e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are entirely his own. Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en hierdie e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militêre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is uitsluitlik sy eie. Tel. No. 072-336-1755 E-mail: heymanshb@gmail.com

AIM | DOEL Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations. / Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar.

POLICY | BELEID We publish the articles and stories as we receive them from our correspondents; we only correct the spelling mistakes. It's important to publish the stories in the form and context as we receive them from our correspondents. Policemen and defence personnel have their own language. We are not a scientific or literary journal. We only work with historical buildings blocks. Ons gebruik die artikels en stories soos ons dit van ons korrespondente ontvang; ons maak slegs die spelfoute reg. Dis belangrik om die stories te bewaar in die vorm en in die konteks soos ons dit ontvang. Lede van die veiligheidsmagte het hul eie taal en ons moet dit ook so aanteken. Ons is nie ‘n letterkundige of wetenskaplike joernaal nie. Ons werk slegs met die boustene van geskiedenis. Onthou, skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op u geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is! Deel u SAP- en SAW-foto’s met ons!

WELCOME | WELKOM Indien u in ons land se roemryke nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis belangstel; is u op die regte plek! Ons stel in die geskiedenis van ons land se weermag, polisie, spoorwegpolisie, staatsveiligheidsraad en inligting (spioene) belang. Soms glip ons iets van Rhodesië in, want ons het daar geveg. (Vroeg in die oorlog het ek twee vriende daar verloor – konst. Danie du Toit en sers. Rodney Fall. Later is ‘n offisiers-maat van my daar doodgeskiet.) Hierdie tydskrif is ons erns en ons passie. Ons laat hierdie elektroniese tydskrifte waarin ons herinneringe vervat is, na vir ons nageslag. Aanvanklik kon u die tydskrif op u rekenaar aflaai en verder lees. ISSUU, ons platform, eis nou $1900 per maand sodat ons lesers dit kan aflaai. Moet nie vergeet om die “like”-knoppie te druk nie. Dit gee vir ons ‘n aanduiding of die tydskrif byval by ons lesers vind. 8


Ek probeer my bes om elke uitgawe beter as die vorige een te maak! Ongelukkig kruip spelfoute in. Soms glip ‘n taalfoutjie in – vergewe asb. want ons werk met rekenaars wat soms iets onwetend kan verander. Ons is ook nie ‘n wetenskaplike of letterkundige joernaal nie. Ons maak van ‘n veelvoud bronne gebruik en probeer die tydskrif op ‘n ligte trant aanbied. Ook is ons gelukkig om soms grafiese kunswerk gefokus op uniforms, kentekens en rangtekens vir u kykgenot te kan publiseer. Ons probeer om groot foto’s en duidelike kaarte te plaas Ek weet nooit wat in die tydskrif gepubliseer gaan word nie. Verskillende mense kontak my en ek verbaas my elke dag oor die gehalte inligting en foto’s wat beskikbaar raak en wat aangestuur word. Kommandeur Steven Groeneveld het my besoek. Hy is ‘n oud-skolier van Helpmekaar in Johannesburg. Hy is besig met die naderende eeufees van sy skool en beoog om veral twee oudleerlinge te huldig. Hulle is twee dames – brigadier Duveen Botha (oud-leerling en onderhoof) en dr. Miemie Coertse (oud-leerling.) Ek het hom al die inligting en foto’s t.o.v. brig. Duveen Botha waaroor ek beskik, gegee. Ons het lekker en lank gesels want hy is ‘n uiters interessante persoon! Twee oudlede van die voormalige nasionale intelligensiediens (NI) was met my in verbinding. Jare terug het ek die een aangekeer toe hy was ondergronds aktief gewees. In latere jare het ons lekker daaroor gelag. Ons gaan met ‘n maandelikse reeks met titel Spioenmeesters deur Henning van Aswegen begin. Mnr. Jim Hooper, befaamde skrywer en joernalis, stuur ook gereeld vir ons foto’s en artikels van top-gehalte. Hy kla egter omdat van sy kopiereg foto’s sonder sy toestemming op facebook gebruik word. Indien u van sy foto’s – veral oor Koevoet – wil gebruik, klaar dit gerus met hom uit. Hy is nie ‘n onaardige mens nie. Baie dankie aan al ons lesers en korrespondente! Julle maak alles die moeite werd!

ELEKTRONIESE-BEDIENING: NONGQAI SE KAPELAAN: KOOT SWANEPOEL Dagsê, Dankie vir jou liefde en omgee. Hier is die gedagte stukkie soos deur jou versoek vir daardie besonderse boek van jou. Dankie dat ek kan deel wees daarvan. Seën vir jou en groete vir jou vroulief. Vraag: “Hoe kan water in ‘n mandjie bly?” Antwoord: Water kan alleenlik in ‘n mandjie bly as die mandjie in die water bly. Johannes 15 vers 5: “Ek is die wynstok, julle die lote. Wie in My bly, en Ek in hom, hy dra veel vrug; want sonder My kan julle niks doen nie.” Seën vir jou met die volgende kosbare, unieke werkstuk van jou Hennie. Koot.

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VOORBLAD | FRONT PAGE: GENL/GEN JV VAN DER MERWE 1990–1994: Genl. JV van der Merwe Genl. Johan Velde1 van der Merwe sluit as ‘n sestienjarige seun by die mag aan. Hy is by die beredepolisie ingedeel. Hy was aanvanklik ‘n lid van die uniformtak en gedurende 1964 word hy as offisier na die veiligheidstak oorgeplaas. Hy het gou ‘n kundige op grensbeheer geword. Deur harde werk het hy deur al die range gegaan en het sy matriek asook 'n B.Juris-graad verwerf. Nadat hy as die afdelingsbevelvoerder in die Vrystaat aangestel is, het hy die verantwoordelikheid as afdelingsbevelvoerder in Suidwes-Afrika aanvaar. Dit was ‘n veeleisende en uitdagende pos waar hy met groot onderskeiding gedien het. Hy het gevorder tot veiligheidshoof en later die hoof uitvoerende adjunk-kommissaris. Hy was die eerste suiwer uniformtaklid om hoof van veiligheid te word. As laaste kommissaris van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie, het die meeste laste van die verlede op sy skouers geval. Ná die dood van genl. Johann Coetzee en genl. Hennie de Witt, moes hy en genl. Mike Geldenhuys die belange van oudlede wat in die spervuur van die ANC/SAKP-alliansie gekom het, beskerm. Die twee generaals het die Liefdadigheidstrust vir Oud-polisielede gestig om oudlede in nood geestelik, moreel en finansieel, te ondersteun.

From Africa’s Heat to Europe’s Snow: Meeting Gen. Van der Merwe: Col Williamson I was privileged to work with Gen. Van Der Merwe during an historic occasion in January 1981 - the first conference which brought the contending sides in the SWA/Namibian conflict, face to face, across a room from each other. The conference was held in Geneva, symbolically in the original Council Chamber of the League of Nations where, 60 years previously, South Africa had been given the mandate to govern the former German colony of South West Africa. The 1981 conference was opened by the then UN Secretary General, Kurt Waldheim, who called for a firm cease-fire date to be agreed and for the way to be cleared to independence for Namibia by year end. South Africa was, at that time, under increasing military pressure in Angola through Soviet backed Cuban intervention on the Fapla/Swapo side and under increasing political pressure from the socalled 'contact group' of 5 Western nations led by the USA. South Africa was being squeezed between the threat of mandatory UN Chapter VII sanctions on one hand and Soviet backed military force on the other. At the conference the SWA/SA delegation, led by Dirk Mudge, faced the Swapo delegation led by Sam Nujoma. Behind the SWA/SA delegation were officials like Dr. Brand Fourie from Foreign Genl. Mike Geldenhuys (93) en genl, J van der Merwe (82) is die enigste oorlewende kommissarisse van polisie – HBH. 1

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Affairs and Genl. Jannie Geldenhuys of the SADF. There was also the then Colonel Johan van der Merwe, head of the SAP Security Branch in SWA. During the SAP SB “Operation Daisy�, Gen. Johann Coetzee had recruited a source as a support agent in the internal SA 'struggle' structures funded from abroad, which were actually controlled by the SB. After I was exposed as a SB operative in Europe, this source 'fled' to Europe on the pretext that he was in danger of arrest because of his anti-government activities. I took over the handling of this source and his operation after my return to SA in 1980. He established himself in the European Anti-Apartheid Movement and became involved in political support work for, amongst others, Swapo. He had attended and reported on the 1980 International Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the People of Namibia which was held in Paris in September 1980 and as he had given some financial and logistical support (provided by SB Head Office) to Swapo delegates at that conference, he was asked to assist the Swapo delegation once again at the Geneva talks. Our information at that time was that Swapo and their allies wanted to do all in their power to scuttle the 1981 talks and to put the blame on the SA government. At that time, they had the full political and military support of the Soviets and the Warsaw bloc countries, as well as political and financial support from the Socialist International political parties and countries such as Sweden, the UK Labour party, Holland, Canada etc. So, their strategy was to make demands at the talks which the SA government could not accept but which had the support of, not only the Warsaw and non-aligned blocs, but of powerful elements in the Western Contact Group. The source was to be with key Swapo officials at the talks and, as a European political confidant and supporter he was privy to their private discussions. But I could not go to Geneva to handle him, due to the charges of espionage which had been laid against me in Geneva in 1980. So, it was decided that I would meet and debrief the source regularly during the talks. I met him in the French town of Saint-Denis-Pouilly on the Swiss-Geneva border. Thereafter I would meet Colonel Van der Merwe in another French border town, Annemasse and pass on the information on the private thinking of the Swapo delegation to him. The source and I were used to operating in Europe and so setting up our meeting arrangements was relatively simple. However, I was not so sure how easily Colonel Van Der Merwe would be able to follow our meeting instructions which, in order to avoid surveillance, required tram, bus and foot travel from the centre of Geneva, through the suburbs and over the Swiss/French border. To make things even more difficult, the weather didn't play along and we had to contend with heavy snowfalls. The time came for my first meeting with Colonel Van der Merwe and I was at the designated point. It was cold, dark and snowing heavily. Fortunately, I had my Moscow fur hat and my camel hair wool Burberry overcoat. At exactly the pre-determined time I saw a slender figure of a man approaching the meeting point through the gloom and the snow. The man had his head down, bent against the wind and snow, his only protection a thin plastic mac with a hood. I realised that this could only be the Colonel. It was. Kurt Waldheim's cease fire date took another 7 years and 7 months to realise and Namibian independence came about 9 years and 2 months later. We should be proud of the role that the SAP SB played in this context. From Koevoet in the bush war to handling our sources reporting from Sam Nujoma's hotel rooms at international conferences, the SAP SB had Swapo's measure.

Hallo Hennie 11


‘n Baie suiwer weergawe. Ek is nie seker of ‘n mens Namibië, toe nog Suidwes-Afrika, as ‘n woestyn kan bestempel nie, ofskoon groot gedeeltes daarvan woestynagtig is. Dit kom egter amper op dieselde neer. Ek heg interessantheidshalwe ‘n artikel aan wat dit bevestig. Groete Johan van der Merwe

Veelpartyberaad van Suidwes-partye in Genève: Genl. Johan van der Merwe Kurt Waldheim, sekretaris-generaal van die VN, het aan die einde van 1980 voorgestel dat ʼn veelpartyberaad van Suidwes-partye in Genève, Switserland, oor onafhanklikheid vir Suidwes gehou word. Daar was in dié stadium 42 politieke partye in Suidwes. Mnr. Hough het opdrag gekry om met die verskillende partye te onderhandel met die oog op die veelpartyberaad. Eie aan die politiek in Suidwes was daar uit die staanspoor verdeeldheid en teëkanting. As hierdie party gaan, gaan daardie party nie, en dan was daar nog talle ander besware. Ná lang en intensiewe onderhandelinge het mnr. Hough uiteindelik die partye oorreed om ter wille van die beraad mekaar se bona fides te aanvaar. Verteenwoordigers van die DTA en sewe ander politieke partye, waaronder die Suidwes Nasionale Party, sou die Geneefse beraad van 7 tot 14 Januarie 1981 bywoon. Kort voor die beraad het ʼn senior lid van die Weermag mnr. Hough genader met ʼn voorstel wat bedoel was om tydens die beraad die wind uit Swapo se seile te haal. Volgens hom het Mishake Muyongo, gewese onderleier van Swapo wat uit die party is ná ʼn botsing met Nujoma en ander leiers, ingewillig om sy opwagting tydens die beraad te maak en hom by die demokratiese partye te skaar. Dit sou sonder twyfel groot publisiteit uitlok en Swapo in ʼn ernstige verleentheid stel. Mnr. Hough het die saak met die veiligheidskomitee van Suidwes-Afrika, waarin ek2 ook gedien het, bespreek. Ek het dit op my beurt met lede van die veiligheidstak bespreek. Hulle het ernstige bedenkinge oor Muyongo se optrede gehad. Dit sou op politieke selfmoord neerkom en Muyongo sou homself in die oë van Afrika en die lande wat Swapo steun, verwerplik maak. Maj. Attie Nel en kapt. Henty Botha, wat goed ingelig was, was oortuig daarvan dat Muyongo hom nooit by so ʼn ooreenkoms sou hou nie. Die demokratiese partye in Suidwes het hom in dié stadium geen politieke toekoms gebied nie. Ek het mnr. Hough ingelig dat dit ʼn onsinnige handeling sou wees en hom gewaarsku dat dit vir hom ʼn groot verleentheid gaan skep. Die Weermag was egter vol vertroue dat Muyongo sy onderneming gestand sou doen. Hy het ook heelwat geld van hulle gekry. Daar is derhalwe besluit om met die plan voort te gaan. Mnr. Hough moes daarna die demokratiese partye oorhaal om Muyongo as deel van hul afvaardiging te aanvaar. Dit het groot teëkanting uitgelok. Dirk Mudge was heftig teen die plan gekant en het selfs gedreig om die beraad te boikot. Mnr. Hough het uiteindelik met groot moeite daarin geslaag om hulle te oorreed. Daar is besluit dat ʼn intelligensievermoë in Genève gevestig moet word om die demokratiese partye by te staan. Die Weermag en die Nasionale Intelligensiediens het nie oor die vermoë beskik nie en

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Toe kolonel en afdelingsbevelvoerder, veiligheidstak, afdeling SWA – HBH.

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ek is gevra om die taak te onderneem. Nasionale Intelligensie het al die reëlings getref en sou die oorhoofse koste dra. My hoofkantoor in Pretoria sou my vir my persoonlike uitgawes vergoed. Daar is gereël dat ek in Frankryk met kapt. Craig Williamson, wat aan die intelligensie-afdeling van die veiligheidstak verbonde was, sou skakel. Kapt. Williamson sou deur sy bronne inligting insamel wat vir die demokratiese partye van nut mag wees en dit aan my oordra. Hy was persona non grata in Switserland, derhalwe die skakeling in Frankryk. Ek is na Genève vergesel van ʼn lid van die veiligheidstak in Oshakati, sers. Nikkie Nampala, ʼn Wambo. Hy sou help met vertalings indien nodig. Ons het afsonderlik gereis en in verskillende hotelle in Genève tuisgegaan. Toe ek sers. Nampala by sy hotel besoek, kry ek hom nie in sy kamer nie. Ek gaan toe na die eetsaal om te kyk of hy nie dalk daar is nie. Daar sit hy toe by ’n tafel. Die oomblik toe hy my sien, skree hy: “Kolonel, kom help asseblief!” Hy het in sy onkunde ʼn fondue bestel en het verstar voor die gasverwarmer, skottel en ander toebehore gesit. Daar was geen manier waarop ek hom daar en dan oor fondues kon touwys maak nie, en ek het die kelner gevra om dit maar te verwyder. Ek het gemerk dat sers. Nampala ’n duur kameelhaarjas dra en verstom gevra waar hy dit kry. Hy het verduidelik dat hy so koud gekry het dat hy die jas gaan koop het. Die jas het ʼn fortuin gekos en hy het al die geld wat hy as voorskot gekry het, daaraan bestee. Ek was verslae. Nikkie sou die jas ná Genève nooit weer kon gebruik nie. Ovambo was somer en winter warm tot bloedig warm. Ek het inderhaas gereël vir ʼn verdere voorskot vir Nikkie met die uitdruklike opdrag dat hy nie weer klere mag koop sonder om my te raadpleeg nie. Die Weermaglid wat met die voorstel oor Mishake Muyongo gekom het, het gereël dat Muyongo mnr. Hough om middernag die aand van die beraad op ʼn plek in Genève sou ontmoet. Mnr. Hough het op die vasgestelde tyd by die afgesproke plek opgedaag, waar hy die eensame, verleë Weermaglid aangetref het. Muyongo het soos mis voor die son verdwyn. Mnr. Hough moes toe op sy beurt ewe verleë die demokratiese partye inlig dat die beplande skouspel nie meer gaan plaasvind nie. Die beraad in Genève het uiteindelik op niks uitgeloop nie. Die partye het na Suidwes teruggekeer om die stryd te hervat.

BESOEK ONS WEBWERF | VISIT OUR WEB SITE

http://www.samirror.com 13


This website deals with different subjects as described in the various web pages. It ranges from the maintenance of justice, the physical and moral welfare of former members of the South African Police Force, the history of the South African Police Force and South African history, which also includes contemporary history. In the case of the South African Police Force, the history only extends until the date that the Police Force ceased to exist as a result of the new dispensation. In all the cases everything possible is being done to maintain the truth.

Hierdie webwerf hanteer verskillende onderwerpe soos in die verskillende webblaaie volledig omskryf word. Dit wissel van die handhawing van reg en geregtigheid, die fisiese en morele welsyn van oudlede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag, die geskiedenis van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis wat ook eietydse se geskiedenis insluit. In die geval van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag strek die geskiedenis net tot en met die datum waarop die polisiemag met die totstandkoming van die nuwe bedeling as sodanig opgehou het om te bestaan. Daar word in alle gevalle alles moontlik gedoen om die waarheid te handhaaf.

We would like to preserve the history through this website and share with all our old colleagues what have been delightful and precious in the past. We strive always for the truth and in a world where propaganda and perceptions dominate the scene, it is sometimes a tough battle. The weal and woe of our old colleagues are of great concern to us. Please contact our webmaster if you are willing to make a contribution regarding the maintenance and continuity of this website. Ons wil graag deur hierdie webtuiste die geskiedenis bewaar en dit wat vir ons mooi en kosbaar was in die verlede met al ons ou kollegas deel. Ons strewe te alle tye na die waarheid en in ‘n wêreld waar propaganda en persepsies die toneel oorheers is dit soms ‘n moeilike stryd. Die wel en wee van ons ou kollegas bly vir ons van groot belang. Kontak gerus ons webmeester indien u bereid is om ‘n bydrae te maak ten opsigte van die onderhoud en voortbestaan van hierdie webwerf.

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- Johan van der Merwe

WEB BLAAIE / WEB PAGES

JUSTITIA

BENEVELENCE

GELYKHEID VOOR DIE REG

OUD-SAP-LEDE LIEFDADIGHEIDSTRUST

Die Stigting vir Gelykheid voor die Reg het tydens die aanvang van die Waarheid- en Versoeningskommissie (WVK)-proses tot stand gekom en die doelstellings van die stigting is om gelykheid voor die reg te bevorder. Dit is hoofsaaklik daarop gerig om die eensydige vervolging van oudlede van die polisiemag wat by die konflik van die verlede betrokke was, te bestry.

Die Trust is ingevolge artikels 10(1)(cN) en 30, Seksie 18A van die Wet op Inkomstebelasting, Wet 58 van 1962 (soos gewysig) as ‘n NieWinsgewende- en Openbare Weldaadorganisasie, geregistreer. Bydraes is gevolglik aftrekbaar vir belasting doeleindes.

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The Historical Section of the website contains numerous articles and free publications for your reading pleasure.

POLICE HISTORY | POLISIEGESKIEDENIS Operation Koevoet We find that people use Jim Hooper’s photographs without his permission and in order to combat this illegal use, all his photographs have watermarks on them. Language at a few places not for the feint-hearted. Ons vind dat persone Jim Hooper se foto’s elders, sonder sy toestemming, aanwend. Om die euwel te bekamp het hy watermerke op die foto’s geplaas. Daar kom egter ‘n paar swetswoorde in die stuk voor; so wees gewaarsku.

How it all began: Mike Williams Mike McWilliams: In 1981, the Springbok skydiving team arrived at Jim Hooper’s Florida drop zone for the IV World Championships. On the first day of practice we were on the DZ dolled up in our team kit, emblazoned with Springbok logos. Waiting with us to board the aircraft was another team who were obviously oriental. We smiled and nodded at one another until a small officious chap in a red tracksuit asked in bloken Engrish, "Who you guys? What countly?" “South Africa.” His eyes widened. "South Aflica!" he snarled and stomped off. It dawned on us that it was the Chinese team, who had never before competed outside their own country. We took no notice when the same chap ordered them out of the boarding area and another team took their place. At the end of the day, our Head of Delegation, Richard Charter, revealed that a serious political problem had arisen. South Africa was under a wide sports boycott at the time but we never imagined it would extend this far. At the hotel that evening we met with all our good buddies on the Zimbabwean Team, who told us that Zim’s UN ambassador in New York had ordered them to withdraw. We had jumped with and competed against our Rhodesian mates many times in the past. But the new regime was very close to the People’s Republic of China, and there was a lot of hatred for us in Harare and Beijing. 16


Then we learned that the Chinese were threatening to withdraw if Jim didn’t ban us. Having hosted an international World Cup at Oudtshoorn a few years earlier, we were at the forefront of this skydiving discipline and felt entitled to compete, especially against the johnny-come-lately Chinese. But a precedent had been set at the 1978 World Cup in France when the organisers caved in to Soviet demands and withdrew permission for the Springboks to participate. Things weren’t looking good. Richard Charter could not be found that night; he was busy lobbying all the other delegations, without much success. The next morning, he told us that quite a few nations were sympathetic to the Chinese cause, especially Canada and even some elements in the USA’s official parachuting organization. All were pressuring Meet Director Jim Hooper to kick us out. The American team were favoured to take the gold and were more interested in beating Red China than South Africa. There was also the communist Chinese nightmare of finishing well behind us. Then came momentous news: Jim had given the Chinese a simple answer: The Springboks would not be banned. If China didn’t like it, he’d be happy to organise transport to Tampa International airport. It was a hell of a stand to take. Not only would Jim lose a ton of money if they went home, he would be persona non grata with the sport’s international governing body. But he closed his ears to all the threats and we stayed while the Chinese caught the soonest plane home. Mike McWilliams, Springbok Skydiver 44 Parachute Brigade Operation Reindeer author of Battle for Cassinga Jim Hooper: I’ve always been a stubborn old bliksem who prefers facts to feelings. The argument over which country should be allowed to compete was a sham. One had killed 50m of its own people; the other, even under the inequities of Apartheid, still gave its citizens more rights than anyone enjoyed in communist China. It never crossed my mind that, five years later, my refusal to be held to ransom by hypocrites might help open the door to a war I knew nothing about. Some decisions have unintended consequences.

Koevoet – Experiencing South Africa’s Deadly Bush War: Jim Hooper Extract from Koevoet – Experiencing South Africa’s Deadly Bush War Text and all photos Copyright © Jim Hooper CHAPTER ONE – THE INTRODUCTION Captain Chris Pieterse, Operations Officer: “When Bernie Ley3 told me that a journalist was going to be embedded in our unit, I thought that the Old Man had gone soft in the head. Had he considered how much trouble one of those could cause if he happened to be at the wrong place at the wrong time?” Warrant Officer Marius Brand, team leader, Zulu Alpha: I was walking past the Koevoet admin section when Bernie Ley called me into his office and said that the boss wanted me to take an American journalist on patrol the next day. And that’s all he says. Just like Koevoet. No briefing on what I’m supposed to say to this guy. They probably expected me to give him the official line about operating only inside Namibia, not chasing and killing ‘freedom fighters’ deep inside Angola. Well, I’d go over the border if I had to. Was I supposed to think this guy was really a journalist? Probably from the FBI or something and was going to reveal everything about how we worked. That’s it, I thought, 3

I still remember the day Bernie Ley phoned me about Jim Hooper. I was at the Head Office of the Security Branch in Pretoria. Bernie knew me as I arraigned his transfer, via Brig. PJ Goosen, from the CID to Koevoet – HBH.

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Swapo will be taking over soon. Maybe this is Pretoria’s way of civilizing us before taking us out of the bush and back into society. The general didn’t pick me for this because I was one of the best Alpha Group commanders, but because I could speak English. I decided that I’d take things very casual and check the situation out carefully. Thys Loedolff, car commander, ZA-4: When I heard that the General was allowing a journalist to join us in the veld, I knew the guy must have high up connections in the CIA or whatever. Personally, I did not have a problem with it as he would be taking his own risks accompanying us to the operational zone and also possibly into Angola. What did worry me was that everyone would be super sensitive to every nuance of right and wrong, which might cause us to miss out on the action, or that we could become show offs and, in the process, endanger our own and our buddies’ lives. Rucksack and camera bag slung over shoulders, I was waiting outside the Driehoek Guest House when a bakkie with one white and two black policemen shuddered to a stop on the washboard road. One threw my bags into the back and motioned me to take his place in front. My small talk was met with hung-over silence. A short drive brought us to the Okave headquarters of the South West African Police Counterinsurgency Unit. Feeling self-conscious in the new bush shorts, shirt and canvas boots I’d been given, I wandered into the maze of modular structures. Clusters of men in stained fatigues lounged along the central walkway and I caught the words “kontak,” “terrs” and “koppe.” I paused alongside a group to ask for directions. Conversation came to a halt as I was examined from head to foot. My camera bag triggered ill-concealed smirks. Following the directions of one glowering giant with a jagged scar across his cheek, I knocked at the door of Captain Bernie Ley’s office. “Kom!” Ley was up to his eyebrows in paperwork when I entered. I was subjected to another slow scan. “So, you’re the one they pushed on us, eh?” “Well, yeah, I guess so.” “Terrific.” He shoved the pile of papers to one side and got down to business. “Blood group? Next of kin? Your group leader will issue you with a weapon. Ever fired an R5? Neither SWAPOL nor the government of South West Africa can be held responsible for injuries you may sustain whilst with this unit. Got that? Good. Sign here.” After answering more rapid-fire questions, I mentioned what I’d been told by a SADF officer the night before, that I’d be kept away from any area where there might be a contact. “Look,” I said, dismayed at being stuck with cops, “I appreciate the opportunity to see how you guys operate, but I really don’t want to go on some Boy Scout camping trip.” Ley’s eyes almost popped out of his head. “Listen, pal, we’re sending you out for the next week with one of our best groups. That’s four Casspirs, a Blesbok and almost 50 men. If you think we’re going to waste all that on a media-relations exercise just for you, you’re out of your mind.” “Oh.” Then, brightly: “Do I need to take any identification?” Captain Roelf Maritz, one of Koevoet’s ops officers, walked through the door just as I asked and I caught a private look pass between him and Ley. “I don’t think any terr’s going to be too impressed with your press cards, pal.” 18


I was making a real hit here. “Do you speak any Afrikaans?” Ley asked. I shook my head. “But I have an English-Afrikaans dictionary.” “Okay, come on,” he said impatiently, “let me introduce you to the boss.” We found Brigadier Johannes G. Dreyer’s office outside his office chatting with some of his men. Ley made the introductions and charged back to his office, shaking his head at the kind of useless uitlanders he had to deal with. Dreyer, greying and lean with a bristling moustache, gave the impression of a man who didn’t suffer fools. “I believe you’re going out with Zulu Alpha this morning. That’s one of our most experienced teams. Marius Brand, the team leader, is one of our best operators. I think you should find it interesting. If there’s anything you need, please let me know.” Those clustered around him gave me stony stares and shifted impatiently. The interruption was not appreciated. I excused myself and wandered outside. Streams of men moved from their long, corrugated stores to the Casspir armoured personnel carriers, carrying personal weapons, grenade launchers, medical kits, crates of ration packs, tools and spare parts. Browning .30 and .50 machine guns or 7.62mm MAGs were being fitted to pintle mounts.

“Maximum firepower.” I looked around. “You can have too little, but you can’t ever have too much.” Tall and lanky, Brand moved with the loose-jointed swagger of a western gunslinger. “In a contact, you gotta overwhelm the terrs, break them up and kill ‘em now-now. Especially in an ambush—you drive straight into them with maximum firepower.” He smiled, but his eyes remained as cold as the ndevandele—cobra—on Zulu Alpha’s team patch. Marius Brand, ZA-1: Ok! So now I have this journalist! I will try as hard as I can to be as straightforward and civilised as the situation allows, but we aren’t angels and this is a war, not a Sunday school picnic. Thys Loedolff, ZA-4: The brigadier selected us to take him into the bush because we were the best: the highest spoor-kill ratio, most cases, least land mines, and best of all, 19


all of us stayed alive from the time I joined the team until I left. (This I believe was because we were consistent in opening with scripture reading and prayer every single day. So we had to be protected.) But he also said that he would kill us if any harm should come to him. If we had known how reckless he was we would have objected. Brand heaved my rucksack into the back of the Blesbok supply vehicle and I followed him to his command car, ZA-1. “You can take that seat across from Otto,” he pointed, introducing me to an Ovambo special warrant officer. I made my way up a narrow aisle filled with automatic weapons, packets of ammunition and hydraulic jacks, and took my assigned place. We were soon rolling.

Maximum firepower Nine pairs of canvas boots swayed around me. I followed suit and lifted myself to the rim of the open well. Sitting across from me, eyes narrowed against the wind, was S/W/O Otto Shivute. Just 23 years old, he had been with Koevoet for six years. When we stopped to wait for one of the Casspirs to catch up, I asked him through Brand how many contacts he had experienced. He smiled shyly, shrugged and said simply, “Baie.” “Hoeveel?” I pressed, trying out a little Afrikaans from the new dictionary. “He thinks it’s around 100 or 120,” Brand translated. “He hasn’t kept count.” “Why did he join the police?” “No, he says he had family killed by Swapo because they refused to support them. After that, he knew that the terrs didn’t believe in all the things they claimed they were fighting for. Killing people because they disagree is not freedom or democracy. He also says he likes the work. Perhaps someday he’ll find the terrs that killed his relatives. Otto’s good, damned good,” he added.

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On open road, the cars picked up speed. “We’re killing them faster than they can be replaced,” he shouted. “They’re having to kidnap kids and train them against their will.” It was a story I’d already heard but wondered about. Heading toward Oshikango, the border post between Namibia and Angola, we were brought to a stop by a crater in the road, the result of an explosive charge inside a culvert. “When they got back to Namakunde they probably said they’d destroyed all our Casspirs with that,” Brand laughed. “When you see the claims they make, you wonder what they were smoking. They exaggerate the hell out of what they’ve done to make themselves look good when they get back to Angola. And the commissars are happy to believe them.”

Marius Brand not happy having a journalist on board

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ZA-1 spoorsnyers wondering who this shirumbu is. We passed a small army base on the other side of the tar road. “Etale. It belongs to the army. There’s some sappers there that sweep the roads every morning for mines.” Just beyond the base, we eased down the embankment and into the bush, driving through low mopani thickets until stopping alongside a kraal surrounded by fields of mohango, the staple crop of grain sorghum. Brand gave me a quick lesson on the layout. The thatched rondavels to the left were for the young men, while those on the other side were for girls who had reached puberty. The senior wife had her own hut, another accommodated younger wives. He pointed at a separate enclosure inside the kraal. “That belongs to the headman. No one enters without his permission.” “We’re not supposed to drive through the mohango,” Brand complained. “But I can promise you that if my guys find spoor going into it we’ll roll in with them and to hell with the army’s COMOPS hearts and minds.” How much support the insurgents have? “Depends. In areas of heavy infiltration, a lot of civvies are forced to help. We get most of our info from the PBs – the local pops. They might not like us, but a lot of them like the terrs even less.” Shivute came back to say that three insurgents had been seen or heard about in the last two days. “I can promise you there are at least a dozen Victor Yankees within ten klicks of here,” said Brand. “The bad thing is, if they hear we’re in the area, they sit tight or get the hell out. They’re really scared of us.” We drove another few kilometres to a village of tin shacks, where a group of flashily-dressed young men stared at us with open hostility. Each immediately drew the attention of the black 22


constables who demanded to see identity cards. When their interrogations were complete, the trackers crowded into a dirt-floored cuca shop to buy soft drinks. Brand and Shivute shared a bottle of warm Fanta and discussed where to go from there.

Otto and Marius deciding which direction to go. “We’ll RV with Zulu Mike and go north,” Brand said. I soon caught sight of a different type of armoured vehicle parked in the shade of a maroela tree. Nearby were three more of the big Wolf Turbos. Brand and Shivute joined Zulu Mike’s team around a map spread on the ground. Heads nodded in agreement. Ten diesel engines rumbled to life and the teams set off. Crashing through heavy undergrowth, we broke out onto a wide clearing that ran straight as a die as far as I could see to the east and west. “Yati,” Otto said. 23


Skim on the kaplyn

Running the cutline I plucked up my courage and leaned forward. “Marius, what does ‘yati’ mean?” 24


“Border!” he shouted. We turned north and Otto lifted his chin towards the approaching tree line. “Angola.” Did he just say Angola? No way. I’d been told the security forces crossed the border only in hot pursuit. Unless I missed something, we weren’t chasing anyone. Which meant we’d just invaded another country looking for someone to chase. This was turning into something more than a Boy Scout camping trip. Just before sunset both teams stopped, cars facing outward. “We’ll set up our TB here,” Brand said. He saw my puzzled look and sighed. “Tydelike basisis. This is where we’ll sleep tonight.” By the time personal kit had been unloaded, a dozen fires were blazing. I wet the corner of a towel and started to wipe off the day’s sweat and dirt. Dean Viljoen, on secondment as ZM’s team leader for the deployment, laughed. “It’s something you get used to. We usually don’t bother. You won’t believe how good a hot shower feels at the end of a week in the veld.” I thought it would feel pretty good after one day. Shivute and Elusmus Johannes, Zulu Alpha’s second senior Ovambo, hunkered down with Brand before going off to check on their men. Brand told me that Elusmus was a hereditary clan headman with a price on his head. He’d had two bakkies blown up and been seriously wounded by an anti-personnel mine. Viljoen led another white over to me. “Porky wants to know what cameras and lenses you’re using,” Dean said, introducing his gangly partner. A born-and-bred Southwester, Ryk “Porky” Erasmus had only recently completed the Koevoet selection course. Tall, thin and quiet, the beardless 18-year-old looked like he should be back in high school, practicing hook shots on a basket ball court.

From left: Skim Schutte, Dean Viljoen, Marius Brand, Ryk “Porky” Erasmus and Nick Coetzee. 25


The other whites, almost as shy and quiet as Porky, kept to themselves Thys Loedolff, 25 years old, from Sasolburg in the Orange Free State, was newly married to his high school sweetheart, Topsie. Christo Schutte, even taller and lankier than Brand, was from Bethal and went by the nickname of Skim; getting a single word out of him was like pulling teeth. And finally, big, dark, and bearded Jacobus Andries, 23 and from Paarl, known to everyone as Apie. At the moment Apie was preparing a potjiekos. (Many years later, Chris Pieterse was moved to correct my description of Apie’s culinary effort. “What we did in the veld was to throw together various tinned products from our rat packs and call it a ‘potjienaai’. Maybe it doesn’t translate too well, but you get the idea.”) Being in the middle of Indian Country with fires blazing seemed a touch unorthodox, but Brand explained that the insurgents were too frightened of Koevoet to even think about hitting us. One could but hope they did because they’d leave spoor we could follow in the morning. I almost laughed. Lighting fires as an incentive for insurgents to attack was a tactic I’d never heard of. By the time the last of Apie’s potjienaai had been scraped from the pot the fire had burned down to embers. It had been a long day. Conversation lagged, replaced by yawns. One by one, my mentors muttered “Lekker slaap” and stepped away to their sleeping bags. I found mine, pulled off my new canvas boots and slipped into it. Shortly after midnight, I was awakened by a hand on my shoulder. “The boys just told Otto there are some people out there in the bush,” Brand whispered. “Probably just some of the PBs looking for something to steal. We’re going to scare them off. Stay where you are and don’t move,” and he disappeared. There was the hollow thunk of a mortar tube and then the pop of an illumination round high overhead. The magnesium flare threw a harsh, blue-white light over the camp and I heard a machine gun being cocked. Burst of fire sent tracers arcing high overhead to disappear into the night. The firing ended when the flare burned out, followed by the sounds of people running panic-stricken through the undergrowth. There were hoots and laughter from around the camp. Silence returned—except for someone snoring. Apie had slept through it all. Two days later we were back in Namibia and raising dust along the Oom Willie se Pad. To either side, the bush had been cleared back for 20 or 30 metres. Otto was thumbing through my Afrikaans-English dictionary. Writing down the words he wanted, he put his hand on Brand’s shoulder. The Marius looked at Otto’s notepad and nodded. Shivute turned to me with a smile. “If we lucky, ambush!” No security around a TB. Hoping for an ambush. Was this really the crowd I should be hanging out with? It was obvious no one here was thinking on all cylinders. Groups operating from Opuwa in the west to Rundu in the east kept the Koevoet operations rooms in Oshakati and Eenhana advised of their progress. If a team was on a “hot” spoor, Brand translated the Afrikaans for me, especially if a contact appeared imminent. When we heard that Alouette gunships had been scrambled, he explained that the trackers reckoned the spoor was no more than 15 minutes old. The worst call was for a casevac4. Ops K was a tightly knit family and everyone held his breath till the extent of the injuries was known. It soon became obvious that stealth was not a worry. A Koevoet team could be heard for hundreds of metres around. There were the sounds of engines, radios on high volume, people shouting, tree branches scraping around the cars, ammunition belts clacking back and forth in their metal boxes and the rattle of whatever was loose in the cars. We weren’t going to sneak up on anyone. 4

Casualty evacuation - HBH

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Spoorsnyers check comms with Marius Brand in ZA-1 “One of Zulu 5’s teams have three spoor about 50 klicks west of here,”5 Brand said.” Terrs came across last night and grabbed ten kids. The spoor’s about eight hours old, but with all those kids, the gooks aren’t going to be able to move very fast.” The first good sign Zulu Alpha’s spoorsnyers had was soon lost on hard ground, found, lost, and then found again. Side by side with Zulu Mike, we followed it most of the day, the Ovambos pointing out the signs with trimmed branches. Where the tracks were clearly visible, the black policeman moved at a dead run, often outstripping the APCs in the thick bush. They would go until winded, drop back to the Casspirs, and their places taken by others who jumped off the sides of the rolling cars. I watched Shivute running easily, the R5 slung under his arm. Occasionally, he stopped, dropped his chin and carefully examined the tracks. His eyes lifted to scan the bush ahead. Then he was off again, sprinting almost effortlessly through the soft sand. Marius Brand, ZA-1: This is what I wanted this journalist to see: Otto, Kanjunga, Linus, Leo, Caboy and Zula Alpha’s other top trackers during a follow-up. Super athletes. The rhythmic running for hours and hours on those tracks. When one of them came to my Casspir for water, I gave him my water bag. Racism didn’t work here. We trusted one another with our lives. When I think back to those days, I was closer to my Ovambo people than to most of the other white policemen. They would go through hell and back as long as I was next to them. All those wonderful men! We took on the enemy together and each time came out victorious. 5

Zulu 5 was the western-most Koevoet detachment based at Opuwa in the Kaokoveld.

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“The drivers, too — Fillip, Daniel, Pieta, Elusmus Johannes — and the way they could circle an ambush area and break the enemy’s defence lines by driving straight into them, then swerving and turning while keeping the battle formation. ‘Professional chaos,’ someone described it, ‘executed with precision.’ This is what Koevoet was about. Camaraderie and teamwork. In the last two years we’d been in almost 50 battles and not lost anyone killed or wounded. All of these things were part of the story I wanted this journalist to write. Where the spoor faded, the cars would stop and everyone debus, fanning out to search. What they could tell from something that was invisible to me was astonishing. “This one old man — short steps,” they’d say, touching the ground with a walking stick; or “This is woman carrying baby;” or “This one Swapo — man with gun walks proud. You see?” “Ah, yes, mm-hmm,” I nodded, seeing only sand or leaves. In thick bush there were frequent stops to clean leaves and twigs from the radiator grills and allow over-heated engines to cool. We stopped almost as frequently to change punctured tyres. Brand squatted next to me.

Marius Brand and Zulu Mike’s Koos Combrinck. “You know those kids I told you about—the ones the terrs took? I just heard that four of them have been found. Apparently, they couldn’t move fast enough and were left behind. The Zulu 5 group following the rest thinks they’re only a couple of hours behind them now. “Ever fired an RPG?” he asked. We have a few extra rockets if you’d like to try one.”

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Marius and Apie 29


“Just shoot it into the air. It’ll automatically explode about 500m after you fire it.” He nodded at Apie who was carrying a launcher. Marius screwed a green booster to the bottom of the warhead and slid it down the muzzle. Apie settled the weapon on my shoulder, cocked it and backed away. To my left Skim and a few constables had fingers in their ears. A glance to the other side showed Brand, Apie and Shivute doing the same. “I just aim it at the sky and pull the trigger, right?” I asked a little nervously. The launcher swung with my shoulders and the men either side shifted smartly. “Ja,” said Brand, fingers coming out of his ears for a second, “but not too high or the back blast will burn your legs.” “What if Dean sees it?” I asked. “Won’t he think something is happening?” “No, no, I’ve already called him to let him know.” I centred the sight on a cloud and squeezed the trigger. WHAM! It was the loudest sound I’d ever heard, leaving me deafened in a cloud of grey smoke. Grass and dirt blown up by the back blast rained down. There was a black puff of smoke when the warhead exploded downrange. I worked my jaw to clear my ears. Brand said something. “What?” I asked, my own voice sounding hollow and dim through the ringing. Loud, isn’t it? I read his lips.

Skim and Apie Another day came to an end outside the SADF base at Elundu. The cars drove off to rebunker as we walked through the gate, the dirt-caked policemen swaggering menacingly. A fresh30


faced troepie quickly raised the red and white striped pole and averted his eyes. I squared my shoulders and worked on my own swagger. We entered the sandbagged canteen. There were sidelong glances as meals were hurriedly finished, and the diners left through a door on the opposite side. Marius Brand, ZA-1: Because of Koevoet’s reputation as the best counter-insurgency operators in Ovamboland, there was a lot of professional jealousy, and that led to a few scraps with both the Security Branch police and the army. But I was so good at what I did that my general covered for me each time I ‘mishandled’ any of them. We were basically untouchable and took full advantage of that. A young soldier, downy fuzz covering his upper lip, squeezed behind the rough-sawn bar. There were pops and hisses as Castles were opened, followed by sighs when the first swallows hit bottom. Two freshly-showered corporals in crisp army browns entered and did a double take when they saw the green Koevoet uniforms. Eyes turned towards them and narrowed. There was a tangled about-face as they jammed the door in their eagerness to leave. “What’s the matter with these guys?” Here was a perfect opportunity to talk with army professionals who had to know more about bush warfare than some small police unit. The only problem was that they didn’t want to join us. “I don’t know,” Brand said, taking a drag on his cigarette. “The army doesn’t like us too much,” volunteered Viljoen. “Why’s that?” “Well, we just don’t get along with them too good,” Apie said. “Why?” “Well, there was this fight a while back…” His voice trailed off. I waited expectantly. “...but no one was killed.” “Killed?” “No, genuine, no one was killed. After they started it in the canteen at Eenhana they were getting the worst of it. So, when they went for their Buffels we had to go for our cars,” he shrugged as though it was only natural. “I don’t understand.” “You know, when they started using their guns, we had to defend ourselves.” “Hold on. You were shooting at each other? With machine guns?” “Yeah, but no one was killed.” “But why?” “No, well, I guess no one was hurt because it was dark and everyone was pretty drunk.” “Make no mistake,” Dean growled, “we get most of the kills and they get the credit for it. All you see in the press releases is ‘the security forces killed so many terrs.’ Everyone back in the States thinks it’s the army doing it. That’s bullshit!” “But aren’t you all on the same side?” The pause that followed suggested otherwise and I felt a pall of suspicion settle over me. The base commander appeared at the door. As if to show they were the innocent parties, the policemen generously waved the lieutenant into his own canteen and handed him a beer. Dean made a show of standing and offering him his bar stool, checking sidelong to see that I noticed. Moments later, the medical officer peeked round the door and was greeted with rare bonhomie. He stepped in cautiously and a bar stool was immediately vacated for him. For the next two hours, Brand, Viljoen and the others told stories of contacts and kills, pausing to 31


politely answer questions. Watching the rapt faces of their audience, I began to suspect that maybe these guys were more than just cops. After much handshaking and thanks for hospitality, we headed for the gate Dean cleared his throat. “No, we get along fine with the army. It’s them who start the kak every time. But those guys were okay; they didn’t try to start anything.” “Yeah,” someone sighed in the dark. He sounded disappointed.

Rare meeting of 101 Bn and Koevoet in the veld On the fifth morning, word came over the radio that “Charlie Tower,” a small outpost near the border had been revved. By the time we arrived three other teams were already there. The trackers soon found where the mortar tubes had been positioned. A message had been left: “Boer dogs. If you are looking for us, we will be in Namakunde.” The spoor of at least 40 insurgents was found and the groups fanned out, racing off in a cloud of dust. The dust came to an abrupt end when we ran into a series of shonas—low-lying areas with a foot or more of water. Brand told me the attackers were probably already back inside Angola and heading for the Namakunde Fapla base 13km north of the border. By late afternoon and a little over two kilometres north of the yati, all four of Zulu Alpha’s Casspirs were stuck fast in the middle of a soft-bottomed shona. Branches were cut and jammed under the tyres and shoulders put to the cars. The wheels spun on the slippery bottom and settled a little deeper. Before the cars had clouded the water, the soft imprints left by dozens of feet had been clearly visible. The initial excitement of the chase soon turned to rage. Zulu 1 eventually radioed to say that intelligence sources confirmed 58 insurgents were now safe in the Namakunde base. 32


Brand radioed our predicament to Viljoen and then fired a “thousand-footer” flare to mark our position. An answering flare appeared far to the southeast. Viljoen radioed that he was having his own problems getting around the shonas. It wouldn’t do for both groups to get stuck. As ZA’s men waded to a dry spot in the middle of the stagnant water, I realised we were there for the night.

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The sun disappeared. As if on cue, the quiet was broken by the bass burps of frogs declaring their love for each other. A furred and feathered orchestra of other unseen creatures added their night calls. Having spent some of my childhood years in Texas listening to tales about the Indian wars of the 1870s and ‘80s, I had a mental image of Comanches slipping into position around the cavalry. Viljoen radioed again to say that it was too dark to continue and fired a last 1,000-footer which Brand answered with another. It brought our predicament into unwelcome focus. We were stuck. In Angola. At night. Not all that far away were at least 58 Swapo insurgents holed up in a Fapla base. And with another Fapla border post less than five kilometres to the east, they had to know exactly where we were from the flares. I climbed over the turret and into the Casspir. Clearing my throat, I mentioned these minor points to Brand, wondering what the plan was if the bad guys slipped on down tonight and laid into us with some serious pyrotechnics. A few mortars. Maybe an RPG or two. Not that I was worried or anything like that. No, just curious. Besides, I was sure he already had had a plan that would handle any number of attackers. He slapped at a mosquito. “Fuck ‘em,” he said through a yawn, “they can’t hit shit anyway.” I stared into the darkness. You were right: these people must have been brain-damaged at birth. Totally out of touch with reality. Barking. Late in the morning, Viljoen and his Wolf Turbos reached the edge of the shona. Two of them backed into the water, being careful to stay on reasonably hard bottom. The second pair remained on dry ground, positioning themselves, like the first two, in tandem. Cables were run between them and then to the nearest Casspir. Alpha’s cars, bogged down in a neat queue, were similarly attached to each other. Eight engines roared and belched smoke, cables tightened, and the chain of cars dragged itself, link by link, from the clinging mud. Back on solid ground, we stopped to brew coffee and dry socks and canvas boots over a fire. I was digging a thorn out of my foot when Brand walked over. “They finally rescued those kids,” he said angrily. “The terrs left them and started running when the Z5 team got too close. Didn’t help them. Floored all three of the bastards.” “So, what’s wrong?” I asked. “No, the oldest kid, a 15-year-old girl who’s a real little Swapo sympathizer, told everyone that our people had kidnapped her and the others!” The next day, we responded to the scene of another mortar attack. The spoor of eight insurgent was lost on hard ground, found again, lost again. At least in this area we had no shonas to wade through. Brand pointed at a Wolf that had joined us and asked if I’d like to ride with the “Brig.” I hopped out and ran to the spotlessly maintained Wolf. Climbing through the rear doors, I thought I had the wrong car; there was no sign of Brigadier Dreyer. He was in the driver’s seat.

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Brig Sterk Hans Dreyer at wheel of Wolf Turbo. As the sun sank, we stopped outside the 21D Security Branch base at Ohangwena. The young lieutenant in charge passed beers around and we took chairs on a concrete patio. On the parade ground a pair of shoats raced after two young dogs. “Those damn pigs think they’re dogs,” he said. “In fact, they’re better than the mutts as watch dogs.” Then he pointed toward the far side of the base. “But those are the best.” Two baboons sat on the other side of the base. “Anything comes close at night, they go crazy.” Were they tame? I asked. He tilted his hand back and forth. “So-so. The female is okay, but Bobba can be a little windgat.” "What's "windgat" mean?" I asked. “Don't worry about it,” Brand said. “He's fine. Go take a picture.” I slung a camera over my neck and wandered across. The female sidled up timidly and began grooming the hair on my legs. There was a commanding bark from the male and she sped away. Bobba loped towards me, rose on his back legs and snatched the cassette recorder from my shirt pocket. I took it back. Then he grabbed the camera, almost yanking me off my feet. I pulled back. In a split second he’d grabbed my shoulder, dragged me forward, buried his teeth in the crook of my right arm. The world went upside-down at least twice, blue-brown, twice, blue-brown. I was being thrown around like a sack of mealies when one of the Ovambo policemen charged in with a raised stick. As quickly as he’d attacked, Bobba released me and scampered away. I was left sitting in a cloud of dust, blinking in surprise and looking very foolish. Behind me, Marius, Thys, Apie and Skim were howling with laughter.

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Inside the small clinic, the base doctor cleaned up a long, deep scratch on the back of my shoulder and was finishing the second stitch on two punctures in the arm. “Didn’t they warn you? He does that all the time.” Wearing bandages and blotches of betadine, I returned to the patio, where everyone seemed to be looking at the sky and fighting grins. Brand handed me a fresh beer. “Africa’s a tough place,” he said innocently. I got the distinct impression I’d been set up. Again. The week with Zulu Alpha came to an end. Swapo, through fortune or skill, had managed to keep out of ZA’s way. Groups working other areas of Ovamboland found what they were looking for. Seven Swapo insurgents had fallen to Koevoet’s guns. After more than 600 miles of patrolling, we rolled back through the gates of Oshakati. As we pulled into Okave headquarters, I had already rehearsed my lines. Home, hearth and a lusty girlfriend of considerable personal attractions were waiting in England, but I was here and it would be foolish not to try pushing it a little further for a decent article. Limping into Captain Ley’s office smelling of sweat, diesel and dirt, face and arms crisscrossed with scratches from battling the bush and a bloody baboon, I asked if I could sign on for another week. Ley put down his pen and leaned back, hands behind his head. “I think it can probably be arranged,” he allowed, trying not to laugh. “Take a seat and I’ll go ask the boss.” It was another of those decisions that would have unintended consequences. On behalf of all our readers thank you Oom Jim! We are enormously grateful that you share this high adventure experiences with us! – Hennie.

Die Casspir: Kol Dieks Dietrichsen

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Inleiding Die koms van die Casspir was vir ons ‘n groot verbetering op vervoerfasiliteite in vergelyking met die Hippo wat tot op daardie stadium ons vernaamste en veiligste vervoermiddel was. Tog, ten spyte van sy groot verbetering teenoor die Hippo en ander voertuie soos die Swerwer en Ribbok, het die Casspir ook aan die begin sy groeipyne in die bosoorlog opgelewer. Elke Koevoetlid wat aanvanklik ‘n bestuurder van die Casspir was, het ook sy eie vereistes gestel waaraan voldoen moes word. So het dit dan gebeur dat aan veral die eerste groep Casspir’s wat aan Koevoet toegeken is, heelwat veranderinge en toevoegings aangebring is om dit meer doeltreffend as ‘n operasionele voertuig te maak. Die meeste aanvanklike veranderinge en toevoegings is ook meestal in Onaimwandi-basis deur myself aangebring. Die veranderings en toevoegings is gebore uit ‘n behoefte om so veilig en doeltreffend as moontlik deurlopende diens in die bos deur die Casspir’s te verseker. Hoewel ek die meeste fisiese sny, monteer en sweiswerk gedoen het, het die Casspir-eienaars en ek koppe bymekaar gesit om, eerstens die oorsaak van ‘n probleem te identifiseer en dan ‘n werkbare en volhoubare oplossing vir die probleem te vind. In die meeste gevalle kon die oorsake nie aangespreek word nie want ons kon niks aan die topografie, bosse, grasse, gebrek aan paaie en oorlogsituasie doen nie. Daarom het ons die Casspir struktureel verander en verbeter om die gevolge van die oorsake te voorkom of te beperk – iets waarmee ons grootliks suksesvol was met die middele tot ons beskikking. Baie van die veranderings of toevoegings wat deur ons aangebring is, was na inspeksies deur, klagtes aan, argumente met en motiverings na die ontwerpers en vervaardigers, op nuwe Casspir’s in die fabriek aangebring. Ons het nooit rekord gehou van hoeveel verbeterings aan of toevoegings tot die Casspir’s op die grens aangebring is nie. Ons doel was nie om statistiek te hou nie maar om voertuie te hê wat betroubaar was en doeltreffend in die oorlog gebruik kon word. Daarin het ons geslaag en was ons suksesvol. Sukses, in die sin van wat ons met veranderings aan en toevoegings tot die Casspir’s gedoen het, kan gedefinieer word as eerstens: die tevredenheid van die bestuurdereienaars van die Casspir’s wat hulle as verbeterings op die produk, soos wat hulle uit die fabriek daar vir gebruik aangekom het, aanvaar het; en tweedens: dat die ontwerpers en vervaardigers van die Casspir’s dit ook as verbeterings aanvaar het en in opvolgende produksies so aangepas het. In dit wat hieronder volg, word uiteen gesit wat ons op die grens aan van die Casspir’s gedoen het.

My Meganiese Agtergrond Eers net agtergrond waarom ek by die veranderinge op die Casspir’s betrokke was. Ek het op ‘n plaas grootgeword. My pa was as jong man gedurende die Tweede Wêreld-oorlog ‘n grofsmid van beroep. Na die oorlog het hy as werktuigkundige gekwalifiseer. Trekkers en plaasimplemente was sy spesialiteit. Ek was in Sub A6 toe hy in die Frankfortse distrik in die Oranje Vrystaat gaan boer het. Baie van sy kliënte wat hy as besigheidsman by Eastern Free State Tractors op Frankfort gehad het, het hul trekkers en implemente plaas toe gebring waar hy aan hulle gewerk het. Ek en my twee jonger broers, Nardus en Kobus, het dus van kleintyd blootstelling aan masjiene en werktuie en hul werking gehad omdat ons my pa altyd moes help – aanvanklik net om onderdele te was maar lateraan om ook te help met uitmekaar haal en aanmekaar sit. So het ons ook blootstelling aan gassweis en boogsweis gehad. My pa is aan die einde van my Standerd 9 jaar oorlede. Ek het na my pa se dood met sy meganiese werk op die plaas voortgegaan en steeds ook plaasboere in ons omgewing met hul trekkers en implemente gehelp totdat ek in Augustus 1966 by die Suid-

6

Graad 1 – HBH.

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Afrikaanse Polisie aangesluit het. Ek het geen formele opleiding in masjiene of sweis gehad nie maar kon myself en baie ander deur eie ervaring help.

Toekenning van die Eerste Casspir’s aan Koevoet-lede Van die eerste Casspir’s wat ons by Koevoet ontvang het, is toegeken aan luitenante Andre Erwee en Sakkie du Plessis wat primêr vir ondersoeke van SWAPO-geïnisieerde dade verantwoordelik was. Van die eerste en seker die meeste veranderinge en toevoegings is aanvanklik aan hulle Casspir’s gedoen.

Identifikasie van ‘n Hoë Risiko Die eerste paar Casspir’s het ‘n luik agter elk van die bestuurder en die masjiengeweer- bemanning wat links voor langs die bestuurder gesit het, gehad. Op 19 Februarie 1981 was ek die bestuurder van ‘n Casspir en kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe het agter die masjiengeweer stelling ingeneem. Saam met ons was luitenante Andre Erwee en Sakkie du Plessis en ‘n paar Ovambo-lede van Koevoet. Ons het in die omgewing van die Endola-wyk gesoek na teenwoordigheid van die terroriste wat op 31 Januarie 1981 verantwoordelik was vir die 122-millimeter vuurpylaanval op Oshakati. Ons het die spore van drie terroriste gekry en opgevolg wat ons binne enkele minute in sig gehad het. Die terroriste het tussen die bome koes-koes gehardloop en deurlopend na ons geskiet. Met ons almal in die Casspir het ons ‘n paar ontploffings skuins voor die Casspir’s se voorwiele so in die ry ervaar. Ons het gedink dat ons in ‘n lokval gelei is en met mortiere aangeval word. Kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe het daarin geslaag om twee van die terroriste met die LMG’s (ligte masjiengewere) dood te skiet. Nadat ons die omgewing gefynkam het om seker te maak of daar nog terroriste is wat ‘n bedreiging inhou, en die situasie veilig beskou het, het ons die terroriste op die Casspir se agterste modderskerms gelaai. Dit was toe dat die opgewondenheid van die Ovambo-lede tot ons deurgedring het. Hulle het baie trots vertel dat hulle ‘n positiewe bydrae tot die geveg gelewer het deur met geweergranate by die luike agter my en Sakkie se rûe uit te skiet – dit was die ontploffings wat ons gedink het mortiere van SWAPO-vegters was. Ons het dadelik besef dat die luike, hoe goed bedoel om te wees, in ‘n kontaksituasie ‘n wesentlike risiko inhou vir die bestuurder en die masjiengeweeroperateur. Terug by die basis het ons kajuitraad gehou en saamgestem dat die luike moet TOE! So aanbeveling is na hoofkantoor gestuur en die daaropvolgende Casspir’s wat ons gekry het, het nie die luike gehad nie.

‘n Luik vir die Bestuurder Met die luike toe agter die bestuurder en die masjiengeweeroperateur, was daar minder gate vir die passasiers van die Casspir’s om uit die voertuig te kom – almal moes agter uit! Die volgende verandering wat aangebring is, was ‘n luik met ‘n deksel wat bokant die bestuurder se sitplek aangebring is. Van die lede wat ek kan onthou in wie se Casspir’s ek luike ingebou het, was luitenante Andre Erwee, Sakkie du Plessis, Eugene de Kock en sersant Piet Stassen. Die Casspir’s het later met soortgelyke luike van die fabriek af aangekom.

‘n Onbeskermde Oordraratkas Gee Probleme ‘n Volgende probleem wat in die veld, veral in Wes-Ovambo met sy kort Mopani’s, ervaar is, was dat die boomtakke die plastiese lugpype wat die ratte op die oordraratkas verander het, afgeruk het omdat die pype oop was. Dit het die saamgeperste lug laat ontsnap en het veroorsaak dat alle komponente wat met hoë lugdruk gewerk het nie funksioneel was nie - maar die ergste was dat dit die voertuig se remme laat vasslaan het wat die voertuig en sy bemanning in ‘n baie kwesbare situasie in die bos geplaas het. Meestal kon die pypies net weer teruggedruk word waar hulle 38


uitgetrek het, en was die Casspir weer mobiel. Enkele gevalle het egter wel gebeur dat ‘n stuk van die pyp afgeskeur het wat die probleem in moeilikheid verander het. Die oordraratkas het ook slegs ‘n “v”-vormige plaat so groot soos die onderkant van die ratkas gehad vir beskerming teen stompe en landmynontploffings. Ek het van Hippo- en Buffelrompe wat in landmynontploffings beskadig was, plate uitgesny en ‘n omhulsel aanmekaar gesweis wat die hele oordraratkas toegemaak het. Dit het voorkom dat boomtakke met die pype in aanraking kon kom en was die afruk van die lugpype na die oordraratkas uitsorteer. Die beskermingsomhulsel het egter bygedra tot ‘n groter massa van die Casspir’s – iets wat gaandeweg, saam met ander massatoevoegings, weer ‘n negatiewe effek op die trekvermoë van die Casspir’s gehad het. ‘n Ander probleem wat ervaar is, was dat die oordraratkas se plaat waaraan dit gemonteer was en met vier brackets soortgelyk aan engine mountings onder aan die Casspir se romp vasgebout was, afgebreek het wanneer in dik sand, wat geweldige hoë wringkrag vereis het, gery is. Die monteerstukke was aanvanklik ongeveer 150 millimeter van mekaar af in die middel van die oordraratkas se monteerplaat gesweis. Die probleem is oorkom deur die monteerstukke af te sny en op die hoeke van die monteerplaat vas te sweis. Nadat dit gedoen is, het die monteerstukke nie weer afgebreek nie.

‘n Uitweg om die Effek van RPG 7-Vuurpyle te Verminder Die Casspir was baie goed teen landmyne bestand en het hom op daardie gebied as van die beste in die wêreld bewys. Daar was egter nie net landmyne en geweervuur wat in die oorlog gebruik was nie. Enige insittende in ‘n voertuig se groot vrees was ‘n aanval met ‘n RPG 7-vuurpyl. Met die koms van die Casspir was dit reeds ‘n bekende wapen wat deur die terroriste gebruik was. Menige polisieman en soldaat wat in die grensoorlog was, sal kan getuig hoe insittendes lyk wat in ‘n voertuig was wat deur ‘n RPG 7-vuurpyl getref is. Die wat gelukkig genoeg was om lewend uit ‘n voertuig te kom wat deur ‘n RPG 7-vuurpyl getref is, het dikwels lelike, en in baie gevalle, permanente letsels oorgehou. Die risiko van ‘n RPG 7-vuurpyl aanval in ag genome, was daar nog ‘n behoefte geïdentifiseer om ‘n moontlike aanval met ‘n RPG 7 se beserings te ontkom of te verminder. En dit was om die Casspir se dakplate uit te sny sodat daar voldoende ruimte vir passasiers was om by die dak uit te spring as daar met ‘n RPG 7 op die voertuig aangelê word. Daar is ook geredeneer dat ‘n oop dak meer ruimte laat vir hitte-ontsnapping wat deur ‘n RPG7-vuurpylontploffing veroorsaak word wat die kanse vir insittendes vergroot om nie verkool te word of ernstige brandwonde op te doen nie. Dit was weereens luitenante Andre Erwee en Sakkie du Plessis wat met die plan vorendag gekom het dat ontvlugtingsroetes deur die dak gouer en makliker sal wees in geval van ‘n RPG 7-aanval as om almal agter by die deure te probeer uitkom. Ek het met ‘n asetileen gasvlam die operasie van buite en binne die Casspir’s aangepak. Met die eerste Casspir se dak se oopsny het ek myself amper aan die brand gesteek toe ek van binne die Casspir gebukkend reg bokant my kop gewerk het om so na as moontlik aan die reghoekige ysters wat die raam en ribbes van die Casspir gevorm het, te sny. Die rooiwarm vonke en klonte gesmelte yster het met die dak se uitsny my oorpak aan die brand gesteek toe dit agter by my kraag ingeval en by my belt gaan lê het. Toe ek agter gekom het dat daar erge hitte ook agter my rug was, het ek vooroor geleun wat veroorsaak het dat die rooiwarm ysterklonte teen my rug gekom het. Ek het die oorpak van my rug af weggepluk wat ‘n groot klont binne my oorpak se pyp laat afgly het. Die klont het eindelik in my stewel langs my enkel gaan lê. Teen daardie tyd was ek al uit die Casspir uit en het op een been rondgespring en het daarin geslaag om die stewel uit te pluk sonder om die veters 39


los te maak. Ek het ‘n paar waterblase teen my rug, op my kuit en ‘n knewel van ‘n blaas agter my enkel, bokant my hak gehad. Dit was ‘n duur en seer les. Ek het daarna ‘n Vambo met ‘n tuinslang agter my in die Casspir laat staan om my nat te spuit as my klere weer aan die brand sou slaan, wat toe wel gebeur het. Toe ek vir water skree, het die Vambo gestol. Ek moes toe self die water oor my spuit om my vlammende oorpak geblus te kry. Hy het toe mooi verstaan wat hy moes doen as my klere vlamvat. Met ‘n volgende Casspir was hy so slaggereed dat hy my amper versuip het soos hy die water op my spuit toe my oorpak weer vlamvat. Natuurlik was my stukkend gebrande oorpak en waterblase nie die enigste skade nie. Die matte waarmee die Casspir’s binne uitgevoer was, het erge brandletsels opgedoen ten spyte daarvan dat hulle vooraf natgespuit is. Die ergste was toe Sakkie du Plessis, tevrede met sy oopgesnyde dak, sy Casspir start en daar ‘n aanhoudende sisgeluid uit die buik van die Casspir kom. Die lugdruk wou ook nie opbou sodat hy kon ry nie. Wat ons op daardie stadium nie geweet het nie was dat die Casspir se lugdrukpype – almal of seker die meeste - was plastiek wat onder in die “V”-vormige buik gelê het. Dit was die pype wat die saamgeperste lug na die remme op die agterwiele, die deure agter aan die Casspir en die oordraratkas gelei het. Toe ons die plate opgelig het om die pype te ontbloot, het ons eers besef watter skade ons veroorsaak het. Die rooiwarm ysterklontjies wat deur die gassnyvlam veroorsaak is, het oral gaatjies in van die pype gebrand. Ons moes ‘n stel pype van die RSA aanvra omdat die meeste so erg beskadig was dat dit ‘n tender vir moeilikheid so wees om hulle te probeer herstel en so veld toe te gaan om oorlog te maak. Met ‘n besoek van my aan hoofkantoor, Pretoria, kort nadat die eerste Casspir’s se dakke oopgesny is, het ek brigadier Piet Kruger, ‘n meganiese ingenieur, werksaam by die kwartiermeester en betrokke met die ontwerp en ontwikkeling van die Casspir, in die kantoor van generaal Bert Wandrag raakgeloop. Hy het my meegedeel dat hy verneem het dat die Casspir’s se dakke uitgesny word. Ek het dit bevestig en aan hom vertel wat die redes daarvoor was. Hy was baie verontwaardig en het gesê die polisie spandeer duisende rande aan navorsing, ontwerp en die bou van die Casspir en ons gaan sny sommer die dakke oop. Ek het die redes gemotiveer en gevra dat daar meer kontak tussen die ontwerpers, die vervaardigers en die operasionele personeel van Koevoet moet plaasvind. My motivering daarvoor was dat die voertuig uiteindelik vir die gebruiker gerieflik, veilig en aanvaarbaar moet wees wat nie noodwendig gaan ooreenstem met die idees van die ontwerpers nie. Wie almal ‘n aandeel gehad het in die oortuiging dat die bouers en ontwerpers ook die operasionele gebied waar die Casspir’s gebruik word, besoek, sal ek nie weet nie. Brigadier Piet Kruger het ek ‘n paar kere in Onaimwandi-basis gesien waar ons nog onderonsies oor veranderinge op die Casspir gehad het. Wat egter wel gebeur het, was dat seker al die veranderings wat ons in die basis aangebring het, met die koms van nuwe Casspir’s reeds gedoen was soos ons dit verander het.

Die Uitwerking van Mopani-stompe op die Casspir se vooras word gefnuik Nog ‘n probleem wat sy kop veral in die weste van Ovambo in die Okandjeragebied uitgesteek het, was dat die kort stompe van die Mopani-bome die cover (omhulsel) van die vooras se differential teen die crownwheel vasgedruk het. Die cover was van ‘n ligte geperste plaat gemaak en nie bestand teen die eise wat bundu bashing gestel het nie. Weereens is van die sykante van gesneuwelde Hippo’s en Buffels uitgesny en ‘n gepantserde plaat in die vorm van ‘n koepel voor die 40


fabriek se cover gemaak. Dit het ‘n paar kilogram by die vooras van die Casspir gevoeg maar het voorkom dat hulle in die veld in ‘n opvolg onklaar geraak het. In die plek van die geperste plaat het die nuwer modelle Casspir’s ‘n dik gegote staal cover op die voorste dif gekry nadat die probleem onder die aandag van die vervaardigers gebring is.

‘n Treinspoor vir die Voorste Buffer was sterker maar die Enjin leef Swaarder Die eerste Casspir’s het voor buffers gehad wat mens laat dink het aan die ou karre van die laat 1940’s begin 1950’s. Dit was stewig. Altans so is aanvanklik gedink. Met ‘n opvolg operasie in die ooste naby Eenhana is agter gekom dat die voorste buffers nie bundu bashing bestand was nie. Die bome het die buffers agtertoe gebuig tot teen of amper teen die voorwiele. Dit is ook toegeskryf daaraan dat die gedeelte van die buffer wat aan die bakwerk van die Casspir vasgebout is, ‘n relatief klein gedeelte in die middel van die buffer beslaan het. Ek was besig om ‘n treinspoorstaaf wat die eienaar van die Casspir iewers ge-score het, voor aan die Casspir te monteer, toe brigadier Piet Kruger, die ingenieur van Pretoria, saam met generaal Wandrag en ander senior offisiere besoek aan die Onaimwandi–basis gebring het. Ek was besig om ‘n 25 millimeter soliede ronde yster as stut van die een punt van die spoorstaaf skuins bokant die voorwiel teen die romp vas te sweis, toe brigadier Kruger my konfronteer oor wat ek besig was om aan te vang. Ek het hom verduidelik dat die buffers waarmee die Casspir’s toegerus is, nie sterk genoeg is om bundu bashing mee te doen nie. Brigadier Kruger het ‘n klein sakrekenaar te voorskyn gebring, ‘n klompie klawers daarop gedruk en toe vir my gevra of ek weet hoeveel kilowatt nodig is om die massa van die spoorstaaf en die stutte wat só ver voor die vooras gemonteer is, in beweging te bring. Daardie antwoord kon ek hom nie gee nie want ek het nie geweet nie. Wat vir my saak gemaak het was dat die Casspir mens nie in die steek moes laat as jy oorlog moes maak nie. Daarom was my antwoord dat die polisie vir ons genoeg van die regte ysters moes gee sodat ons self ‘n voertuig kan bou wat in die bos sal hou en dan moet hulle vir ons ‘n enjin gee wat sterk genoeg is om daardie voertuig aan te dryf. Brigadier Kruger het my antwoord glad nie amusant of wys geag nie en het hom reggemaak om my seker te roskam toe brigadier Dreyer by ons aangesluit het en hom genooi het om by die kantien ‘n dop te gaan steek. En met ‘n “los die man dat hy sy werk doen” het brigadier Dreyer hom daar weg en het ek die massa op die vooras vergroot met nog stutte. Die treinspoorstaaf het al sy bundu bashings oorleef en daardie Casspir se jonger boeties het later met sterker buffers van die RSA af by hom aangesluit.

‘n Casspir toegerus met ‘n 20 millimeter Lugafweerkanon Op ‘n dag het Frans Conradie vir my gevra of ek hom sal help om ‘n 20 millimeter lugafweerkanon op sy Casspir te monteer. Daarvoor moes die bestaande gemonteerde LMG’s (Light Machine Gun) verwyder word. Hy het die kanon ook iewers ge-score. 7 Ons het soveel as moontlik van die bestaande LMG-monteerstukke behou en ysters afgesny en ander aangesweis om die 20mil te maak pas en maak werk. Die loop was egter baie lank en het onprakties op die Casspir gelyk. Frans het daarvoor ook ‘n plan gehad. Met die hulp van die gun tiffies is die loop stuk-stuk korter

Dis waar. Lees gerus genl. Denis Earp se weergawe in die boek: Koevoet: The men speak – van pp 509 – 512. Ek het vir die storie in die boek, die onderhoud met hom gevoer. Hy het ‘n vonkel in die oog gehad en gesê: “I know you policemen acquired some of my guns.” Omdat hy geweet het hoe ons harte geklop het, het hy ons laat begaan – HBH. 7

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gemaak en die gaatjie op die loop vir die recoil-aksie telkemale groter geboor totdat, na vele toetsskote, die 20 mil. na Frans se smaak reg gewerk het.

Die Eerste Casspir met ‘n Swaarloop Browning Na Frans Conradie het Chris de Witt met ‘n versoek gekom om ‘n swaarloop Browning op die Casspir te monteer. Anders as in Frans se geval, waar hy agter die lugafweerkanon stelling in geneem het, het Chris vereis dat die Browning steeds vanuit die sitplek van die masjiengeweeroperateur bedryf moes word. Weereens is al die beskermingsplate van die masjiengewere soos die Casspir van die fabriek af gekom het, afgesny. ‘n Heel nuwe monteerstuk is met sy eie beskermingsplate ontwerp en gebou. Die masjiengewere van die Casspir het die neiging gehad om met lang sarsies in die lug op te klim en al hoër te skiet. Dit het sterk aan die handvatsels waarmee die gewere vanuit die sitplek beheer is, getrek. In die geval van Chris se swaarloop Browning het ek die skarniere wat die tilt-aksie moontlik gemaak het, hoër as die loop gemonteer. Dit het tot gevolg gehad dat die geweer, wanneer sarsies geskiet is, afwaarts geneig het. Dit het die handvatsels waarmee die operateur die geweer vanuit die sitplek beheer het, agtertoe gedruk. Met jou skouers teen die rugleuning van die sitplek, kon beter beheer oor die geweer uitgeoefen word met ‘n akkurater skietresultaat.

Die Tru-spieëls word Beskerm Die eerste Casspir’s se truspieëls het net ‘n ronde staaf gehad waaraan dit met ‘n klamp vasgebout is. Die eerste tak wat in ‘n opvolg ‘n spieël gehak het, het dit van posisie gedruk en was vir die bestuurder van die Casspir vir verdere gebruik nutteloos totdat dit weer reggestel is. Party spieëls is sommer al met die eerste bundu bashing afgeruk. ‘n Raam net groter as die grootte van die spieëls is van plat- of hoekyster en plaat of expanded metal gemaak en aan die bakwerk vasgesweis wat die spieëls teen die geweld van die takke tydens bundu bashing beskerm het.

Die Casspir’s kry ‘n Tweede Spaarwiel Een van die frustrerendste situasies wat ‘n gevegspan tydens ‘n opvolg op terroriste spore gehad het, was ‘n pap wiel met ‘n Casspir. Nie altyd kon ‘n Casspir met ‘n papwiel agter gelaat word en met die opvolg deur die ander Casspir’s van die span voortgesit word nie. Die eerste Casspir’s het elk net een spaarwiel gehad wat ongeveer in die middel tussen die voor- en agterwiele so skuins aan die romp gehang het. As jy een pap wiel gekry het kon jy die spaarwiel opsit en aangaan. As jy ‘n tweede papwiel gekry het, moes die pap wiel in die veld herstel word. Luitenant Sakkie du Plessis was die eerste persoon wat my versoek het om aan die ander kant van die Casspir nog ‘n monteerstuk met katrol vir ‘n tweede spaarwiel vas te sweis. Later het die Casspir’s met twee spaarwiele vertikaal bokant die agter wiele gemonteer, van die fabriek af gekom.8

Braairoosters van Blesboksykante Toe die eerste Blesbokke – dit is die vragvoertuig gebou met ‘n plat bak agter die bestuurder en masjiengeweeroperateur op die Casspir se onderlyf – hul opwagting op die grens gemaak het, het hulle sykante en ‘n klap agter gehad wat van ligte hoekyster en expanded metal gemaak was. Omdat die bakke wyer as die romp van die kajuit van die bemanning was, was die bakke meer kwesbaar vir skade aangerig deur boomtakke tydens bundu bashing. As ‘n fris boomtak die bak se Ek was verbonde aan die sekretariaat van die staatsveiligheidsraad en vir ‘n ruk verbonde aan die situasiekamer van die staatspresident. Ons het vir die staatspresident ‘n video oor die stedelike onrus gewys. Hy het gelas dat noodwiele agter op die SAP Casspir’s verwyder moes word omdat die noodwiele die polisievoertuie ‘n onheilspellende voorkoms gegee het – HBH. 8

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hoek agter die bemanningskajuit getref het, is die raamwerk gebuig en soms so erg gefrommel dat die raam nie herstel kon word nie. Om die skade deur boomtakke tydens bundu bashing te voorkom of te beperk, het ek 50 millimeter deursnee waterpyp of ander swaar yster van die voorste hoeke van die bak af skuins na vorentoe teen die kajuit van die bemanning bokant die deure vasgesweis. Op van die Blesbok-voertuie is 50 mm waterpyp aan die bokant oor die volle lengte van die bak vasgesweis. Die skuins ysters van die bakke se hoeke na die voorkant bokant die deure het tot gevolg gehad dat boomtakke na buite uitgestoot is en teen die bak se buitekant gelei word sonder om skade aan die bak aan te rig. Van die raamwerke met die expanded metal het ons afgesny en vir braairoosters gebruik. In die plek daarvan het ons gesneuwelde Hippo’s of Casspir’s se bruikbare rompe gebruik om sterk sykante te maak. Dit het ons ook by hoofkantoor in die moeilikheid laat beland: Eerstens omdat ons duur gemaakte Blesbokrame vir braairoosters gebruik het; tweedens omdat ons herstelbare gesneuwelde voertuie se materiaal gebruik het om ongemagtigde werk te verrig; en derdens omdat ons die massa van die voertuig vergroot het wat dit vir die enjin moeiliker gemaak het om die ekstra massa te trek. Dit het nietemin die gewenste uitwerking gehad. Die jonger boeties van die Blesbokke het met sterker, soliede, toe sy- en agterkante hul opwagting op Oshakati gemaak. Ons geleentheid vir nog braairoosters was daarmee iets van die verlede maar die nuwe Blesbok-voertuie was baie beter vir hul taak toegerus.

Herstel tydperk van Enjin-oorverhitting word verkort ‘n Probleem wat menige groepleier nagmerries gegee het was oorverhitting van die Casspir’s as gevolg van roosters wat in die na-somer deur grassade toegepak is. Die Casspir’s was toegerus met ‘n sif wat na bo uitgeskuif het. Die grassade is uit die verkoeler gehou maar die rooster het so dig toegepak dat lugvloei heeltemal beperk was en onvoldoende was om die enjin op werktemperatuur te hou. Die Casspir se enjinrooster was gemaak van ‘n aantal hoekysters wat horisontaal gelê het met die hoeke na bo. Die grassade het aan die enjin-kant van die hoekysters teen die sif saamgepak en kon met die beperkte spasie tussen die verkoeler en die rooster nie maklik bereik word om skoon te maak nie. Selfs as die sif na bo uitgetrek is, moes die grassade wat as’t ware teen die sif gekompakteer het, uitgekrap word. Frans Conradie het na my gekom met ‘n moontlike oplossing. Dit was om die rooster los te sny van die bakwerk van die Casspir sodat daar makliker van die agterkant tot die rooster toegang verkry kon word om dit skoon te maak. Ons het egter besef dat die rooster deel vorm van die struktuur van die Casspir en die twee sykante op die regte afstand van mekaar hou. Om die rooster uit te sny, moes ons iets in sy plek inbou om die Casspir steeds sterk genoeg te hou om die kragte wat op in hom ingewerk het, te weerstaan soos die rooster gedoen het. Na oorweging van die voor- en nadele van so stap, het ons besluit om met die projek voort te gaan. Frans het onderneem om die gedrag van die Casspir deurentyd te moniteer en as dit sou blyk dat die aanpassing nie werk nie, of die Casspir onveilig sou maak, ons die rooster weer op sy oorspronklike plek sou in sweis. Ons het eers twee vertikale snitte aan die bokant van die rooster gemaak. Daarna het ons ‘n stuk staal tussen die rooster en die verkoeler horisontaal in gesweis om die werk van die rooster as spasieerder van die sykante van die Casspir, oor te neem. Die volgende stap was om twee snitte aan die een kant van die rooster te sny waar die skarniere daarna vasgesweis is. Met die skarniere in plek gesweis, het ons aan die ander kant van die rooster twee vertikale snitte gemaak waar die knippe wat die rooster toegehou het, vasgesweis is. Met die knippe in plek, het ons die res van die rooster losgesny van die bakwerk af. Die gevolg was ‘n rooster wat 43


soos ‘n deur oop geswaai kon word om van die agterkant skoongemaak te word. Frans het later aan my gerapporteer dat die patent uitstekend werk en dat hy sy ander Casspir’s ook so gaan maak. Ek het net die een Casspir van Frans so verander. Hoeveel ander so verander is, weet ek nie. Van die nuwer modelle het later so van die fabriek af by ons aangekom.

Evaluasie van ‘n nuwe Model Casspir in Pretoria Tydens een van my besoeke aan Pretoria het generaal Bert Wandrag van die teeninsurgensieeenheid te hoofkantoor, my versoek om ‘n nuwe prototipe Casspir wat by die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie-kollege gehou was, te evalueer en oor sy geskiktheid vir operasionele doeleindes verslag te doen. Daar was twee items wat besondere probleme in die operasionele gebied sou veroorsaak wat ek spesifiek uitgewys het. Die eerste was die beskermingsrame vir die twee tru-spieëls. Hulle het verby die wydte van die wiele gegaan om dit vir die bestuurders van die Casspir’s moontlik te maak om verby die twee spaarwiele wat bokant die agter wiele vertikaal teen die romp van die Casspir vasgebout was, agter die Casspir’s te kon sien. Dit het die risiko geloop om met die eerste bundu bashing òf agtertoe gebuig òf afgeruk te word. Derhalwe is aanbeveel dat die beskermingsrame vir die tru-spieëls nie verby die buitekante van die voorwiele moet steek nie. ‘n Beginsel wat vir bundu bashing gegeld het, was dat as die spasie tussen twee bome ruim genoeg was om die wydte van die voorwiele deur te laat, daardeur gery is. Enigiets aan die Casspir wat wyer as die buitekant van die wiele was, het die risiko geloop om te buig of te breek. Die tweede item was ‘n skuifdak wat in ronde tenk, wat agter op die Casspir gemonteer was, opgerol het. Dit was amper soortgelyk aan ‘n oprol garagedeur. Waar ‘n garagedeur vertikaal oop- en toegeskuif het, het die Casspir se dak horisontaal na vorentoe geskuif. Van die kant af besigtig, het dit gelyk of daar ‘n ronde geyser op die agterkant van die Casspir vasgebout is. Daar is uitgewys dat selfs klein boomtakkies wat op die dak val wanneer dit uitgeskuif was – met ander woorde as die dak toe is - kan veroorsaak dat die dak, wanneer dit oopgeskuif word, in die oprol proses kan vashaak en verdere werking kan vertraag of onmoontlik maak. Daar het nooit Casspir’s gedurende my dienstydperk by Koevoet aangekom wat soos daardie prototipe gelyk het nie.

Ander Casspir-verhale van ‘n meganiese aard Ons is hier om terries te skiet, nie om beeskampe te maak nie Toe ek in Augustus 1979 by Koevoet begin het, het ons twee huise op die een kant van Oshakati naby die poskantoor gehad. Die een is gebruik vir brigadier Dreyer as ‘n kantoor met administratiewe personeel en die huis langsaan is gebruik deur die ondersoekpersoneel waarvan kaptein Coetzee Els die hoof was. Ek en kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe se primêre take was ondervraging van terroriste en verdagtes. Ons het dus meestal op Ondangwa-lughawe gewerk waar die kwartiere van 5 Verkenningskommando, saam met wie ons gewerk het, gesetel was. Dit het egter by tye gebeur dat, tydens ondervraging inligting tot ons beskikking gekom het wat dadelik, indien nie gouer nie, opgevolg moes word. Behalwe ondervraging en ander veiligheidswerk, het ek geen bosoorlog ondervinding of enige teeninsurgensie-opleiding gehad nie. Ek was dus maar ‘n groentjie toe ek daar aangekom het. As ons op ondersoek uitgegaan het, was ons gewoonlik tot die tande toe 44


gewapen met pistool, twee magasyne vol ammunisie en ‘n geweer met ‘n paar gelaaide magasyne. Daar was nie altyd tyd om aan padkos of selfs water te dink nie. Behalwe my wapens het ek nie toegerus gevoel as ek nie ook gereedskap, waaronder ‘n goeie tang, ‘n side cutter, ‘n shifting spanner, ‘n plat- en ‘n stêrskroewedraaier by my gehad het nie. Om die voorbereiding op moontlike probleme af te rond het ek, as dit kan, altyd ‘n stuk binddraad ook by my gehad – net vir ingeval ! So het dit een oggend, kort nadat ek daar by Koevoet begin werk het, gebeur dat ons met spoed na die weste van Ovambo moes vertrek om inligting oor terroriste-teenwoordigheid op te volg. Daar was darem tyd om huis toe te gaan om slaapgoed te gaan haal want ons sou oorslaap. Ek het die geleentheid benut om so paar stukke gereedskap soos hierbo genoem, plus ‘n paar standaard grootte spanners (10, 12, 13, 17 en 19mm) wat meer algemeen gebruik word, ook in te pak. En natuurlik, binddraad, ‘n stuk elektriese draad en ‘n paar ringe dik bloudraad. Die bloudraad kon ek nie tussen my slaapgoed versteek nie en het dit sommer so los saam gedra. By die kantoor aangekom waarvandaan ons met ‘n Hippo en ‘n Ribbok vertrek het, het ek my bagasie agter op die Ribbok gelaai. Toe brigadier Dreyer (toe nog ‘n kolonel) wat saam met ons gegaan het, die bloudraad sien, was sy kommentaar: “Ou Diekie, ons is hier om terries te skiet, nie om beeskampe te maak nie”. Ek het net gesê: “Dis reg so Kolonel” maar nie die bloudraad afgehaal nie. Na ons operasie, op pad terug Oshakati toe, het die Ribbok se regter senterbout op die agterste veer afgebreek. Ons was nog in die Okandjera-gebied – so goeie 50 kilometer van Oshakati af. Die as het agtertoe geskuif en die veerblaaie was los. Die Ribbok het so skeef soos ‘n krap geloop. Die prop shaft was op die punt om uit die oordraratkas te trek. Ons kon nie verder so ry nie. Dis toe dat ek my “beeskamp draad” te voorskyn gebring het. Met die hulp van die ander manne het ons die as weer vorentoe op sy plek getrek gekry en met die bloudraad in posisie gehou sodat ons stadig, sonder verdere probleme, op Oshakati kon kom. Daarna het Brigadier Dreyer dikwels, as hy saam met ons uit gegaan het, gevra of ek my toolbox en draad ingepak het.

Ons eie Koevoet-motorhawe Die eerste paar jaar van Koevoet se bestaan was ons vir werktuigkundige dienste afhanklik van die polisiemotorhawe op Ondangwa wat primêr daargestel was vir diens van en herstelwerk aan die teeninsurgensie-eenheid van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie se voertuie. Die vloot van die SuidAfrikaanse Polisie het daardie stadium hoofsaaklik uit Hippo’s bestaan. Die werktuigkundiges van die polisie het dan ook, soos ander polisiemanne, vir drie maande grensdiens verrig. Die bevelvoerder van die polisiemotorhawe het egter gewoonlik vir ses maande of langer in die operasionele gebied diens verrig. Ons, as Koevoetlede, moes dus saam met die TIN-eenhede in ‘n ry inval om by die motorhawe geholpe te raak. Dit het dikwels tot groot frustrasie van Koevoetlede gelei. Dikwels moes daar vir ure gewag word om ‘n kleinigheidjie reg gestel te kry. Hierdie situasie het daartoe gelei dat kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe, wat self ook tegnies aangelê was, en ek self ingespring het om herstelwerk aan en diens van Hippo’s en die ander voertuie wat ons gebruik het, te doen. Ons het goeie verhoudinge met die bevelvoerders van die motorhawe aangeknoop wat ons van die nodige 45


onderdele en smeermiddels voorsien het. Dit het Koevoet se mense in staat gestel om gouer weer mobiel te raak en andersyds het dit die werklas van die werktuigkundiges van die polisiemotorhawe verlig. Groot werke is egter steeds deur die motorhawepersoneel onderneem. Met die koms van die Casspir’s is ons aanvanklik ingelig dat slegs werktuigkundiges wat ‘n kursus deurloop het om aan die Casspir’s te werk, daardie eer en voorreg gehad het om ‘n Casspir te diens of te herstel. By daardie reëls is getrou gehou totdat die behoefte ontstaan het om veranderinge en toevoegings tot die Casspir’s aan te bring. Die bevelvoerder en werktuigkundiges van die polisiemotorhawe was geensins te vinde vir die soort veranderinge en toevoegings wat die Koevoetlede wou laat doen nie. Vir daardie behoefte het ons asetileengas en suurstof met die nodige toerusting sowel as ‘n elektriese sweismasjien benodig. Vir ons eerste projekte aan die Casspir’s het ons dus oor naweke daardie toerusting by die polisiemotorhawe geleen onder die voorwendsel dat dit gebruik gaan word by die basis bouery te Onaimwandi en Okave. So het ons dan die eerste veranderinge en toevoegings in Onaimwandibasis gedoen. Na die naweek het ons weer die toerusting aan die polisiemotorhawe terug besorg en sommer weer ‘n bespreking vir die volgende naweek gedoen. Die behoefte aan veranderinge aan die Casspir’s was later groter as om net oor naweke gedoen te word. Ons het gevolglik ook om hulp gaan aanklop by die Departement van Werke van die Ovambo Regeringsdiens wat ons ‘n paar keer uitgehelp het. Al hierdie mense het egter self hul toerusting deurlopend nodig gehad. Met ‘n besoek aan Tsumeb het ek toe ‘n asetileengassweisstel aangeskaf. Die gasbottels het ons toe by die polisiemotorhawe gekry en is ‘n enjinaangedrewe elektriese sweismasjien ook deur die polisiemotorhawe aan ons verskaf omdat ons “die werklading vir hulle soveel ligter gemaak het.” Wat dus aanvanklik bedoel was om as toetswerk op die Casspir’s gedoen te word, het omtrent ‘n voltydse werk geraak. Dit het dikwels gebeur dat ek agt tot tien ure per dag aan Casspir’s gewerk het. Met die sukses wat ons met die veranderinge aan en toevoegings tot die Casspir’s behaal het, het die behoefte ontstaan om ‘n geriefliker plek onder dak te kry waar aan die Casspir’s gewerk kon word. Ons het in Onaimwandi-basis onder die bome gewerk. Ruimte was egter beperk. As jy in die oggend in die skaduwee begin werk het, was jou kanse 80% dat jy die middag in die son gewerk het. Met die hoë temperature wat daar ondervind was en boonop meestal met sweiswerk besig, het die warmte van die hel party dae na ‘n uitkoms gelyk. Kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe het daar weer met ‘n voorstel vir ‘n oplossing gekom. Hy het ‘n kaptein Renier du Rand van Pietermaritzburg geken wat prakties en baie handig was. Kaptein Renier was aan die veiligheidstak verbonde. Kaptein Sakkie van der Merwe en ek het eintlik ander werk gehad om te doen. Die werk aan die Casspir’s het die meeste van my tyd in beslag geneem en kon ek nie ondersteuning aan kaptein Sakkie gee wat hy moes kry nie. Daarom het kaptein Sakkie vir brigadier Dreyer oortuig dat hulp noodsaaklik was om ekstra werk aan die bou van ‘n eie motorhawe te doen en dat kaptein Renier du Rand die aangewese man daarvoor is. So het brigadier Dreyer weer op sy beurt kaptein Renier du Rand se bevelvoerder in Pietermaritzburg oortuig dat sy dienste onontbeerlik is. So het dit gebeur dat kaptein Renier du Rand vir ons ‘n groot afdak in Okave-basis opgerig het waar ons na voltooiing, aan die Casspir’s gewerk het. Ons was gelukkig om staal kappe van ‘n gebou wat iewers in Ovambo afgebreek is, by die Ovambo regeringsdiens te kry. Hoewel dit net ‘n dak oor ons koppe was, kon ons heeldag in skaduwee werk en kon ons selfs as dit gereën het, aan ons voertuie werk. Na die werk aan die 46


motorhawe voltooi is, het kaptein Du Rand ook die store vir die onderskeie spanne van Koevoet tussen Onaimwandi- en Okave-basisse gebou. Dit was almal strukture van teerpale en sinkdakke en –mure. Ek het nie ‘n poging aangewend om die motorterme in Afrikaans te vertaal nie. Side cutter, engine mountings en dif – niemand behalwe taalpuriteine sal weet wat dit in Afrikaans beteken nie – HBH.

World War ll: Military Medal for a Dundee Police Sergeant and a War Hero Captain with an unmarked grave No. 31758 and No. SAP196295 Sergeant NF Vassard, MM, and No. 7704 Captain WJV Visser, MC, of the SA Police and SA Police Battalion during World War II: Captain Andre Van Ellinckhuyzen (SAPS) My journey with Sergeant Norman France Vassard, MM, and Captain Willem Jacobus Venter Visser, MC, starts off on 30 November 1956, at the Railway station in Dundee in Northern Natal, when at 10 am the young 17 year old Constable Andreas Roelof van Ellinckhuyzen (retired as a Brigadier and resident in Vryheid) arrived per train from the “Depot” in Pretoria to start his own 33 years long “Shift” with the South African Police. On many an occasion and with a real passion to remember, and a longing for the good old days, my father used to tell me, and he still does, about that day when he met Sergeant Norman France Vassard. He remembers how he eagerly opened the passenger door of the beige coloured Austin “pick up” to jump in, only to be told firmly by the Sergeant to jump on the back with his baggage as “Blougatte”9 do not get to ride in the front seat of a police van. Sergeant Norman France Vassard was born on 20 September 1914 in Pietermaritzburg, Natal. He was the son of a Frenchman Hippolyte Alfred Gaston Vassard and Catharine Elizabeth Vassard nee Corbitt. Hippolyte Alfred Gaston Vassard was born in France on 1 November 1874 and passed away in Dundee, Natal on 29 March 1956 where he was also buried. Hippolyte A.G. Vassard was married three times. His first marriage was to Gertruida Wilhelmina Vassard nee Pentz and they got married in the Dutch Reformed Church in Cape Town on 15 January 1903. Gertruida Wilhelmina Vassard died on 7 January 1910 in Karachi in India. Three children were born from that marriage namely: • Anna Louise Catherine Chisnall nee Vassard born 1904, • Emile Pierre Benjamin Gaston Vassard born 1906, and • Henri Alfred Gaston Vassard born 1907. •

On 6 August 1912 Hypolite A.G. Vassard marries Catharine Elizabeth Vassard nee Corbitt in the Dutch Reformed Church in Vryheid. Catherine Elizabeth Vassard passed away on 12 June 1948 in the Dominican Hospital at Nongoma in Zululand.

Three children were born from this marriage namely: “Blougatte” – When trainee constables attend police college, they wear blue uniforms, and are called ‘blue arses’ or ‘blougatte’. The nickname is also used to refer to lower, uniformed police ranks in uniform as a slightly derogatory term, as opposed to plain clothes police women and men - Captain Andre Van Ellinckhuyzen (SAPS). 9

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• • •

Norman France Vassard born 1914, Edmond Paul Vassard born 1917, and Louis Leon Antoine Vassard born 1919.

Hypolite Vassard was married for a third time to Henrietta Vassard ex Williams nee Watson, but later divorced from her and no children were born from that wedlock. Norman France Vassard joined the South African Police on 22 November 1938 and he served in the police until 10 March 1952. He resigned from the police for about three years and re-enlisted on 5 April 1955 and he served until the day of his death on 12 June 1967. His Police Service Record says the following about him: No: 31758 Vassard Norman France (M.M.); Born 20 September 1914 in Pietermaritzburg; Religion: Wesleyan Church; He was 5 Foot 8 and a half in length and weighed 164 pounds, he had brown eyes, black hair and he had a birth mark on his back; His Standard of education was Standard 8 (Grade 10) and he could speak Afrikaans, English and could read and write the Zulu language; He was married in Dundee to Aletta Johanna de Jager, born in Glencoe, on 21 December 1940; Children: Irma born 20 November 1945 and Loraine born 10 August 1950; Courses attended: Motor bike course October 1943 and Four-Wheel Drive Course December 1948; Promoted to the rank of Sergeant on 1 October 1966; Medals awarded: 1939-45 Star; Military Medal (MM); Africa Star; The War Medal 1939-1945, Africa Service Medal and Faithfull Service Medal. The War medals of Sergeant Vassard are displayed in the Museum of the M.O.T.H. Shellhole in Dundee. On 21 December 1940, Sergeant Vassard married the beautiful Aletta Johanna de Jager, born on 19 January 1922, in the Dutch Reformed Church in Dundee. At the time of their marriage, Sergeant Vassard’s address was given as KwaMbonambi in Zululand. In Later years the Vassards moved to Dundee where Vassard was promoted to the rank of Sergeant in 1966. Two children were born from their wedlock namely Irma Cilliers nee Vassard born on 20 November 1945 and Lorraine Heyns nee Vassard born 1950. Irma and Lorraine were educated at the Holy Rosery Convent in Dundee. The Vassard family lived in a beautiful little family home at 15 Grey Street in Dundee, only a walking distance from the church where they were married in 1940 and the Dundee Police Station. Aletta Johanna Vassard passed away on 18 March 1985 and she was buried alongside her husband Norman France Vassard in a double grave in the Dundee Cemetery (her gravestone was never engraved). Irma Cilliers passed away on 16 August 1996 and her sister Loraine also passed away a number of years ago. Soon after their marriage Constable Norman France Vassard joined the war effort and was deployed to North Africa with the South African Police Brigade. The book, Gallantry Awards of the South African Police 1913-1994 by Terence King describes the following incident: “On 1-2 January 1942 at Bardia, Libya, Constable Vassard was a member of Lieutenant WJV Visser’s Platoon. During the attack, tanks and infantry were held up for a considerable time by an enemy strong point, consisting of five, gun positions. The party detailed to attack were driven back twice. Lieutenant Visser went forward for the final assault, accompanied closely by Constable Vassard. Under heavy machine gun fire, they cut the fence round the enemy position, thus allowing his section to get through. As a result of this the opposition was overcome”. 48


In The London Gazette of Tuesday 3 March 1942 it is announced that King George of England had awarded the Military Medal (MM) to No. SAP196295 Private Norman France Vassard, South African Forces. King George of England also awarded Lieutenant Willem Jacobus Venter Visser with the Military Cross (MC). The book Gallantry Awards of the South African Police 1913-1994 by Terence King describes the following: “On the night of 1-2 January 1942 in Bardia, Libya, this officer showed fine leadership when, together with his platoon, he attacked an enemy strong point, which had been bypassed by tanks. This position offered stubborn resistance and when finally overcome, yielded fifteen prisoners. At a later stage, Lieutenant Visser and his men assisted Lieutenant Garde with an assault on the final enemy strong point which, for a considerable time, held up the advance. Lieutenant Visser was partly responsible for its final capitulation. He set his men a fine example of personal courage throughout.” No. 7704 Captain W.J.V. Visser was born on 29 June 1897 in Reddersburg in the Orange Free State and was married to Adina Genovifa Visser (nee Jacobs) and four children were born from their wedlock namely: • Willlem Jacobus Venter Visser, • Jacobus Petrus Venter Visser, • Jean Nordin nee Visser and • Harold Venter Visser. Captain Visser joined the South African Police on 14 May 1919 in Pretoria and was stationed at various Police Stations, that included Pretoria, Middelburg, Potchefstroom, Wolmaransstad, Krugersdorp and Heidelberg and he retired from service in 1951. Captain Visser passed away on 12 June 1974 in the Struisbulthawe Old Age Home in Springs and the family never got to erect a gravestone at his still unmarked burial site at Brakpan. Brenthurst Cemetery at Brakpan, register number 209 and grave number 658. “The Star” Johannesburg Wednesday July 17 1974” “Police war hero dies”. “Captain WJ Visser, former commandant of the South African Police at Heidelberg, Krugersdorp and Potchefstroom, has died at the age of 74. He served in both world wars and was awarded the Military Cross during World War 2. He was captured at Tobruk. In 1947 Captain Visser accompanied King George VI to Standerton during the royal visit. Captain Visser retired from the police force in 1951”. “Northern Natal Courier, Friday, 16th June, 1967” “Death of a Popular Policeman”. “One of the most popular members of the South African Police in Dundee collapsed and died in the very early hours of Monday morning. He was Sgt. Norman France Vassard, who was 53 years old. Sgt. Vassard was born in Pietermaritzburg. He joined the S.A.P. in 1938 and served in South-West Africa, Helpmekaar, Pietermaritzburg, Albert Falls, Wasbank and Dundee. He saw five years of Active Service in World War II with the Police Brigade and was awarded the Military Medal for the part he played in wiping out a German machine gun nest. In 1940, at Dundee, he married Miss A.J. de Jager, by whom, with two daughters, Irma and Loraine, he is survived. He was accorded a military funeral conducted by the Police Chaplain, Colonel J. Jansen, at the burial in the Dundee Cemetery on Wednesday.” 49


Sadly, Police Sergeant Norman France Vassard passed away, at the young age of only 53 years, at 33 Cornhill Street in Dundee on 12 June 1967 as a result of a heart attack and was laid to rest in the Dundee Cemetery. The Author was born in Dundee in the same month and year, and only sixteen days after the untimely death of Sergeant Vassard in 1967 and he was a very young seven-year-old when Captain Visser died in 1974. Can you, the reader, imagine a meeting with these two war-hero’s and spending some hours in their presence, to be told by them of their experiences during the War and in their years serving as policemen? To the families of Captain Visser and Sergeant Vassard the Author can only offer his respects and genuine appreciation for their kindness to a total stranger and for their eagerness to help. A special thank you to Marlene Swanepoel and Monic of the South African Police Service Museum for their assistance and patience. To Pieter Cilliers, the grandson of Sergeant Norman France Vassard for the photographs of his grandfather, “Dankie Piet”. Also, to Theresa Scherman, Tanya Harper and Olga Wiltshire for your eagerness to assist in the memory of your grandfather Captain WJV Visser, “Thank you”. Servamus Et Servimus. For Ever!!! - Capt. Van Ellinckhuyzen

Photo album: Capt. Visser

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Photo album: Sgt Vassard

The Vassard-family home at 15 Grey Street Dundee,

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Sgt Vassard far left middle row; Sgt Vassard with his daughter Irma.

Nog Polisie-geskiedenis | More Police History Konst. HT Gouws: Dr Rodney Warwick Foto deur: Dr Rodney Warwick, en hy skryf soos volg: “Hennie, I thought this might give you some thought; a policeman's grave in the Aberdeen cemetery; he died young possibly on duty. Anything you know about this chap?

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Rus in Vrede: Mev. Heila Killian: Springs

Beste Generaal en vriende, Dis met groot hartseer dat ek julle moet inlig dat my goeie vriend Hein Kilian10 se vrou, Heila, gister tydens 'n huisroof by haar suster in Stilbaai doodgeskiet is. Hein het my laasnag met die skoknuus gebel. Ons het nog Saterdag saam gekuier by 'n reĂźnie in Springs. Heila het Sondag na haar suster in Stilbaai gevlieg om vir oulaas by haar te kuier. Haar suster emigreer na AustraliĂŤ. Ironies. Groete, Johan Burger (17 April 2017). Sien ook: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5638863/Haunting-video-shows-two-sisters-laughing-familyBBQ-30-minutes-later-one-dead.html

10

Kol. Hein Killian was BO van die Afd. Binnelandse Stabiliteit te Springs - HBH.

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Die Beste Klubspan Ter Wêreld deur Dr. F.W. Quass (Huisgenoot)

Vroeg in die rugbyseisoen van 1959 het die Diggersspan van (Suid-) Transvaal sy bors na die “Ondervaalse” gebiede uitgestoot en ‘n uitdaging gerig tot elke span wat dit sou waag om hom aan te durf. Ons weet wat die gevolg daarvan was : die Maties het die uitdaging aanvaar en die selfaangewese “Kampioenspan van die Noorde” ‘n baie nuttige rugbyles geleer. (Sien Huisgenoot van 21 Augustus 1959.) Dit is baie interessant dat ons Noord-Transvalers aanvanklik nie van hierdie uitdaging gehoor of gelees het nie, maar die rede is waarskynlik dat die Diggersklub geweet het dat verskeie NoordTransvaalse spanne hom heel waarskynlik die loef kon afsteek, soos trouens ook die Oostelike span vroeër in die seisoen gedoen het. Maar as daar een span in Transvaal is wat sig werklik as “Kampioene van die Noorde” kan noem – en volgens my mening heel waarskynlik as die kampioen-klubspan van die wêreld kan roem – dan is dit die Pretoriase Polisieklub. Hieronder volg kortliks die rekord van die Polisiespan : 1924 Stigtingsjaar – speel derde liga (Suid-) Transvaal. 1925 Speel tweede liga (Suid-) Transvaal. 1926 Promoveer na 1ste liga (Suid-) Transvaal. 1932 – 36 Kampioene van (Suid-) Transvaal. 1937 Geen formele kampioenskappe nie. 54


1938 Stigting van Noord-Transvaalse Unie; eindig tweede na Garnisoen. 1939 Kampioene van Noord-Transvaal. 1940 Onttrek van liga weens oorlogsomstandighede. 1941 Kampioene van Noord-Transvaal. 1942 Tweede na Garnisoen. 1943 Kampioene van Noord-Transvaal. 1944 – 1959 Polisie is 12 keer (uit 16) kampioene van Noord-Transvaal en behalwe vir 1958, toe hulle derde geëindig het, was hulle nooit laer as tweede in die senior liga nie. Ek betwyfel dit sterk of enige ander span in enige ander rugbyunie ‘n soortgelyke prestasie het. In die oorlogsjare het Garnisoen ‘n magtige rugbyspan opgebou wat onder meer ook as militêre “rugby-sirkus” deur die land gereis het. Hierdie span het net so stewig soos enige Springbokspan vertoon: in sy geledere was o.a. Craven, Turner, White, Babrow, Anderson, Duvenhage, Ackerman, Bester, Bastard, Du Plessis (Felix) en Morkel. Die Polisiespan het in 1941 en 1943 hierdie puik Garnisoenspan geklop om bo-aan die leer te eindig. Redes vir hul welslae (a) Algehele fiksheid van alle spelers van die begin van die seisoen af. Die rede hiervoor is dat die spel as sodanige deur die Polisiemag aangemoedig word. Waar anders verskyn ‘n Kabinetsminister (tans Goewerneur-generaal) op ‘n klubfoto van enige span? (sien foto van die 1959-span.) Baie spelers is liggaamsoefeninginstrukteurs en hulle bly die hele jaar afgerig. By Polisie het ‘n mens nie die verskynsel dat die spelers (veral die ou swaar, lywige karperde) met verdrag en verloop van die seisoen fiks word nie. Toeskouers op Loftus Versveld word telkens verras as ‘n fris polisieman sy drietjie druk en net daarna ‘n perfekte gimnastiekbollemakiesie oor die bal uitvoer! (b) Gebalanseerdheid van span: Veral onder die voorspelers sal ‘n mens altyd vind (i) die byna ideale kombinasie van ‘n sterk voorry met ‘n goeie haker (bv. Jordaan); (ii) reuse-slotte wat in die skrum kan stoot en in die lynstane uitrank; en (iii) uiters intelligente, hardwerkende losvoorspelers. In Lukas Strachan se dae – hy was van 1932 tot 1945 kaptein van die span – was daar geen sprake dat ‘n losvoorspeler die luilekker “⅝th”-spel wat deur Hennie Muller in die Springbokspan ingevoer is, kon beoefen nie. Elke losvoorspeler het eers terdeë sy taak in die vasteen losskrums afgehandel en daarna eers die “oop” veld vol gespeel. (c) Goeie losvoorspelers is miskien die belangrikste rugbywapen wat die Polisieklub gebruik: ons dink o.a. aan Strachan, Louw, Buys en Fiks van der Merwe. (d) Aan goeie skakelpare het dit ook nooit by Polisie ontbreek nie. Die beroemde Hannes Brewis – Fonnie Du Toit – kombinasie van Springbokfaam het op geen stadium die van Brewis en Thatcher oortref nie. (e) Heelagters: Die Polisieklub het oor die jare ‘n verbasende reeks van betroubare heelagters gehad, soos Carl Richter, Geyser, Nosworthy, Nieuwoudt. Polisieklub se toekoms Een nadeel wat die Polisie in die verlede gehad het, was dat hulle nie ‘n eie O.-19-span gehad het nie. Vandag het die Klub wel verskeie O.-19-spanne. In 1953 het die voorsitter van die NoordTransvaalse O.-19-Keurkomitee, Sid Kingsley, my versoek om die vertoning op ‘n middag van ene Tom van Vollenhoven dop te hou. Ek het die aand aan hom kon rapporteer dat die einste “Von” die verdediging van ons eie, heeltemal skaflike Oostelike spannetjie aan flarde geskeur het met sy “verkeerde” binnetoe-breekslag en dat hy menige drietjie onder ons pale gaan druk het. (Ek weet nou nog nie hoekom hierdie manjifieke senter vleuel toe geskuif is nie; ek aanvaar dat hy ‘n goeie 55


vleuel is en dat hy hom vandag daarby aangepas het, maar hy sou dit as senter ongetwyfeld nog verder gebring het.) As agtsteman van die Pretoriase Klub van 1938 tot 1941 het ek ook verskeie kere teen die Polisieklub gespeel. ‘n Mens het die wedstrydprogram vroeg in die jaar aanskou, rooi strepe getrek onder die kere wat mens teen Polisie moet speel, dit as ‘n geweldige berg beskou wat oorbrug moes word en ‘n sug van verligting geslaak as dit agter die rug is. Met flanke soos Ben du Toit, Nick Bierman, Mandjies Malherbe en Kotzenberg het ons egter ‘n hoë mate van agting van die Polisiespan afgedwing. Trouens, in 1939 was die Pretoriase Klub die enigste wat daarin geslaag het om die gedugte Polisiespan tot ‘n enkele gelykop spel te dwing. Speel Polisie mooi rugby? As ek hierdie vraag eerlik moet beantwoord, sou ek moet sê Meermale nie! Uit die aard van die saak is die ideologie van die Polisiespan dieselfde as die van die Springbokspan en dit is: wenrugby teen elke prys! As ‘n mens nou dink dat toetsrugby mooi is, sal die Polisiespan se klubwedstryde ook as mooi beskrywe kan word. Wat egter waar is, is dat, wanneer die Polisiespan eers sy opposisie in die eerste helfte papgespeel het – vroeër toe spanne met lynstane nog kon kies of hulle skrum wil neem, het Polisie sonder uitsondering geskrum! – en hulle lei so met 10 tot 15 punte en draai dan die krane oop: dan speel hulle baie mooi rugby!11 •

Dankie Patrick Coetzee

1959: Die Pretoriase Polisie-Rugby Klub

Die Afrikaanse taal het sedert 1959 geweldig ontwikkel. Die artikel is onverander geplaas met in begrip van die “ou” taal- en spelreëls. Kyk ook na die 1959 Nongqai se Afrikaans – HBH. 11

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Robert M Sylvester: CMR: Albert Caldwell I have just posted this in the PATU group. It is a pic of my maternal Grandfather when he was in the Cape Mounted Rifles. This is post 1912 when men were men. Very old history. This is my grandfather. He was in (l believe) the Cape Mounted Rifles. This pic dates back to post 1912 (toe hy ‘n konstabelkie was). I believe that the CMR's were one of the forerunners of the SAP? Albert Caldwell

SAMR – ZABS

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Konstabel Venie Paolonie

Ons is dankbaar dat brig. QD Papenfus – self ‘n ou patrolliehondgeleier – die lid vir ons uitgeken het. Let op waar die honde-eenheid se onderskeidingsteken gedra word – op die regter mou – HBH.

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Book: The other side of the Story

Link: http://www.samirror.com/the-other-side-of-the-story.html

1955: Amptelike naam: Veiligheidstak 8. VEILIGHEIDSTAK: S.A. POLISIE. Die aandag van alle lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie word op die bepalings van artikels 6 bis (a), (b), (c) en (d) van die ,,Politiewet, 1912" gevestig. Net soos in die geval van subartikels (b), (c) en (d) van artikel 6 bis, bestaan daar vir ko-ordinasie doeleindes en ander voor die hand liggende redes, sedert 1947, 'n afdeling van die Mag wat die funksie soos bepaal deur subartikel (a) waarneem. Die amptelike benaming van hierdie afdeling is ,,Veiligheidstak" en nie ,,Spesiale Tak" soos dit dikwels genoem word nie. Dit bly nogtans die plig van elke lid van die Mag om al die bepalings van artikel 6 bis (a), (b), (c) en (d) na te kom en in alle opsigte heelhartig saam te werk. Indeks: Veiligheidstak—S.A. Polisie.12

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MO[A] No. 21, 1955. Die Nongqai: 1955-11-1271. Tydens genl. Van den Bergh se bewind het dit as die ‘veiligheidspolisie’ bekend gestaan – HBH.

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Mev. Winnie Mandela: My eerste ingeperkte persoon om te besoek: Philip Malherbe Laat 1976, ‘trek’ die veiligheidstak my (ek was ‘n sersant) vanaf die Florida-polisiestasie na die veiligheidstak in Krugersdorp aan die Wes-Rand. Rapporteer die eerste dag, “ge-suit en ge-taai”, bevelvoerder, lt.kol. le Roux (later ‘n genl.maj.)13 Dieselfde aand bel s/a/o Charles Muller (moord- en rooftak, Wes-Rand) my, hy is die selfde dag ook deur die veiligheidstak, Soweto, ‘getrek’. Hy wil weet of ek met hom sal ruil. Volgende dag rapporteer ek in Soweto en hy in Krugersdorp. Bevelvoerder in Soweto was maj. Schalk Visser (bekend as “Laksman” – hy het later ‘n brig. geword). Werk aanvanklik saam met kapt. Simon Bekker14 (‘n “Ou Aap”15, paar jaar voor hy af is met aftrede). Vergesel hom na ‘n ingeperkte, Winnie Mandela in Orlando-Wes, wie se man Nelson Mandela ‘n vonnis van 20 jaar op Robbeneiland uitdien. Eerste besoek vind plaas om ongeveer 19:00 op ‘n Vrydagaand. Kapt. Bekker deel my mee dat ons besoek daarop gemik is om vas te stel of sy tuis is en indien wel, of daar enige besoekers teenwoordig is (sy moes in beide gevalle aansoek om toestemming gedoen het). Lui klokkie by metaal hekke en ‘stop nonsens’-mure (sement palissade). Geen antwoord, help die kaptein oor die muur en klop aan die agterdeur. Die volgende oomblik kom ‘n baster-brak om die hoek gestorm. Ek wip ligvoets oor die muur. Besef opeens dat die kaptein nie alleen oor die muur kan kom nie – loer versigtig oor muur, die kaptein het die brak aan sy keelvel beet en sy .32 pistool (waarmee speurders vroeër jare uitgereik is) teen die brak se kop. Winnie kom uit, kalm deel die kaptein haar mee: “Winnie, remove the dog or I will have to kill it”. Sy verwyder die brak, en ek wip weer oor die muur, word formeel voorgestel. Sy merk ewe sarkasties op dat die veiligheidstak al hoe jonger lede nou in diens neem (ek was 24 jr. oud). Gedurende 1976 was Soweto nog ‘n sub-tak van John Vorsterplein16, met ‘n personeel van 10 wit en 10 swart mans, (Soweto het eers in 1980 ‘n volwaardige v/tak geword). Die BO, Laksman, was in ‘n klas van sy eie, wat op behoorlike verslae gekonsentreer het, alle “i”-s het kolletjies opgehad, en alle “t”-s het strepies deurgetrek gehad. Onderoffisiere is as “meneer” aangespreek. Eerste Desembermaand tydens ‘n oggendvergadering versoek hy almal teenwoordig om vroegtydig hul verlof “in te sit” voor die skole sluit. Ek sit ook verlof in. Volgende oggend ontbied hy my: “Is jy getroud meneer?” “Nee, majoor” “Het jy enige skoolgaande kinders?” “Nie wat ek van weet nie, majoor” (skalkse glimlag op sy lippe) – “Nou luister hier meneer, geen verlof oor Desembermaande word aan ongetroudes en getroudes sonder skoolkinders toegestaan nie – verstaan ons mekaar?” “Ja, majoor”. Het baie aande deurnag gewerk, dit het my nie gepla nie - was jonk en het aksie gesoek. Laksman het baie keer, twee tot drie nagte sonder slaap deur gewerk. Hy het dit vermag deur gellings swart

Later luitenant-generaal Johan le Roux – HBH. Ek het kapt. Bekker in Soweto ontmoet en hy het my sy storie vertel van hoe die skoliere hom op 16 Junie 1976 by ‘n skool in Soweto vasgekeer het. Hy was gelukkig om te lewe – HBH. 15 Polisietaal vir ervare lid van die mag – HBH. 16 Korrek ‘n anomalie. Soweto veiligheidstak was eers ‘n takkantoor van veiligheidstak afdeling Witwatersrand alhoewel Soweto al in 1973 ‘n afsonderlike SAP-afdeling geword het – HBH. 13 14

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koffie te drink en dun swart sigarette/sigaartjies te rook (vir my as nie-roker, het dit ontsettend gestink). Laksman se broer, kapt. Jan Visser was verbonde aan die v/tak John Vorsterplein en het in sy aftyd met gewigte gespeel. Laksman, oor die 6vt, het oor natuurlike krag beskik, ek was een aand teenwoordig waar hy ‘n man wat hom verkeerd opgevryf het, met een hand voor die bors gegryp en hom opgelig en teen ‘n muur vasgedruk het. Het my laat dink aan die ou wat omtrent die selfde aksie uitgevoer het. ‘n Omstander het die voorval later so beskryf: “Die man het glad nie kwaad geword nie, ewe vriendelik vee hy hom met die plat kant van die graaf deur die gesig en trek hom met die draadtang aan die bolip nader, en rustig vra hy die man: “Nou wat is jou probleem?’” In die agt en ‘n half jaar wat ek aan die v/tak Soweto verbode was, het ek vir Laksman net een keer sonder woorde gesien nadat hoofkantoor een van sy offisiere aangevat het. Die betrokke dag het Lampies (kst. Lambrecht) die kripto-man17 ‘n kodeboodskap tussen HK en ander v\takke ontsyfer. Lampies was ‘n lang skraal man wat ‘n kitaar lekker kon kielie, met “Blue Moon” sy gunsteling liedjie. Pas nadat hy die boodskap ontsyfer het, het hy my in die gang voorgekeer en my versoek my om die boodskap in ‘n omslag aan Laksman te gaan oorhandig, aangesien hy dringend die toilet moes gaan besoek. Soos dit ‘n bekwame veiligheidstak lid behels, loer ek vinnig wat aangaan in die lêer – die volgende boodskap van HK: gerig aan offisier ‘X’: ‘U pittige opmerkings en bedekte sarkasme los nie die probleem op nie, hier bo in Rome verwag ons resultate en nie verskonings nie’. Ek was agt en ‘n half jaar by die v/tak in Soweto, waarna ek deur lt.kol. Roelof (afgetree as ‘n brigadier) en maj. Deyzel (afgetree as ‘n lt.genl.) na die v/tak in Oudtshoorn getrek is. - Baie dankie, ‘n mooi storie in “polisietaal”! – HBH.

SWAP: Gawie Botha besoek Namibië Gawie stuur vir ons die foto met die boodskap: “Die polisie stuur groete vanaf Maltahöhe, Namibië”.

17

Kriptograaf – HBH.

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Afsterwe: Kol Alwyn Lesch

Kol AN Lesch was een van die SAP se groot seders! Hy is op 18 April 2018 oorlede. Ons eer sy nagedagtenis. Lesers kan gerus vir ons foto’s en staaltjies instuur vir volgende maand se uitgawe. (Ons het al voorheen artikels oor die legende gepubliseer.)

POLICE AND THE PRESS NEWS & ANALYSIS Vicki Momberg sentenced to 2 years in prison, bail denied News24 | 28 March 2018 NPA says punishment for k-word riddled telephonic rant gives hope to South Africans

Momberg denied bail, pending leave to appeal Former real estate agent Vicki Momberg has been denied bail pending her leave to appeal, in the Randburg Magistrate's Court. This comes after Momberg was sentenced to three years in prison. One year is suspended for three years, on condition that she is not convicted of crimen injuria. Defence lawyer Kevin Lawlor submitted that Momberg be released on bail following her sentence. "My submission is right here and now, your worship as a discretion to release my client on bail," Lawlor told the court. State prosecutor Yusuf Baba argued that Lawlor was "wrong in law". "The law states that you cannot bring any bail application prior to an appeal procedure," Baba said. Magistrate Pravina Rugoonandan said there was no sub-standard application before court to grant bail. The matter was postponed to April 4 for an application for leave to appeal. 63


Momberg was found guilty of four counts of crimen injuria on November 3 last year in connection with a 2016 racist tirade, which started when she lashed out at a black police officer who had come to assist after an alleged smash-and-grab incident in Northriding, Johannesburg. In a video clip that went viral, Momberg could be heard complaining about the "calibre of blacks" in Johannesburg. She used the k-word 48 times during the now infamous rant. News24

Update: Vicki Momberg Update: Vicki Momberg sentence gives South Africans hope that 'law is on their side' – NPA 28 March 2018 The National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) says the Vicki Momberg judgement sets a precedent for other racial related cases. NPA spokesperson Phindi Mjonondwane was speaking after Momberg was sentenced to an effective two years in prison by the Randburg Magistrate's Court on Wednesday. The court sentenced her to three years, with one year suspended. That year was suspended for a period of three years, on the condition that she did not commit the offence again. Momberg was also denied bail, pending her leave to appeal the sentence. "It is very crucial for us as the rainbow nation to coexist with one another, to respect one another. We, therefore, believe that this ruling is giving hope to all South Africans that the law is on their side," Mjonondwane said. On November 3, Momberg was found guilty on four counts of crimen injuria in connection with her rant, which started when she lashed out at a black police officer who had helped her after an alleged smash-and-grab incident in Northriding, Johannesburg. In a video clip that went viral, Momberg could be heard complaining about the "calibre of blacks" in Johannesburg. Momberg stood unmoved in the dock and repeatedly wiped her tears when Magistrate Pravina Rugoonandan read her judgment. Yusuf Baba, the leading prosecutor in the matter, said it was time for the Hate Speech Bill to be enforced. "Looking at our courts and the number of increases in respect to these offences, it is time a loud message is sent to every race, every person in the country, that this can't go on any longer," Baba said. Baba described it as the worst crimen injuria case he had ever dealt with. "The rule of law has proven today [Wednesday] that the Constitution is above all else and needs to be respected. People need to watch their tongues before they talk, there are consequences for your actions," Baba said. The Momberg case and ruling needed to be used to send out a strong message, he added. News24

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http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/vicki-momberg-sentence-gives-south-africanshope-t POLITICS

Lack of victim-friendly interviewing rooms – Zakhele Mbhele Zakhele Mbhele | 28 March 2018 DA MP says a total of 189 police stations across the country do not have such facilities

Up to 1 in 10 victims of sexual violence lack victim friendly interviewing rooms in 2016/17 28 March 2018 Following our parliamentary reply which revealed the number of SAPS stations without Victim Friendly Rooms (VFR), the DA has determined that up to 1 in 10 victims of sexual violence were not interviewed in a victim friendly room during the 2016/17 reporting year. According to the reply, a total of 189 police stations across the country do not have a dedicated victim friendly room. When these stations are compared against the 2016/17 crime statistics, it becomes apparent that about 3587 sexual offences were reported at these stations. The worst-performing provinces in this regard were Kwazulu-Natal, at 10.34% of cases, the Eastern Cape at 14.31%, and the Free State at 14.62% - slightly more than 1 in 10 victims. Today, the DA conducted an oversight visit to Camperdown and Mphophomeni SAPS stations, to establish what facilities they have available for the interviewing of victims of sexual offences. At the Camperdown police station, victims of sexual offences are interviewed in a repurposed office referred to as a “trauma room” but this room is not ideally suited and its isolation from the rest of the building could exacerbate the anxiety and emotional vulnerability of victims in the immediate aftermath of sexual assault. The station also suffers from severe personnel shortages, with almost 75 projected vacancies. There should ideally be 8 personnel to a shift, but at present the station can only put 5-6 personnel members per shift. Three of the station’s five vehicles have also been boarded, so they are left with two vehicles to cover two sectors with up to 100 000 people. But at the Mpophomeni police station, there is no victim friendly room available, and the police station depends on the availability of office space from a nearby NGO. The closest FCS unit is based in Howick and is grossly under-staffed, with only three members. The station management admits that they only have resources to effectively patrol one of the two sectors under their control at any given time. The statistics, taken together with the information obtained during our oversight visit, demonstrate how the entire SAPS leadership crisis continues to fail our people, especially victims of rape, due to the under-resourced and under-qualified police service.

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This is an indictment on the Police Minister, Bheki Cele, who must ensure that our police stations have the required equipment and trained personnel to process all reported cases of sexual violence. The DA is adamant that the localisation of resources and management authority to station level is now vital in order to empower station management who prove themselves competent to control their resources to be responsive to their local needs. Victims of sexual violence and abuse deserve to be treated with the utmost care and dignity. Properly resourced police stations and specialised training for police personnel dealing with victims of sexual violence are key to ensuring this. Issued by Zakhele Mbhele, DA Shadow Minister of Police, 28 March 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/lack-of-victimfriendly-interviewing-rooms--zakhele

Police a 'matrix of corruption' - Robert McBride News24 | 31 March 2018 IPID head says police hampering their investigations by classifying or refusing to declassify documents

Police a 'matrix of corruption' - IPID's McBride A "matrix of corruption" that is the "biggest threat to national security". This is how Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID) head Robert McBride described the police's highest level, bar a "few exceptions", when he appeared before the Portfolio Committee on Police on Thursday morning. McBride said the police were hampering IPID's investigations by classifying or refusing to declassify documents. This related to IPID's investigations, such as how it happened that Morris "KGB" Tshabalala was reappointed despite having a criminal record, and how the police procured a device known as a grabber shortly before the ANC's conference in December, in what is believed to have been a ploy to launder money to buy votes. Eroding confidence "The confidence we expressed in [police commissioner] General [Khehla] Sitole eroded tremendously," said McBride. He said the fact that they had whistleblowers, was an indication that there were good police officers. IPID told Parliament's Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa) earlier this year that they were investigating the purchase of a grabber - a device to track cellphones, worth around R10m – at an inflated price of around R50m. It is alleged the money was to be used to buy votes at the ANC's hotly contested elective conference. On Thursday, McBride said former police minister Fikile Mbalula's advisor, Bo Mbindwane, had attended four meetings in relation to the procurement of the grabber. Mbindwane denied the allegations earlier this year. 66


'People are occupied with stealing' Mbalula, a staunch campaigner for Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, was well known for defending former president Jacob Zuma on Twitter. McBride said they had records from a senior police officer on why they needed the grabber, which he described as "gobbledygook" and a "suck out of [their] thumbs". He said the police's crime intelligence unit was having a go at IPID because of Mbindwane's involvement. "SAPS functions at the highest level, with a few exceptions, as a matrix of corruption," he said. McBride said this was the biggest threat to the country's national security, as it meant they couldn't fight crime. He said, apart from the classification of documents, there were also attempts to bribe IPID investigators to admit that they had been instructed to work with private investigator Paul O'Sullivan. "That would amount in their little minds to racketeering," McBride said. IPID hadn't engaged O'Sullivan in months, he added. He said this narrative had originated from former acting police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane, who has since been charged with fraud, money laundering and corruption. Police use classification 'to protect criminality' IPID head of Investigations Matthew Sesoko said they had informers in the police who had told them about the appointment of Tshabalala, despite previously being dismissed from the police because of a criminal record. Sesoko said, according to their information, Tshabalala used to brag that he was protected by police management and political connections. "Here's what's funny," said Sesoko, "we want his personal file to see how he's been enlisted. Now, that file is not coming through. The answer we got is it is classified." "Ag!" exclaimed DA MP Dianne Kohler Barnard. "They're lying." Seskoko said that file had nothing to do with state security. "Classification is used to protect criminality in SAPS," he said. He said they had asked the minister of police to intervene, and that another recourse would be litigation. Seskoko said there were two cases of obstruction of justice against Phahlane, and one against Phahlane and others, but the National Prosecuting Authority had decided not to prosecute. He said they found the decision irrational and were taking legal advice on reviewing the decision. Committee chairperson Francois Beukman said it was important to point out that IPID was a constitutional body set up to oversee the police, and that the police should cooperate. News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/police-a-matrix-of-corruption--robert-mcbride

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Peter Jacobs to head Crime Intelligence - Bheki Cele Bheki Cele | 31 March 2018 Greetings to all of you gathered here today. It gives me great pleasure to officiate this press gathering this afternoon, together with the National Commissioner of the SAPS General Kehla Sithole; on such an important task of officially announcing the new senior appointments of Lieutenant Generals who will be taking over new responsibilities as Divisional and Provincial Commissioners of the South African Police Service. The new appointments to the top-level echelon of the police hierarchy, in the post of Divisional Commissioners, Crime Intelligence, Detectives and Protection and Security Services as well as the Provincial Commissioner of Free State consists of men and women of exceptional calibre and renowned credentials in the different fields of expertise. The SAPS continue to advance and upholds the fundamental principle of excellence and professionalism in implementing the recruitment strategy. Members of the media, the fight against crime requires crime intelligence that is focused and progressive. The need for a complete overhaul of that environment remains a priority for the new leadership. Equally, Detective Services needs re-engineering and repositioning in order to do justice to its core business of resolving crime. We are confident that the new breed of leadership will improve efficiency and effectiveness in the business of policing and further contribute positively in the implementation of the turnaround plan as championed by the National Commissioner. Moreover, the police machinery requires individuals with wealth of knowledge and understanding in the various disciplines. Ladies and gentlemen, we remain strongly entrenched in the ideals of progressive leadership hence we pride ourselves in the following appointments: Crime Intelligence Major General Anthony Jacobs is appointed as the Divisional Commissioner of Crime Intelligence at the level of Lieutenant General. Lt Gen Jacobs joined the police in 1995 when the Statutory Forces were incorporated into the Service. At the time of his appointment he was attached to Western Cape Province as a Cluster Commander of Wynburg. He has a vast experience in operational policing including the crime intelligence environment, having occupied various senior managerial positions that include provincial head of crime intelligence and border management. He has also gained valuable experience in the operational environment when he worked as a Deputy Provincial Commissioner: Operational Services, Provincial Commander for Provincial Operational Command Centre, Operational Response Services and Police Emergency Services. He has a Master of Science Degree in Corporate Security from Cranfiels University, United Kindom (SAQA accredited at M Tech Degree) Detective Services Major General Tebello Constance Mosikili before her appointment as the Divisional Commissioner, Detective Services at the rank of Lieutenant General, was serving as the National Head of Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences Unit, a position she has held with distinction since 2016. Mosikili is an investigative expert, with 17 years of her total 27 years in the police served at investigation environment at various levels. She is a service oriented professional who has served at all the spheres/levels of policing, having been a station commander, cluster commander, provincial commander as well as section head at national level. Lt Gen Mosikili is a career police officer who went through all the ranks to get to the position of Divisional Commissioner.

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She is an investigative solutions and strategic leader who brings with her a wealth of investigative as well as operational expertise coupled with her understanding of the criminal justice system. She has a B Tech Degree from Tshwane University of Technology (Technikon South Africa) as well as capacity development courses that include Advanced Psychologically Motivated Crime, Exercise Cyber Tracks and Detective Commander’s Course. Protection and Security Services Major General Samson Shitlabane is appointed as the Divisional Commissioner of Protection and Security Services at the level of Lieutenant General. At the time of his promotion Lt Gen Shitlabane was the Gauteng Provincial Head: Protection and Security Services. Since his enlistment into the police in 1995, Lt Gen Shitlabane has served from the lower level ranks as a close protector in the Protection and Security Service and has moved up the ranks in the same environment at various positions – positions such as National Commander for Deputy President which included servicing former state presidents and Section Head: VIP Protection Services. He has a wealth of knowledge in the protection and security services environment and his appointment will bring about efficiency and effectiveness. Shitlabane is in possession of a Bachelor of Policing Practice Degree and is due to complete his post graduate diploma in Management (Security field) with the University of Witwatersrand. Provincial Commissioner Free State Major General Moeketsi SEMPE is appointed as the Provincial Commissioner of Free State, with immediate effect at the level of Lieutenant General. At the time of his appointment Lt Gen Sempe was the Deputy Provincial Commissioner of Policing at Free State. He joined the police in 1993 and started working in the community service centre. In 1996 at the level of Sergeant, he became a Shift Commander at Excelsior Police Station in the Free State. He moved up the ranks in operational environment serving as a station commander, cluster commander and has also occupied several senior management positions at provincial level since 2008, as the Deputy Provincial Commissioner. Lt Gen Sempe therefore, brings to the position a vast experience in policing with impeccable knowledge of policy frameworks. He is an energetic visionary with proven leadership skills. He has a Magister Technoligae (MTECH) in Policing and has successfully completed several operational courses and management and leadership programmes. Ladies and gentlemen all four strategic appointments are aimed at responding directly to the core mandate of fighting crime and furthermore ensuring that the people of South Africa are and that they feel safe. We wish to thank the sterling leadership of the National Commissioner and his team in facilitating the new appointments. The business of squeezing crime to zero continues... Issued by SAPS, 29 March 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/peter-jacobs-to-head-crime-intelligence--bheki-cel JMPD officer shot dead outside her home 2018-04-05 08:08 A Johannesburg Metro Police Department inspector has been shot dead and robbed of her firearm - the 12th metro cop to have died in the line of duty in the province in the last seven months.18 https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/jmpd-officer-shot-dead-outside-her-home-20180405

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Dit lyk my niemand is meer veilig nie – HBH.

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SAPS supplier threatens to shut down justice system if police don't pay by midnight 2018-04-04 22:11 An SAPS supplier alleged to have bribed former acting police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane threatens to bring the criminal justice system to a halt if he doesn’t get paid by midnight on Wednesday evening. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/saps-supplier-threatens-to-shut-down-justice-systemif-police-dont-pay-20180404

Uit Thailand het Barry Taylor ook dieselfde berig, maar in ‘n ander koerant, tot ons aandag gebring: https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2018-04-05-sapssita-capture-fda-holds-south-africa-toransom-threatens-to-collapse-criminal-justice-system/#.WsWoq7i1q4w.gmail

SAPS supplier threatens to shut down justice system if police don't pay by midnight 5 April 2018 A supplier to the police alleged to have bribed former acting police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane threatens to bring the criminal justice system to a halt if he doesn’t get paid by midnight Wednesday evening. Forensic Data Analysis (FDA), a company owned by former policeman turned businessman Keith Keating, issued a statement at about 19:50 on Wednesday evening, saying that on "Wednesday, 4 April 2018, at midnight, use of and access to proprietary licensed software and ancillary support services in respect of PCEM (Property Control and Exhibit Management) and FPS (Firearm Permit System) will unfortunately be suspended by FDA, unless an appropriate agreement could be reached with SAPS before system shutdown." "The Minister, SAPS and other stakeholders have been duly warned about the risks involved, but have acquiesced regardless of the impacts," reads the statement. According to FDA, they have provided PCEM services to the police while the police did not pay any of the invoices issued to it from December 1 until March 31. "In respect of FPS, SITA has on 31 October 2017 awarded a contract for three years to FDA, subject to the conclusion of a written agreement. FDA signed the written agreement provided to it by SITA. However, SITA has to the best of FDA's knowledge failed to sign the written agreement providing for FPS services from 1 November 2017," reads the statement. "Notwithstanding SITA's failure, FDA has rendered the FPS services since 1 November 2017 without any payment by SITA whatsoever. Although SITA has enjoyed the full benefit of services rendered by FDA since 1 November 2017, SITA has failed to make any payment to FDA." SITA is the State Information Technology Agency, the state agency which procures information technology for the state. According to FDA the police and SITA "unlawfully" withheld payment for services rendered, and have "reconciled themselves with the following imminent devastating effects resulting from their conduct". According to FDA, the following can happen: - Police officials may be unable to check in and out of duty; - Police officers may be unable to lawfully possess or use firearms; 70


- Firearms and ammunition in possession of SAPS may not be accounted for during the suspension period; - Police officials may be unable to access and manage evidence in the Forensic Science Laboratory; - The chain of custody may be broken of millions of exhibits in the Forensic Science Laboratory; - The NPA may be unable to remove evidence to be used in court proceedings; - South Africa may be in breach of certain international treaties involving Interpol and the United Nations. "The above list is not exhaustive," the statement reads. The police are, however, confident that their systems will not be affected. "FDA has a contract with SITA and the matter of payment or nonpayment should be discussed with them. As SAPS we are confident our systems will not be affected," police spokesperson Brigadier Vishnu Naidoo said. Police Minister Bheki Cele said although such matters were not reported to him directly, he was aware of the situation. "What I know is that negotiations are underway," he told News24. SITA could not be reached for comment. This matter has its genesis in a dramatic meeting of Parliament's Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa) on November 29, where the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID), recommended that the police stop paying FDA, a view which was shared by Scopa. At that meeting it emerged that the State Information Technology Agency (SITA) awarded a contract for police forensic equipment, mostly lights and Nikon cameras, worth more than R900m to Keating's company FDA, and a contract to another Keating-linked company for the maintenance of this equipment, without following procurement processes and without there being a reason for FDA being the sole provider. Much to MPs' disgust, Keating sat behind them, directly in the line of sight of the police officers and SITA officials as MPs grilled them on the contract. DA MP Tim Brauteseth, who produced pictures of Keating with two police officers from the police's supply chain management department in personalised Manchester United jerseys in the football club's trophy room and outside their storied ground Old Trafford. The pictures were taken in October 2011, months after the contract for the forensic equipment has been awarded to FDA. It was also said that FDA did business worth R5 billion with the police since 2010. In December Keating denied these allegations, and said it is part of an attempted hostile takeover of his business. He is also a central figure in the corruption case against Phahlane which is currently before the court. He allegedly paid for Phahlane's vehicles. On February 28 this year Scopa said it "is appalled that a sole company owned by an ex-policeman can hold the whole country to ransom by threatening the collapse of the criminal justice system if the state cancels this contract". It instructed SITA to cancel the contract. News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/saps-supplier-threatens-to-shut-down-justicesyste

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SAPS fails to combat drug problem in Eldorado Park – Michele Clarke Michele Clarke | 11 April 2018 DA MPL says residents claim there is no police visibility in the area SAPS fails to combat drug problem in Eldorado Park 11 April 2018 The Eldorado Park community is under siege by the scourge of drugs, yet the South African Police Services (SAPS) is failing to tackle this growing problem. Residents of Eldorado Park claim that there is no police visibility in the area and the police are not doing enough to fight crime and drugs in the area. There are many incidents of violence, including stabbings, in the area. It is alarming that Eldorado SAPS made 2229 arrests for drug-related crimes from 1 April 2017 to 31 March 2018 which is 50 percent of the drug arrests made in the entire Gauteng province during that period. While we applaud the number of arrests made, this statistic indicates that the area is drug infested and the SAPS are struggling in their attempts to effectively eradicate the drug problem. This already under-resourced and under-staffed police station has 29 schools in the precinct of which 8 high schools are facing a serious drug problem. This police station is in dire need of support from the Department of Community Safety to win the battle against drugs. The establishment of specialised narcotics units, as well as specialised training must become a reality if the war on drugs is to be won. There is a need to effectively rehabilitate the drug users so that they won’t go back to drugs as this will ultimately reduce the drug problem in the area. The DA calls on the Gauteng Community Safety MEC, Sizakele Nkosi-Malobane and Gauteng SAPS Provincial Commissioner, Lieutenant General Deliwe de Lange to intervene as a matter of urgency in assisting the community of Eldorado Park in fighting drugs and drug-related crime within their communities. Issued by Michele Clarke, DA Gauteng Spokesperson for Community Safety, 11 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/saps-fails-to-combat-drug-problem-in-eldorado-park

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Big corruption widespread in SAPS - Robert McBride News24 | 22 April 2018 IPID says police officers protect each other and the service "functions like a gang" 'Back off!' – McBride to rogue cops trying to bribe IPID Each and every day investigators of the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID) are approached by rogue police officers to look the other way, IPID's head Robert McBride told the Portfolio Committee on Police on Friday. "This team bled too much. There is no way we're going to look the other way," McBride said. "Back off!" McBride told the committee IPID needed more resources to expose the shady machinations behind the "blue curtain". "Corruption – big corruption – is widespread in SAPS," he said. "The will to deal with corruption is not there in the leadership of SAPS." He said it would take IPID "forever with the staff we have" to expose the full extent of the corruption. IPID's budget is allocated out of the police's budget. R5.1bn in claims against the police "IPID will continue its trilateral engagements with IPID, National Treasury and SAPS in an effort to source additional funding from SAPS," reads IPID's presentation to the committee. "By having a well-resourced IPID which can adequately investigate corruption, the state can prevent the loss of resources which can be directed towards service delivery needs for all South Africans." Claims against the police alone amounted to R5.1bn in the 2016/17 year, according to IPID's information. The organisation says "adequate funding of IPID will realise massive savings for the state". McBride said the Auditor-General had indicated last year that IPID's lack of funding threatened its status as a going concern, emphasising how dire IPID's finances were. "We've cried at every place," he said. "Our wheels have been squeaky and we don't receive the necessary oil." 'Mabula hit squad' McBride said police officers protect each other and the service "functions like a gang". "Yep," DA MP Dianne Kohler Barnard said. "We call it the blue curtain," McBride said. He reiterated the point he made at IPID's previous meeting with the committee in March, that corruption in the police was a threat to national security. McBride said the "Mabula hit squad" was very effective in defeating the ends of justice. He was referring to Major General Ntebo "Jan" Mabula, a North West police officer who was roped in by corruption accused former acting police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane to lead an investigation into IPID. Mabula and his squad were investigated for, among other things, torture by IPID. Mabula also has a reputation for making politically motivated arrests. 73


'Watch your backs' Some of the members of his team are to stand trial for torture and IPID recommended that he be suspended. MPs, from the governing party and opposition alike, were aghast at what McBride and his team had told them. "What I'm hearing is so awful," said Kohler Barnard. ANC MP Leonard Ramatlakane said: "It is so shocking to listen to this." Kohler Barnard said the committee must exert pressure to help IPID. "It's time we stood up. We can't sit back. Let's try and be proactive," she said. Committee chairperson Francois Beukman said the committee was empowered to amend the budget. ANC MP Livhuhani Mabija said: "I can say I feel stressed." "I'm fearing a coup from the police. This corruption is dangerous." As McBride and his team left the committee room, Kohler Barnard said to them: "Watch your backs." News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/big-corruption-widespread-in-saps--robertmcbride

Shocking increase in farm attacks - Agri SA Dan Kriek | 20 April 2018 Farm attacks have increased by 22 per cent this year and murder by 27 per cent Urgent Action Needed Against Farm Attacks Agri SA is voicing its concerns over the shocking increase in farm attacks and is requesting an urgent meeting with the newly appointed Minister of Police and the National Commissioner to discuss this issue of national importance. Farm attacks have increased by 22 per cent this year and murder by 27 per cent, and as reported 6 farm attacks have occurred in the past week. “Several farmers and farm labourers were brutally assaulted and that is why we call on the farming community to further sharpen their vigilance. Within Agri SA and our provincial organisations we will do everything in our power to curb crime,� said Agri SA President Dan Kriek. Agri SA has already approached the newly appointed Minister of Police as well as the National Commissioner to urgently discuss the ongoing farm violence and the impact thereof on farming communities. Aspects such as, finalising the revised Rural Protection Strategy as well as the reservist system will be subjects for discussion. A well-functioning reservist system that is accessible for members of the farming community forms the backbone to rural protection.

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Agri SA remains committed to finding a solution in cooperation with established authority- and civil society structures. Even though there has been significant international interest on farm attacks, South African farmers do not seek assurance from abroad, but rather from their own government. Farmworkers and farmers are highly valuable resources who are necessary to ensure food security and rural stability in South Africa. This is why they need to be properly protected to ensure there is food for the nation, something they manage to do extremely well.� Statement issued by Dan Kriek, President of Agri SA, 20 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/shocking-increase-in-farm-attacks--agri-sa

ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE OORLOG Nico Moolman se Argief Hoofkommandant CR de Wet

Vlnr: Kommandant Flip de Vos, generaal Christiaan de Wet (met verband om sy regterhand ) en veldkornet Alfred Thring van Kroonstad. Swart-en-wit foto tot kunswerk omskep deur vriend Tinus le Roux. 75


Genl. Koos de la Rey Generaal Koos de la Rey (Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey) (22 Oktober 1847, Winburg – 15 September 1914, Langlaagte) was 'n Boeregeneraal gedurende die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog en word geag as een van die grootste militêre leiers tydens daardie konflik. De la Rey was 'n diep gelowige mens en 'n sakbybel was selde nie in sy hande nie. Hy het 'n formidabele voorkoms gehad - 'n lang, netjies gesnyde bruin baard met 'n hoë voorhoof met gesonke oë wat hom 'n patriargale voorkoms gegee het. Hy word algemeen beskou as die sterkste en mins inskiklike Boeregeneraal tydens die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog en as een van die leiersfigure van Afrikanernasionalisme. As guerrilla het sy taktieke besonderse sukses behaal. De la Rey was gekant teen die oorlog tot die laaste, maar toe hy as lafaard beskuldig is tydens 'n Volksraadvergadering, het hy gesê dat as die tyd vir oorlog sou kom, hy sou veg lank nadat die wat koukus oor die oorlog al opgegee het. Die woorde sou later bewaarheid word. De la Rey was beroemd vir sy rare gedrag teenoor sy vyande. 'n Voorbeeld hiervan is by Tweebosch op die 7de Maart waar hy Luitenant-generaal Lord Methuen saam met 'n paar honderd van sy troepe gevange geneem het. Die troepe is teruggestuur na hulle onderskeie oorlogslyne omdat De la Rey nie die bronne gehad het om hulle te onderhou nie en Methuen is vrygelaat omdat hy erg gewond is en De la Rey gemeen het dat hy sou doodgaan sonder die mediese dienste wat slegs die Britte op daardie stadium kon verskaf.19 •

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Hy is op 15 September 1914 deur konstabel Drury te Langlaagte tydens ‘n padblokkade doodgeskiet nadat hy en genl. CF Beyers versuim het om stil te hou.

https://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koos_de_la_Rey

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Utrecht: Kruithuis

Die ou kruithuis in Utrecht uit pres. Lucas Meyer se era wat as oliestoor die padwerke departement bedien. Ai!! Met nasionale gedenkwaardigheid teken en al. (Die teken is regs van die deur.)

ZAR Staatsartillerie ontplooi in die OVS

Comment by MC Heunis: Two 75mm Creusot QF and a 37mm Macim-Nordenfelt pom-pom. Note the pom-pom is drawn by a Krupp supply wagon's limber. Col Trichard was sent with these guns as reinforcements to the Free State to try and stem Robert's march north. 77


ABO: St Helena

Twee Boere-bannelinge voor die Baptiste “Zuutjes�-kerk op St. Helena met die rots randjie, Lot se vrou in die agtergrond. Die kerkie is deur die Boere so gedoop want die ou Reverend aldaar het altyd kliphard "Quiet!!" op enige iemand wat verby geloop het geskree, as hulle sou hoorbaar gepraat het.

Die 'ZAR-1ste XI' ...Boere-banneling krieketspan op St. Helena gedurende die Anglo-Boere Oorlog in 1901. Hier afgeneem na hulle die "Vierkleur"-span die loef afgesteek het. 78


So het jonk en oud hulle tyd op St. Helena as bannelinge verwyl deur speelgoed en kieries te maak.

Die "Lekker Sectie” Orkes

Die "Lekker Sectie Orkes" op St. Helena. Boere-bannelinge. Anglo Boere-Oorlog. “Ek sou wat wou gee om cd van hulle te gehad het”, sê Nico Moolman. Ingekleur deur vriendin Jennifer Bosch. Agter: A Botha, CP van Niekerk en T Goslet. Voor: MJ Fourie, C Lemmer, JH Bosman (Jan Viool), J Bosman (Jan Kitaar) en H Everit. 79


Genl. & mev. Cronje: St. Helena

Nico Moolman skryf: “Gen. and Mrs. Cronje on the stoep of their St Helena house as POW'S and a few Boer POW's as body guards”.

Kapt. Kroon: ZAR Staatsartillerie op St. Helena

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Breakfast: Harrismith

Britse soldate geniet ontbyt naby Harrismith in die ou OVS. Britse soldate geniet ontbyt naby Harrismith in die ou OVS.

RSA: MILITARY & THE MEDIA AfriForum asks reasons from Defence Minister over racist statements 29 March 2018 The civil rights watchdog AfriForum gave Nosiviwe Noluthando Mapisa-Nqakula, Minister of Defence, 90 days to provide reasons for not acting against Maj. M.V. Mohlala of the South African National Defence Force’s (SANDF’s) Signal Formation at the Wonderboom Military Base in Pretoria. Mohlala published statements that are exceptionally offensive, racist and harmful, and that fall within the definition of hate speech. These events unfolded after two elderly men, Prof. Kobus Naude (76) and Rev. Braam van Wyk (80), had been cruelly assaulted by unknown attackers. Prof. Naude was stabbed in the chest with a butcher’s knife and did not survive the attack. Rev. Van Wyk sustained serious injuries. After photos of a seriously-injured Van Wyk were published on Facebook, Maj. Mohlala replied to the post that the attacker “[s]hould actually have poked out his eyes and tongue so that the last people he would ever see, were the killers and he could go to his grave with the nightmare”. Mohlala 81


also wrote: “Apartheid is in him. All of these old white people think we are stupid when they say they were opposed to apartheid. We will not forget what they have done. Now it is the white people’s turn.” Mohlala’s statements clearly amount to hate speech. Article 105(1) of the National Defence Act (Act No 42 of 2002) also defines it as a criminal act when the verbal or physical conduct of any member of the SANDF denigrates, humiliates or shows hostility towards any person based on their race, gender, age, language or culture. According to this law, a person who is found guilty of such an offence may be sentenced to five years imprisonment. The local commander at the unit where Mohlala is stationed did not act further against him, except for reprimanding him and admonishing him not to bring the SANDF’s name into disrepute. The purpose of AfriForum’s letter is to give the Minister an opportunity to provide reasons for not deciding to charge Mohlala criminally, as AfriForum plans on taking the Minister’s decision on legal review if no adequate reasons exist for this decision. The news of Mohlala’s brutal hate speech comes in the same week in which Vicki Momberg, an estate agent, was sent to jail for two years for shouting racist abuses at a police officer. According to Willie Spies, AfriForum’s Legal Advisor, both incidents are unacceptable, but it is shocking that Mohlala goes scot-free while a white woman who shouted racist abuses at a police officer is sent to jail for two years. AfriForum will do all in its power to fight unfair application of the rules of law and to see that equality before the law is promoted and that certain people are not judged heavier than others simply because of their race. Issued by Marelie Greeff, Media Relations Officer, AfriForum, 29 March 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/defence-minister-must-explain-not-acting-against-r

Financial misconduct by Defence employees requires action – Kobus Marais Kobus Marais | 12 April 2018 DA MP says dept has a huge backlog when it comes to disciplinary proceedings

Rampant financial misconduct by Defence employees requires urgent action 12 April 2018 The DA will write to the Minister of Defence and Military Veterans, Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula, as it is astonishing that her department accounts for more than a half of all financial misconduct proceedings reported by the national department. The DA is also concerned about the slow rate which her department is handling the processing and completion of proceedings against the department’s employees implicated in financial misconduct. Following a Public Service Commission Report that her department had only completed 18 disciplinary proceedings on 31 March 2016/7 with 175 proceedings incomplete, the DA submitted parliamentary questions to ascertain the progress made in this regard. In her response, the Minister indicated that between 1 April 2017 and 28 February 2018, the department only managed to complete 21 disciplinary proceedings while initiating another 10. At this rate, it could potentially take the department almost a decade to clear the backlog.

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This tardy response is inconsistent with a department committed to accountability and fiscal responsibility. The DA is concerned about the department’s commitment to recovering the funds lost and we will therefore pose further questions to the Minister to ascertain the full extent of funds lost and funds recouped to date. The Minister must also inform the public whether cases have been referred to the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) where public servants have been found guilty. The Minister must immediately take decisive action to resolve the backlog of these cases in order to ensure that there is accountability for financial misconduct in her department. Issued by Kobus Marais, DA Shadow Minister of Defence and Military Veterans, 12 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/financial-misconduct-by-defence-employees-requires

RSA: MILITARY HISTORY National Salute

A Mounted UDF-officer taking the salute. A glass negative from the 1930’s developed by Nico Moolman. 83


Ranks: General | Generaal: Mark Naude Origin The title is derived from the Latin word generalis that meant something pertaining to ‘a whole unit’ of anything (as opposed to ‘a part of’ something). The military term General started out as an adjective, as in Captain-General, indicating the Captain (or Head) who had overall or "general" command of an army (similar to the concept or appointment of Commandant-General in South African historical context). Prior to the 16th Century armies were usually formed only when needed for war. The king would be the commander but he might appoint a Captain-General to command in his name. The British Army stopped using the Captain part of the title by the 18th Century, leaving simply General. The Rank in South Africa General Louis Botha was the first to have held the rank of General during the 1914-18 war. Technically, he was made a General in the British Army. However as Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the South African Forces during the First World War he could arguably be considered to have been a general in the Union Defence Force. During the Second World War General Jan Smuts held the rank of General until he was appointed Field Marshal in 1941. Smuts was concurrently Prime Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commander-in-Chief of the Union Forces. The next holder of the rank was the Chief of General Staff, General Sir Pierre van Ryneveld who was promoted to full General rank on his retirement. After the retirement of Van Ryneveld, the rank disappeared for a while. Initially it was replaced as a rank by Commandant-General which was previously an appointment (i.e. position title) rather than a rank. For a brief period, during the 1950s Lieutenant-General was renamed General (General having been replaced by CommandantGeneral) but they soon reverted back again to the old titles. Rank Insignia Prior to 1958 A Tudor crown over a Bath star over a crossed sword-and-baton. 1958-1995 Three castles over a crossed sword-and-baton. 1995-1998 Three 9-pointed stars over a crossed sword-and-baton. April 1998-2002 Four 9-pointed stars over a crossed sword-and-baton.

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General c.1914-18

General c.1940

General c.1952

General c. 1968

General 1994-1998

General20 1998-2002

Usual form of address General (English) or Generaal (Afrikaans) Abbreviation Gen. in English and genl. in Afrikaans.

The South African Air Force is established Sunday, 1 February 1920 On 1 February 1920, the South African Air Force was established. This made it the first air force of the Commonwealth, with Lt-Col. Pierre van Ryneveld appointed Director of Air Services. The origin of the South African Air Force can be traced back to 1912, when the Union Defence Force (UDF) The rank of “brigadier” in the SA National Defence Force was elevated to brigadier-general and thus requiring the other three general ranks to each get one more star. In the SAPS a police brigadier stays a “brigadier” but all the police general ranks have received an extra star – HBH. 20

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was formed. This formation included the South African Aviation Corps (SAAC), which was formed as part of the Active Citizen Force (ACF). In April 1914, six pupils (with the probationary ranks of lieutenant in the ACF) were sent to England to undergo further training. Five of them eventually qualified. When World War I broke out in August 1914, these pilots were granted permission to join the newly formed Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The number of South Africans in the RFC eventually reached approximately 3,000, with 260 active-duty fatalities. These pilots took part in aerial reconnaissance and artillery spotting missions over France during the war. In 1921 the SAAF bought a site east of Roberts Height (later Voortrekkerhoogte and now Thaba Tshwane), near Pretoria. Here the first aerodrome for the SAAF was established and was named Zwartkops. The SAAF is, next to the Royal Air Force (RAF), the world's second oldest air force. The first operation of the South African Air Force was in 1922, when it helped to crush the Rand Revolt, an armed uprising by white mineworkers. The SAAF bombed targets around Johannesburg and lost some aircraft to ground fire. Col. Sir Pierre van Ryneveld was shot down, but he survived. From 1966 to 1989, the SAAF was committed to the Border War, which was fought in northern South West Africa and surrounding states. References: • Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds) (1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 1. • Aircraft.co.za, South African Air Force established, from AIRCRAFT, [online], Available at aircraft.co.za [Accessed: 25 January 2009]. Last updated: 16-Jan-2014. Reference: http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/south-african-air-force-established

SADF in Angola The Battle of Cassinga: Mr Jim Harwood South African Military History Society: Cape Town Branch: Newsletter No 461 - February 2018 Our speaker on 18 January 2018 was Mr Jim Harwood, whose topic was the SADF attack on Cassinga on 4 May 1978. Cassinga was a mining town in Angola some 260 km north of the then South West African border. Our speaker was, at the time, a Second Lieutenant commanding a platoon in 1 Parachute Battalion and took part in the attack in that capacity. He introduced his talk by explaining that SWAPO claimed that Cassinga was a refugee camp for 600-700 refugees whereas the SADF believed it was attacking a PLAN headquarters and logistics base. Mr. Harwood pointed out that the people at the “refugee camp” were able to pin down the SADF for about five hours using anti-aircraft weapons and other weapons. Our speaker said that he had always believed that his wife was the first person outside the SADF personnel to learn of the attack on Cassinga. She had heard the news from a friend who had attended an Editor’s briefing which had been told that the SA forces had invaded Angola that morning. However, both Col Breytenbach and Maj Gen Phillip Pretorius had made similar claims. The secret was well-kept and certainly surprised SWAPO – and South Africa. He then briefly discussed the UN Resolution 435. 86


Why an airborne attack? He explained that a vertical envelopment – outflanking the enemy by going over his head – was the only option at Cassinga because the base was too far from the border for a conventional mechanised force to attack without alerting the enemy and risking heavy casualties. It had been postponed earlier and our speaker remembers wondering whether it would be postponed again while he was in the aircraft on its way to Cassinga. The plan was to attack the parade ground at Cassinga at 0805, when the troops would be attending the morning parade. The SAAF used Canberra and Buccaneer bombers which dropped a mixed load of high- explosive bombs and small, round, rubber-coated bombs which were designed to bounce and explode at waist height. These were originally dropped from choppers (helicopters) and had been originally developed by the Rhodesians – and were very effective anti-personnel weapons. 12 The SAAF arrived on time and dropped their loads on target. Some of the bomblets detonated too quickly but most worked as designed. The attack was successful and left the parade ground covered with many dead and wounded. The survivors, both wounded and unwounded were left in a state of shock. The PLAN Commander in Chief, based at Cassinga, fled and remained missing all day. The Buccaneers used WW2 ordnance which made a great deal of noise and destroyed a number of buildings, but left large craters used to good effect by the defenders later. Their most important target was the HQ complex which had not been identified by the photographic interpreters and so was not attacked. The paratroops were carried in six SAAF C130 Hercules and C160 Transalls and arrived on time. Commanded by Col Jan Breytenbach, they numbered only 370 men, the maximum number that could be evacuated by the 19 SAAF Super Frelon and Puma helicopters operationally available. This part of the operation was marred by a number of critical mistakes made by Military Intelligence and the SAAF. The aerial photographic interpreters mistook the height at which the photographs of Cassinga were taken. They used the wrong scale and miscalculated the distances on the ground. As a result, the transport pilots dropped their paratroopers in the wrong places. In addition, the photographs had been taken during the dry season but the Calonga River was now full and fastflowing. Some paratroopers were dropped on the wrong side of the river as a result. When Col Breytenbach landed, he found that his men had not been dropped correctly; he promptly improvised accordingly and swung the plan of attack round from south to north. Mr Harwood described his parachute descent and how he had steered his parachute away from the river, landing in waist-high elephant grass. His canopy covered his face and for a while he was tempted to just stay there. His description of what then ensued was based on his personal experiences. He explained that the SADF expected a paratrooper to fold up his parachute and bring it back with him. Somewhat impractical, when he was already carrying a heavy weight of ammunition and other equipment and going into combat. This was an order ignored by the troops. He described the smell of cordite, the noise of weapons being fired and noted that some of these were heavy weapons – 14.5 mm anti-aircraft guns and even 23 mm guns. Some of these had been firing at the aircraft and the dropping paratroops, who noted bullet holes in their parachutes. SWAPO had not had much training in anti-aircraft shooting. Enemy snipers were shooting from trees and elsewhere and had to be taken out. He described his surprise when an enemy soldier who surrendered turned out to be a woman. Other women encountered later were made of sterner stuff and fought to the death. In the enemy vehicle park a bus marked St Mary’s Mission was found. This had been hijacked with a load of children and taken to Cassinga. Some of these later pleaded with the South Africans to take them back to South West Africa. Our speaker explained that his platoon was pinned down by fire from the enemy trenches which were strongly held and in very flat ground. A number of officers had come along “for 13 the ride”. One of these was Major X (name withheld), who had been Mr Harwood’s training officer some 12 years earlier. He did not have the red dot 87


indicating an operational jump opposite his name so had come to earn one at Cassinga. Our speaker described him as wandering around “like Audie Murphy”, an American war hero who later became famous as a Hollywood actor in Westerns. He was not wearing operational kit and was everywhere getting in the way. (Author Willem Steenkamp, in his eloquent way of speaking, interjected a rather risqué Afrikaans saying in his typical Namaqualand drawl, pertaining to such a character of a superfluous nature, which had the audience in stitches before our speaker could continue.) Our speaker explained that South African Paratroopers were initially not able to attack tanks. Most fortuitously, the captain of a Greek freighter transporting weapons from Cuba to Mozambique drifted into South African waters and was taken to Durban. Its hull and cargo were examined and the weapons were confiscated. A great number of RPGs (Rocket Propelled Grenade Launcher) were among the cargo and these were put to good use by the SADF at Cassinga. The Russian instructions on the RPGs warned that they should not be carried by paratroopers. The SADF paratroopers chose to ignore the risks of jumping with such hazardous weapons and succeeded in landing safely with them by following the advice of an instructor, carrying them in the top part of their webbing where one can safely carry even a bottle of whisky, according to Mr Harwood. The RPGs undoubtedly saved the South Africans from suffering heavy casualties when they were attacked by enemy tanks immediately before their extraction at the end of the operation. Our speaker next described the very effective manner in which the 14.5 mm anti-aircraft guns were used in a ground role at Cassinga and the great gallantry of the enemy personnel who manned them, despite the heavy losses they suffered. If the gunners became casualties. The crew never hesitated to remove the bodies of their dead comrades and carry on firing the guns. He noted that Cassinga contained a faction of anti-establishment SWAPO cadres and believes that they were the heroic gunners. He mentioned Lt Rick Venter who succeeded in firing his mortar effectively in spite of not having a base plate. It took a long time and much hand to hand fighting to clear the enemy trenches. Many of our soldiers distinguished themselves during this phase of the operation. Our speaker then described the role played by Brig Z (name withheld) in the operation. As Col Breytenbach had been appointed commander of the operation, there was no need for the brigade commander to be there. He took over Col Breytenbach’s signaller with his radio. This was the only radio able to communicate with the operational HQ at Ondongwa. He took it upon himself to order the helicopters to start evacuating the troops prematurely even though the capture of Cassinga had not been completed. When the extraction helicopters arrived, out climbed another visitor – Lt Gen Constant Viljoen, Chief of the Army, wearing his general’s beret with full insignia. This prompted a somewhat presumptuous soldier to say to him “general are you mad? Take off your rank badges”. (The original Afrikaans version was a lot brusquer and to the point.) The general, however, took the rebuke in the right spirit, and obeyed with alacrity. The personnel extracted first included the sappers, whose demolition work had not been carried out, and the wounded, which were taken to the SAAF helicopter holding area in 14 Angola, where there were no medical facilities. In the original plan they should have been taken back to SWA directly. The Cubans and Angolans at Techamutete had heard gunfire and explosions coming from the direction of Cassinga and were on their way to investigate. Fortunately for the South Africans, the local commander had to wait for permission from the Cuban general in Luanda and this took some time. The SA Delta Company whose main role was to support the antitank platoon in the event of such an intervention, were among the first troops to be evacuated on the Brigadier’s orders. About 200 South Africans remained. The helicopter extraction had been carefully planned with troops allocated to specific helicopters, but the Brigadier’s intervention had turned it into a shambles. The danger facing the remaining South Africans was increased when the anti-tank platoon was ordered to withdraw from its position a kilometre south of Cassinga to one just outside the base.

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Our speaker described the destruction of the enemy magazines, munitions sheds, etc., which had to be done with hand grenades as the sapper demolition teams had been extracted prematurely. He recalled a colleague who had dropped with a land mine. This he buried in the road in the path of the oncoming enemy tanks. The mine and the RPGs did excellent work, but it was the SAAF that saved the day. Col Breytenbach had requested air support from Ondangwa and two Mirages were scrambled. A Buccaneer flown by Capt. Dries Marais was diverted as well. After an unsuccessful attack by a Mirage on a tank, Capt. Marais suggested that the Mirages should concentrate on the BTRs. This proved highly successful and 2 trucks and some 16 armoured personnel carriers were destroyed before the Mirages had to return to Ondangwa to refuel. Capt. Marais shot up an antiaircraft gun and ran out of ammunition. He then flew very low over the tanks and terrified their crews to the extent that they bailed out and fled into the bush. His aircraft had been hit 17 times but he safely got back to Ondangwa and was awarded the Honoris Crux, South Africa’s highest award for bravery in the face of the enemy. Thanks to the SAAF, the paratroopers were all, with the exception of five men, extracted safely. Major Church by chance saw one of the five and returned, landed and loaded all five. One of the helicopters had an extremely close shave when it avoided being hit by shells passing both above and below it. The aftermath of the operation was a disappointing anti-climax. Instead of being congratulated on their highly successful operation and their gallantry, the men were asked what they had brought back with them as souvenirs. These had to be handed over. Our losses were four killed, one MIA (missing in action) during the landing and twelve injured. SWAPO casualties are not known. Some while later, the men who took part in the battle were invited to a party at which they were able to talk informally to generals Magnus Malan, Chief of the Defence Force, Constant Viljoen, Chief of the Army and Bob Rogers, Chief of the Air Force, and tell them about their experiences at Cassinga. The distinguished military historian and internationally renowned author, Maj Willem Steenkamp, recalled his own research on the battle and delivered an eloquent vote of thanks to the speaker. The Chairman then presented Mr Harwood with the customary gift. •

Thanks to Mr Johan van den Bergh (Cape Town).

Family of SA paratrooper relieved that his remains are coming home after 40 years 2018-04-14 13:20 The remains of Andries Human have allegedly been found near Cassinga - Marlise Scheepers https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/the-lord-answered-my-prayers-family-of-saparatrooper-relieved-that-his-remains-are-coming-home-after-40-years-20180414

The ‘Battle’ of Cuito Cuanavale [WEL EN WEE VAN DIE MILITÊRE VETERANE: BERIG 05/2018 07/04/2018] “22. Presentation at Conference in Angola in 2015 In last week’s edition of the Newsletter the presentation by Dr Willem [Kaas] van der Waals of the Paratroopers on 26/08/2015 in Luanda at a conference with the theme ‘Angola: 40 Years of Independence and National Liberation’ was mentioned. Kaas delivered his lecture on Op Savannah, while the next lecture was delivered by three retired Cuban generals who used the opportunity to sprout 90 minutes of anti-racist propaganda, which included reference to the ‘... glorious heroic Battle of Cuito Cuanavale’. 89


Kaas was prepared and received permission to deliver the following paper, which has been shortened slightly: The ‘Battle’ of Cuito Cuanavale. In the Preface of my book I do not refer to the ‘Battle’ of Cuito Cuanavale as there was no such battle. This so-called battle is a figment of the imagination and forms part of the propaganda war that South Africa lost, not only following the skirmishes East of the Cuito River in early 1988, but also as it did after Angolan independence in 1975. The ‘battle’ is a myth about the ‘heroic defense of Cuito Cuanavale’. This still forms the cornerstone of the Castro propaganda that still holds sway with our present ANC government, as well as a number of pro-Cuban academics. It was a brilliant propaganda offensive which succeeded in placing that idea firmly in the public mind. The SADF was hesitantly and incrementally, as during Op Savannah in 1975, drawn into the cauldron. A regime change in Luanda was never part of South Africa’s objectives. It was never planned to capture Cuito Cuanavale, except if it should fall into their hands with very little fighting. In the first phase of the campaign we simply wanted to stop the FAPLA offensive against UNITA, which was done successfully, but then President PW Botha ordered a counter-offensive on 29/09/1987 to hit the FAPLA so hard that another anti-UNITA offensive before the end of 1988 would be impossible. In operational terms this meant that the Angolan forces had either to be destroyed East of the Cuito River or driven across it, that the river had to be prepared as a defensive position and turned over to UNITA, allowing the SADF to pull back. In so doing we lost tanks and were unable to overcome FAPLA’s defence East of the Cuito River. A check mate developed but then Cuba started to pose a threat to Northern Namibia with a southward march with its 50 Div. It was a brilliant strategic move which contributed to our willingness to engage in serious negotiations that should not produce a loser but only winners. In Dec 1988 these negotiations were completed with the New York accords. So, what about the ‘Battle’ of Cuito Cuanavale? Leopold Scholtz in his book The SADF in the Border War summarizes it as follows: “As far as the Cubans and South Africans are concerned the ‘Battle of Cuito Cuanavale’ was a draw. In a sense both won and neither lost. Regarding FAPLA and the SADF, the South Africans won so far on points that it was almost a knockout”.

The Myth of Cuito Cuanavale Brigadier Willem ‘Kaas’ van der Waals SD, SM, SADF HQ, late 1 Para Bn Having retired from the (Pretoria) city council in 2006, one of my personal priorities was to visit Angola, where the civil war had finally ended with Savimbi’s death in February 2002. This visit was not to take place until August 2015. Invited by the Chief of Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces to deliver a paper at a conference on Angola’s forty years of national liberation and independence, I visited the Angolan capital and its surrounds from 21 to 27 August. The title of my paper was ‘Operation Savannah: South African military support to UNITA – the beginning (23 September-15 November 1975)’, which I delivered on the second day of the conference. Speakers included representatives of the former liberation organisations; Portugal’s General Pezarat Correia de Carvalho who spoke on the difficult decolonisation process in Angola; Professor Dr Vladimir Shubin on Soviet support to Angola’s liberation struggle, and following on my paper, three Cuban generals led by Major General Betancourt Correia Cruces presented a paper entitled ‘Operation Carlota in the context of the Cold War (1975-1976)’. As I had expected the Cubans, speaking in Spanish whereas I had delivered my paper in Portuguese, did not limit themselves to 90


the period 1975 to 76, nor to their fifty-minute time limit. They continued to describe their ‘glorious defeat of the South African armed forces’ at Cuito Cuanavale during the period from the end 1987 to early in1988, leading to Namibian independence. I requested the permission of the conference session’s chairman to comment briefly on the Cuban presentation. Apologising to the Chief of the General Staff, General Nunda, for taking up more time, I stated that, in the interest of truth and historical correctness, certain Cuban statements, especially about the so-called battle of Cuito Cuanavale, should not go unchallenged. I referred to the preface of my book’s Portuguese edition and quoted: ‘Various Soviet and Cuban-backed offensives aimed at destroying UNITA in its south-eastern Angolan stronghold failed, largely due to South African intervention. The last of these major offensives, commencing in August 1987, drastically changed the strategic situation in Southern Africa. UNITA and the South African Defence Force inflicted a heavy and demoralising defeat on the Angolan armed forces of the MPLA and their Russian and Cuban supporters after which a stalemate ensued.’ There was no ‘battle’. It is an anti-South African propaganda myth and part of the propaganda war we lost. As many of the officers present would know, we are people of the deed rather than the word. I agreed that this was a brilliant propaganda offensive establishing the ‘battle’ theme firmly at an international level. We should however look at the hard facts. Propaganda is based on just some useful and selected facts. However, all the full and objective facts present a different picture: the hard truth. I then suggested that a similar conference should perhaps deal with the theme of the ‘Battle of Cuito Cuanavale’, objectively and unemotionally with the participation of the commanders involved (if still alive) and internationally recognised historians. During a cocktail function after the conference various Angolan officers and academics congratulated me but also stated that they supported the Cuban interpretation of the ‘battle’. They did however welcome the possibility of a future conference on the theme. Interestingly, one Angolan general remarked to me that it still required three Cuban generals to handle one South African. Just before leaving Luanda the next day I was informed that a conference was being planned for early 2016 with myself and three other South Africans being invited to participate. Needless to say, no conference has taken place yet (late 2017), the Angolans and Cubans as well as certain South African politicians cannot afford the myth to be exposed. •

Printed with permission of both Brig-Gen Van der Waals and Jonathan Pittaway. This article will appear in Mr. Pittaway’s new book on the Recce’s in the series “the men speak”.

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A Russian View of Cuito Cuanavale: J Pittaway

Volunteer Wanted We are looking for a volunteer graphic artist to help us with art work regarding uniforms, medals etc of the South African Police and antecedent police forces in South Africa.

1881: Boer shells

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The Observation Post The day the SAAF nearly killed Jan Smuts: Peter Dickens Not a lot of people know this, but the South African Air Force (SAAF) nearly killed General Jan Smuts in a 'Blue on Blue' incident - military speak for when you fire on your own forces. The incident also says a lot of Jan Smuts' character - so what happened? Prior to the war, Oswald Pirow was the Defence Minister under the Hertzog regime, he was also a key player in the establishment of South African Airways (SAA). As an ardent supporter of Nazi Germany and the Nazi cause himself he had a keen relationship with Nazi Germany. He toured Germany on military inspections, also buying German military hardware on a number of occasions. As a result, both the SAA and SAAF at the beginning of the war found themselves equipped with German-made aircraft. One particular aircraft was a German-made bomber made by Junkers, and it was used by both Axis forces in World War 2 and by South African forces - it was the Ju-86. The difference between the two were slight adaptations, paint scheme and markings. East African Campaign At the onset of Word War 2, the South African Air Force's 1 Squadron moved north in May 1940 for operations against the Italians in East Africa, six Hawker Fury fighter aircraft were part of the unit’s equipment. Arriving in Mombasa, Kenya in June 1940, six ex-RAF Fury Is were added to their equipment that August, with 16 more arriving between October and January 1941. On October 27, 1940, the Furies first saw combat for the first time when four Italian Ca.133s from 8 Gruppo, 25 Squadriglia, attacked their airfield.

SAAF 1 Squadron Hawker Fury During October, 2 Squadron was formed out of 1 Squadron, with 9 Furies. On October 31, two Furies from this unit came very close to shooting down two SAAF Ju-86s carrying some very important VIP's travelling to the SAAF air-base to consult on South Africa's conduct in the war to date. The VIP's included General Jan Smuts (South Africa's Prime Minister and Commander-inChief), Sir Pierre van Ryneveld, Major General Alan Cunningham, and Major General GalmenAusten. Within twelve hours of arriving at Nairobi, General Smuts, General Cunningham and the Chief of the South African General Staff were on their way by road to Gilgil, here they were given a rousing reception by 2nd S.A. Infantry Brigade Group whose troops were inspected by General Smuts before 93


his party lunched in the Brigade Officers' Mess. The party then drove on to Nakuru airfield to meet Lieutenant-Colonel S.A. Melville and men of No. 1 Bomber Brigade and 40 Squadron, SAAF. Sleeping that night at Nanyuki, on 31 October 1940 General Smuts's party left at sunrise, not in the Lodestar they arrived in but in a Junkers 86 bomber of the South African Air Force piloted by Captain D. B. Raubenheimer and accompanied by a second Junkers 86 carrying war correspondents, the formation also included a Dragon Rapide and an escort of two Hurricanes. The aircrafts were making straight for Garba Tulla but changed course because General Smuts had been specially asked to fly over Archer's Post airfield, headquarters of No. 11 Bomber Squadron, SAAF. Later on, 31 October 1940 the South African Air Force Ju-86 bomber/transports carrying the VIP contingent did not follow specified procedures to identify themselves as 'friendly', as they passed over Archer’s Post. The formation did not signal the specified recognition signal, which consisted of lowering the undercarriage and waggling the wings. SAAF Ju-86 Under the impression that the formation was Italian, three SAAF Hawker Furies of 2 Squadron’s ‘D’ detachment, led by Captain J. Meaker, were scrambled and intercepted the formation. Captain Meaker brought his formation into position quickly and closed to open fire on the bombers. As he manoeuvred to engage the right-hand aircraft he noticed that it had twin rudders and climbed slightly to look at its markings, which he immediately recognized. He pulled up and away to the right, but Lieutenant Doug Pannell, flying on his leader's starboard side, took this to indicate that Captain Meaker had finished his attack. Meaker had no radio so could not warn the other two Fury that they were SAAF aircraft and he watched in horror as Lt. Pannell went in on attack and opened fire, Pannell only realised his mistake as he broke away. The pilot of the third Fury did not open fire, and fortunately the Junkers was not shot down. The Ju-86 was green, in their original Luftwaffe colour. All SAAF Ju-86 had a 600-series number had a solid nose cone. It however carried the distinctive South African Orange White and Blue markings and the British and Commonwealth roundel scheme. SAAF Ju-86 Close Call When they landed 8 bullet holes were found in the fuselage and wing root of the SAAF Ju-86 Smuts was flying in, one of the bullets had even passed between Jan Smut's legs. In Smuts' typical stoic, calm and implacable nature he even made light of the entire incident and there were no recriminations to the SAAF pilots involved. Smuts had been in two previous wars, the 2nd Anglo Boer War and the 1st World War, it was not the first time he faced fire and he understood the hazardous nature of warfare, his horse had even been shot out from under him Moodernaar's Poort during the 2nd Anglo Boer War. Later in the Second World War the SAAF aircraft fleet was modernised somewhat and equipped with more distinctive Allied Hawker Hurricane and Spitfire fighters, Smuts was later to use an American made Lockheed Lodestar when visiting South African troops on the ground and air-bases.

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Field Marshal Smuts standing in front of the aircraft in which he made his flying visits. It was an exSouth African Airways Lockheed Lodestar, which retained its natural metal finish when it became No 234 of the South African Air Force. IWM Copyright In Conclusion There are still some Afrikaners in the South African conservative right who would wish that the SAAF had indeed killed Jan Smuts, but in truth is he was a very popular World War 2 leader. His popularity did not only extend the Allied forces, mainly British, American and other Commonwealth countries, it also extended to South African forces involved in World War 2 and domestically, especially amongst white volunteers fighting the war, half of which were of Afrikaner extract. Smuts' contribution to the outcome of the Second World War is immeasurable, his membership of the Imperial War Cabinet and his position as Winston Churchill's personal advisor went a long way to winning the war for the Allies. An early death of Smuts would have had ramifications on how the war was fought and won. It also remains a fact that even after the war when Smuts lost the General Election to the Afrikaner Nationalists, he still commanded a majority vote from the white electorate and only lost the election on a constitutional seat basis. Related work Oswald Pirow; South Africa’s ‘Neuordnung’ and Oswald Pirow Jan Smuts; “The force of his intellect has enriched the wisdom of the whole human race”- the death of Jan Smuts. Jan Smuts; A true statesman, Jan Smuts addressing the British Parliament – 1942 95


Written and Researched by Peter Dickens, with thanks and contribution from Sandy Evan Hanes and Warren Williamson. References include 'Jan Smuts - Unafraid of Greatness' by Richard Steyn, Image copyright of Smuts next to Lockheed - Imperial War Museum, Image of SAAF Ju86 courtesy Tinus Le Roux's SAAF Legends website.

The Observation Post: Who is Peter Dickens? Peter Dickens works closely in South African military veteran’s affairs, he is the President of the South African Legion of Military Veterans – England Branch and he is also the Chairman of the Royal British Legion – South African Branch. In terms of military experience, Peter served in the South African Army as an Operations Officer as a National Serviceman, then served in the Citizen Force a Convoy Commander and finally as a SSO3 in 15 Reception Depot – Gauteng Command handling National Service and then Voluntary Service intakes and recruitment, he has a Personal Services Corps mustering and holds the rank of Captain. Peter has a B Soc Sc from Rhodes University in South Africa majoring in Economic History and Economics and a H Dip Marketing from the University of South Africa. He has three broad passions – underwater wreck diving, flying light aircraft and military history. He is currently living in both Hermanus, South Africa and Bicester, United Kingdom, hopping between the two countries working on a Craft Distillery start-up and in the FMCG Beverage Marketing business.

Rommel’s aide-de-camp was a South African: Peter Dickens It’s a little-known fact, one of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s key officers, a person in his ‘Inner Circle’ and his personal advisor and aide was in fact a South African. Very few South Africans joined the Nazi military forces during the second world, there are a smattering of South West Africans (now Namibia) who joined Nazi Germany’s armed forces, which is understandable given South West Africa used to be a German colony prior to World War 1 and they were of German heritage. A handful of South African Prisoners of War even joined or were coerced to join the Waffen SS during the war itself. However, there are only two South African nationals who up-front joined the German Armed Forces proper, they can be regarded as ‘traitors’ by the purest definition of the edicts of war and would have regarded as such during the war. Both of them were allowed to re-settle in South Africa after the war, and both of them enjoyed amnesty and prosperity under the National Party government. One is well-known – Robey Leibbrandt, his story as a Nazi insurgent to destabilise the South African war effort by trying to ramp up Nationalist Afrikaner militarist opposition to the war and subsequent capture is well documented, so too his treason trial and subsequent release and amnesty by the National Party (who during the war supported the Nazi cause). However, little is known of this second Wehrmacht officer – Heinz Werner Schmidt. Heinz Werner Schmidt 96


To be fair to Heinz Schmidt, he was born in South Africa to German parents, and at a very young age he moved around Africa with his family, classified as ‘volkdeutsche’ spending more of his formative years and completing his university education in Germany itself, becoming a dual national with a German citizenship in addition to his South African one. Leaving South Africa at the age of 4 he regarded himself as German above all and was swept up with the rest of the country in the

euphoria of Nazism. When war broke out, he was in a unique position – he had a choice. He could choose to fighting for either South Africa and the Allied cause or Germany (as his dual citizenship allowed), he even had the choice of sitting the war out in South Africa (service was voluntary), he chose to his convictions to support the Nazi cause and became a German Army officer. General Rommel (centre) briefing fellow officers At one point in the war he found himself in command of Wehrmacht units directly engaging South African Army units and then, more ironically, with Europe and Germany devastated he engaged his South African birth right which gave him sanctuary in South Africa itself after the war. In fact, he built two very successful South African companies and one is a well-known household brand. So let’s examine who Heinz Schmidt was and what he did. Born in South Africa, Lieutenant Heinz Schmidt served in North Africa as Erwin Rommel’s (“The Desert Fox”) personal aid and advisor – an aide-de-camp in military speak. As he was “South African-born” he was therefore considered, in line with military logic, an expert on Africa. Already a veteran of the Polish Campaign, Schmidt joined Rommel’s staff in March 1941 from Eritrea and was subsequently present during a number of battles in Egypt and later Tunisia and was later to write a bestseller depicting his years with Rommel, namely “With Rommel in the Desert”.

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Heinz Schmidt with General Rommel – Schmidt is third from the left.

Werner Schmidt by his own admission was surprised that General Rommel took him on as his advisor as he really did not have a depth knowledge of Africa, however been the only officer in Rommel’s inner circle of officers with a smattering of African heritage he found himself the only man for the job, and he happily took it on. Lieutenant Heinz Werner Schmidt also had a sound combat record, just days before he was appointed as the aide-de-camp to General Erwin Rommel, he was commanding a heavy weapons company. In fact, Schmidt played a key role in overrunning the South African positions on 23rd November 1941 during the Battle of Sidi Rezegh. He found himself in the thick of things with the German Wehrmacht’s 115 Rifle Regiment which lined up to attack the South African’s flank and over ran them. Lieutenant Heinz Werner Schmidt described the scene as follows: “We headed straight for the enemy tanks. I glanced back. Behind me was a fan of our vehicles—a curious assortment of all types—spread out as far as the eye could see. There were armoured troop carriers, cars of various kinds, caterpillars hauling mobile guns, heavy trucks with infantry, and motorized anti-aircraft units. Thus we roared on towards the enemy ‘barricade.’ “I stared at the front fascinated. Right ahead was the erect figure of the Colonel commanding the regiment. On the left close by and slightly to the rear of him was the Major’s car. Tank shells were whizzing through the air. The defenders (editors note: the South African Brigade) were firing from every muzzle of their 25-pounders and their little 2-pounder anti-tank guns. We raced on at a suicidal pace.” 98


Battle scene at Sidi Rezegh November 1941 So, here we have a very unique instance in South African military history a ‘South African’ commanding enemy troops in direct combat against his ‘countrymen’. In an action which devastated South African forces in defeat with the loss of many South African lives. Lieutenant Heinz Werner Schmidt went on to have a very successful stint as Rommel’s advisor for the balance of the North African campaign, and his book on Rommel is regarded as one the most insightful works on Field Marshal Rommel. Post War What happened to Heinz Schmidt and in what actions he took part after the North African campaign is unclear, we know that he lived with Rommel and was even present at his 50th birthday on 15 November 1941. Heinz ended his book with the end of the African campaign – it was about Rommel after all, he did not elaborate on his movements and units in which he served, what his units did or on which front he served (Eastern, Western or Italian) after the Afrika Korps was defeated, and even after Rommel death. What is clear is that Heinz Schmidt survived the war and like many Wehrmacht officers sought sanctuary outside wore torn Germany. Fortunately for Heinz the very Nazi sympathetic National Party came to power in South Africa in 1948, three short years after the end of World War 2. Heinz now chose to embrace his South African citizenship and return to his birthplace, South Africa to restart his life. He moved to a small German community in Natal called ‘New Germany’, located just inland from Durban. ‘New Germany’ was established well before World War 2 in 1848 by a party of 183 German immigrants. With the strong cultural ties to Germany, German social clubs and many German 99


compatriots, this island of German heritage in South Africa proved ideal for Heinz Schmidt to start again, and he did so with great success. He started two companies which are now household brands in South Africa, Pineware and Gedore tools, Pineware makes household appliances under its own brand, anyone who has bought a Pineware toaster, iron or electrical appliance will know it. Gedore tools makes the Wera line of tools. Pineware was sold to Lion Match. By all accounts he was a friendly and charming man, he had many humorous stories of his time with Rommel and was regularly seen at Remembrance Parades in Durban. Heinz Schmidt died in Durban after a short illness, aged 90, in 2007. At the time his holding company business, H. W. Schmidt Industrials, was family owned. In Conclusion There you have it, another tale of a person highly sympathetic to the Nazi cause who found success in post 1948 Nationalist South Africa. He unfortunately (rightly or wrongly) joins Robey Leibbrand, B.J. Vorster and others who enjoyed political or business success in full sanctuary under the National Party government and as a result he was never held account or even investigated as to his actions fighting against his own countrymen. Had this happened under Smuts’ United Party he would surely have become a ‘person of interest’ to the state, especially given his actions directly led to South African deaths. Treason is generally legally defined as citizen ‘taking up arms’ against the country of his of citizenship. In the case of dual citizenship (as was the case with Heinz Schmidt), if the person did not renounce his citizenship of the country he went to war against (which he did not) the usual practice during and after the war was to convict the person of treason, in the other Allied nations – especially the UK, USA and Australia many people like Heinz faced the same situation after the war, especially in the cases where their dual nationals and even nationals had joined the Waffen SS and German Wehrmacht, most received light sentences and fines, in exceptional cases those found guilty of High Treason were executed or handed life sentences. This however did not happen in South Africa after the war and the tenets of the law on treason for a dual national were not tested. The only case of a South African member of the German Wehrmacht which was tested was Robey Liebbrandt, it was during the war itself, and he narrowly escaped the death sentence (Jan Smuts intervened with clemency). The North African campaign was regarded as the ‘gentlemen’s war’ by all forces fighting it, primarily because it was fought according to the conventions. Whether Heinz would have been simply regarded defeated Wehrmacht officer at the end of the war holding a dual nationality, had no recored of war crime and had not violated his South African citizenship rights. And then subsequently allowed to get on with his life in South Africa as a simple veteran is a matter of conjecture – we will never know as it was never challenged. The issue of treachery aside, his book is however a sentinel work on Field Marshal Erwin Rommel – the ‘Desert Fox’ and it gives a unique and valuable historic insight into someone who is arguably regarded as one of the best military commanders of the war. Heinz Schmidt lived with and went to war with Rommel, his story is both very interesting and very unique.

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To give an idea of the value his book from an insight perspective, the famous Rommel quotable quote as to using captured ‘booty’ (enemy equipment) for personal use is thanks to Schmidt’s work. Rommel, whose signature British issue goggles often worn above his visor on his cap said “Booty is permissible I assume; even for a general “. A quote which now finds itself in use in military outfits the world over when reasoning the use of ‘booty’. With that, as South Africans we find ourselves contributing again to a rich military heritage with our own very unique history highlighting of our lessor known past of ‘Nazi’ collaborators and World War 2 Wehrmacht veterans. Related Work Sidi Rezegh; Sidi Rezegh – “The South African sacrifice resulted in the turning point of the battle” Fall of Tobruk; “Defeat is one thing; Disgrace is another!” South Africa’s biggest capitulation of arms – Tobruk El Alamein; “General Pienaar, tell your South African Division they have done well”; The Battle of El Alamein Robey Leibbrandt; A South African traitor & ‘Operation Weissdorn’ The South African Nazi Party; South Africa’s Nazi Party; The ‘Gryshemde’ The Ossewabrandwag; “Mein Kampf shows the way to greatness for South Africa” – The Ossewabrandwag South Africans in the Waffen SS; South African Nazi in the Waffen SS ‘British Free Corps’ Oswald Pirow; South Africa’s ‘Neuordnung’ and Oswald Pirow

Written and researched by Peter Dickens. Reference ‘With Rommel in the Desert’ by Heinz Werner Schmidt and Werner Schmidt’s published obituary.

RSA: INLIGTING | INTELLIGENCE Spioene en Informante: ‘n Polisieperspektief: Genl. Johan van der Merwe Die beginsel waarop spioenasie berus, bly moreel afkeurenswaardig, want dit vereis noodwendig dat die spioen die vertroue van die vyand deur bedrieglike metodes en misleiding moet wen en daarna die vertroue moet verloën. Ek sou derhalwe tussen spioene, wat uit liefde en lojaliteit vir hulle land of saak, bereid is om hulleself aan so ‘n situasie bloot te stel en informante wat vanweë ander motiewe wat dikwels moeilik is om te bepaal, onderskei. In die geval van informante het dit gewoonlik om geldelike vergoeding gegaan, maar in sekere gevalle omdat dit ‘n gevoel van belangrikheid geskep of ‘n behoefte aan erkenning bevredig het. Dit was en is nog steeds in sekere lande die gebruik om ‘n spioen wat betrap word ter dood te veroordeel. In die geval van spioene is die motiewe suiwer en heilig die doel die middele, maar in die geval van informante meesal bedenklik. ‘n Informant wat die vertroue wat hy geniet vir geld verloën, span sy seile na die wind en sal ewe maklik die hanteerder bedrieg. Enige staat is van inligting afhanklik. Enersyds om so ‘n staat teen vyandelike moondhede te beskerm en in staat te stel om die nodige strategiese beplanning en stappe te doen om sy eie veiligheid te beskerm. Andersyds om misdaad in al sy vorms te bestry en die administrasie van die land vlot te laat verloop. Die veiligheidstak van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag het voor 1990 die onbenydenswaardige taak gehad om spioene en informante te gebruik om die land teen die rewolusionêre aanslag van die ANC/SAKP-alliansie en ander organisasies te beskerm. Ofskoon die stryd hoofsaaklik om die omverwerping van die regering en die verkryging van politieke mag gegaan het, is dit onder die vaandel van die bevryding van die onderdrukte swart massa gevoer. Die ANC/SAKP-alliansie en 101


die ander organisasies het geldelike en militêre hulp van die Sowjet-blok en Sjina ontvang wat elkeen hulle eie agenda gehad het. Lede van die veiligheidstak is as spioene gebruik om hulle geledere binne te dring om lewensbelangrike inligting in te samel. Dit was ‘n uiters moeilike taak, want die betrokke organisasies en hulle lede het ander morele en sedelike waardes as die veiligheidstak gehad en die spioene moes noodwendig soms betrokke raak by dade wat daarmee gebots het. Veral vrouens was blootgestel aan seksuele misbruik en het dikwels ‘n duur prys betaal vir die inligting wat hulle bekom het. Die veiligheidstak moes egter noodwendig ook van informante gebruik maak, veral swart informante wat betrokke was by die bedrywighede van die rewolusionêre organisasies. Elke bron, hetsy ‘n spioen of informant, is geëvalueer volgens so ‘n spioen of informant se betroubaarheid. Spioene is gewoonlik as uiters betroubaar beskou en so ook die inligting wat hulle verstrek het. Informante se betroubaarheid is mettertyd aan die hand van die Inligting wat ontvang is, bepaal. Dit het gewissel van altyd betroubaar tot twyfelagtig. So ook is die inligting wat ontvang volgens die omstandighede van elke geval geëvalueer. Vervolgens moes die motiewe van die informant ontleed word om sy hantering daarvolgens te reël. Waar dit bloot om geld gegaan het, moes daar altyd rekening gehou word dat die informant inligting mag fabriseer of ‘n dubbele rol mag speel. Dit was heelwat moeiliker om ‘n informant te hanteer waar ‘n gevoel van belangrikheid of ‘n behoefte aan erkenning die dryfveer was. So ‘n informant se ego moes voortdurend gestreel word. Die hantering informante was veeleisend en tydrowend. Ontmoetings moes in die geheim plaasvind en die informant se veiligheid tot elke prys beskerm word. Die rewolusionêre organisasies het enige persoon wat as informant verdink is, vermoor. Gedurende die tagtigerjare is die halssnoertegniek gebruik om informante op ‘n wrede en onmenslike wyse dood te brand. Waar daar die geringste vermoede bestaan het dat ‘n swart persoon inligting aan die veiligheidstak gegee het, is so ‘n persoon as ‘n “collaborator “ bestempel en met die halssnoermetode vermoor. In bykans 90% van die gevalle waar persone so vermoor is, was die vermoedens ongegrond en die persone onskuldig op ‘n wrede en barbaarse wyse dood gebrand. Ondanks al hierdie struikelblokke het die veiligheidstak daarin geslaag om die rewolusionêre aanslag van die rewolusionêre organisasies te stuit. Ons het informante in die binnekringe van die ANC/SAKP-alliansie gehad. Ons het ons informante die versekering gegee dat hulle bedrywighede tot elke prys geheim gehou sou word. In die geval van lede van die veiligheidstak wat as spioene opgetree het, was dit nie altyd moontlik nie. Hulle moes soms as getuies optree en in sekere gevalle het hulle oor vermoëns en kennis beskik wat vir die veiligheidstak onontbeerlik was. Ons kon derhalwe nie bekostig dat hulle in die massa verdwyn nie. Informante is baie min, indien ooit, as getuies gebruik, want daar was geen manier waarop die veiligheidstak hulle veiligheid daarna kon verseker nie. Dit het dikwels gebeur dat informante inligting verstrek het omtrent politieke aktiviste wat hoogverraad, terreur, moord of aanvalle op swart lede van die Mag beplan het. Die veiligheidstak moes noodwendig alternatiewe maatreëls tref om dit te stuit. Tydens die staatkundige onderhandelinge wat na 1990 gevolg het en wat daartoe gelei het dat die politieke mag aan die ANC/SAKP-alliansie oorhandig is, was die onderhandelaars van die vorige regering òf van al hierdie aspekte onbewus òf het hulle nie getraak nie. Daar is gevolglik geen maatreëls getref om die veiligheidstak teen die gramskap van die ANC/SAK-alliansie te beskerm nie en hulle is aan die genade van eertydse vyande oorgelaat. Derhalwe betaal voormalige lede van die veiligheidstak vandag ‘n duur prys vir die rol wat hulle gespeel het om die rewolusionêre aanslag te stuit.

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Inligting en Spioenasie: ‘n Nasionale perspektief: Brig. Hennie Heymans Inleiding In hierdie beroep word jou suksesse nooit aan die groot klok gehang nie, maar jou mislukkings is ongelukkig voorbladnuus wat selfs weerklank in die parlement vind. Vir ons ou veterane is die “oorlog” verby; ons kan maar net op die stoep sit en mymer oor vergange se dae. Net om mens te wees; en te lewe is al klaar amper lewensgevaarlik! Die mens doen daagliks alles in sy vermoë om te oorleef. Vir oorlewing samel hy inligting in.21 Misdaad weer, is so oud soos die mensdom self. Die bedryf van inligting loop hand-aan-hand met die ontwikkeling van die mensdom, veral wat sy veiligheid en oorlewing betref. Net soos die enkeling smag na oorlewing; moet en wil die staat (gemeenskap) ook oorleef. Om te kan slaag moet die staat ook inligting insamel. Ons praat egter agter die Engelse aan en noem hierdie inligting verkeerdelik “intelligensie” – twak! Intelligensie is in jou kop en het met jou slimheid (IK) te doen. Ons as inligtingsinsamelaars, werk met verskillende tipes inligting; ten einde te oorleef met behoud van sekere waardes en norme of om die vyand te verslaan. Selfs die sakewêreld het ook inligting nodig. So het mnr. Cecil John Rhodes die befaamde historikus en navorser, George McCall Theal, na Portugal gestuur om in die argiewe rond te krap oor die skatte van Rhodesië – lees Monomotapa. (Groot Zimbabwe was glo die hoofstad van die Monomotapa-ryk).

Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR) Mymer ek oor ons befaamde spioene dink ek onwillekeurig aan die pioniers onder leiding van staatsprokureur JC Smuts van die ZAR se Geheime Politie. Die ZAR se geheime diens het baanbrekerswerk verrig. Mnr. HC “Manie” Bredell van die ZARP’s was pres. Paul Kruger se nasionale veiligheidsadviseur.22 Hy het baie aande in die president

se

sitkamer

geslaap23

en

na-ure

telegramme ontvang en hy het besluit wanneer om die president wakker te maak en in te lig oor die oorlogsituasie.

Hierdie is slegs ‘n oorsigtelike geselsie oor die bedryf van inligting – HBH. Daar was nie amptelik so ‘n pos nie, maar mnr. Bredel het die taak van ‘n veiligheidsadviseur vervul. Hy het later pres. Kruger na Europa vergesel en gedurende 1913 die eerste adjunkkommissaris van die SA Polisie geword. Genl. Van den Bergh was later ook die veiligheidsadviseur van die eerste minister –– HBH. 23 Die skerm waaragter hy geslaap het pryk steeds in Krugerhuis, Kerkstraat-wes – HBH. 21 22

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Kapt. Danie Theron Ons het befaamde spioene en verkenners soos kapt. Danie Theron gehad. So lees ek in ‘n bitter ou boek24 – let op die ou spelwyse van selfstandige naamwoorde - die volgende; en ek haal aan omdat lesers die storie interessant mag vind: “A word must be said here of Dantje25 (sic) Theron. He was an Afrikander, but not a Boer.26 He came from the Cape Colony and was a young lawyer. He had none of the characteristics of the Boer and must have been a reversion to some remote French ancestor - a veritable Gascon! No more gallant man ever stepped. He loved adventure for adventure's sake, and danger acted on him like champagne on most mortals. The last time I saw him was about a month before the Boer War broke out. I had been in the Transvaal on secret service, but the Boers were after me and a warrant for my arrest was out. I tried to get out through Zeerust and Malmani, but a friend near Zeerust warned me that I was being watched for. I therefore lay up for a couple of days in his house and got away one night in a "borrowed" cart. I got over the boundary all right, but just after I had crossed it, I found a man with a broken-down bicycle by the roadside. It was Dantje. I offered to help him and take him to Mafeking. He replied by asking me to drive him back to Mooimeisjesfontein (sic) in the Transvaal. I answered that I could not, as there was a warrant out for me in the Transvaal and that the horses and cart were not exactly my own. He roared with laughter and said, ''Are you also a damned spy? There is a warrant out for me in Bechuanaland, and my bike isn't exactly mine either."

He had been spying for the Boers in English territory: so, honours were even. I took him with me to the nearest siding on the railway and then gave him the cart and horses to drive back to the Transvaal and to return them to their rightful owner, which I have since found he did.

While we were driving together, he gave me all sorts of information, not one word of which was true, and I divulged numbers of official secrets, all of which were wholly inaccurate. The only man who suffered was the owner of the bicycle, the front wheel of which was smashed, and which was never returned. Dantje had a great reputation for gallantry in the war; 27 in fact his feats of daring have almost become legendary amongst the Boers. He was killed late in the war at the Gats Rand, and a well-deserved monument to his memory has been erected where he fell.”28

Geen jaar van publikasie word vermeld nie – HBH. Skrywer bedoel seker Daantjie – HBH. 26 Let op die verskil tussen “Boere” (in OVS en ZAR en vandaar “Boere-oorlog”) en “Afrikaners” in die Kaapkolonie – HBH. 27 Trevor, TG: Forty Years in Africa, p. 167) 28 Trevor, TG: Forty Years in Africa, p. 168) 24 25

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Voor-oorlogse kennisgewing dat ‘spioene’ Mafeking moet verlaat. 1913 Stigting van die SAP Aanvanklik was geheime/vertroulike werk – oor agitators, politieke oproermakers, smokkelaars (van drank, wapens en ivoor, goud en diamante) en spioene ens. deur die uniform- en die speurtak hanteer. Reeds toe is van aanbringers, informante en beriggewers gebruik gemaak. Baie van die veiligheidswerk werk is persoonlik deur die kommissaris self hanteer. ‘n Baie ou afdeling was die verdenkingspersoneel (Engels: Suspect Staff). Die afdeling van die speurtak het alreeds in die Transvaal Town Police bestaan. Reeds van die begin jare het die SA Polisie se begroting voorsiening gemaak vir geheime werk.29 Ter bevestiging word lt.-kol. HF Trew aangehaal: “Practically the whole of the secret service work of the Union was done by the South African police, and the commissioner, Col. Truter, had a special vote on his estimates to cover this service”.30

29 30

ZA Politie Wet, Wet 14/1912/ 6bis. Trew, 1936: 3

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As lessenaar-offisier was dit geweldig interessant om in die “ou” verdagte lêers te lees, daar was van die verdagtes wat voor die Anglo Boere-oorlog aandag op hulself gevestig het.31 Alles was natuurlik in Engels gewees. (Soos een ou veteraan opgemerk het: “Al die offisiere en speurders in die SAP was aanvanklik Engelssprekend”.) Eerste wêreldoorlog

Bo links: brokkie oor kapt. Ironside en regs foto van George St. Ledger G Lennox alias Scotty Smith afgeneem gedurende 1902. Kom ons by die eerste wêreldoorlog dink ons aan kapt. (later veldmaarskalk) WE Ironside wat in Duitswes bedrywig was - (sien inset).32 Hy kon goed Afrikaans praat en is as sulks aanvaar. Soos ‘n goeie spioen het hy nie as Engelsman uitgestaan nie. Ook in dieselfde teater was die legendariese Scotty Smith bedrywig. Sy regte name was George St. Ledger G Lennox en hy was ‘n kleurvolle karakter – ‘n regte Robin Hood! Daar is ‘n boek oor sy wedervaringe geskryf. Sy diensrekord is in die militêre argief in Pretoria ter insae beskikbaar. Die polisie in Suid-Afrika het selfs ‘n paar Duitse spioene, waaronder ‘n dame, aangekeer tydens die tydperk, aldus luit.-kol. HF Trew.

31

Dit is groot jammerte dat die leggers later vernietig is en op mikrofilm geplaas is. Ongelukkig het die SAP meeste van sy geheime leggers vernietig. Genl. Smuts se dokumente i.v.m. militêre inligting is ongelukkig ook na die NP se bewindsoorname vernietig of uit die land gestuur. Sommige lêers is in Potgieterstraat verbrand terwyl ander geheime stukke deur kol. Powel per vliegtuig na die buiteland gestuur is, aanvanklik eers na Salisbury – HBH. 32 Nongqai: 1952-02-193

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Alexander P Scotland, OBE Ons dink ook aan (later lt.-kol.) Alexander P Scotland, OBE, (alias Schottland; Scotland in Duits vertaal) wat in Duitswes-Afrika gespioeneer het.33 Scotland was selfs lid van die Duitse weermag in Duitswes! Daar is baie oor hierdie veelsydige spioen te lees. Hy was weer tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog vir die Britte diensbaar in MI9. Links: Lt.-kol. AP Scotland (Daily Mail). Scotland, word beskryf as “een van die dapperste en suksesvolste spioene wat ooit deur die Suid-Afrikaanse en Britse regerings in diens geneem is”34 (Sy lewe is ook ietwat vergesog in ‘n rolprent uitgebeeld. Ek het die film op YouTube gesien. Die film is sedertdien verwyder. Slegs die lokprent is beskikbaar). 35,36

Daar het onlangs ‘n boek oor hom verskyn.37 MI5 het destyds geweier dat Scotland sy eie

herinneringe publiseer. Ons het gaan loer wat daar oor hom in wikipedia geskryf is: Wikipedia het die volgende inligting oor Scotland Scotland het (voor die eerste wêreldoorlog) in die dorpie Ramonsdrift gewoon. Dit was op die grens tussen die Kaapkolonie en Duits Suidwes-Afrika. Duitse troepe het sy hoof kliënte geword en hy het in die proses geleer om Duits vlot te praat. Op uitnodiging van 'n Duitse offisier het Scotland by die Duitse leër aangesluit onder die naam "Schottland". In die boek Londen Cage sê hy dat hy saam met die Duitsers aan verskeie veldslae teen die Khoikhoi deelgeneem het. Die Khoikhoi het in 'n opstand teen die Duitse heersers in Duitswes betrokke geraak. Hy het van 1903 tot 1907 in die Duitse leër gedien. Hy het teruggekeer na Kaapstad. Hy is deur dr L.S. Jameson, premier van die Kaapkolonie, weer aangestel as die bestuurder van die regering se handelspos by Ramonsdrift. In die pos het hy aansien by Britse, Duitse en Khoikhoi-magte geniet. Deur sy skakelwerk is ‘n wapenstilstand-

33

Green, Lawrence G: To the Rivers End p 113. Green, Lawrence G: To the Rivers End p 113 - Sien foto byskrif – hoofstuk 6. 35 Film: The Two-Headed Spy – was op YouTube beskikbaar gewees, kyk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOLD-V5D0FU 34

36

In 1957 was Scotland die tegniese adviseur van die rolprent The Two-Headed Spy, met Jack Hawkins in die hoofrol as 'n Britse intelligensie agent met die naam Scotland wat as generaal van die Duitse Wehrmacht, genaamd "Schottland", gedien het. 37 Fry H: The London Cage: The Secret History of Britain's World War Il Interrogation Centre (Yale)

107


ooreenkoms met die Khoikhoi-leier, Johannes Christian, bereik. Hiervoor is hy met die Orde van die Rooi Adelaar vir sy dienste beloon. Scotland het nie-amptelik verslag oor Duitse getalsterkte en ander inligting aan Britse intelligensie in Kaapstad en aan genl. Smuts se agente38 tydens hul gereelde besoeke aan sy hoofkwartier in die bos gelewer. Met verloop van tyd het hy die Duitsers se agterdog gewek. Gelukkig is geen aksie teen hom geneem nie. Hy het sy werk aan albei kante tot 1914 voortgesit, waarna hy deur die Duitsers in die tronk gegooi is. Hy is tot 6 Julie 1915 in die gevangenis te Windhoek geïnterneer waarna die gebied deur Suid-Afrikaanse troepe bevry is. Scotland se pogings om sy manuskrip The London Cage gepubliseer te kry, is deur Britse inligting teengestaan. Hulle het op die bepalings van die Britse wet op amptelike geheime staatgemaak. In 1955 het speurders van die Spesiale Afdeling sy huis deursoek. Hulle het op die enigste drie kopieë van sy manuskrip beslag gelê, sowel as Scotland se aantekeninge en rekords, waarvan sommige amptelike lêers was wat hy aan die einde van die oorlog behou het. Scotland se reaksie hierop was om te dreig dat hy die boek in die Verenigde State sou publiseer. The New York Times het berig dat die Britse regering weens politieke redes en a.g.v. diplomatieke skakeling met die nuwe Bonn-regering nie ou wonde wou oopkrap nie en ook die feit dat Brittanje die Parys-verdrag bekragtig het, waardeur Wes-Duitsland herbewapen sou word." 'n Verkorte weergawe van sy boek is in 1957 in Brittanje gepubliseer met ‘n vrywaring: "The War Office wishes to make it clear that the views and facts stated in this book are the Author's own responsibility. Further, the War Office does not in any way vouch for the accuracy of the facts and does not necessarily accept any opinions expressed in this book.” 39 Duits Oos-Afrika Maj. PJ Pretorius, ‘n bekende wildjagter, was in Tanganjika (Duits-Oos-Afrika) waar hy vir die Unie verdedigingsmag gespioeneer het. Hy het die Duitse oorlogskip “Konigsberg”40 opgespoor sodat dit deur die Britse vloot gesink kon word.41 Kommunisme Daar kan genoem word dat lt.-kol. AE Trigger, KPM, MBE, destyds ‘n speurhoof aan die Witwatersrand vir hoofkonstabel WJ Herbst opdrag gegee het om die kommuniste aan die Rand dop te hou. Genl. IP de Villiers was voor die oorlog reeds besig om kommunisme te ondersoek en Onbekend wie die agente was – waarskynlik lede van die polisie of berede skutters - HBH https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Scotland 40 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_K%C3%B6nigsberg_(1905) 38 39

41

P.J. Pretorius: Jungle Man: An Autobiography of Major P.J. Pretorius

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vir daardie doel die buiteland besoek waar hy gevind het dat Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie in die verband voorgeloop het. Die tweede wêreldoorlog In die tweede wêreldoorlog kry ons vir kaptein Jan Taillard, seker een van die beste spioene wat die land nog in hierdie oorlog opgelewer het. Hy het ‘n Nazi-putsch in Suidwes-Afrika gefnuik en so waarskynlik die verloop van die tweede wêreldoorlog betekenisvol beïnvloed. Die rol van mnr. Louis Esselen42 in die rol van ons inligting en nasionale veiligheid moet nog geskryf word. Kapt. Taillard Mnr. Esselen het ook inligting bv. oor Jopie Fourie en Robey Leibbrandt verskaf. Hy het kapt. Taillard opdrag gegee om die SAP te bedank en “ondergronds” te opereer – dit, sonder dat die kommissaris van polisie destyds van Taillard se oënskynlike bedanking bewus was. Esselen - nie die kommissaris nie – het Taillard getaak om Robey Leibbrandt te arresteer. Kapt. Taillard het die arrestasie van Robey Leibbrandt bewerkstellig by Sesmylspruit en is hy vir die skyn saam gearresteer.43 Interessant tydens die hofsaak het die staat getuienis van ‘n Duitse valskermsoldaat gelei wat toe ‘n krygsgevangene was. Hy het getuig dat hy saam met Leibbrandt opleiding as valskerm-soldaat ondergaan het. Leibbrandt was dus een van Suid-Afrika eerste valskermsoldate. (Nog ‘n vroeë Suid-Afrikaanse valskermsoldaat was ook ‘n polisieman, AO Fred Geldenhuis. Hy het in Italië, nadat hy ontsnap het, sonder enige fisiese opleiding valskerm gespring om in opdrag by die partisane aan te sluit.) Ons moet onthou dat die polisie getrou was aan die regering van die dag en talle polisiemanne is geïnterneer. Kollega het kollega opgesluit en meeste lede is te Koffiefontein aangehou. Tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog het ons in die polisie die sogenaamde “spesiale afdeling” en die “vreemdelinge afdeling” gehad.

42

FD Tothill: The man who ruled in secret: A glance at Louis Esselen (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17532528908537550?journalCode=rahr19) 43

Ek was bevoorreg om oud-hoofkonstabel CB Sterley se storie oor die arrestasie aan te hoor en digitaal vas te lê. Saam met hom het ons ook met luit.-genl. HV Verster oor die saak gesels. Die generaal se vader, lt.-kol. Frank Verster, was adjunkkommissaris van polisie vir die Transvaal en was die aand, in die agtergrond, by die arrestasie teenwoordig. Ek het al voorheen oor hierdie aspekte geskryf en ook waarom Leibbrandt se doodstraf nie volvoer is nie – HBH.

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Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM): Militêre Inligting Reeds vanaf 1938 met die herdenking van die Groot Trek het militêre inligting (MI) begin inskakel op Afrikaner-nasionalisme. Harry Klein was ‘n koerantman en lid van MI. Kol. Thwaites was destyds in bevel van MI en opgevolg deur kol. EG Malherbe44. Teen die einde van die oorlog was lt.-kol. CSB Powell (foto – links) die hoof van MI. MI het behalwe inligting van ‘n suiwer militêre aard, ook inligting van bona fide Afrikaner kulturele bedrywighede soos bv. die Afrikaner Broederbond, AVBOB ens. ingesamel en later ook gefokus op die bedrywighede van die Ossewabrandwag (OB) en Stormjaers.45 Daar was ook informante wat die regering uit eie beweging genader het met inligting. So het ‘n generaal (naam weerhou) van die OB inligting aan minister Harry Lawrence verskaf dat Robey Leibbrandt terug in die land was. Die polisie was nie hiervan bewus nie. Na die oorlog gedurende 1948 kom die Nasionale Party (met ‘n koalisie met die Afrikaner Party van Klasie Havenga) aan bewind. Adv. Erasmus word minister van verdediging en baie Engelssprekende en Britsgesinde offisiere in die UVM kry die trekpas. (Lees gerus Avenge Tobruk deur brig. Hartshorn, 1960.) Koue-oorlog en kommunistiese ekspansionisme Na die tweede wêreldoorlog het die spelreëls verander en ons het nuwe woorde en begrippe bygekry soos “atoombom”, “ystergordyn” en “koue oorlog”. Rusland het onmiddellik na vredesluiting die groot Britse ryk aangedurf en dis geen geheim dat die ryk reeds in Indië gedurende 1947 begin verbrokkel het. Die Suez-kanaal – ‘n geopolitiese wurgpunt vir die weste het in Egiptiese hande geval en die Sowjet unie het homself daar gevestig – dink maar aan die Aswandam wat hulle gebou het – die dam bouery was nie om dowe neute nie! Die geallieerde magte het saam met Rusland teen Duitsland geveg en na die oorlog het talle kommuniste in die UVM en staatsdiens gedien. ‘n Bekommernis vir die regering van die dag. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie het aangepas en polisiemanne in die laat 1940’s na die Verenigde Koninkryk gestuur om veiligheidsopleiding te ondergaan. Daar moet onthou word dat Suid-Afrika deel van die Britse gemenebes was en as sulks het die SA Polisie het sy vuurdoop in teeninsurgensie werk in Palestina en Kenia verkry. Dis werklik jammer dat die SA Polisie nooit ‘n geskiedenis- en navorsingafdeling – ‘n soort van nabetragtingsafdeling - gehad het nie. Soveel korporatiewe geskiedenis en operasionele kennis het verlore gegaan; om nie te praat van “lesse geleer” nie. [In die veiligheidstak het “ou” (tydelike) brigadier Fred van Niekerk die rol vervul. In Port Natal was dit sy tydgenoot Oom (TAO) “Kippie” Geyser wat die polisie-geskiedenis geken het.] Kommuniste was altyd aktief soos blyk uit die kommissaris se jaarverslag46:

Hy was latere jare die rektor van Natal Universiteit en die universiteit weer, het ‘n veilige hawe vir oud-WO2-spioene geword, aldus ‘n NI-kollega (naam weerhou) – HBH. 45 Gaan besoek gerus UNISA se argief en lees die ou Verenigde Party se dokumente – HBH. 46 Bron: Nongqai 1948-10-1354 44

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Boekie: Lenin & Stalin on Propaganda Hier kan u self lees hoe die kommuniste oral insypel. Boekie en gedeelte slegs aangehaal om op hul metodes te wys. Weens ‘n beperking op spasie word slegs ‘n gedeelte aangehaal.

1947: Luitenant At Spengler – ‘n baanbreker en voorloper in die inligtingsgemeenskap

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(Ek wys maar net hoe die kommuniste alles wou rysmier en dat die bedreiging werklik was.) 112


1950: Openbare veiligheid en wetgewing Gedurende 1950 word die kommunistiese party in Suid-Afrika onwettig verklaar. JH Jackson47 was ʼn meester met die “spotpent” – hier beeld hy polisie-optrede uit m.b.t. die wet op die onderdrukking van kommunisme. Dit was vyf jaar na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en Suid-Afrika was deel van die Britse gemenebes. Die Russe, ‘n voormalige bondgenoot, het die ystergordyn opgerig in Europa en die “Koue-oorlog” is voortgesit. Veral Brittanje was bekommerd oor die uitbreiding en invloed van kommunisme in Afrika. “Our task is to raid a room on the ninth floor and break up an alleged underground move48 ment!”

47

As kind wat net begin lees het, het ek en my Vader baie keer saam deur die Nongqai deurgeblaai en ek wou my altyd dood lag vir JH Jackson se sketse. So ek is reeds van vroeg af ‘n bewonderaar van Jackson se werk - HBH. 48 The Nongqai 1950-03-272

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James Bond-era Kom ons in die James Bond-era49 is ons grootste spioene Q018 (Gerard Ludi) en RS 167 (Craig Williamson) seker die bekendste50 en in ‘n mindere mate John Horak (bekend as RS 186 wat as koerantman bedrywig was). (Ek wil bv. nie tans oor Gordon Winter (Q017) en skrywer van die boek: Inside Boss gesels nie.) Maar daar was honderde ander suksesvolle Suid-Afrikaanse spioene, agente en beriggewers waarvan die publiek nie bewus was nie en wat nie die “elfde gebod”51 oortree het nie.

(Let op die begrip: veiligheidspolisie.)

Op hierdie terrein het baie “James Bond’s” gesien en ontmoet. Ek soms maar net geglimlag. – HBH. Beide is afgeneem in die Kremlin se Rooiplein en het groot propaganda waarde tydens die koue oorlog vir ons ingehou – HBH. 49 50

51

“Thou shall not be caught!” aldus Craig Williamson – HBH.

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In die 1960’s word ons met woorde soos “Sanhedrin”, “intelligensie”, “inperkings”, “insurgensie”, “spoke”, “staatsveiligheid”, “hippies”, “blommekinders”, “dienspligontduikers” en “dienspligweieraars” gekonfronteer. Polisiemanne werk egter met “negatiewe” inligting – m.a.w. ons werk met taktiese, inligting wat in verband staan met misdaad – ook veiligheidsmisdaad - bv. wet op amptelike geheime, hoogverraad, spioenasie, terreur en insurgensie. Ons pas die reg toe en vir ons is die bekamping altyd hof-gerig. Net soos bure baklei en oor heinings spring en kwaaddoen, doen lande ook dieselfde. Lande het geen vriende nie – net belange. Lande doen alles in hul vermoë om hul belange te bevorder en sluit soms bondgenootskappe met ander lande. Lande stuur ook spioene om in ander lande te spioeneer. Daar is verklaarde en onverklaarde spioene. Party spioene is verklaar en opereer as diplomate en ander spioene opereer totaal onwettig en ondergronds. Ander amptenare wat as attachés geakkrediteer is samel ook overte inligting in. Die polisie “werk” nie soseer met “sentrale inligting” nie. Sentrale inligting word aan die regering en sekere saakmakende staatsdepartemente voorgelê. Die polisie gee nie om wat ander lande doen of sê nie; buitelandse sake, die weermag, of die nasionale intelligensie neem gewoonlik kennis daarvan. Sou die uitsprake bv. oor handelsbetrekkinge of olie gaan sal die departement van handel of energie sake verwittig word. Die polisie kom slegs ter sprake by ander lande as daardie lande bv. terroriste huisves of oplei of aan misdadigers ‘n tuiste bied. So het genl. Johann Coetzee ‘n groot rol voor en tydens die Nkomati-verdrag gespeel. Die SA Polisie was natuurlik goed ingeskakel in die sogenaamde frontlinie state d.w.s. Swaziland, Botswana, Lesotho, Mosambiek, Rhodesië, Suid-Angola en Malawi. Natuurlik het ons ook baie swart lede wat kamtig uit die SAP gedros het, ook na daardie lande gestuur.52,53 Later het ons goeie skakeling opgebou in die voormalige onafhanklike en nasionale state. Gewoonlik is polisiemanne nie “kwaad” vir mekaar nie en praat hulle in Suidelike-Afrika van oudsher af met mekaar. Natuurlik het ons ook hulp (lees: GELD), opleiding en toerusting verskaf waar ons kon. Administratiefregtelike handelinge Ons het ‘n groot en belangrike administratiewe funksie uitgevoer omdat ons deur verskeie departemente en staatsinstellings geken was vir advies. Na die moord op dr. HF Verwoerd is vorm Z 204 ontwerp en het keurings in die staatsdiens ‘n groot rol gespeel. Die veiligheidstak in samewerking met die destydse SA Kriminele Buro was verantwoordelik vir keurings van velerlei aard. Die weermag en NI het ook almal keurings vanuit ‘n veiligheids- en kriminele oogpunt gedoen. Natuurlik is voorkomende administratiefregtelike stappe geneem; bv. verdagte mense is op die paspoort- en visumvoorbehoudlys geplaas. Misdadigers is gedeporteer en ons die terroriste album Ek was ooggetuie toe kol. “Sterk-Hans” Dreyer lede gewerf en uitgestuur het. [Ek het baie gewonder wat uiteindelik met die lede gebeur het?] – HBH. 53 Hul foto’s en besonderhede is oo in die polisiekoerant geplaas – HBH. 52

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opgestel en so die mense se bewegings dopgehou. Ons is raad gevra i.v.m. uitreiking van paspoorte en visums aan sekere persone. Ons moes selfs mense inperk. Interessant, die eerste inperking het in die Bybel voorgekom – vir maklike verwysing heg ek koning Salomo se inperkingsbevel aan soos dit opgeteken is in 1 Konings 6 vanaf vers 36. “Simeï word doodgemaak 36 Die koning het vir Simeï laat haal en vir hom gesê: “Jy mag vir jou 'n huis in Jerusalem bou en hier woon, maar jy mag nie uit die stad gaan nie, dit maak nie saak waarheen nie. 37 Die dag as jy hier uitgaan en jou voete oor Kedronspruit sit, is jy dood. Dit moet jy beslis weet. Dit sal jou eie skuld wees.” 38 Simeï sê toe vir die koning: “Dit is goed so. Ek sal die bevel van die koning eerbiedig.” Simeï het toe 'n hele tyd lank net in Jerusalem gebly, 39 maar na drie jaar het twee van sy slawe weggeloop na koning Akis van Gat, seun van Maok, toe. Toe Simeï hoor dat sy slawe in Gat is, 40 het hy sy donkie opgesaal en na Gat toe gegaan om sy slawe daar by Akis te soek. Simeï het net gegaan en sy slawe uit Gat uit teruggebring, 41 maar toe Salomo hoor dat Simeï uit Jerusalem na Gat toe was en terug is, 42 het hy hom laat kom en vir hom gesê: “Ek het jou dan 'n eed voor die Here laat aflê en jou gewaarsku: ‘Die dag as jy hier uitgaan, dit maak nie saak waarheen nie, is jy dood; dit moet jy beslis weet.’ Jy het nog vir my gesê: ‘Dit is goed so. Ek het gehoor.’ 43 “Waarom het jy jou dan nie aan hierdie eed voor die Here en die bevel wat ek jou gegee het, gehou nie?” 44 Die koning het verder vir Simeï gesê: “Jy weet in jou hart watter leed jy my pa aangedoen het. Mag die Here daardie leed op jou eie kop laat afkom, 45 maar mag dit met my voorspoedig gaan en mag die troon van Dawid vir altyd bestendig wees voor die Here.” 46 Die koning het vir Benaja seun van Jojada gestuur, en dié het vir Simeï doodgemaak. 47 So het Salomo 'n stewige houvas op die koningskap gekry.54 SAW: Militêre inligting Die militêre mense weer, samel inligting in van die vyandelike bedreiging en om die land te verdedig. Slegs die militêr kan militêre inligting vertolk want krygskunde is ‘n spesialis terrein. Die weermag het ook ‘n teen-inligting afdeling gehad – n.l. om hul eie geheime te beskerm en te bewaar.

Sentrale inligting: Buro vir staatsveiligheid In 1969 is die buro vir staatsveiligheid (BSV) gestig want ons het ‘n sentrale55, siviele, inligtingsorganisasie nodig gehad om inligting hier en in die buiteland in te samel en te vertolk; en so het die buro vir staatsveiligheid (BSV), tot stand gekom en is agtereenvolgens deur die departement van nasionale veiligheid (DNV) en nasionale intelligensiediens (NI) opgevolg. Genl. Van den Bergh (destyds bekend as die veiligheidsadviseur vir die eerste minister) en dr. Niel Barnard was die leidende figure. Die rede waarom die burgerlike inligtingsorganisasie gestig is, is omdat inligting56 ‘n departement baie “sterk” of “magtig” kan maak en met baie mag tot sy beskikking kan die departement homself

54

https://www.bible.com/af/bible/6/1KI.2.afr83 Dink maar aan die Central Intelligence Agency van die VSA – let op die woord “central” – HBH. 56 Kennis is Mag – HBH. 55

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te buitegaan.57 Daarom is ‘n burgerlike organisasie wat geen uitvoerende magte beskik, gestig om inligting in te samel. Die polisie het die primêre gesagsorgaan van die staat gebly.

Republikeinse Intelligensiediens Genl. Van den Bergh het ook ‘n sekere sofistikasie in die nuwe veiligheidspolisie58 en by die Republikeinse Intelligensiediens (RI) ingevoer. Kol. At Spengler was agter die skerms ‘n voorloper in die verband.59 Genl. Van den Bergh en mense soos “menere” Mike Geldenhuys (hoof van RI en gesetel in die “Withuis” te Johannesburg), Johann Coetzee (Durban), Pieter Swanepoel (Windhoek), Joe Bell (Soweto) en Dolf Campbell in Taiwan het die nuut-gestigte RI nasionaal en in die buiteland sy beslag gegee. Mense wat die land gedien het sonder om in die proses hulself te verryk. Ons het deur die jare ook verskeie spioene gearresteer; party was opspraakwekkende sake ander is a.g.v. taktiese redes of “onder die mat ingevee”. Die veiligheidstak is ook verantwoordelik om dossiere waarin spioene aangekla is, vir die hof gereed te kry.

Sanhedrin Nog ‘n belangrike punt in ons inligtingswese was die voormalige veiligheidstak se oggendvergadering – die sogenaamde Sanhedrin60. Die SAP dek die land van Durban in die ooste tot by Hondeklipbaai in die weste en van Beitbrug in die noorde tot by Bredasdorp in die suide! Ons het ook buite die grense van die land inligting ingesamel. Die Sanhedrin is onder voorsitterskap van die veiligheidshoof gehou en die vergadering is bygewoon deur verskillende lessenaar-offisiere van die veiligheidstak (baie was alreeds na 06:00 op kantoor om voor te berei), SAP-Tin (ook vroeg op kantoor veral in die tyd van genl. Wandrag en brig. Viktor), lede van die SSVR (bv. Nas-Gis & Stratkom), lede van militêre inligting, lede van die spoorwegpolisie se veiligheidsafdeling, nasionale intelligensie en soms onderwys en opleiding. Min het die valkoog van die SAP ontgaan. Ons het bykans van elke klipgooi voorval, padversperring, en terreur voorval geweet. Ons het geweet van stakings en boikotte. Natuurlik het ons van overte, koverte en tegniese bronne gebruik gemaak. Miskien is dit tyd om mense soos luit.-genl. HJ “Langhendrik” van den Berg wat die nuwe veiligheidspolisie geskep het en wat daaruit het voortgevloei het: Spioenmeesters (Spy Masters) soos genl. Van den Bergh self, genl. Mike Geldenhuys, genl. Johann Coetzee en luit.-kol. CM Williamson te huldig. Inderdaad ‘n gedugte span. Daar was ook ander spioenmeesters wat lede van verbode organisasies plaaslike en in die buiteland hanteer het. Ons is nie altyd bewus van die gevare verbonde aan so taak nie vir die spioen self en sy hanteerder nie! Dit kan tot die dood tot gevolg hê.

Die nasionale veiligheidsbestuurstelsel (NVBS) Gedurende 197961 tydens die PW Botha-era het die nasionale veiligheidsbestuurstelsel tot stand gekom om die veel-dimensionele aanslag wat teen Suid-Afrika gevoer was, optimaal te koördineer. ‘n Tak strategie (TS), ‘n tak strategiese kommunikasie (TSK) later bekend as stratkom62 om sielkundige oorlogvoering te bedryf, is ingestel. Die TSK het alle stratkom-projekte in die staatsdiens gemoniteer en gekoördineer. Om die totale inligtingspoging te koördineer is die tak nasionale vertolking (TNV) daargestel om alle inligting nasionaal te vertolk en om bv. die daaglikse voorligting na die staatspresident se kantoor Dink maar aan die Gestapo, PIDE of die KGB – HBH. Die veiligheidstak was eers as die veiligheidspolisie bekend – HBH. 59 Aldus genl. Mike Geldenhuys – HBH. 60 In die tyd van genl. Van den Berg het die legendariese brigadier Fred van Niekerk die naam voorgestel, aldus brig. Jan du Preez – HBH. 61 Aldus mnr. AP Stemmet, destyds hoof van die TSK – telefoniese onderhoud op 6 April 2018. 62 ‘n Woord geskep deur genl. Tienie Groenewald aldus mnr. AP Stemmet – telefoniese onderhoud op 6 April 2018. 57 58

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“uit te klaar”. Op die TNV het die polisie, weermag, spoorwegpolisie, NI en buitelandse sake gedien. Die ideaal was dat elke departement – in die geval van die polisie: die kommissaris – weet watter inligting aan die SP voorgelê word. Die jaarlikse nasionale inligtingswaardering (NIW) is deur die TNV opgestel en is vooraf deur saakmakende departemente uitgeklaar. Alle inligting benodig om ‘n strategie (aksieplan) op te stel is van die TNV verkry. Hierdie inligtingstuk is die “strategiese situasie” genoem. Die inligting is dan reeds ook met departemente uitgeklaar. Alle voorligtings by die staatsveiligheidsraad (SVR) en by die werkkomitee van die SVR is ook deur die TNV opgestel. Uitklarings met departemente is nodig omdat een departement bv. ‘n voorval heel te maal buite verhouding kan ruk en die departementshoof en die betrokke minister dan in erge verleentheid kan stel. ‘n Praktiese voorbeeld is bv. ‘n inligtingsdepartement verklaar: “ .... misdaad en terreur het die land onregeerbaar gemaak en die polisie kan die probleem nie die hoof bied nie.” Om nasionaal beheer oor operasies te voer is die “nasionale gesamentlike operasie sentrum” bekend as Nas-Gos in Wachthuis by SAP-TIN tot stand gebring waar alle binnelandse operasies gekoördineer was. Die Nas-Gos het inligting nodig gehad en vir die doel is die Nas-Gis - “nasionale gesamentlike inligting sentrum” - ook by Tin se kantore, sy beslag gekry. Elke dag is ook ‘n “Gisverslag” die lig laat sien. (Die inligting was nodig vir gesamentlike operasies - meestal taktiese inligting.) Alhoewel daar ‘n TNV (en NI) was, was dit nie die polisie se werk om inligting van suiwer staatkundige-, ekonomiese-, maatskaplike- en sielkundige- aard in te samel en departementeel te vertolk nie. (Soms was ons genoodsaak gewees om a.g.v. omstandighede taktiese inligting bv. op maatskaplike vlak onder die regering se aandag te bring, soos as daar nie water aangelê is of daar as daar nie skoolboeke beskikbaar by skole is nie.) Ons is polisiemanne in hart en siel gewees en ons taak was om wet en orde te handhaaf, misdaad te ondersoek, misdaad te voorkom en om te sien na die binnelandse veiligheid. Dit was ons taak. Ons insameling van inligting het gewentel rondom aspekte van terrorisme, kommunisme, rewolusionêre optrede dink maar aan misdade soos hoogverraad en sabotasie. Ons het baie geheime gehad en een van ons take was juis om daardie inligting wat in ons besit is, te beskerm. Vir die doel het ons ‘n teen-spioenasie afdeling gehad. Slot Reg of verkeerd; ons het die land en sy mense na die beste van ons vermoë gedien – indien ons die kans sou kry; sal ons weer die regering van die dag en die mense van die land dien! So ver my kennis strek was die polisie die beste inligtingsorganisasie in die land - myle voor die ander! Ons moes soveel instansies van inligting voorsien! Ons was lojaal en toegewei – ondanks alles het ons ook ‘n paar verraaiers is eie geledere opgelewer – mense wat ons meer skade aangedoen het as ons opponente. Tot op die einde het ons nooit ons beriggewers, agente en spioene verraai nie! Omdat ons met mense werk het vergrype soms voorgekom; maar ons het die regsoewereiniteitsreël waar moontlik eerbiedig. Ons het suiwer volgens die reg gehandel en dieselfde maatstawwe het vir links en regs gegeld. Die eensydige wyse waarop die reg tans toegepas word om die ANC en ander rewolusionêre organisasies te begunstig en lede van die voormalige veiligheidsdienste, veral die veiligheidstak, te vervolg, is ‘n skreiende onreg en verloëning van die beginsels van gelykheid voor die reg soos in artikel 9 van die Grondwet vervat.63

63

Aldus genl. Johan van der Merwe – HBH.

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Skokkende onkunde oor die verlede, propaganda, kwaadwillige verdraaiings en leuens het die waarheid oor die stryd van die verlede in so ‘n mate verduister dat die barbaarse terreur- en gruweldade wat deur rewolusionêre organisasies gepleeg is, nou as heldedade vereer word. Daarenteen word die voormalige lede van die veiligheidstak gereeld in die media verguis en as een van die booshede van apartheid uitgebeeld. 64 Dit was inderdaad ‘n voorreg gewees om lid van die veiligheidstak te kon gewees het. Ons was op ‘n stadium ongeveer 3000 lede gewees. Die voorsienigheid het ons vir die taak uitverkies. Hy wat ons vir die taak geroep het, was getrou en het ons deurgaans bygestaan; alhoewel ons ook soms moedeloos was. Ons het egter alles in die stryd gewerp om met alle (skraal) middele tot ons beskikking diensbaar te wees. Alhoewel die polisie ‘n uiters moeilike taak gehad het, het ons het egter nooit die land, sy mense en die regering verraai nie. Ons was immers die land se eerste linie van verdediging. Ek sluit af met die woorde van my bevelvoerder in Durban se veiligheidstak: “Besef deurgaans dat die taak wat u verrig belangrik is, dat u toekoms en die land se toekoms daarvan afhang. Iemand moet dit doen - wees dankbaar dat die Voorsienigheid goedgedink het om die taak aan u hande toe te vertrou Dink voortdurend daaraan as die probleme te kwaai begin druk. Onthou dan ook dat Hy wat die taak aan u opgedra het u nie alleen sal los nie.”

“Insight: Espionage”: Jonathan Ancer: Sunday Times: 25 June 2018

64

Aldus genl. Johan van der Merwe – HBH.

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STRATCOM | STRATKOM

What Viv (sic) McPherson told the TRC about Winnie Viv (sic) McPherson et. al. | 12 April 2018 Stratcom head says falsifying evidence in criminal investigations was not part of operation's ambit Transcript of the testimony of the former Security Police officer and Stratcom head, Viek McPherson65, to the Truth and Reconciliation Hearings on the Mandela United Football Club, 29 November 201866 MR McPHERSON: I presently hold the rank of senior superintendent in the South African Police Service and I am in office as the head of administrative services for the area of Johannesburg. I have 30 years service in the South African Police Service and have gained extensive experience in the security branch, intelligence unit and covert strategic communications. In the period 1985 up until after 1988 I was the section head of the Africa Desk. The desk comprised of general intelligence work in Africa. In the period October 1988 up until 1989 I was the section head of the foreign desk specialising in general intelligence abroad. In the period 1989 up until 1990 I was the head of covert strategic communications known as Stratcom. In the period 1990 up until 1992 I was a staff officer with crime combatting investigations known as CCI. On the 18th of May 1992 I was transferred to a unit known as International Liaison. This unit was especially established to draw South Africa back into Interpol. The unit was successful and South Africa was accepted as a member of Interpol. I was appointed deputy director of Interpol South Africa. Commissioner John Wright was appointed as director. In 1994 I was appointed deputy district commissioner for Johannesburg North. In 1996 I was appointed as area head of negative discipline. This post comprises the control of discipline in the police force. In 1997 I was appointed in my present post. I accept that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission requires my testimony regarding the period 1989 up until 1990 when I acted as head of covert strategic communications known as Stratcom. Now to understand the concept of strategic Communication it is necessary to present the commission with a general definition of strategic communications. Strategic communication is the planned coordinated execution of a deed and/or the presentation of a message by means of various communication instruments to 1. change the attitudes, values and views of individuals and/or a group of persons and/or to create the required attitude and/or to maintain an existing attitude; 2. to neutralise hostile propaganda and/or to utilise hostile propaganda; and 3. to reach national objectives.

Col. John Louis “Vick” McPherson, SOE, – giving evidence under oath. He spells his nickname as Vick - HBH. This date is not correct. The original testimony at http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/special%5Cmandela/mufc5b.htm gives no dates - HBH. 65 66

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Stratcom can be seen as political warfare as utilised in the Republic of China or psychological warfare as utilised in Europe or civic action as utilised by the Americans or active measures as utilised by the old Soviet Union. Stratcom was a covert operation and was conducted in secret. Stratcom was part of the national management system which came into operation on the 1st of August 1985. The branch, strategic communication which coordinated all projects on a national basis functioned directly under the State Security Council. Authorisation for a project was obtained by presenting a project per memorandum to the Minister of Law and Order and when authorised the project was registered with the branch for strategic communication, which as I said formed part of the State security council structure. All registered projects were presented on an annual basis to the State President for evaluation and authorisation of secret funds. Mr Gelberg, a national investigator with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presented me with five documents and indicated that I will be required to testify about the contents and my knowledge thereof. When I studied these documents, it became clear to me that the documents related to Operation Romulus and Operation Ram. As to amplify the above operations it is necessary to explain the operational structure of Stratcom, the Department of Law and Order through the security branch of the South African Police acted in the following three areas, the educational field, the labour field and the counter-revolutionary field. Operation Romulus was approved nationally under the counter-revolutionary field incorporating Operation Ram. The operation was directed against all individuals and groups within South Africa advocating violence or were considered as revolutionaries and persons against peaceful change. The objectives of Operational Romulus were the following: 1 To question the credibility of the ANC; 2. the promotion of disunity between the ANC and the SACP; 3 the promotion of moderation and South Africa's interests in general. These were the broad objectives of Operation Romulus and Operation Ram. I will now testify to my knowledge of the documents presented to me and my interpretation will be in general because these actions took place after I had been transferred from Stratcom. If we then look at Annexure A, I would refer the honourable Truth and Reconciliation Commission to the document with the heading "Operation Romulus. Dissemination of suitable material, re Winnie Mandela abroad - discrediting of the ANC". This document was signed by the section head on the 20th of June 1991 and I can only interpret the relevance of the contents of this annexure in the light of the objectives of Stratcom. I was not the author of the document. The objective as amplified in the annexure falls within the scope of the objectives of Stratcom. The subject, Winnie Mandela, was considered as a revolutionary. I say the name now, it is Mrs Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, but in the document, they still talk of Winnie Mandela. One of the methods utilised by Stratcom was to disseminate information obtained through intelligence to the media which was in fact the case in this instance. I have no knowledge of the details that were disseminated in this instance, in other words I haven't had access to the actual news reports that I can say what the contents were of the articles.

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If we then look at Annexure B, the heading is "Top secret Romulus incorporating Operation Ram". This appears like a report-back document from an operator. The document is undated and I was not the author of the annexure and I have no personal knowledge of the contents thereof. The document clearly states that the objectives of Operation Romulus and Operation Ram are almost identical. The method applied in this document was to prepare certain information gained through intelligence and then to present it to the local and international media. The issues addressed were in line with the objectives of Operation Romulus. If we then look at Annexure C, sorry for the spelling mistake, it's "Intended media release regarding the ANC's undemocratic policy, ethnic division in the organisation and the existence of and the conditions in the Mbarare detention camp in Uganda". The annexure dated the 8th of November 1990 pertains to arrangements for the return of two exiles. They were brought back under the auspices of an organisation called "Returned exile coordinating committee", also known as RECOC. I was personally involved in establishing this organisation. The purpose was to have a media conference to discredit the ANC for their undemocratic policy and to disclose the circumstances in the ANC Uganda camp. This action again fell within the objectives of Operation Romulus. Then if we look at Annexure D a telex, "Project Romulus, covert ad hoc action to exert pressure on the ANC/SACP". This annexure is unique in that a national action was launched and conducted under Operation Romulus. The instructions were that several aspects had to be addressed, for example an analysis of the latest election of the National Executive Committee and the influence of the SACP, that is the Communist Party, the National Executive Committee, the NEC. I was effective in the placing of an article in the Citizen with the heading "37 Reds elected to top ANC body". See copy of the article annexed to Annexure D, marked Annexure D1. And then the last document is Annexure E, "Commendation for exceptional work no. W87873B W/O PF Erasmus". This document dated the 20th of May 1991 had, after I had been transferred from Stratcom, I am not the author and I have no personal knowledge of the contents at all but this document is a recommendation for excellent service and outstanding performance of Paul Erasmus, who is sitting next to me, who was employed as a Stratcom operator in the Witwatersrand. It was common practice to recommend policemen for outstanding performance and this is a typical example of a letter of recommendation. I am prepared to amplify the above here at this meeting. MR CORNELIUS: Mr McPherson, for the clarity of the Chair and the members of the Commission can you generally, shortly explain how Stratcom operated, gathering of intelligence reports and how it was utilised. MR McPHERSON: Stratcom had to act on intelligence gathered by the security branch. Stratcom in itself formed just another section also within the security branch. Now to obtain intelligence we speak very easily of intelligence but intelligence is actually a process and the process is firstly, the gathering of information and there you have to use different sources, you use human sources who are basically like agents and you also use technical sources, that is the tapping of telephones and post and photography and so forth, and then of course through interrogation you obtain information and then there are many open sources like the newspapers, SABC and other types of documentation that you can lay your hand on.

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All this information is sent to head office security branch where the information is collated, it's analysed and we can get confirmation of the information through sources and so forth and only then the final product can then be regarded as intelligence. T his intelligence again is then passed back to the different branches and the regions and is then being received by the Stratcom operators on the ground that then apply or do something with the intelligence that they have received. MR CORNELIUS: Thank you. Is there anything you wish to add? MR McPHERSON: No thank you. MR CORNELIUS: Thank you Mr Chairman. DR BORAINE: I think this would be an appropriate time to break and have an adjournment for tea. I'd be grateful if you could be back here by twenty past four. Thank you. HEARING ADJOURNS ON RESUMPTION DR BORAINE: Thank you very much. Yes. MR PIGOU: Thank you Chair. Mr McPherson you gave us a definition referring to page 5 of your statement, end of page 4 beginning of page 5, of what Strategic communications, Stratcom was, could you tell the Commission where that definition comes from? MR McPHERSON: Mr Commissioner the definition was worked out by the branch of Strategic Communications under the structure of the State Security Council and I can tell you it took us weeks to come to this definition because every country has got its own definition and its own matters to address through Stratcom and so this is the end result of communications then you can say between the different departments, defence, foreign affairs, national intelligence and then law and order. All of us that worked on Stratcom we came to this definition. MR PIGOU: Mr McPherson could you tell us whether you have in your possession any documentation which actually sets out that definition of what Stratcom is and whether if you do have that documentation you would be prepared to make it available to the Truth Commission? MR McPHERSON: Yes, I do have a lecture on Strategic Communications, covert strategic communications and this definition is in this lecture and in fact I have already made it available to Mr Gelberg. MR PIGOU: Thank you. I want to turn now to Operation Romulus and one of the objectives that you have put down there on page 8 20.2 is the promotion of disunity between the ANC and the SACP. I would then like to refer to your annexure A point 7 where you are referring to Mrs Mandela, or the document is referring to Winnie Mandela abroad, discreditation of the ANC and I quote: "Of cardinal importance and interest is the fact that all the reports indicate that the information is perceived to have been leaked by elements within the ANC and it is clear that a vast amount of suspicion and conflict has resulted within the ranks of the ANC and most importantly within the executive itself".Would you agree that the definition that has been provided on page 8 of your submission referring to 20.2, the promotion of disunity between the ANC and the SACP that in fact that should also read Promotion of disunity within the ANC as well? MR McPHERSON: That is correct Mr Chairperson. MR PIGOU: Thank you. In terms of the objectives of Operation Romulus that you have mentioned, it seems to have been a very broad operation. According to your knowledge in what way did Mrs Mandela fit inside this operation?

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MR McPHERSON: Mr Chairperson to understand it I think, or to put things properly in perspective each department, like the department of law and order we received certain areas as I explained that had to be addressed through Stratcom. Now as I said the three areas were the educational field, the labour field and the counter-revolutionary field. Now we had projects, these basic three major projects registered and it was Project Jackal, that was on the educational field, and then it was Project Omega, that was on the labour field, and then Project Wigwam which was on the counterrevolutionary field. Now you can look at it is like an umbrella project incorporating different operations then sub-operations. Now Operation Romulus was one of those sub operations under Project Wigwam. In other words, in the counter-revolutionary field. Now Operation Romulus was a national operation it was directed at the whole country, not to a specific or at a specific individual, and it is so that Mrs Madikizela-Mandela was one of the what we can say major subjects within the Witwatersrand/Soweto area and therefore she did receive prominent attention through the Stratcom, but then there were hundreds of others over the rest of the country that also received similar attention through Operation Romulus. MR PIGOU: So, it wasn't uncommon though, even though you were dealing with hundreds of potential targets for disinformation that someone as prominent as Mrs Madikizela-Mandela would come under specific attention within Operation Romulus as evidenced by the document that is attached in your annexures? MR McPHERSON: Yes, these examples I think indicate very well that she was a prominent subject with regards to Romulus and she received prominent attention from the Stratcom section in Soweto and the Stratcom section here at the Witwatersrand. MR PIGOU: In your statement that we obtained from you on the 27th of October of this year you stated that if there was a Stratcom operation directed towards Winnie Mandela I was not involved in that, can you explain that statement? MR McPHERSON: Mr Chairperson we from head office, and I was the head of Stratcom I was more involved in setting strategies there and coordinating Stratcom operations throughout the country. So I personally did not get actively involved in Stratcom operations against Mrs Madikizela-Mandela, but we had people, as I said, Stratcom section at Soweto and the section here at Witwatersrand that dealt on her matters personally. MR PIGOU: In your experience Mr McPherson, was there Stratcom involvement in criminal investigations in order to falsify information or evidence to involve people in criminal activities of any nature? MR McPHERSON: Not as far as I know Chairperson. MR PIGOU: And based on the same question was there any experience from yourself in terms of Operation Romulus, was it used to intervene in criminal investigations in order to falsify information or evidence to involve Mrs Mandela in criminal activities such as kidnapping or the killing of Stompie Seipei? MR McPHERSON: Mr Chairperson that would not fall within the ambit of the objects set out by Operation Romulus. I think I can't see any necessity of falsifying criminal information and so forth, because criminal facts must speak for itself. --Source: Official TRC transcript. http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/what-viv-mcpherson-told-the-trc-about-winnie

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Sunday Times: 15-04-2018

Die probleem met die berig is die volgende: Die Sunday Times meld onder meer soos volg: “Details of this elaborate plan were laid bare this week by Vick McPherson, the head ..... StratCom” Vick McPherson is al meer as ‘n jaar gelede. Hy het jare gelede getuienis onder eed voor die WVK afgelê. So ver my kennis strek het Vick deelgeneem aan ‘n film waartydens hy nou aangehaal is. Hierdie film is onlangs op die multi-media netwerke versprei. Kol. McPherson was destyds die seksiehoof van die Stratkom afdeling by veiligheidshoofkantoor. (‘n Seksiehoof het dan onder ‘n afdelingshoof gedien wat op sy beurt verslag gedoen het aan die veiligheidshoof.) Brig. (soos hy toe was) HD Stadler was op ‘n stadium die groepshoof onder wie maj. (soos hy toe was) McPherson gedien het. Die hoof van die stratkom-afdeling (HTSK) by die sekretariaat van die staatsveiligheidsraad (SSVR) was nasionaal in beheer van die interdepartementele strategiese kommunikasie – HBH.

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What Paul Erasmus told the TRC about Stratcom and Winnie Paul Erasmus et al. | 12 April 2018 Operative says he had no concrete information about informers, not aware of evidence ever being falsified in the criminal matters. This part of his evidence under oath is of importance: “MR PIGOU: I could see that was coming. You've talked about informers in the Football Club, do you have any concrete information about informers inside the Football Club? MR ERASMUS: I don't, it was never security branch policy although we always used to within our own ranks play spot the agent type of stuff, it was just curiosity to try and deduce from reports who the agent was and it was something of pride that you could see a colleague and say I know who your agent is or I figured it out or whatever. MR PIGOU: From your lengthy experience inside the security branch would you be surprised if the security branch in Soweto did not have informers inside and around the Football Club or the youths that frequented the Mandela household? MR ERASMUS: I would have been amazed if that was the case.” The rest of his evidence can be found here: http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/what-paul-erasmus-told-the-trc-about-stratcom-and-

Persverklaring deur die Stigting vir Gelykheid voor die Reg Press Release by the Foundation for Equality Before the Law PERSVERKLARING DEUR DIE STIGTING PRESS RELEASE BY THE FOUNDATION VIR GELYKIHEID VOOR DIE REG FOR EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW Die afgelope sogenaamde onthullings deur Paul Erasmus het opnuut die vraag laat ontstaan of die waarheid- en versoeningsproses ‘n oefening in futiliteit was. Die slotgedeelte van die Tusentydse Grondwet wat ook die grondslag vir die huidige Grondwet vorm, lui soos volg:

The recent, so-called revelations by Paul Erasmus have, once again, raised the question whether the Truth and Reconciliation process was an exercise in futility. The concluding paragraph of the Interim Constitution, which forms the basis for the current Constitution, reads as follows:

“Die aanvaarding van hierdie Grondwet lê die vaste fondament vir die mense van Suid-Afrika om die verdelings en tweespalt van die verlede, wat gelei het tot growwe skendings van menseregte, die verbreking van menslikheidsbeginsels in gewelddadige konflik en 'n

“The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend the divisions and strife of the past, which generated gross violations of human rights, the transgression of humanitarian 129


nalatenskap van haat, vrees, skuld en wraak, te principles in violent conflicts and a legacy of oorbrug.” hatred, fear guilt and revenge”. Alle partye en persone wat by die konflik van die verlede betrokke was, het geleentheid gehad om ten opsigte van alle onregmatige dade wat tydens die konflik gepleeg is, volledige besonderhede aan die verskillende komitees van die WVK voor te lê.

All parties and persons involved in the conflict of the past had the opportunity to submit full details to the various committees of the TRC in respect of all unlawful acts committed during the conflict.

Jerry Richardson het gedurende 1999 aansoek om amnestie vir die moorde van Stompie Sepei, Lolo Sono en Quqi Zwane wat gedurende 1988 gepleeg is, gedoen. Hy was ‘n lid van die Madela United Football Club wat deur Winnie Mandela beheer is. Hy het tydens sy aansoek aangevoer dat Winnie Mandela opdrag vir Stompie Sepei se moord gegee het. Daar kon egter geen stawende getuienis aangevoer word dat Winnie Mandela wel by die moord betrokke was nie. Sy is wel skuldig bevind aan die ontvoering en aanranding van Stompie Sepei.

In 1999, Jerry Richardson applied for amnesty for the murders of Stompie Sepei, Lolo Sono and Quqi Zwane, committed during 1988. He was a member of the Madela United Football Club, controlled by Winnie Mandela. He stated during his application that Winnie Mandela had commissioned Stompie Sepei's murder. However, no corroborating evidence could be found that Winnie Mandela was involved in the murder. She was however held to be guilty of the abduction and assault of Stompie Sepei.

Daar is tydens die amnestieverhoor omvattende getuienis aangehoor oor die ontvoering en moord op Stompie Sepei en die ander twee persone. Paul Erasmus beweer dat al die lede van die Mandela Football Club informante van die veiligheidstak was.

During the amnesty hearing, extensive evidence was heard about the abduction and murder of Stompie Sepei and the other two persons. Paul Erasmus claims that all the members of the Mandela Football Club were informants of the Security Branch.

Enige lid van ‘n inligtingsgemeenskap, hetsy plaaslik of internasionaal, wat vertroud is met die werwing en hantering van informante. is bewus daarvan dat die werwing en hantering van ‘n informant ‘n moeisame en tydrowende proses is. In die geval van Winnie Mandela was daar slegs een lid van die Veiligheidstak op Soweto wat voltyds aandag aan haar gegee het. Dit sou vir so ‘n lid prakties onmoontlik gewees het om al die lede van die klub te werf en te hanteer. Daarbenewens het enige swart persoon wat gedurende die tagtigerjare met die veiligheidstak saamgewerk het, die gevaar geloop dat hulle en ook hulle familie deur die halssnoermoorde vermoor kon word.

Any member of an intelligence community, whether local or international, who is familiar with the recruitment and management of informants, is aware that the recruiting and handling of an informant is a laborious and timeconsuming process. In the case of Winnie Mandela, there was only one member of the Security Branch in Soweto who gave her fulltime attention. It would have been impossible for such a member to recruit and handle all the members of the soccer club. In addition, any black person who collaborated with the Security Branch during the eighties was at risk of him- or herself and their families being killed by the necklacing method.

Dit was vir die veiligheidstak uiters moeilik om enige persoon wat oor die bedrywighede van Winnie Mandela verslag kon doen, as informant te werf. Die identiteit van ‘n beriggewer is tot elke prys beskerm en slegs die lid wat so ‘n informant hanteer het, was daarvan bewus

It was extremely difficult for the Security Branch to recruit any informant who was able to report on Winnie Mandela's activities. The identity of an informant was protected at all costs and only the member who handled such an informant was aware of such a person’s true identity. In fact, such an informant's life was at stake. 130


gewees. Trouens so ‘n informant se lewe was op die spel. Die sogenaamde onthullings deur Paul Erasmus meer as 30 jaar nadat die moorde plaasgevind en 20 jaar nadat die amnestieverhoor gehou is, laat onder andere die volgende vrae ontstaan: (a) Waarom het hy nie tydens die amnestieverhoor van Jerry Richardson, toe hierdie aangeleenthede van wesenlike belang was, die onthullings gedoen nie? Hy kon selfs regsbystand en beskerming gekry het as hy dit verlang het.

The so-called revelations by Paul Erasmus more than 30 years after the murders took place and 20 years after the amnesty hearings were held, raises the following questions: (a) Why did he not reveal his information during the amnesty hearings of Jerry Richardson when these matters were of vital importance? He could even have obtained legal assistance and protection had he wanted it.

(b) How did he come to know that the members (b) Hoe sou hy te wete gekom het dat die lede of the soccer club were all police informers? He van die klub informante is? Hy was nooit aan die was never attached to or involved with the Veiligheidstak van Soweto verbonde of by hulle Soweto Security Branch. werksaamhede betrokke nie. (c) Why does he not provide the usual details in (c) Waarom verstrek hy nie die gewone respect of each case regarding the date, place besonderhede van elke geval ten opsigte van and names of persons involved as would be datum, plek en name van persone wat betrokke expected in the interest of the truth? is soos in belang van die waarheid verwag sou word nie? Die enigste wyse waarop die waarheid na verloop van al die jare nou bepaal kan word, is deur middel van ‘n leuenverklikkertoets. Van die voormalige lede van die veiligheidstak wat betrokke was, is reeds oorlede en kan derhalwe nie hulle kant van die saak stel nie.

The only way in which the truth can be determined after so many years is by means of a polygraph test. Some of the former members of the Security Branch who were involved, have already died and they cannot therefore state their case.

Die Stigting vir Gelykheid voor die Reg wil Paul Erasmus vra of hy in belang van die waarheid bereid is om hom aan ‘n leuenverklikkertoets te onderwerp ten opsigte van die volgende vrae:

The Foundation for Equality Before the Law wants to ask Paul Erasmus whether, in the interest of truth, he is willing to submit himself to a polygraph test on the following questions:

(a) Dat al die onthullings wat hy gedoen het, volgens sy wete die volle waarheid is; (b) Waar hy hom aan onregmatige dade skuldig gemaak het, dit met die volle goedkeuring en wete van hoër gesag geskied het en (c) Hy geen verskuilde agenda het met die onthullings nie.

(a) That all the revelations he has made are, to the best of his knowledge, the whole truth; (b) Whether, where he committed unlawful acts, these were done with the full approval and knowledge of higher authority; and (c) That he has no hidden agenda so far as these revelations are concerned.

Die Stigting vertrou dat die lede van die Media The Foundation trusts that these members of by wie die waarheid swaarder weeg as the Media for whom the truth is more important sensasie, sal help om die waarheid te laat than sensation, will help that the truth prevails. seëvier.

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HNP: Winnie Mandela: Vals Mediadekking Die Herstigte Nasionale Party, by monde van sy sekretaris, skryf: Beslis die moeite werd om te lees: Geagte Afrikanervriend, Ons stuur hierby aangeheg aan u ‘n skrywe van mnr Meinhard Peters wat hy aan die SABC en die RSG-nuuskantoor geskryf het aangaande hulle eensydige en misleidende nuusberigte na die afsterwe van die kommunis Winnie Mandela. Mnr Peters is die direkteur van die Instituut vir Kultuur en Geskiedenis en het die brief namens die projek media-akkuraatheid geskryf. Ons beveel u ten sterkste aan om die brief te lees. Dit gee die ware feite oor wie Winnie Mandela was. Met Afrikanergroete, Louis van der Schyff Aan: Die Bestuur van Afrikaanse Programme, SABC Afskrif: RSG-Nuuskantoor. Geagte Bestuur, Oor die afgelope dae het u daagliks omstandig berig oor die afsterwe van mev Winnie Mandela, die gewese gade van Nelson Mandela. Ons het die volgende waargeneem: 1. Skielik is Winnie Mandela nou Madikizela Mandela. “Winnie” word weggelaat. 2. Sy word deurgaans voorgehou as heilige, as ’n held of vleklose ikoon van die stryd teen Apartheid. 3. Oor haar misdade waaroor sy in die hof skuldig bevind is word bitter weinig gerapporteer, laat staan nog oor haar betrokkenheid by MK, Chris Hani en Julius Malema se EFF. 132


4. Die redes waarom Nelson Mandela haar eenkant toe geskuif het word ook nie vermeld nie. Haar ondersteuning van die skandalige, brutale halssnoermoorde word deur u liefs verswyg. Oor Stompie Moeketsi Sepei word niks gesê nie. 5. Op Woensdag, 11 April 2018 lui u nuusbulletin: ”Suid-Afrika neem vandag afskeid van Madikizela Mandela…” ens. Ons wil dit graag onder u aandag bring dat hierdie beeld wat u van Winnie Mandela skilder werklikheidsvreemd is. Dit kom neer op ’n onbillike aanbieding wat die duisende slagoffers van swart-op-swart geweld (gepleeg deur MK- en ANC-kaders) te na kom en hul opgeofferde lewens minag. Die hele Suid-Afrika was ook nie by die Orlando Stadium om van haar afskeid te neem nie; soos wat u in u nuusberigte te kenne gegee het nie. Trouens in die sosiale media en uit die dagblaaie sou u kon agterkom dat daar ’n wye skeptisisme jeens “Madikizela” se loopbaan bestaan. Lees gerus in dié verband die verslag van Mondli Makhanya in Rapport Weekliks, 8 April 2018 (Bladsy 8: Anderkant van ikoon). Dit is verstommend dat u sodanige kommentaar deur ’n swart skrywer in u nuusberigte oor Winnie Mandela verswyg. Daar is natuurlik geen manier waarop ons u deelname aan staatspropaganda kan verhoed of omkeer nie. Dit is u eie besluit; of dit is inderdaad u opdrag om op daardie pad te loop. Dit is wel vir ons belangrik dat u sal kennis neem dat die publiek nie daarmee genoeë neem nie. Dit sal ook waardeer word as u in die toekoms u berigte oor sulke aangeleenthede kan balanseer met billike kommentaar en met ’n meer akkurate weergawe van hoe “Suid-Afrika” werklik oor sulke sake dink en voel. Die swart-op-swart geweld in die dekades van 1980-1990’s is alombekend en baie goed gedokumenteer. U kan gerus van die relevante publikasies van die SA Instituut vir Rasseverhoudinge daaroor raadpleeg; in die besonder ’n artikel deur John Kane-Berman in Politicsweb, gedateer 17 Augustus 2017 waarin die doelstellings van die moorde en sluipmoorde uiteengesit word. Berman skryf: “The purpose was to make the country ungovernable, to rule black townships by terror, and to eliminate black political rivals.” Behalwe die SAIRR se navorsing is daar talle publikasies wat materiaal bevat oor die wrede halssnoermoorde en die strategie van terreur waarvan dit ’n integrale deel was. Winnie Mandela het haar ondersteuners met groot drif aangespoor om die petrol-, motorbande- en brandmetode te gebruik om van individue ontslae te raak. Daardeur is duisende swartmense aan dié onmenslike geweld en trauma uitgelewer. Dit is vir ons vreemd dat u verkies om hierdie aspekte van die “stryd teen Apartheid” nou dawerend te verswyg. U aanbieding van die nuus pas in hierdie geval nie by ’n professionele nuusdiens of ’n openbare uitsaaidiens nie. Met agting, MEINHARD PETERS Nms Media-Akkuraatheid [per e-pos versend] Media-Akkuraatheid is ’n projek van die Instituut vir Kultuur en Geskiedenis in belang van gebalanseerde nuus en billike kommentaar in die media. Posadres: Posbus 2127 Montanapark 0159 E-adres: redakteur48@gmail.com

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SPIOENMEESTERS: HENNING VAN ASWEGEN

Inleiding: Die taal wat spioene praat ... Suid-Afrika se spioene en geheime agente leef in ‘n vreemde wêreld met hul eie eienaardige gebruike en woordeskat – ‘n wêreld wat bitter min met James Bond se gladde kuif en sy blink sportmotors te doen het. Woorde en begrippe soos spioene en spoke word gewoon lukraak gebruik en die konteks daarvan dikwels agterstevoor toegepas, met verwarrende en somtyds komiese gevolge. Woorde wat in die normale daaglikse omgang een ding beteken, kan in die spioenasiewêreld die teenoorgestelde mening of interpretasie hê, byvoorbeeld die woord ‘bron’ wat oorsprong beteken (soos waterbron), maar in spioenasietaal ‘n agent of informant beteken wat inligting aan ‘n intelligensiediens verskaf, somtyds onder dwang of afpersing en andersins teen betaling.

Van 1894 tot 2018 Suid-Afrika het ‘n lang en ryk geskiedenis van eie intelligensiedienste, beginnende in 1894 met die stigting van die Geheime Dienst van die Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR). Daarna volg Republikeinse Intelligensie, die Buro vir Staatsveiligheid (BVS), Departement vir Nasionale Veiligheid (DNV) en die Nasionale Intelligensiediens (NI). Intelligensiedienste soos die huidige Staatsveiligheidsagentskap (SSA), voorheen die Suid-Afrikaanse Geheime Diens (SASS en NIA), het niks met misdaad te doen nie, dit is die taak van ander staatsorgane. Siviele intelligensiedienste hou hulle besig met die insameling van politieke- en ekonomiese inligting, wat dan verwerk, geanaliseer en vertolk word om intelligensie-inligting te produseer (die NIW’s), vir voorlegging aan die staatsowerhede vir kennisname, besluitneming en optrede.

Wie en wat is ‘n spioen? ‘n Spioen is iemand wat teen vergoeding inligting vanuit of oor ‘n teiken bekom en oorhandig, hetsy aan ‘n hanteerder of intelligensiebeampte. Teiken in hierdie konteks is ‘n geïdentifiseerde intelligensie insamelings-entiteit, gewoonlik ‘n ander intelligensiediens of regering of organisasie wat deel vorm van ‘n bedreigingsanalise. Mense wat vir intelligensiedienste werk is definitief nie spioene nie, hoogstens analiste of agenthanteerders of projekbestuurders wat ‘n spesifieke spioenasie operasie (of teenspioenasie) bestuur met die doel om ‘n intelligensieteiken te infiltreer of penetreer.

‘n Hand in ‘n handskoen Intelligensie-insamelingsprojekte of spioenasie-operasies deur ‘n intelligensiediens is dikwels die verborge hand binne in ‘n politieke handskoen wat ongesiens funksies en aktiwiteite namens ‘n soewereine regering uitvoer. Die intelligensiediens sal dikwels van vals identiteite vir agente of beamptes en front organisasies, byvoorbeeld ‘n maatskappy wat spesifiek vir hierdie doel gestig is, gebruik maak om sy ware kleure te verbloem. Sulke valsvlag- en misleidingsoperasies mislei en verwar dus almal wat daarmee in aanraking kom, met die doel om inligting in te samel, sonder om uitgevang of in intelligensietaal, ‘gekompromiteer’ te word. Indien ‘n intelligensieprojek of spionasie134


operasie gekompromitteer word, verleen die vals identiteite en misleidende profiele aan ‘n regering of intelligensiediens ontkenningsvryheid. Hulle kan dus met ‘n vroom gesig voorhou dat hul niks van so ‘n geheime projek wis nie en dus nie verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik daarvoor is nie.

Frontorganisasies Frontorganisasies of frontgroepe is ‘n erkende tegniek wat deur intelligensiedienste gebruik word om hul ware kleure te verbloem en om die algemene publiek te mislei. Die tegniek is nie tot intelligensiedienste beperk nie en kriminele groepe (byvoorbeeld vir geldwassery), maatskappye, internasionale korporasies en verbode groepe gebruik ook fronte om hul aktiwiteite en bedrywighede weg te steek. Suid-Afrika se Nasionale Intelligensiediens het tydens ‘n werwingspoging in 1981 in Johannesburg van ‘n frontorganisasie met ‘n niksseggende naam, die Independent Interdepartmental Administration (IIA) (Onafhanklike Interdepartementele Administrasie) gebruik gemaak om ‘n waardevolle agent midde-in die Kommunistiese Party te werf. Diè agent (Die Sekretaresse – Hoofstuk 14) het nà haar werwing baie jare onwetend vir die Nasionale Intelligensiediens gewerk en waardevolle inligting oor die SAKP se bedrywighede in SuidAfrika voorsien. Frontorganisasies hou dus die indruk voor dat hulle onafhanklik en outonoom is, maar hul ware identiteit, motiewe, agenda en doelwitte word verbloem. Hennie, Die gevallestudie van Alexey Kozlov – ‘n Majoor in die KGB se Direktoraat S, wat in hegtenis geneem is en later in Duitsland vir elf Westerse spioene en ‘n gevange Suid-Afrikaanse soldaat, sappeur Johan van der Mescht, uitgeruil is. https://spioenmeesters.wordpress.com/2018/04/18/alexey-kozlov-die-kgb-spioen-wie-afrikaanskon-praat/ Groete Henning v Aswegen (19 April 2018)

Alexey Kozlov – die KGB spioen wat Afrikaans kon praat Alexey Mikhailovich Kozlov 10/2/1935 – 2/11/2015

Die Kozlov-geval in intelligensie-konteks Die monitering (waarneming en agtervolging) en arrestasie van die Russiese spioen Maj. Alexey Mikhailovich Kozlov in Januarie 1981 was ‘n veertjie in die hoed van Suid-Afrika se Nasionale Intelligensiediens en sy Direkteur-Generaal, Dr Niël Barnard. Barnard en NI het later ‘n prominente en deurslaggewende rol gespeel toe Kozlov op 11 Mei 1982 vrygelaat is, in ruil vir elf Westerse spioene en sappeur Johan van der Mescht, ‘n krygsgevange wat in Angola deur die South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO) gevange geneem is. Barnard het direk met die Russiese buitelandse intelligensiediens, die KGB,67 onderhandel om Kozlov aan die Sowjetunie terug te besorg, in ruil vir Van der Mescht en ander (Westerse) Komitat Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti [KGB] – opvolger van die Sowjet-Unie se gevreesde Cheka [Russiese Federale Sekerheidsdiens – Vserossiyskaya Chrezvychaxnaya Kommissiya] en voorganger van die huidige Russiese intelligensiediens, die SVR [Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki] – H van Aswegen. 67

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spioene se vrylating in Berlyn. Barnard en die Nasionale Intelligensiediens, meer gewoond daaraan om sy intelligensie-aktiwiteite te verbloem en weg te steek, het daarmee ‘n ongewone en publieke aanprysing van Staatspresident PW Botha in die Suid-Afrikaanse parlement ontvang. In sy boek ‘Vreedsame Revolusie – uit die enjinkamer van die onderhandelinge,’ vertel Barnard dat hy in 1980, kort nadat hy deur president PW Botha aangestel is as direkteur-generaal van die Nasionale Intelligensiediens, besef het hoe belangrik dit vir Suid-Afrika was om ‘n geheime gesprekskanaal met die Sowjet-Unie (een van die ANC/SAKP se grootste finansiële weldoeners) te skep.68 Barnard het in 1982 vir Kozlov as tussenganger gebruik om direkte skakelgesprekke met die KGB aan te knoop en later skakelverhoudinge met hulle te vestig.

Kozlov se modus operandi Kozlov het Suid-Afrika vanaf Duitsland via Namibië met ‘n vals Sweedse paspoort in die naam Svenson binnegekom. Hy was goed vertroud met Suid-Afrika vanweë vorige besoeke en het dus eers na Windhoek gevlieg voordat hy na Johannesburg vertrek het. Die Suid-Afrikaanse owerhede was onbewus van Kozlov se eerste twee besoek aan Suid-Africa onbewus en het eers later tydens sy ondervraging daarvan bewus geword. Die Nasionale Intelligensiediens was wel van Kozlov se derde besoek bewus en hom reeds met sy aankoms in Windhoek begin agtervolg en bewegings te monitor. Kozlov se doel was om homself as ‘n ‘illegal’ (onwettige resident)69 in Suid-Afrika te vestig en om ‘n nuwe identiteit te bekom sodat hy later met ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse paspoort na Kanada of Amerika kon emigreer. Hy was ‘n lid van die KGB elite Direktoraat S (Diep Dekking) wat Russiese agente voorberei het vir plasing in Westerse demokrasieë. Vir hierdie doel het Kozlov, wat benewens Russies ook Duits, Sweeds en Deens magtig was, van verskeie vals Duitse en Sweedse paspoorte gebruik gemaak. Kozlov is vanaf sy aankoms in Namibië, op pad na Suid-Afrika, onder waarneming geplaas en by sy aankoms op Jan Smuts-lughawe summier en onseremonieel in hegtenis geneem. ‘n Opsigtelikverbaasde Kozlov is in ‘n motor gelaai en eers na Pretoria Sentrale Gevangenis en daarna na NI se Rietvlei-kompleks op die Delmas-pad naby Pretoria geneem vir ondervraging.

Kozlov by Rietvlei Kozlov is somtyds tydens ondervraging alleen in ‘n huis aangehou, direk langsaam ‘n soortgelyke huis waarin vier Taiwannese intelligensiebeamptes in salige onbewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid gewoon het. Die Taiwannese en Suid-Afrikaanse intelligensiedienste was op vriendelike voet en het op verskillende gebiede saamgewerk en intelligensie-inligting uitgeruil, veral op tegnologiese gebied en satelliet onderskeppingsmetodes. Kozlov het tydens sy ondervraging vinnig met die hele mandjie patats vorendag gekom en ‘n bevestig dat hy ‘n KGB-agent was wat hom in Suid-Afrika wou vestig. Hy is deur die KGB opdrag gegee om agente-netwerke in Suid-Afrika op die been te bring en ook ‘sleepers’ of slapende agente te werf wat later van nut vir die KGB kon wees. ‘n Poligraaftoets het aangedui dat Kozlov halwe waarhede aan sy ondervraers vertel het en dat net gedeeltes van sy verklaring korrek en waar is. Die Nasionale Intelligensiediens was egter deeglik daarvan bewus dat geheime agente, wanneer hulle uitgevang en gekompromitteer word, eerstens (amper uit beginsel uit), sal lieg en daarna halwe en skuins waarhede vertel in ‘n poging om hul ondervraers onder ‘n verkeerde indruk te bring. NI Barnard, N. 2017. Vreedsame rewolusie – uit die enjinkameer van die onderhandelinge, Tafelberg, Kaapstad – H van Aswegen. 69 ’n Onwettige resident of ‘illegal’ is ‘n intelligensie-beampte of agent wat spesiaal opgelei en voorberei is om onder ‘n vals naam en identiteit ‘n vreemde, dikwels vyandiggesinde land te woon. Die ‘illegal’ probeer dan ‘n nuwe identiteit en vals naam te ontwikkel sodat hy of sy burgerskap van die teikenland kan bekom, sonder dat die owerhede van daardie land enigsins daarvan bewus is. Die ‘illegal’ word geaktiveer en gebruik om geheime intelligensietake uit te voer, dikwels in tye van oorlog of konflik (Bittman:6) – H van Aswegen. 68

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se skakelvenote, die Duitse BfV en BND [Bundesant fűr Verfassungsshutz en Bundesnachrichtendienst], het ook aan Kozlov se ondervraging deelgeneem omdat Kozlov hom dikwels as ‘n Duitse besigheidsman voorgedoen het.

Die KGB as geldbron vir die ANC/SAKP Kozlov het aan sy ondervraers erken dat die KGB hom ook na Suid-Afrika gestuur het om inligting te bekom oor hoe die ANC geld wat die Russe aan hulle voorsien het, spandeer. Die KGB was in die jare 1970-1990 getroue ondersteuners van die ANC/SAKP en ook een van hulle vernaamste geldskieters, hoewel hulle nie altyd seker was wat die ANC/SAKP met die geld gedoen het wat so mildelik aan hulle voorsien is nie. Kozlov moes ook probeer vasstel hoe sterk en diep die SuidAfrikaanse Kommunistiese Party se beheer oor en houvas op die ANC was. Hy moes ook inligting probeer bekom oor kernwapen-samewerking tussen Suid-Afrika en Israel – soortgelyk aan pogings wat deur ‘n ander KGB-spioen, prof. Hugh Hambleton, aangewend is om detail oor RSA-Israel kernsamewerking in te samel. Kozlov het wel die naam van ‘n KGB-agent wat onder dekking in Frankryk bedrywig was, aan NI bekend gemaak. NI het hierdie inligting aan sy Franse skakelgenoot, die DGSE70 gegee, maar toe DGSE beamptes by die beweerde agent se blyplek arriveer, het hy reeds op vlug geslaan. NI beamptes kon nooit vasstel hoe Kozlov dit reggekry het om die Franse KGB agent te waarsku nie en vermoed dat hy maar net inligting oor ‘n ou, uitgediende operasie voorsien het om tyd te koop.

Van der Mescht en Kozlov se uitruiling Kozlov was vir twee jaar in Suid-Afrika in aanhouding en is op 11 Mei 1982 uitgeruil vir agt Westerse spioene wat in Oos-Duitsland en Rusland aangehou is, asook Johan van der Mescht, ‘n SuidAfrikaanse soldaat wat op 19 Februarie 1978 tydens die Angolese oorlog gevange geneem is. Gerugte dat een Israeli, een Fransman en ‘n Brit onder die uitgeruilde spioen getel het, kon nie bevestig word nie. Van der Mescht is in Februarie 1978 deur ‘n groep SWAPO soldate, onder aanvoering van ene ‘Danger’ Ashipala, by die Elundu watergat in die Noorde van Suidwes-Afrika / Namibië omring en gevang.71 Die watergat was sowat tien kilometer van die Angolese grens af en die SWAPO soldate het Van der Mescht gou-gou oor die grens ontvoer. Sam Nujoma, die leier van SWAPO, het onmiddellik die media- en propaganda-waarde van die gevangeneming van ‘n SuidAfrikaanse soldaat besef en opdrag gegee dat Van der Mescht nie om die lewe gebring moet word nie. Van der Mescht het hierna vier en ‘n half jaar in tronke in Lubango en Luanda deurgebring, voordat hy van Angola na Oos Berlyn vervoer ter voorbereiding van die uitruiling met Kozlov. Op die dag van die uitruiling is Van der Mescht in ‘n Mercedes Benz deur die Oos Duitsers na Checkpoint Charlie in Oos Berlyn gebring waar die uitruilooreenkoms afgehandel is. Aan Suid-Afrikaanse kant het ‘n groep van nege NI-lede, wat Niël Barnard ingesluit het, ‘n Boeing 747 gebruik om Kozlov na Frankfurt in Wes Duitsland te vlieg. Kozlov het sy handtekening op twee miniatuur likeur-botteltjies aangebring en dit vir die SuidAfrikaanse intelligensiebeamptes, met wie hy teen hierdie tyd op baie goeie voet was, gegee. Kozlov was nogal ‘n gemoedelike spioen en hy het tydens sy aanhouding in Suid-Afrika selfs ‘n paar basiese Afrikaanse woorde aangeleer. By die bekende Checkpoint Charlie in WesBerlyn het Van der Mescht en Kozlov in teenoorgestelde rigtings by mekaar verbygeloop. Kozlov het in die verbygaan aan Van der Mescht gesê, “I am Alexey Kozlov,’ waarop ‘n ietwat verbaasde

Direction Gènèrale de Sècurité Extèrieur – Fransie buitelandse intelligensiediens – H van Aswegen. De Wit Dippenar, Marius. 1988. 168-170. Die Geskiedenis van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie. Promedia Publikasies, Pretoria. Verdere navorsing: Barnard, Niël. 2015. Geheime Revolusie. Tafelberg Uitgewers, Kaapstad. 70 71

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Van der Mescht in Afrikaans gereageer het: “Sharp, jy gaan soutmyn toe, ek gaan mielieland toe.” (“Good, you are going to the salt mines, I am going to the cornfields”). Alles het egter nie tydens die oordrag vlot verloop nie. Een van die Wes-Duitse spioene wat uitgeruil moes word, ‘n vrou, was nie onder die groep nie en haar afwesigheid het amper die uitruilooreenkoms gekelder. Die vrou is wel ‘n week later deur die Oos-Duitsers aan Wes-Duitsland oorhandig, maar ‘n omgekrapte dr Niël Barnard het ‘n brief aan die Oos-Duisters geskryf en hulle oor die kole gehaal omdat hulle nie by hulle woord gehou het nie.

Eerbetoon vir ‘n onsusksesvolle spioen Kozlov, wat later van majoor tot kolonel bevorder is, het die KGB-resident in Londen, kolonel Oleg Gordievsky, vir sy kompromitering in Suid-Afrika blameer omdat die twee mekaar geken het. Gordievsky was die hoof van die KGB se intelligensie-operasies in die Verenigde Koningkryk, maar inderdaad ook ‘n dubbelagent vir die Britse MI6 (Secret Intelligence Service). Ten spyte daarvan dat hy deur Suid-Afrika se Nasionale Intelligensiediens uitgevang is, is Alexey Kozlov in die jaar 2000 op ietwat ironiese wyse tot ‘n ‘held van die Russiese Federasie’ verklaar. ‘n Medalje is aan hom oorhandig, sowel as ‘n sitaat wat verklaar het dat hy ‘moed en dapperheid tydens ‘n spesiale intelligensie-operasie,’ aan die dag gele het.’ Alexey Michailovitch Kozlov, die onsuksesvolle KGB-spioen wie ‘n bietjie Afrikaans kon praat, is op 2 November 2015 alleen en vergete in ‘n Russiese ouetehuis in Moskou oorlede. – Henning van Aswegen •

Onveranderd geplaas – HBH.

Die Russiese spioen majoor Alexey Michailovitch Kozlov, kol Hannes Gloy en ek: Johan Visage Gedurende 1981 het kol. Hannes Gloy en ek die spioen by die Pretoria gevangenis gaan haal en na die ou hotel in Halfweghuis geneem. Kol. Gloy wou nog ‘n paar vrae met hom uitklaar. Ek het Kozlov opgesom as ‘n hoogs intelligente, vriendelike, en baie oplettend persoon. Tydens die middagete by genoemde hotel het hy my aandag op ‘n vrou gevestig wat met die hout trappe na die 1e vloer beweeg het (‘n prostituut wat met ‘n tweede kliënt op pad na ‘n kamer was!) Toe ons die hotel verlaat was sy met ‘n 3e kliënt op pad!! Interessant Kozlov het baie ouer as kol. Gloy gelyk al was hul min of meer dieselfde ouderdom. Ook interessant, die spioen se adres in België was dieselfde as my adres in Pretoria. Na omtrent vyf 5ure by die hotel het kol. Gloy nog toiletware vir die gevangene aangekoop en het ons is terug na Pta. ‘n Week later het ons weer vir Kozlov gaan haal en hom na ‘n oogarts in die Van Riebeeck-mediese sentrum geneem. Terwyl ek besig was om die relevante vorms te voltooi het kol Gloy met die ander assistent gesels. Kol. Gloy het langs my gestaan en Kozlov aan sy anderkant. Na die vorms voltooi is het ek my aandag terug aan kol. Gloy en die spioen gewend. Geen Kozlov!! Hy het verdwyn!! Kol Gloy het hom boeglam geskrik en ek ook! Hy het net twee keer gesê: “Daar gaan my pensioen!” Ek het na die hysbak gekyk - maar die was nog op grondvloer. Die uitgang was omtrent 8 meter van die toonbank. Ek was met spoed uit op die sypaadjie en het rondgekyk, Kozlov was weg!! Ek kon al 138


die koerante se hoofopskrifte sien! Wat ‘n ramp! Terug by die verslae kol. Gloy by die toonbank kom daar ‘n ander assistent aan met die nuus dat die kliënt/pasiënt reeds op die stoel sit en wag en dat die oogarts enige oomblik sou opdaag. Ek het duiselig van skok en verligting gevoel. Sy het voorwaar die pasiënt aan sy mou onder ons neuse na die ondersoek kamer weg gevat. Die vertrek was omtrent 12 meter van die toonbank. Daardie aand het ek grooot dankie na Bo gesê. Ons pensioen was veilig! Nog Kozlov, nog die assistente, het nie besef watter drama daar kon afgespeel het nie. ‘n Paar dae later het ons hom na HF Verwoerd-hospitaal vir ander ondersoek geneem. Nodeloos om te meld dat ons die wakkerste ooit was! Jare daarna het ek en generaal Gloy nog daaroor gepraat; maar glad nie daaroor gelag nie. Ons was vriende tot met sy dood en het vir meer as 2 dekades nooit weer daaroor gepraat nie. As ek vandag terugdink raak ek skaam oor my amperse nalatigheid wat groot konsternasie in die veiligheidsgemeenskap nasionaal en internasionaal kon veroorsaak het. Sover my kennis strek het net my vriend vanaf ons kollege dae, Hennie Heymans, daarvan geweet en hy het gevra dat ek die storie op skrif stel. Die voorval was seker UITERS GEHEIM tussen my en genl. Gloy. Oorlede genl. Broodryk wat Kozlov destyds gearresteer sou sekerlik ‘n aanval gekry het sou hy daarvan weet! Beide generale was ware here. RIV generale!! Kozlov was later uitgeruil ander westerlinge ook o.a. Van der Mescht ‘n gevange SAW-soldaat.

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF SOUTH AFRICAN INTELLIGENCE Fraser goes “rogue”: Intelligence boss blocked investigation, conducted campaign of intimidation, claims Inspector General. Please refer to: http://amabhungane.co.za/article/2018-04-11-fraser-goes-rogue

Arthur Fraser vs IGI: Court date set News24 | 13 April 2018 Setlhomamaru Dintwe seeking order barring SSA DG from interfering in his duties

Arthur Fraser vs Inspector General of Intelligence: Court date set Inspector General of Intelligence (IGI) Setlhomamaru Dintwe will on Tuesday seek an order from the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria against State Security Agency (SSA) Director General Arthur Fraser, barring him from interfering with his duties. Dintwe launched an urgent court application earlier this week, which will be heard on April 17, claiming Fraser had allegedly interfered with his functions, as well as seeking to revoke his security clearance. He said in a statement on Wednesday that he would ask the court to put measures in place to "ensure my personal security", following Fraser's "brazen and unlawful actions". 139


Dintwe said he was seeking urgent interim relief preventing Fraser from acting "unconstitutionally, unlawfully and [of being] motivated by bad faith". "I seek a range of declaratory and interdictory relief on a final basis relating to the powers of the director general," he said in his affidavits, dated April 10, which were filed in the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria. He added that Fraser's decisions had implications for the proper functioning of the office of the IGI. "By purporting to revoke the security clearance of the inspector general, the director general has infringed upon the constitutional and statutorily-protected independence of the Inspector-General of Intelligence." 'It is impossible for me to execute my responsibilities' He said, last November, Fraser had addressed a threatening letter to him, saying that Dintwe was in possession of certain classified information submitted by the Democratic Alliance. This illustrated the extent of abuse, he said. "It is impossible for me to execute my responsibilities to investigate intelligence services unless I have access to all types of information, including classified information," he said. Jacques Pauw, in his book The President's Keepers, accused Fraser of running a parallel intelligence network (PAN) during a previous stint at the spy agency before 2010. According to the book, an internal SSA probe concluded that Fraser should be charged with treason for his role in the running of the SSA's PAN project. Fraser initiated and oversaw the PAN project as the then deputy director general of the National Intelligence Agency, between 2007 and 2009. Dintwe said he had received complaints about Fraser, which were serious and had a damaging effect on the standing and the image of the intelligence services. In May last year, the DA lodged a formal complaint with the office of the IGI and requested an investigation into Fraser's involvement with the PAN project. Dintwe set out the details of the allegations in his affidavit.

Tenders for family members He said Fraser had allegedly fraudulently copied the signature of then-minister of intelligence services Ronnie Kasrils when establishing an illegal intelligence programme, known as the PAN. Fraser is alleged to have improperly awarded tenders and contracts to people associated with his family, and other individuals, through the PAN. Dintwe said Fraser had been aware that he was the subject of investigation since May 2017. On Thursday, State Security Minister Dipuo Letsatsi-Duba said she was concerned over the "unprecedented" development. 140


"I, therefore, will be taking steps to ensure that the matters of concern are dealt with, within the provisions of the legal framework governing our environment, and to ensure that we maintain good governance as is expected from us," Letsatsi-Duba said. She said Fraser would file responding affidavits. "It is important to allow the courts to deal with matters before them and therefore no further comments will be made until such time the courts have pronounced accordingly," she added. News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/arthur-fraser-vs-igi-court-date-set

Decisive action needed to get to bottom of Arthur Fraser’s conduct – SACP Alex Mohubetswane Mashilo | 16 April 2018 Party says SSA DG's behaviour seems to be an act of desperation and sabotage

SACP calls for decisive action to get to the bottom of Arthur Fraser’s conduct at the State Security Agency and what actually he could be trying to conceal 16 April 2018 The South African Communist Party strongly condemns what appear to be abuse of power and unlawful conduct by Arthur Fraser, the director-general of the State Security Agency (SSA). Fraser’s attempt at frustrating the inspector-general of intelligence (IGI), Setlhomamaru Dintwe, seems to be an act of desperation and sabotage. It could as well be possible proof of abuse of intelligence services for factional purposes as part of the wider corporate state capture agenda that the SACP was the first to expose. Fraser’s conduct clearly comes across as aimed at forcing an abortion of the IGI’s investigations into corruption and abuse of intelligence services at the SSA. The IGI has made it clear that Fraser is implicated in the allegations being investigated. As South Africans we should not delink Fraser’s conduct from attempts at frustrating the IGI’s work. The SACP wants the IGI to carry out his work without fear, favour or interference by any person. The Party is therefore calling for decisive action by relevant authorities to get to the bottom of Fraser’s conduct and what actually he could be trying to conceal by handicapping the IGI’s work. The Party has a direct interest in efficient and professional state security services. It is common knowledge that the SACP has, for a while now, laid complaints to the IGI about rogue intelligence operations directed not only at the Party’s leadership but other South Africans who became outspoken against corporate state capture. Issued by Alex Mohubetswane Mashilo, National Spokesperson, SACP, 16 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/decisive-action-needed-to-get-to-bottom-of-arthur-

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Arthur Fraser ‘n Verdere verwikkeling in die inligting-saga is dat mnr. Fraser direkteur-generaal van die staatsveiligheidsagentskap (SSA)72 na die departement van korrektiewe dienste verplaas is.

Decision to shift Arthur Fraser to DCS wrong – John Steenhuisen Decision to shift Arthur Fraser to DCS wrong – John Steenhuisen John Steenhuisen | 17 April 2018 DA Chief Whip welcomes DG's removal from SSA however, calls for expedited IGI investigation DA denounces President Ramaphosa’s decision to shift SSA Director-General Arthur Fraser to Correctional Services 17 April 2018 The Democratic Alliance denounces President Cyril Ramaphosa’s decision to transfer the DirectorGeneral of the State Security Agency, Arthur Fraser, to the Department of Correctional Services. While we welcome Fraser’s removal from the SSA, it is completely outrageous that President Ramaphosa has decided to merely transfer Fraser to a different government department in light of the ongoing investigation into the damning criminal allegations against him. In May of 2017, when the DA submitted a formal complaint to the Inspector General of Intelligence, Dr Setlhomamaru Dintwe, Fraser’s alleged criminal activities formed the core of the submission. And it was on the basis of Fraser’s desperate attempts to avoid accountability and frustrate the IGI’s ongoing investigation into his illicit conduct that the DA wrote to President Ramaphosa on 12 April 2018 to request that Fraser be suspended pending the investigation into the damning allegations against him. The President’s decision to transfer Fraser is nothing short of a continuation of the disgraceful trend started by former President Jacob Zuma where patently corrupt and criminal officials escape liability for their actions. Evidently, Fraser’s relentless attempts to intimidate and divert attention from his illicit conduct at the SSA has worked – President Ramaphosa and State Security Agency Minister, Dipuo Letsatsi-Duba, have blinked and are allowing Fraser to get away with little consequence. It is apparent that much more still needs to be done to reclaim South Africa’s intelligence services and rid it of nefarious characters like Fraser. It is now absolutely critical that the IGI be allowed to expedite and conclude his investigation into unlawful activities at the SSA. Moreover, oversight and accountability mechanisms across our intelligence services must be improved. The DA will continue to hold those responsible for South Africa’s national security to account and fight to ensure that officials acting unlawfully are exposed and prosecuted. Issued by John Steenhuisen, Chief Whip of the Democratic Alliance, 17 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/decision-to-shift-arthur-fraser-to-correctional-se Fighters condemn the shift of SSA DG across to the DCS

The EFF Condemns the Move of Arthur Fraser to the Correctional Services Tuesday, April 17, 2018 The EFF condemns the move of Arthur Fraser from the State Security Agency to the Correctional Services. A number of allegations involving high-profile politicians, their underhanded tactics, looting and running a parallel intelligence network outside of the government have been lodged against him. A court bid has been launched against him by the Inspector-General of intelligence, and yet 72

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President Cyril Ramaphosa is basically rewarding corruption seeing as Fraser has not responded to all the questions around him and his involvement in the State Capture. The Inspector-General of intelligence Setlhomamaru Dintwe has accused Fraser of interfering in and undermining investigations into him. Fraser has also been accused of threatening and intimidating the Inspector-General of intelligence. The spy boss claims he was unaware of the investigations, if this is the case then we still have no use for him in security structures of our government since he clearly is not a very good spy. The EFF calls on the Presidency and the Minister of State Security to suspend Arthur Fraser pending further investigations instead of putting him as a leader in another government structure. If there is nothing to hide, Arthur Fraser has nothing to fear when subjected to the Rule of Law. Statement issued by the Economic Freedom Fighters, 17 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/arthur-fraser-shouldve-been-suspended--eff

REGSPLEGING | ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE Matatiele: Danie Marais Hennie, ek weet regtig nie meer watter voorvalle ek jou al vertel het nie. Ek stuur maar hierdie een vir jou aan. As die kantoorhoof en enigste Landdros op Matatiele, 1977/1979, was ek outomaties ook die huweliksbeampte in die dorp; behalwe natuurlik, vir die predikante. Vele paartjies het, vir 'n verskeidenheid redes, verkies om voor die "Magistraat" te trou. Omdat ons so 'n klein kantoortjie gehad het, en dit net 'n paar woorde gekos het, het ek die paartjies sommer in my kantoor in die huwelik bevestig!!! Amanda, my klerk sal dan die nodige vorms voltooi, my kom inlig van die troue en hulle met vorms en al na my kantoor bring; gewoonlik die bruid, bruidegom en getuies. Op hierdie besondere dag kon ek die bruid se maag seker reeds so 'n tree of twee voor haar die kantoor sien inkom. Dit was maar die gewoonte dat verwagtende pare voor die Landdros kom trou. Omdat die bruid minderjarig was moes ek eers haar ouers se toestemming kry voordat ek die huwelik kon voltrek. My klerk het hulle so opgestel dat die bruid met haar maag teen haar pa se skouer staan en die bruidegom aan haar anderkant. Op my vraag: “Mr. Abc do you give your consent for you daughter, MNO, to marry GFH?” stamp hy met sy duim so teen haar maag en sê hy: "I don't have much of a choice do I?"

Port Elizabeth: Danie Marais Hennie, hierdie verhaaltjie het ek by soveel verskillende oorspronge gehoor dat ek nie met enige sekerheid kan sê dit kom van Port Elizabeth af nie. Die persona dramatis klink vir my so na karakters wat ek op PE raakgeloop het, dat ek glo van dit kom van daar af. 143


Oor die dae wanneer Kersfees bv. net voor of na 'n gewone werksdag val het die meeste van die personeel die dag afgekry maar die "pettyhof" moes voortgaan. Uit die aard van die saak gebeur dan soms dat van die mees ervare beamptes in hierdie die hof moes optree. Op die besondere dag het oubaas Schniehager (wat hoofsaaklik siviele werk gedoen het) op die bank en met Charlie Tait ('n Streekhofaanklaer) namens die Staat opgetree. Gedurende die loop van die dag kla Charlie 'n persoon aan dat hy "onwelvoeglike taal" in die openbaar gebruik het, deurdat hy vir 'n polisieman die woorde "julle dônnerse polisie" sou toegesnou het! Die Landdros: Nee meneer Tait, dônnerse is nie onwelvoeglike taal nie. Dis 'n alledaagse gebruikstaal" Charlie Tait; " In daardie geval trek ek die dônnerse saak terug edelagbare"!

Corruption charges filed against Shaun Abrahams – AfriForum Marelie Greeff | 11 April 2018 Organisation received an anonymous letter that elaborates on allegations of serious criminal conduct

AfriForum files corruption charges against Shaun Abrahams 11 April 2018 The civil rights organisation AfriForum today filed criminal charges of corruption, fraud, theft, extortion and forgery against Shaun Abrahams, the National Director of Public Prosecutions (NDPP), and six other senior members of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). “This follows after AfriForum received an anonymous letter that elaborates on allegations of serious criminal conduct. In this letter is a plea for AfriForum to ensure that the rot within the NPA is not allowed to continue,” says Monique Taute, Head of AfriForum’s Anti-Corruption Unit. “One allegation refers to a covertly-funded fraudulent travel claim from four members of the NPA. The claims, submitted for authorisation to travel to Zeerust, misrepresent the fact that they actually travelled to Cape Town and spent R97 000 of these covert funds,” says Taute. In a further allegation it is suspected that a witness protection vehicle was allocated to the NDPP, who then used the vehicle for personal benefit. “I believe the suggestion here is that all government assets are strictly governed and that the logbooks, etc. must at all times – even under covert circumstances – reflect the factual use of the asset, but in this case the NDPP has corruptly ensured a personal and/or gratuitous official benefit to which he is not entitled,” adds Taute. She further says that she believes that the allegations are of an alarming nature and therefore requests the South African Police Service (SAPS) to investigate the allegations made in the anonymous letter received by AfriForum. Taute concludes that these allegations should now be enough reason for President Cyril Ramaphosa to remove Abrahams from office, as it is clear that he is not a fit and proper person to hold office. 144


Issued by Marelie Greeff, Media Relations Officer, AfriForum, 11 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/corruption-charges-filed-against-shaun-abrahams--a

Correctional Services head must explain series of jailbreaks – James Selfe James Selfe | 11 April 2018 Six inmates recently broke out of Pollsmoor prison, 16 prisoners from Sun City Correctional Services head must explain series of jailbreaks 11 April 2018 The DA will write to the Chairperson of the Justice Portfolio Committee, Mathole Motshekga MP, to request that he summon the acting national Justice and Correctional Services Commissioner, Mandla Mkabela, to urgently brief the committee on what steps the department is taking to tighten security in prisons. Less than a month after six inmates broke out of Pollsmoor prison in the Western Cape, it was reported this week that 16 prisoners had escaped from Johannesburg Correctional Centre, known as ‘Sun City’ prison. These escapes are concerning and have exposed weaknesses in the country’s prison system. The Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Michael Masutha, must also account for why there has not been a permanent appointment made in the position of national Justice and Correctional Services Commissioner since Zach Modise retired in mid-2017. Parliament is empowered to intervene when national departments are failing to carry out their mandated duties and there appears to be a trend of prison escapes which needs to be addressed immediately. The DA will support Parliament in its role of holding public representatives accountable for their departments’ shortcomings. It is vital that we get answers about the recent prison escapes and ensure greater security at the country’s correctional institutions. Issued by James Selfe, DA Shadow Deputy Minister of Justice & Constitutional Development, 11 April 2018 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/correctional-services-head-must-explain-series-of-

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POLICE INTERNATIONAL • France: Terror Victim Picture of the Day: Daily Maverick By EPA-EFE/CHRISTOPHE PETIT TESSON

French President Emmanuel Macron stands in front of the flag-draped coffin of Gendarme Lieutenant-Colonel Arnaud Beltrame during a solemn funeral ceremony in the courtyard of the Invalides in Paris, France, 28 March 2018.73 https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/1626ff9a33927e45

Peter Hitchens: Why did French hero Arnaud Bertrame give his life to save others? Christianity By Peter Hitchens for THE MAIL ON SUNDAY Published: 00:07 BST, 1 April 2018 | Updated: 12:10 BST, 1 April 2018 Last week saw one of the noblest acts of human courage in modern times. Yet it has been given far less attention than it should have been. We often hear it said of soldiers and others that they ‘gave

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their lives’ in battle. This is true in a way, though many actual soldiers will smile at the expression and mutter that they probably did not have much choice in the matter.

Arnaud Beltrame went miles further than he was required to go by the normal rules of life, or even the normal rules of duty and bravery. But the French police officer, Arnaud Beltrame, consciously and deliberately did give his life to save another. When the drug abuser, petty crook and jailbird Redouane Lakdim burst into the Super U supermarket at Trèbes, in southern France, he wasted no time in showing that he was capable of murder. He shot dead two people and was said to have laughed as he killed them. Then he took several hostages. He was persuaded to release all but one, a terrified woman. Arnaud Beltrame calmly offered to change places with her. I believe that he knew as he did so that this might well cost him his life, and that by stepping forward he faced the strong possibility of a horrible and lonely death. Nobody ordered or asked him to do it. It would have been perfectly normal and acceptable for the police to have surrounded the mad killer and waited for him to give in, or kill himself, with the strong possibility that he would also kill his hostage. Arnaud Beltrame went miles further than he was required to go by the normal rules of life, or even the normal rules of duty and bravery. The daily bargain, under which we behave decently to others and hope for the same in return, wasn’t enough for him. Most of us couldn’t have done what he did. Most of us will never be asked to.

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But I very much doubt whether our civilisation would have reached the heights that it has reached if nobody had ever been ready to make such a sacrifice. I believe very deeply that Christian societies are different from non-Christian ones, precisely because all of us know that such selfless courage is the ideal of what we all should be. And I think that Lieutenant Colonel Beltrame did what he did because of the specifically Christian saying ‘Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends’. This Eastertide it is worth noting that these words are recorded as having been spoken by Christ, shortly before he (knowing what was coming) was dragged off to face a mocking show-trial, torture, beatings and a savage public death. For Arnaud Beltrame had come, quite recently, to embrace Christianity.

French Republican guards carry the flag-draped coffin of hero officer Arnaud Beltrame in Paris.

In aggressively secular, hard-boiled France, this must have been difficult to do. Those of us who try to cling to the shreds of religion in the modern world feel increasingly besieged and hopelessly unfashionable. My late brother Christopher was a militant atheist (but a good deal more thoughtful than most). He used to delight crowds of his supporters by demanding: ‘Name me an ethical statement made or an action performed by a believer that could not have been made or performed by a non-believer.’ In the end he tired of his own question and told me that he had found an answer. He thought that Lech Walesa, the lone and indomitable leader of Polish resistance to the might of communism, would never have dared take on such a huge and merciless enemy without his faith to sustain him. I suspect he 148


would have felt the same about Arnaud Beltrame. And if this is true, and I think it is, is it time the rest of us wondered whether the West’s long mockery and dismissal of religion as childish and outmoded should now come to an end? We need to know the difference between how things are, and how they ought to be, or what do we live and die for? http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-5565939/PETER-HITCHENS-did-French-hero-ArnaudBertrame-life-save-Christianity.html

• Israel: Drones Siege in Gaza: Twelve killed by Israeli forces, 370 injured and DRONES drop tear gas on thousands of Palestinians as they swarm the border, burn photos of Trump, and vow to protest for weeks until US embassy moves to Jerusalem

At least 12 Palestinians have been killed and hundreds hurt during one of the largest Palestinian demonstrations along the Israel-Gaza border in recent years. Tens of thousands of Palestinians, pressing for a right of return for refugees to what is now Israel, gathered at five locations along the fenced 40-mile frontier where tents were erected for a planned six-week protest, local officials said. Demonstrators were also seen burning and stamping on posters with the face of U.S. President Donald Trump, who ordered the move of the embassy from Tel Aviv. Gaza health officials said one of the 12 dead was aged 16 and at least 400 people were wounded by live gunfire, while others were struck by rubber bullets or treated for tear gas inhalation. 149


An Israeli drone dropping tear-gas grenades during clashes after protests along the border between Israel and Gaza Strip, in the eastern Beit Hanun town, in the northern Gaza Strip. Twelve Palestinians were killed and more 500 others injured during the clashes along the border with Israel. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5561285/Palestinian-killed-Israeli-strike-ahead-Gazaprotest-health-ministry.html

MILLITARY INTERNATIONAL • Military History: RAF How the slaughter of 18 London school children in a German bomber raid led, 100 years ago this week, to the birth of the RAF • • •

The Royal Air Force will celebrate its 100th anniversary on Easter Sunday, April 1 A book by historian Richard Overy shows starting the RAF was a herculean effort David Lloyd George set up the new government department, the Air Board, following an attack on an east London primary school

By Tony Rennell for THE DAILY MAIL Published: 00:48 BST, 30 March 2018 | Updated: 00:53 BST, 30 March 2018

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The order to ‘Scramble!’ had finally come and the ever-eager Squadron Leader Douglas Bader clenched his pipe between his teeth and led his team of Spitfires and Hurricanes in a fast climb into the sky over southern England. It was September 1940, the height of the Battle of Britain. In the distance, a cluster of black dots stained the sky. A cry went up over the radio: ‘Bandits, 10 o’clock!’ There were 70 of them, Dornier bombers and their fighter plane escorts. Bader closed fast, ignoring streams of tracer streaking at him from their rear gunners. A Messerschmitt floated into his sights. He gave a quick burst of fire and felt a moment of triumph as he saw it fall, smoke pouring from its tail. Then there was a horrible, jarring shock as German cannon shells slammed into his own plane.

No19 Fighter Squadron, based at Duxford, Cambs., flying their two-blade propeller Supermarine Spitfire aircraft in formation in the year of the outbreak of the Second World War 151


Instinctively, he banked hard left as his cockpit filled with smoke. He was going down in flames. Gripped by fear, he pulled back the hood to bale out — until the slipstream cleared the smoke and he realised the fire had miraculously gone out. He was all right after all. Using all his strength, he eased the Hurricane out of its screaming dive and gave chase to another Messerschmitt, firing three sharp bursts. It veered groundward and seconds later exploded. But Bader was in real trouble by now too, his plane crabbing awkwardly, left wing dropping, holes in the cockpit and the side. His flying-suit was gashed across the right hip. Somehow, he nursed the Hurricane back to base, landed, taxied to the maintenance hangar and climbed out, barking: ‘I want this aircraft ready again in half an hour!’ Here was the raw, do-or-die courage, the refusal to be beaten, that came to typify Britain’s Royal Air Force — which is about to celebrate 100 years since it was founded on April 1, 1918. It was a difficult birth. Conceived in panic against the wishes of the other armed forces, the RAF was sniped at from all sides and only just managed to survive as an independent organisation. It was a good job it did. It nurtured the likes of the indomitable Bader (who’d lost both his legs in a pre-war crash when showing off his aerobatic skills), without whom the Battle of Britain, its finest hour, would not have been won. It has proved its worth ever since. Which is why it’s as a surprise to learn in a new book by historian Richard Overy that getting the RAF off the ground took herculean effort — and very nearly didn’t happen. Britain had war planes in service ever since the start of World War I, with their importance in battle growing despite the fact that flying then was still rudimentary and dangerous. Flimsy planes made of wood and fabric and held together with wire were liable to break up or crash.

No19 Fighter Squadron at the outbreak of the second world war

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Pilots took to the air in combat after just a dozen hours training, wrapped up in layers of clothing and multiple balaclavas to keep out the cold in the open cockpits. There were no parachutes. Each squadron was umbilically attached to one or other of the existing armed forces — the Army and the Royal Navy — whom they supported and from whom they took their orders. The army’s Royal Flying Corps (RFC) patrolled the skies above the trenches in France; the job of the Royal Navy Air Service (RNAS) was to protect ships. And the generals and admirals jealously guarded their fiefdoms, determined to keep the ambitious aviators and their flying machines in their place: new boys who were subordinates and should do as they were told. Wars were won on land and sea, was the prevailing doctrine, not in the air. Planes simply provided protection, reconnaissance and back-up. But that arrogance and complacency on the part of the service chiefs came up against harsh reality when Britain itself came under attack from the air. In 1915 and 1916, bombing raids from Zeppelin airships killed several hundred civilians in various parts of the country. But what really spread panic among the British was when a squadron of German Gotha bombers attacked in broad daylight on June 13, 1917. They flew unchallenged above the capital at an altitude beyond the range of anti-aircraft guns.

The Avro Lancaster bomber, of the Royal Air Forces Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Hundreds of civilians were killed or wounded and a primary school in Poplar, in the East End of London, was hit by a stray bomb intended for the nearby docks. 153


It scythed down through the three-storey building and obliterated an infants class of four to six-yearolds on the ground floor, killing all 18 of them. The school caretaker carried out the body of his own son. A pupil who survived recalled the headmaster calling the register the next day and weeping every time there was no answer to a name. The little ones’ funeral was deeply emotional, with 15 of the victims buried in a mass grave. Rumour had it that the last coffin in the procession to the cemetery contained body parts that could not be identified. Six hundred wreaths were laid and a message of condolence from the King was read out. After the mourning came rage, with a public outcry for something to be done. Rioters and looters took out their anger and despair on foreign-owned premises. Egged on by an affronted Press, the public demanded air defences against the enemy and reprisals against German cities — which, with other priorities, neither the RFC nor the RNAS could supply.

RAF Supermarine Spitfire II banks round to show classic Spitfire wing shape 154


The Prime Minister, wily David Lloyd George, saw a political disaster in the making. Public morale was at rock bottom already after three years of a stalemate war. He feared a backlash. Famed for his tap-dancing expediency, he headed off the growing criticism by setting up a special crisis committee, which in turn proposed the formation of an independent Air Ministry. Separate from the army and navy, it would coordinate not only the country’s response to aerial attack but also handle all matters of war in the air. The generals and admirals were outraged at the very idea. They huffed and puffed, argued and stalled.

The Hurricane was built in 1944 and is believed to be the last Hurricane to enter service with the RAF. Both aircraft are still flying with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight But then the need for action was reinforced by more German air raids in late September, more Gothas coming in under a harvest moon and sending Londoners into total panic. Only a handful of bombers actually made it to the capital, but rumour said 4,000 were on the way, and hundreds of thousands of civilians — carrying babies, bedding and pet canaries in cages — formed queues outside Tube stations to seek shelter underground. Output came to a halt in factories when panicked staff, worried about their safety, failed to turn up for work. Production of weapons slumped at the Woolwich Arsenal. 155


The desperate authorities shoved aside any bickering about the need for an Air Ministry, and Parliament passed an act authorising the establishment of the Royal Air Force. Initially, it would be a temporary measure, for just four years. That this was essentially a political rather than a military decision was underlined when Lloyd George chose the Fleet Street Press baron Lord Rothermere — owner (alongside his brother, Lord Northcliffe) of Associated Newspapers (which, then and now, included the Daily Mail) — to head the new Air Ministry.

A Supermarine Spitfire Mk.Vb, RF-D, flown by pilot Jan Zumbach (1915 - 1986) of the 303 Kosciuszko Polish Fighter Squadron of the Royal Air Force (RAF), World War II, circa 1943 It was an unlikely appointment. Rothermere had a good track record in business but, writes Overy, ‘had little political experience and only a layman’s grasp of the way air power had developed over the course of the war.’ Overy surmises that the Prime Minister’s motivation for offering him the position was simply to get him on board and try, unsuccessfully as it turned out, to stifle criticism from his papers. The new ministry — formally known as the Air Board — had a rocky start. It was not just that the Admiralty was doing its best to torpedo every initiative by insisting on keeping control over naval aircraft and personnel. There was also disagreement among the top brass, with Rothermere at loggerheads with Sir Hugh Trenchard, previously commander of the RFC, who had been appointed Chief of the Air Staff but wasn’t himself convinced that a separate air force was necessary or desirable.

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Biggin Hill: Pilots have a last look at their maps before taking off at Biggin Hill on RAF exercises The fiery Trenchard griped constantly about taking direction from a civilian. Rothermere complained that his Chief of Staff was not just ‘perfectly impossible’ to work with but also failing to do his job of coming up with a distinctive, long-term strategy for the new force. Nonetheless, amid the mess, the wrangling and the uncertainty, the RAF was born. It officially came into being on April 1, 1918 — appropriately, some smirked, All Fools’ Day. There were no fanfares or ceremonies. The only obvious immediate change was a new rubber stamp with ‘Royal Air Force’ obliterating ‘Royal Flying Corps’ on documents. Otherwise, its 25,000 officers and 140,000 men, most technicians, mechanics or drivers, carried on as before, with the 64 former naval squadrons continuing to support the navy and the 97 former RFC units with the army. At the top, the rows went on until, after just weeks in the job, Trenchard resigned, followed later by Rothermere. Their successors — the industrialist Sir William Weir as President of the Air Board and Frederick Sykes as Chief of Staff — looked to give the new force a distinct identity.

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Sykes set about strengthening the air defences around London and planning the strategic bombing of industrial and civilian targets in Germany, while arguing strongly that air power was the future face of war. The air force, he contended, would be the nation’s — and the empire’s — first line of defence, not the army or the navy. A distinctive RAF uniform was designed, to replace the khaki of the army and deep blue of the navy. The first effort was light blue with lashings of gold braid but was scoffed at for resembling the clothes of a cinema commissionaire. A dark grey-blue was finally settled on.

Aircraft of the Royal Air Force, 1939-1945: Supermarine Spitfire, Spitfire Mark VB, AD233 'ZDF' being flown by the Commanding Officer of No.222 Squadron RAF But Sykes’s ambition for the service was cut short by the ending of the war in November 1918 — at which point all the disputes over the need for a separate RAF surfaced again. With demobilisation, numbers shrank from 198 squadrons to just 28. Doubts were also raised about how effective the bombing campaign in the final months of war had actually been. ‘A gigantic waste of effort and personnel’ was one insider’s damning verdict. The mood in Whitehall was increasingly in favour of breaking up the RAF and sending its constituent parts back to the army and the navy as ancillary units. Lloyd George even came close to writing it off 158


as a wartime improvisation. It was Winston Churchill who came to the rescue when, at the beginning of 1919, he was appointed Secretary of State for War, with the addition of the Air Ministry as part of his brief. At first he sat on the fence, leaving the RAF in what Overy describes as ‘limbo’ — ‘neither elevated to a secure future nor yet dismantled as a redundant relic of the recent conflict’. Trenchard was now back as Chief of Staff and — contrary to the reluctance displayed two years earlier — a fervent advocate of RAF independence. When he got wind that Churchill might be leaning towards dismantling the service, he stormed into his office and engaged in a fierce shouting match with his boss. A separate air force was essential, he now argued forcibly, to ‘encourage and develop the Air spirit, like the Naval spirit, and to make it a force that will profoundly influence the strategy of the future’.

A reconstruction of a Spitfire scramble during the Battle of Britain open day celebrations at Biggin Hill in Kent pn Sunday 17 September 2000 Churchill wavered but eventually came down on Trenchard’s side. He, too, could see where the future lay. The RAF as an independent force was saved. Henceforth it would be a permanent fixture in Britain’s military set-up. Not that everybody considered the issue settled. ‘A wicked waste of money,’ declared Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson. ‘The sooner the air force crashes the better.’ Three years later Admiral David Beatty was still demanding that the navy should get back control of its planes and pilots. But the RAF flew on regardless, dodging the brickbats, growing in strength and proving its worth in the Second World War. When that great conflict began, this country’s one military element that was technically up to date and well prepared was the fighter defence of the British Isles. 159


The fears of enemy bombing in 1917 that had prompted the call for a separate RAF in the first place came full circle in 1940. As Prime Minister, Churchill reaped the rewards of his foresight in supporting the fledgling RAF all those years earlier. ‘For good or ill,’ he wrote later, ‘air mastery is today the supreme expression of military power. And fleets and armies, however necessary, must accept a subordinate rank.’ As he chalked up another ‘kill’ over Kent and sent Hitler’s Luftwaffe packing, Douglas Bader would most surely have agreed. THE Birth of the RAF, 1918: The World’s First Air Force by Richard Overy is published by Allen Lane at £14.99. To order a copy for £11.24 (offer valid to 7/4/18), visit mailshop.co.uk/books or call 0844 571 0640. P&P is free on orders over £15. Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5560659/How-slaughter-18-school-children-German-raidled-birth-RAF-100-years-ago.html

1918: The role of Gen Smuts in the formation of the RAF Excerpt: History of the Royal Air Force From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia74 We cover the formation of the RAF by Gen. Smuts and end this article at the outbreak of WW2. The history of the Royal Air Force, the air force of the United Kingdom, spans nearly a century of British military aviation. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, towards the end of World War I by merging the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. After the war, the RAF was greatly reduced in size and during the inter-war years it was used to "police" the British Empire. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. During the war it was responsible for the aerial defence of Great Britain, the strategic bombing campaign against Germany and tactical support to the British Army around the world. During the Cold War, the main role of the RAF was the defence of the continent of Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, including holding the UK's nuclear deterrent for a number of years. After the Cold War, the RAF was involved in several large-scale operations, including the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the War in Afghanistan, the Iraq War. Formation and the inter-war years While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918 by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service and was controlled by the British Government Air Ministry which had been established three months earlier. The Royal Flying Corps had been born out of the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers and was under the control of the British Army. The Royal Naval Air Service was its naval equivalent and was controlled by the Admiralty. The decision to merge the two services and create an independent air force was a response to the events of World 74

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Royal_Air_Force

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War I, the first war in which air power made a significant impact. The creation of the new force was based on the Smuts Report prepared by Field Marshal Jan Smuts for the Imperial War Cabinet on which he served. To emphasize the merger of both military and naval aviation in the new service, many of the titles of officers were deliberately chosen to be of a naval character, such as flight lieutenant, wing commander, group captain, and air commodore. The newly created RAF was the most powerful air force in the world on its creation, with over 20,000 aircraft and over 300,000 personnel (including the Women's Royal Air Force). The squadrons of the RFC kept their numerals while those of the RNAS were renumbered from 201 onwards. At the time of the merger, the Navy's air service had 55,066 officers and men, 2,949 aircraft, 103 airships and 126 coastal stations. The remaining personnel and aircraft came from the RFC. A memorial to the RAF was commissioned after the war in central London. The RAF's last known surviving founder member was the World War I veteran Henry Allingham who died in 2009 aged 113. Following the end of World War I and the accompanying British defence cuts, the newly independent (and still temporary) RAF waited nine months to see if it would be retained by the Cabinet. 6,500 officers, all holding temporary commissions or seconded from the Army and Navy, applied for permanent commissions. The Cabinet sanctioned a maximum of 1,500 and the Air Ministry offered 1,065 to the applicants, publishing the first list on 1 August 1919, 75% of them short-term (two to five years). The service as a whole had been reduced in strength to 35,500. Policing the Empire The RAF took up the task of policing the British Empire from the air. It was argued that the use of air power would prove to be a more cost-effective way of controlling large areas than by using conventional land forces. Sir Hugh Trenchard, the Chief of the Air Staff, had formulated ideas about the use of aircraft in colonial policing and these were first put into practice in 1920 when the RAF and imperial ground units defeated rebel Somaliland dervishes. The following year, in 1921, the RAF was given responsibility for all British forces in Iraq with the task of 'policing' the tribal unrest. The RAF also saw service in Afghanistan in 1925, where they were employed independently for the first time in their history, then again in 1928, when following the outbreak of civil war, the British Legation and some European diplomatic staff based in Kabul were cut off. Activities in Great Britain It was during the inter-war years that the RAF had to fight for its survival - some questioned the need for a separate air force, especially in peacetime. To prevent itself being disbanded and its duties returned to the Army and the Navy, the RAF spent considerable energies keeping itself in the public eye by such things as the annual Hendon Air Show, supporting a team for the Schneider Trophy air racing competition, and by producing documentary films. In 1936, a reorganisation of RAF command saw the creation of Fighter Command, Bomber Command and Coastal Command. Naval aviation The creation of the RAF removed all aircraft and flying personnel from the Navy, although the Admiralty remained in control of aircraft carriers. On 1 April 1924, the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Air Force was formed under Air Ministry control. It consisted of those RAF units that were normally embarked on aircraft carriers and fighting ships. The Chief of the Air Staff, Lord Trenchard, his air staff and his successors argued that "air is one and indivisible" and hence that naval aviation was properly the responsibility of the RAF. The Admiralty took the opposite view and, during the first half of the 1920s, pressed hard for the return of naval aviation to their control. It has been argued that the British defence arrangements in the inter-war years had a serious impact upon the doctrinal development of British naval air power as the Navy lacked experienced naval aviators. During the 1920s and first half of the 1930s, Government spending on the RAF was limited and the air staff put a higher priority on strategic bombing than on naval aviation. The result of this was that 161


by the late 1930s the Fleet Air Arm was equipped with outdated aircraft — like the Fairey Swordfish three-man biplane torpedo bomber, among others — in limited numbers, as the rival Imperial Japanese Naval Air Service began using the Nakajima B5N all-metal low-winged monoplane torpedo bomber from the IJN's aircraft carriers by 1938 as one example of how the Fleet Air Arm's aviation technology was literally "being left behind" by one of its future foes. By 1936, the Admiralty were once again campaigning for the return of naval aviation to their control. This time they were successful and on 30 July 1937, the Admiralty took over responsibility for the administration of the Fleet Air Arm. Under two years later, on 24 May 1939, the Fleet Air Arm was returned to full Admiraltycontrol under the Inskip Award and renamed the Air Branch of the Royal Navy. Strategic bombing The RAF developed its doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became the basic philosophy in the Second World War. Sources • • • • • • • • • • •

Bowyer, Chaz (1988). RAF Operations 1918–1938. London: William Kimber. ISBN 0-71830671-6. Finn, C. J. et al. (2004). Air Publication 3003 - A Brief History of the Royal Air Force. HMSO Flintham, Vic (2009). High Stakes - Britain's Air Arms in Action 1945-1990 Pen and Sword ISBN 978 1 84415 815 7. Chant, Christopher (1993). The History of the RAF. Regency House Publishing. ISBN 1-85361126-3. Ferté, Philiip Joubert de la. The Birds and the Fishes: The Story of Coastal Command. Hutchinson. 1960. (No ISBN) OCLC 223965469. Halpenny, Bruce, To Shatter the Sky: Bomber Airfield at War (ISBN 978-0-85059-678-6) Halpenny, Bruce, Fight for the Sky: Stories of Wartime Fighter Pilots (ISBN 978-0-85059-749-3) Norwood, Stephen H. (2013). Antisemitism and the American Far Left. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107036017. Orange, Vincent (1990). Coningham: A Biography of Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, Methuen Publishing (ISBN 978-0413145802) Robinson, Derek (2005). Invasion 1940: The truth about the Battle of Britain and what stopped Hitler, Constable ISBN 1845291514 Till, Geoffey (1979). Air Power and the Royal Navy, 1914–1945: An historical survey, Macdonald's and Janes, ISBN 0354012045.

UK: First Black Army Officer MPs call for the first ever black officer in the British army to be given the Military Cross after he gave up his football career with Tottenham to fight in the First World War •

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Walter Tull, who died in action, fought in six battles during the First World War He was also a professional footballer, playing for Spurs and Northampton Town In 1914 he gave up his footballing career to dedicate his life to military service Parliamentarians say racism was why his achievements were never recognised

By PHOEBE SOUTHWORTH FOR MAILONLINE PUBLISHED: 13:07 BST, 24 March 2018 | UPDATED: 13:45 BST, 24 March 2018

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Walter Tull, who died in action on March 25, 1918, fought in six battles, including the Battle of the Somme and at Ypres

MPs are calling for the first black British Army officer to be awarded a posthumous Military Cross after he gave up a glittering football career to fight in the First World War. Walter Tull, who died in action on March 25, 1918, fought in six battles, including the Battle of the Somme and at Ypres. He was also mentioned in dispatches for leading his company of 26 men on a raiding party into enemy territory in Italy. Tull was commissioned as an officer in 1917 despite military regulations forbidding 'any negro or person of colour' from serving in such a role. He was also one of the first black professional footballers, playing for Spurs and Northampton Town but his career came to an end in 1914 when he dedicated his life to military service. Parliamentarians say racism was the reason Tull was never awarded the Military Cross he was. The campaign to honour him by a cross-party group of MPs is led by Labour MP David Lammy and has the backing of Jeremy Corbyn. Prominent Tories such as Maria Miller and Sarah Wollaston, as well as Liberal Democrat, SNP, Plaid Cymru and DUP members, are also rallying to recognise his bravery. The call has been backed by 127 MPs who have written to Prime Minister Theresa May ahead of the hundredth anniversary of Tull's death this Sunday.

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He was also one of the first black professional footballers, playing for Spurs and Northampton Town (Tull pictured in second row, second from right). Tull's footballing career came to an end in 1914 when he dedicated his life to military service.

Parliamentarians say racism was the reason Tull was never awarded the Military Cross he was recommended for. 164


Mr Lammy, whose constituency includes Tull's former football club Tottenham Hotspur, said: 'Walter Tull is a true British hero and he embodies everything that makes me so proud to be British. 'I think that everybody in our country should know Walter's story and the hundredth anniversary of his death is the perfect opportunity to right this wrong, recognise his achievements and celebrate his life.

David Lammy (pictured), whose constituency includes Tull's former football club Tottenham Hotspur, is leading the drive to recognise his bravery

'His strength and courage in overcoming such bitter prejudice and racism to become a pioneer and a trailblazer in sport and in our armed services serves as an inspiration to us all. 'Walter defied the discrimination that plagued all aspects of society during his lifetime and served our country with distinction.' The letter to the Prime Minister states: 'Walter was the first black officer to lead white British troops into battle. 'Racism was pervasive within British society at this time and this prejudice that dogged so many of our institutions was reflected in the British Army. 'At the time that Walter served as an officer, the manual of military law stated that candidates for commissioning as an officer 'must be of pure European descent'. 'Given the widespread prejudice that existed in society at this time and his position as a black officer in an army that did not permit black officers, Walter's race was clearly a factor in explaining why he was never awarded the Military Cross that he was recommended for.' Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5539435/MPs-call-black-officer-British-army-given-MilitaryCross.html •

The South African Police appointed people of colour as commissioned officers during 1970.

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WWll: Colourised photos Diversity on the front line: Colourised photos shows WWII allied soldiers including a US serviceman sharing a cigar with a Gurkha and the female French Resistance fighter who captured 25 Nazis •

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The images vividly bring to life the wide cross-section of people who fought for the allies during the conflict They show several nationalities played a key role, including women in the French Resistance and Soviet army The photos were painstakingly colourised by Birmingham-based design engineer Paul Reynolds

By Mailonline Reporter Published: 17:15 GMT, 7 February 2018 | Updated: 17:43 GMT, 7 February 2018 A series of stunning colourised images have brought to light the diversity of the Allied forces fighting in World War Two. Incredible pictures show a U.S. soldier sharing a cigar with a Gurkha in Italy, British General Bernard L. Montgomery watching his tanks move up in North Africa and Russian sniper Julia Petrovna who is reported to have killed 80 German soldiers. Other vivid colour photographs show a French Resistance fighter named Nicole who captured 25 Nazis, members of the Doncaster Home Guard training in preparation for an invasion that never came and FBI agents during firearms practice with a Browning R80 in 1936. The original snaps were painstakingly colourised by design engineer Paul Reynolds, 48, from Birmingham. 'I mostly colourise war photos because each photo usually has a story to tell, stories of real everyday people,' he said.

'A war is just a war but a good cigar is a smoke' - among the images to have benefited from colourisation is this photo of a U.S. soldier sharing a cigar with a Gurkha in Italy in 1944. Among the British and American allied troops fighting in the Italian Campaign were Algerians, Indians, French, Moroccans, Poles, Canadians, New Zealanders, African Americans and Japanese Americans

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A Navajo Code Talker relays a message on a field radio. U.S forces in both World Wars used native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages. The code talkers served in the South Pacific during World War II and were kept a secret until 1968 when the Navajo code was finally declassified

Members of the 'French Squadron SAS' (1ere Compagnie de Chasseurs Parachutistes) during the link-up between advanced units of the 1st and 8th armies in the Gabes-Tozeur area of Tunisia in 167


January 1943. Previously a company of Free French paratroopers, the French SAS squadron were the first of a range of units 'acquired' by Major Stirling as the SAS expanded

Among the diverse collection of fighters that features in Paul Reynolds' collection is this February 1942 image of a Polish soldier in the Western Desert - the campaign took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War

It is a little-known fact that among the diverse group of allies fighting the Nazis in Europe during World War Two were New Zealanders - seen here on top of a German Tiger tank captured at La Romola, Italy, on 31 July 1944. While the key role played by New Zealand servicemen in the Far East is well known, scores of aircrew and troops also perished in Europe 168


Julia Petrovna, a sniper of the Red Army was Nicole, also known as Simone Segouin, was a by 1943 reported to have killed 80 German French Partisan is reported to have captured 25 soldiers. As this picture shows, she was a Nazis in the Chartres Area, in addition to highly decorated soldier. liquidating may others. Women served in the Russian forces in small numbers in the early stages of the war, but their In this August 1944 photo she can be seen number increased after heavy Russian losses. posing with her automatic rifle. They played a major role in pushing back the Nazis at the end of the conflict She also derailed trains, blew up bridges and was present at the liberation of Chartres on August 23, 1944, and the liberation of Paris two days later. She was promoted to lieutenant and awarded the Croix de guerre. After the war, Segouin became a nurse

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Men of the 2/9th Gurkha Rifles training in the Malayan jungle, October 1941. More than 250,000 Gurkhas served in 40 battalions during WW2, in addition to eight Nepalese Army battalions, and parachute, training, garrison and porter units in almost all theatres of the war. 'If a man says he is not afraid of dying, he is either lying or is a Gurkha,' one general once remarked

French Resistance fighters man a barricade in Paris in August-1944. The Resistance was a generic name to describe the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy regime. The men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society 170


FBI firearms practice in 1936 with a Browning R80. The Browning Assault Rifle was the first official 'Fighting Rifle' of the FBI and was used in the capture and shooting of famous bandits Bonnie and Clyde, along with a multitude of weapons

King George VI inspects paratroops of 6th Airborne Division, 16 March 1944. A few months later, on 6 June 1944 the Allied invasion of Normandy - otherwise known as the D-Day landings had begun. It was the largest seaborne invasion in history and laid the foundations of the allied victory on the Western Front

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Portrait of a soldier from No. 3 Commando armed with a 'Tommy gun' and wearing a balaclava, at Largs in Scotland, 2 May 1942. Commandos fought in different theatres throughout the war, including the Tunisia Campaign, Burma, assaults on Sicily and Normandy, campaigns in the Rhineland and crossing the Rhine

S/Sgt. Maynard Smith was a ball turret gunner in the 423rd Bomb Squadron, 306th Bomb Group, 8th Air Force. He won the Medal of Honour for a 1 May 1943 mission to bomb the submarine pens in Saint-Nazaire, France. In the mission he helped save the lives of six of his wounded comrades, put out a blazing fire and see off wave after wave of German fighters

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General Bernard Montgomery watches his tanks in North Africa in November 1942. Monty stayed in the deserts until the final Allied victory in Tunisia in May 1943. He later commanded the British Eighth Army during the Allied invasion of Sicily and the Allied invasion of Italy and was in charge of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord from the initial D-Day landings until after the Battle of Normandy

Dick Winters and his Easy Company (Band of Brothers) lounging at Eagle's Nest, Hitler's former residence, 1945. In 2001 a war drama of the same name - based on Stephen Ambrose's non-fiction 173


book - was released which chronicled the progress of Easy Company as it fought its way through Europe and the Far East

United States troops walk down a curved street past the Coliseum in Rome, Italy. A Roman man feels safe enough to walk in the opposite direction, using a cane, casually passing troops carrying their packs and weapons. Italy surrendered to the Allies on September 8, 1943

Dispelling misconceptions: The British Home Guard - set up as a reserve defense organisation with 1.5 million members - are often caricatured as the bumbling amateurs of Dad's Army fame. But here Members of the Doncaster Home Guard show that was anything but the case. Here they can be seen 174


wearing camouflage net veils over their faces to swim across a river during an assault exercise on 20 July 1942

Another Home Guard picture show that some members of the force - contrary to some impressions were well equipped and carried up-to-date weapons. The Home Guard continued to guard the coastal areas of the United Kingdom and other important places such as airfields, factories and explosives stores until late 1944 when they were stood down

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Among the colourised images produced by Paul Reynolds are the first assault waves of Marines taking cover prior to moving inland on Guam in 1944. 'I mostly colourise war photos because each photo usually has a story to tell, stories of real everyday people,' he said

The resolute faces of paratroopers of the 101st Airborne just before they took off for the initial assault of D-Day, June 6, 1944. The paratrooper in the foreground has just read General Eisenhower's message of good luck and clasps his bazooka in the other hand. •

Striking images like these are featured in British author Michael D. Carroll's new

book, Retrographic, which is available on Amazon now for £16.85. Share or comment on this article http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5363097/Colourised-photos-diversity-WWII-alliedtroops.html

Rhodesia Rhodesian Corps of Engineers Veterans Memorial service: Paul Els •

On the 31st of March the Rhodesian Corps of Engineers Veterans unveiled a memorial wall at Sappersrus, Hartebeesfonteindam. The ceremony was well attended by about 25 old Sappers and their family (+- 60.) The ceremony was led by Sergeant Major Trevor Thomas (80 years) and the service by Alf Herbst. The wall was unveiled by Sappers Cary, Preston and Alf Herbst. A main wreath was laid by Mrs Thora Cary and the Sappers by Peter Gleeson. Sapper Cary and family were then thanked for the building of the wall.

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Sappers on Parade; the memorial wall and the memorial. After the closing address everyone was invited to make a toast and to attend the braai. (WO1 Paul J. Els.)

Rhodesia's unlikely revolutionary: Peter Mackay

Peter Mackay: Rhodesia's unlikely revolutionary Trevor Grundy | 27 March 2018 Trevor Grundy writes on the former British army officer's recently rediscovered role in the liberation of Zimbabwe When Peter Mackay died in 2013 at his well-kempt, humble cottage home in Marondera (the former Marandellas) he was 86. He was, wrote the historian Terence Ranger, living by himself in deliberate obscurity. Millions of words have been written about the history of Rhodesia. There have been dozens of books about the long and costly war (1966-1979) that ended 90-years of all-white rule in Southern Rhodesia in 1980. 177


But Peter Mackay’s name is mentioned in only four of them: two are by critics, with author Richard Hughes Capricorn – David Stirling’s Second African Campaign (The Radcliffe Press, 2003) presenting Mackay as a slightly maverick figure in the European-run “liberal” attempt to end racism in the British colony and Ken Flower’s memoir of Rhodesian intelligence Serving Secretly, Rhodesia into Zimbabwe 1964-1981 (John Murray, 1987) where Mackay appears, absurdly, as a KGB agent and a man condemned by most Rhodesian whites as a supporter of Africans (the racist slang reading “Kaffir-lover”). The other two, throw a different light on the man and are in Judith Todd’s Through the Darkness: A life in Zimbabwe (Zebra Press, 2007) and in Ranger’s Are We Not Also Men – The Samkange Family and African Politics in Zimbabwe 1920 -1964 (James Currey, London 1995). Otherwise, notes Ranger in the foreword to Mackay’s own work We Have Tomorrow – Stirrings in Africa, 19591967 (Michael Russell, London 2008) “he has gone unnoticed in the whole vast literature of African nationalism in Central Africa and the liberation war in Zimbabwe.” Very few people knew that during years of sometimes feverish activity on behalf of the African nationalists fighting Rhodesia’s relatively well-equipped army, Peter Mackay was keeping a diary of events which young African historians will find so useful. The entire Peter Mackay Archive has now been shipped to Stirling University in Scotland. Students at that great university have taken Mackay to their collective heart, decorated walls at the campus with pages from his book, illustrated the heroic journeys he made between Rhodesia-Botswana – the Caprivi Strip –Zambia-up into Tanzania and then beyond (sometimes to the Soviet Union countries, sometimes to China/ North Korea) a political/military/liberation highway known to Mackay’s growing number of supporters and admirers as Freedom Road. “Mackay played a crucial role in the liberation of Zimbabwe but his stories have not yet been fully told,” said Ireland-born Karl Magee, the university’s chief archivist. “We want to make Mackay’s personal and political papers, and photography accessible to scholars and students in Africa and open up one of the most important collections of its kind, to the rest of the world.” His ties to Stirling were strong. His upper-middle class family with its distinctly imperial connections lived at nearby Doune. Peter’s father served as a major in the Gurkha Rifles and one of his uncles also joined that famous unit and became a colonel. The young Mackay went on to become head boy at Stowe (senior boys were called “men” at English private schools) and then the youngest captain in the Brigade of Guards. His family and his peer group at Sandhurst saw him as a general in the making. Instead of pursuing a military career, he left the army and became a tobacco farmer in Southern Rhodesia, later editor of that country’s main farming magazine and then as a man determined to help change the face of Africa by lending his military expertise to black nationalists during the first and arguably most complicated period of their coming together as opponents against first, the Central African Federation that linked the two Rhodesia with Nyasaland between 1953-1964 and then Ian Smith’s Government (1964-1978). The turning point in Mackay’s extraordinary life happened when he met Colonel David Stirling, founder of the legendary SAS. He dropped farming and lent himself to the progress of the multicultural, liberal Capricorn Society, organising its most successful venture – the Salima Convention on the shores of Lake Malawi in June 1956. Mackay was jailed for refusing to serve in the Rhodesian Army. He re-based in Kenneth Kaunda’s Zambia, worked with refugees in Lusaka and became a strong supporter of FROLIZI, the tiny liberation movement led by James Chikerema and George Nyandoro after their break with both 178


ZAPU and ZANU in 1971. It is not known how many young blacks Mackay shepherded out of Southern Rhodesia into guerrilla training camps in other parts of Central, Eastern and Northern Africa (and beyond). Some say hundreds – others insist it was much more – maybe thousands. In one of his rare discussions with a journalist he said: “My politics were the politics of race – majority rule and not the politics of party. I never did like politics. Nearly every political prediction I made was wrong.” After Independence in 1980, Mackay watched the men he’d help to power climb the greasy pole and become as greedy and corrupt as the worst of the men they’d removed from power. Peter set off to Omay in the Zambezi Valley, one of the most malaria-infested parts of Zimbabwe where he set up a health clinic and school and an agricultural settlement for the 15, 000 Batonka tribespeople who occupied that long neglected, impoverished, area. “In many ways,” said the writer and historian Lawrence Vambe (An Ill-fated People – Zimbabwe Before and After Rhodes – published by William Heinemann, London 1972) “Peter was a kind of saint. But a non-religious saint if there can be such a person.” Six years before his death, thieves broke into his cottage. Peter was in the bath. The cottage was ransacked. Armed robbers stole what money Peter had in a drawer. A fierce fight followed. Peter was almost beaten to death. The years the Peter Mackay Archive cover are still comparatively recent. But as the author Michaela Wrong (In the Footsteps of Mr Kurtz – Harper Collins, 2000) said in a review of Peter Mackay's wonderfully frank and beautifully written book: “The hopes of that era were so bright, the belief that an independent Africa would prove a better place than its colonial predecessor so unquenchable, this story seems to hail from a different century, or perhaps a parallel universe.” Trevor Grundy is a British journalist who worked in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa from 19661999.

Peter Mackay pictured at a point along Freedom Road. Courtesy of the Peter Mackay Archive, Stirling University, Scotland http://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/peter-mackay-rhodesias-unlikely-revolutionary

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BRIEWE | LETTERS Mrs. W Mandela and the SA Police: Gen. Johan van der Merwe Various persons had made comments on the passing of Mrs. Mandela. Gen. Van der Merwe as former head of the Security Branch in the Free State, Head of the Security Branch and former Commissioner of the SA Police was asked for his view on the matter. Hello Hennie It’s not the right time now to disclose Winnie’s dark past and I only provide the following information for use when suitable. Winnie Mandela was occasionally very charming, but vicious and offensive when things did not suit her. She was part of the revolutionary struggle, but her main concern was power and self-interest. As Thabo Mbeki rightly observed, she loved to be applauded and wanted to be the pivot on which everything hinges. She was prosecuted and convicted during 1990 for the kidnapping of Stompie Sepei, a 12-year-old boy. She was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment, which was changed to a fine and suspended sentence after an appeal. Stompie was murdered during the kidnapping and one of Winnie's followers, Jerry Richardson, who was also a member of her football league, was convicted of the murder. Jerry Richardson applied for amnesty and stated that he had executed the abduction and murder on the instructions of Winnie. Although, according to all indications, she was probably involved in the murder, there was not sufficient evidence to prove it. After 1990, no one living in a black residential area would have dared to testify against Winnie Mandela. During 1989, Soweto's security branch handed over a case docket with prima facie evidence that Winnie committed high treason, to the then Attorney General of the Witwatersrand, Advocate Klaus von Lierus von Wilkau. The security branch later learned that Advocate Von Lieres discussed the matter with the Minister of Justice, Kobie Coetsee, and that he would have indicated that delicate talks with Nelson Mandela were being conducted and that it could jeopardize it if Winnie was prosecuted. Consequently, no further steps were taken. Winnie supported terror and violence and her statements in public about the necklaces are widely known. Winnie Mandela never had a lack of money or company and received numerous donations from people locally and abroad. The fact that she was Nelson Mandela's wife has undoubtedly saved her from imprisonment in several cases. Regards Johan van der Merwe

Mnr. JS Kloppers Mnr. Jac Kloppers (Voorheen aanklaer en prokureur te Welkom) skryf soos volg oor die Nongqai: Baie interessant. Ek weet net nie waar jy die tyd kry om so ‘n omvattende publikasie op ‘n gereelde basis saam te stel en te publiseer nie. Het jy moontlik al ‘n kumulatiewe indeks saamgestel van al Nongqai se artikels sedert sy ontstaan onder jou vlerk? Ek vra dit omdat ek voorsien dat ek graag sal wil terugdelf in artikels wat in vorige uitgawes verskyn het wanneer daar iets is wat ‘n mens sou interesseer. Baie dankie dat jy so ‘n groot werk doen om ons geskiedenis vas te lê! Sterkte met jou taak! 182


Headquarters, Transvaal Bischoffs: Jim Findlay Dear Hennie, I recently purchased the attached unused postcard with the title “Headquarters, Transvaal Bischoffs”. My initial thoughts were that this could be related to (i) the South African Constabulary or (ii) the Transvaal Police after 1907. However, I have not been able to find any information on Bischoffs being associated with the police or military. Please can you help identify this? Regards, Jim Findlay

Diagram: SAP-kenteken: Herman Bosman Goeie more Brig Hennie. Jammer om so lastig te wees, maar hoop u het dalk die info. As ek reg onthou het daar in 1988 tydens die 75 jarige bestaan van die SAP ʼn reeks artikels in die Servamus verskyn. In een van hulle was daar toe ook ʼn diagram van hoe om die polisiester te teken volgens “wiskundige berekening”. Ek is op soek na daardie diagram of soortgelyk.

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Die rede hiervoor is dat ek met ‘n afskrif van die oorspronklike SA Lugmag plan sit van die voorgeskrewe kamoeflering van die Cessna 185’s wat na die polisie gesekondeer is in Rhodesië. Weens ouderdom is die planne besig om te vervaag en gaan ek die data verloor. So ek wil die plan laat oorteken, maar die SA Polisiekenteken is reeds so vervaag dat ek die konstruksiedetails benodig. Vriendelike groete. Herman Bosman: Benoni. •

Wie kan Herman help, asb?

Detective Sergeant Johannes Cornelius Engelbrecht: Judy Letard Good morning, Firstly - thank you for such a great website. I have for many years tried to find out more information on my father DETECTIVE SERGEANT JOHANNES CORNELIUS ENGELBRECHT. He and my Mom split 64 years ago when I was 3 years old. I know he was born in Standerton, Tvl, in the 1920's and was stationed in the Inanda area (Ottowa and Mount Edgecombe), then in Lambert Road Police Station, Durban. In the 60's he was involved in the Angola 'bush war'. Other than that, I have no knowledge of his police career. I would really be most grateful if you could assist or steer me in the right direction please. Many thanks for your kind assistance. Judy Letard: Durban. •

Please help with information?

SLOT / END Geagte leser Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese dokument maak ons van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie. Dear reader Please note that in this quasi-historical document we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Hennie Heymans: No 43630 (M). © HB Heymans 2018.

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Nongqai Vol 9 No 5  

History: South African Police; SADF & Intelligence Geskiedenis: Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie, SAW & Inligting

Nongqai Vol 9 No 5  

History: South African Police; SADF & Intelligence Geskiedenis: Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie, SAW & Inligting

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