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NONGQAI VOL 8 NO 8 CONTENTS SA MIRROR..................................................................................................................................... 5 PUBLISHER / UITGEWER .............................................................................................................. 6 AIM / DOEL ...................................................................................................................................... 6 ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS ............................................................................................... 6 WELCOME / WELKOM ................................................................................................................... 7 VOORBLAD / FRONT PAGE ........................................................................................................... 7 1960 – 1962: Lt.genl. H.J. Du Plooy ............................................................................................. 7 1899 Polisie Walvisbaai ................................................................................................................... 8 HOOFBERIG: BRIGADIER IPS TRERBLANCHE ........................................................................... 9 HOOFBERIG: NIE-BLANKE LEDE VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE POLISIEMAG ........................ 11 Redaksioneel .......................................................................................................................... 11 KONSTABEL UMDISA: DIE ZULU BLOEDHOND VAN PRETORIA SENTRAAL: MERKWAARDIGE VERHAAL VAN DURF EN DAAD ................................................................... 12 2


THE REMARKABLE STORY OF CONSTABLE UMDISA: THE HUMAN BLOODHOUND ............ 14 NIE-BLANKELEDE VAN DIE DESTYDSE SA POLISIEMAG – HBH ............................................ 22 Inleiding .................................................................................................................................. 23 Die Zulu-konstabel .................................................................................................................. 23 Post 1948................................................................................................................................ 23 Uniforms ................................................................................................................................. 24 Iets oor die agtergrond van die Zulu-konstabel in Durban ...................................................... 26 Humor ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Patrolliewabemanning............................................................................................................. 26 Walvisvleis .............................................................................................................................. 27 Byname en Skinderpraatjies ................................................................................................... 28 Range ..................................................................................................................................... 28 Waardes en Norme ................................................................................................................. 28 Black Jacks ............................................................................................................................. 29 Uitstaande diens ..................................................................................................................... 29 Die veiligheidstak .................................................................................................................... 29 Welkom (OVS) ........................................................................................................................ 30 Soweto .................................................................................................................................... 30 Die rewolusionêre aanslag...................................................................................................... 30 Slot ......................................................................................................................................... 30 Konsensus .............................................................................................................................. 30 Voorpublikasie-kommentaar deur Fanie Bouwer .................................................................... 31 MY ERVARING IN DIE SAP SAAM MET SWARTLEDE: KAPT. (V) E DE WET ........................... 32 TRANSKEI - EN MY OPLEIDING DEUR 'N SWART LID EN ANDER KAPERJOLLE: BRIG FANIE BOUWER ....................................................................................................................................... 33 HUMOR : UMTATA EN DIE SAP ................................................................................................... 34 1970: SAP: KOMMISSIERANG: NIE-BLANKE OFFISIERE .......................................................... 35 POLICING FOR A NEW SOUTH AFRICA ..................................................................................... 37 1978: BSAP: ADVANCEMENT OF AFRICAN POLICEMEN ......................................................... 38 1985: BLACK POLICEMEN IN SOUTH AFRICA: TARGETS OF INCREASING BLACK RAGE ... 41 PHOTO JOURNAL / FOTO JOERNAAL ........................................................................................ 43 Const. Umdisa and Pretoria Central more than 100 years ago............................................... 43 Non-European Training Depot: New Modderfontein ............................................................... 49 Erkenning................................................................................................................................ 51 LIEUTENANT GENERAL KEITH COSTER ICD, OBE, SSAS ....................................................... 51 Part II: Shot Down and POW in Italy ....................................................................................... 51 by historian, author and copy-editor Gerry van Tonder ........................................................... 51 3


POLICE: AFRICANS, INDIANS AND COLOUREDS: SERVED WITH PRIDE .............................. 70 SQUADRON LEADER, LATER LIEUT. COL., LAWRIE SHUTTLEWORTH: AT SPIES ............... 79 LT. COL. JOHN “JACK" SHERWOOD-KELLY, VC, CMG, DSO.: PETER DICKENS .................... 85 VICTIM OF THE RHODESIAN BUSH WAR: JOHN BRADBURNE, MC ....................................... 89 MEDIA: POLISIE-GESKIEDENIS / POLICE HISTORY IN THE MEDIA ........................................ 92 Drawing a thick red line through the thin blue line .................................................................. 92 PRESS RELEASE: HOW TO APPOINT AN HONEST AND COMPETENT POLICE COMMISSIONER .......................................................................................................................... 94 GENERAL RSS BADEN POWELL – FOUNDER OF THE SA CONSTABULARY ......................... 96 MISDAAD / CRIME ........................................................................................................................ 97 Who killed the Scorpions? ...................................................................................................... 97 ANC-vergrype en gruweldade ................................................................................................. 97 Crack team to investigate break-in at our offices - Hawks ...................................................... 99 Glebelands Hostel a 'reservoir of hitmen', corrupt cops ........................................................ 100 Moerane Commission Hears of Culture of Murders for Political Favours.............................. 101 #GuptaLeaks: The captured presidency ............................................................................... 102 Gauteng’s killer cops still patrolling the streets – Kate Lorimer ............................................. 103 Gauteng’s killer cops still patrolling the streets ..................................................................... 103 After 59 deaths, allegedly at the hands of SAPS in Gauteng, no officer has faced justice ... 104 Human trafficking: A terror run for her life ............................................................................. 104 ONDERSOEK VAN MISDAAD / INVESTIGATION OF CRIME ................................................... 107 Why Is Mortuary Strike Still Continuing? ............................................................................... 108 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ................................................................................................ 108 ‘Fuck White People’ artwork not hate speech – Magistrate .................................................. 108 The Judgement: Case Number EC02/2017 .......................................................................... 110 The artwork in question......................................................................................................... 117 Counter-campaign aims to overshadow derogatory work of art – Solidarity ......................... 118 Man waits more than a decade for justice, awarded millions ................................................ 118 OOR ‘N KOPPIE KOFFIE: WELKOM IN MY WÊRELD ............................................................... 121 SERS. AF HEYMANS, SE ‘ONWETTIGE’ PERDE (HBH) ........................................................... 130 TOEKOMSNAVORSING / WHAT FUTURE FOR SOUTH AFRICA? ......................................... 132 What future for South Africa? Hermann Giliomee | 19 July 2017 .......................................... 132 IN MEMORIAM ............................................................................................................................ 136 HONDE: BELGIESE MALINOIS / DOGS OF WAR ..................................................................... 136 Dogs of war... at 14,000ft! Parachuting pooch completes her fifth and final training jump with the Colombian Air Force ....................................................................................................... 136 TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 141 First UK police drone unit is launched in Dorset, Cornwall and Devon in a 'historic step' ..... 141 4


BRIEF AAN DIE MEDIA: GENL JOHAN VAN DER MERWE ...................................................... 142 DIE VETERANE VAN NEWLANDS: ANDRE VOLLGRAAF ........................................................ 143 BRIEWE ....................................................................................................................................... 144 Stratkom en die Timol-doodsondersoek ............................................................................... 144 Casper Rossouw: Die legende Dirk Ligter ............................................................................ 144 SLOT / END ................................................................................................................................. 148

SA MIRROR

Skakel na webtuiste: http://www.samirror.com of www.samirror.com

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PUBLISHER / UITGEWER The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and the e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are his own.

Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en die e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militêre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is sy eie.

Tel. No. 012-329-4229 E-mail: heymanshb@gmail.com

AIM / DOEL Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations. / Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar.

ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS • • • • •

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Photographs of police stations. (Please share your photographs with us.) Southern African Uniforms and badges. Police Heroes and a “Police Who is Who”. Police Commissioners: We are preparing a booklet on the various SA Police commissioners. Should you have any photographs or anecdotes please share with us. Kommissarisse van polisie: Ons is besig om inligting van ons onderskeie polisiekommissarisse in te samel. Ons begin by kol. sir TG Truter en werk ons pad deur die geskiedenis totdat genl. JV van der Merwe die SAP oorhandig het aan nuwe nasionale kommissaris van die SAPS, genl. George Fivaz. Ons het besluit om brig. George Baston by die reeks in te sluit aangesien hy vir bykans vyf jaar as die kommissaris waargeneem het. Police History: We collect eyewitness reports from policemen about cataclysmic events in our history e.g. Cato Manor, Sharpeville, Pondoland, etc. We have large collection of digital recordings from police officers. Boipatong: Ons sal graag van lede wil hoor wat by die Boipatong-voorval betrokke was.1 Speurdiens: Ons kry bitter min feite verslae van speurders oor opspraakwekkende misdade. Die Waarheid- en versoeningskommissie: Ons as oudlede het baie repliek om te lewer op die WVK se duisende bladsye op die internet. Honderde lede se reputasies word aldaar geskaad en word inligting – sonder om in dit konteks te plaas – gepubliseer. Daar is selfs inligting wat glad nie waar is nie! [Adv. George Bizos het in sy eerste boek talle lede van die

Ek het ‘n lid opgespoor wat by Boipatong diens gedoen het, maar hy wil nie op skrif gaan nie.

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SA Polisie swart gesmeer. In sy tweede boek skryf hy, dit kan aanvaar word dat hy die waarheid geskryf het want niemand het ooit enige beswaar teen bewerings geopper nie.] Manne, indien ons nie op die WVK se skryfsels gaan reageer nie, gaan die nageslag dit as die evangelie aanvaar. (Maj. Craig Williamson het reageer en ons gaan sy optrede in die verlede in konteks aanbied.) Nie-wit lede van die polisie: Ons neem nie-wit lede van die polisiemag – as ‘n groep – onder die loep. Ons kyk na die verskillende uniforms vir Swart-, Bruin en Indiër-lede. Ons kyk na die opleiding van nie-wit lede, dis iets wat die Nasionale Party (NP) in die 1950’s begin het. Vir jare was die Swart-lid van die Mag niks anders as ‘n hulp-polisieman deur die NP-beleid – daar is verskeie uitsprake deur adv. CR Swart is die Swart-lede later volwaardige lede van die SAP. Onder die NP-bewind is hulle vir die eerste keer opgelei!

Onthou skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op die geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is!

WELCOME / WELKOM Hartlik welkom by hierdie uitgawe. Dankie liewe leser, want as dit nie vir u was nie, vir wie sou ons die tydskrif geskryf en uitgegee het? So u moet uself hartlik welkom ag. Moet nie “alles” lees nie – wees kieskeurig en lees net dit wat vir u interessant is.

VOORBLAD / FRONT PAGE 1960 – 1962: Lt.genl. H.J. Du Plooy • Hy sluit gedurende 1926 by die polisie aan. (Hy het in 1922 tydens die sogenaamde Rooi Opstand aan die Rand ‘n broer verloor.) • Du Plooy was aanvanklik verbonde aan die reken- en betaalmeester se kantoor, maar het die drang om speurder te word. • Gedurende 1929 word hy ‘n tweedeklasspeurdersersant en twee jaar later ‘n eersteklasspeurdersersant. Gedurende 1935 verwerf hy kommissierang en dien hy as distrik- en afdelingspeuroffisier by verskeie sentra in SuidAfrika. • Gedurende 1942 word hy die Transvaalse speurhoof. Soos reeds uitgewys, is dit ‘n moeilike tydperk, nog meer vir lede van die mag wat teen ander lede optree. Genl. Du Plooy verrig sy taak sonder enige politieke bybedoelings en keer in die proses verskeie Afrikanerlede aan vir misdade gepleeg tydens die oorlog. Hiervoor word hy met die KPM vereer. 7


• •

• • • • •

Gedurende die Britse koninklike besoek in 1947 is hy in bevel van die veiligheidsmaatreëls en hy word deur die koning vereer met die MVO.2 Gedurende 1945 word hy aangestel as hoof van die spesiale afdeling (voorloper van die veiligheidstak). Hy en ander lede besoek Scotland Yard en die Britse Geheimediens in 1948. Hy skakel met die Britse koningshuis. Alhoewel die Nasionale Party gedurende 1948 aan bewind kom, bly hy in sy pos. Gedurende 1950 word hy die stafoffisier van die speurhoof. Hy doen baie vir lede sodat hulle hulself akademies kan bekwaam. Hy verwerf bekendheid vir die Du Plooy-lesings vir bevordering. Teen alle verwagting (ook teen sy eie verwagting) word hy as kommissaris aangestel. Hy is die tweede speurder wat dié hoogste sport bereik. Met Republiekwording op 31 Mei 1961 is hy die kommissaris en teenwoordig tydens die inhuldiging van adv. C.R. Swart as eerste staatspresident. Hy is die eerste kommissaris om die nuwe blou SAP-uniform op 31 Mei 1961 aan te trek.

1899 Polisie Walvisbaai

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Member of the Royal Victorian Order.

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HOOFBERIG: BRIGADIER IPS TRERBLANCHE

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Die eerste en tweede foto is ‘n boek deur Naas Terblanche en die onderwerp van die boek is sy Vader, brigadier IPS Terblanche. Brigadier Terblanche was ‘n held en vir ‘n geruime tyd het ek oor die brigadier navorsing gedoen en sal eersdaags ‘n verdere verslag oor hom beskikbaar stel. Klik op: http://www.samirror.com/terry-terblanche.html - HBH.

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HOOFBERIG: NIE-BLANKE LEDE VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE POLISIEMAG Redaksioneel In die Julie 2017 uitgawe van die Nongqai kyk ons onder meer na ons anderskleurige lede van die SA Polisie. In 1970 het ons die eerste swart offisiere gekry en hier in 1990 rond ons eerste swart generaals – bv. genl. Chetty en genl. Tshoka ens. Die Afrikaner het ook ‘n lang pad in die SA Polisie van 1913 af, gestap – aanvanklik was al die speurders en offisiere byna sonder uitsondering Engelssprekendes – baie was lede van die Britse Magte wat teen die Boere geveg het en hier agter gebly het of lede van die SA Constabulary wat in pre-Uniale magte inkorporeer was. Die kaserne te Pretoria-sentraal was meestal Iere bewoon – hulle het almal vir Sir Percy Fitzpatrick in die 1910 verkiesing gestem en genl. Louis Botha het die setel verloor. ‘n Setel is toe vir hom aangebied. Ons dwaal af. Net soos die Afrikaner ook heel onder begin het en deur selfstudie vanaf die laat 1960’s – begin 1970’s bo uit gekom het. Afrikaanse offisiere het jonger die feitlik al die senior range begin beklee. So het die anderskleurige ook maar eers heel onder as arbeider-konstabel op die stasie begin. Na ‘n proses van indiensopleiding is hulle as volwaardige konstabels aangestel. Adv. CR Swart is die eerste NP-minister na 1948 wat die portefeulje justisie behartig het. Die ministerie van justisie het bestaan uit justisie, polisie en gevangenisse. So lees ek in die ou Nongqai’s; was dit NP-beleid om die swartman in die polisie op te lei – voorheen was hulle nie formeel opgelei nie. Hulle is in kolleges oor die land opgelei bv. Marabastad, Wentworth, Umtata, Modder B ens. Die Nasionale Party se beleid, soos uitgestippel deur adv. Swart, was dat swart mense hulself moes polisieer. Hulle het in Johannesburg begin en die Newlands-distrik sou net uit swart stasie bestaan. Die verskuiwings het plaasgevind en gou het South Western Townships (Soweto) ontstaan. Swart polisiemanne is goed opgelei en hul dissipline was uitstekend. Hulle was nie gewapen nie. Slegs swart speurders het klein .32 pistole gekry en die uniform-sersante het ‘n bajonet gedra. Talle ou Zulu konstabels het met assegaai en knopkierie geloop. Ons eerste of voorste ry in die onluspelotons het bestaan uit Zulu lede met kierie en assegaai. Gedurende 1974 is hulle, met outomatiese wapens, grens toe of “bos” toe. Ons almal het in ons jeug baie by die ervare swart lede geleer veral in die aanklagte kantoor en ons het geluister hoe hul getuig het in die hof. Hulle was briljant in die hof veral t.o.v. fyn detail, bv. hoe was die man aangetrek ens., behalwe op tegniese vrae bv. hoeveel tree is die pad wyd ens. Het hulle nie goed gevaar nie. Dit was my ervaring. In Durban was konstabel Russell Gwala die eerste swart speurder wat sy eie dossiere gedra het. Voorheen het blanke speurders al die dossiere gedra en die swart speurders moes die getuies en die beskuldigdes opspoor – die blankes het die verklarings geskryf en die dossier op datum gehou. Ons moes sommige swart lede se sakboekies opskryf – hy kon nie skryf nie maar het presies geweet. In die begin 1980’s is almal met blou uniforms uitgereik.

Ek is op soek na stories, anekdote en foto’s van anderskleurige lede van die ou polisiemag. 11


KONSTABEL UMDISA: DIE ZULU BLOEDHOND VAN PRETORIA SENTRAAL: MERKWAARDIGE VERHAAL VAN DURF EN DAAD Gedurende die begin jare van die vorige eeu was luitenant-kolonel HF ‘Harry’ Trew, as kaptein die distrikskommandant van polisie in Pretoria. Hy vertel ‘n merkwaardige verhaal van vernuf en inspanning en wat dit alles verg om ‘n goeie polisieman te wees. Dit het alles met ‘n moord by ‘n skool in Pretoria begin. Die skool was vol leerlinge en die skoonmaker van die skool is tydens skoolure om ongeveer 10:00 vermoor. ‘n Leerder het opgemerk dat die skoonmaker voor sy kamer lê en ‘n onderwyser verwittig. Die onderwyser het vasgestel dat die skoonmaker vermoor is. Niemand het iets gehoor of gesien nie. Die polisie is ontbied en ‘n vingerafdrukdeskundige en ‘n polisiefotograaf het die toneel van die moord besoek. Foto’s is geneem en ‘n duimafdruk is op die moordwapen, ‘n byl, gevind. Die destydse kriminele buro is gedurende 1902 deur sir Edward Henry ingerig en Suid-Afrika was al in die tyd ‘n leier op die gebied van vingerafdrukke. (Om oor ‘n duimafdruk te beskik en dit met duisende vingerafdrukvorms te probeer vergelyk was destyds ‘n onbegonne taak.) Ander getuienis het gelei tot die identifikasie van die moordenaar, Joseph Sopela. Die speurder is toe die duimafdruk na die kriminele buro waar Sopela se rekord getrek is. Die duimafdruk is positief met Sopela se vingerafdrukvorm verbind. Die polisie het toe aansoek om ‘n lasbrief vir Sopela se inhegtenisname gedoen. Sopela se persoonlike besonderhede en foto is na alle stasies versend. Een oggend kom die hoofkonstabel ontsteld by kapt.Trew in sy kantoor aan. Kapt. Trew vra die hoofkonstabel waarom hy so ontsteld is. Laasgenoemde sê: “Die idiote by Daaspoort (sic) het Sopela gisteraand gearresteer vir hoenderdiefstal. Hy is gevang terwyl hy steel. Hulle het hom nie as Sopela herken nie. Vanoggend om middernag is hy met ene konstabel Umdisa te voet na Pretoria-Sentraal gestuur. Sopela was geboei. By die Apiesrivier het Sopela die konstabel in die sterk vloeiende Apies ingestamp. Die konstabel het Sopela saam ingetrek. Die konstabel het amper verdink voordat hy uit die rivier kon kom. Die beskuldigde is net weg! Gisteraand het hulle sy vingerafdrukke geneem en dit nou na ons ingebring. Ek het hulle dadelik na die kriminele buro gestuur. Die buro het pas laat weet dat die ontsnapte hoenderdief identies is met Sopela wat ons op klagte van moord soek!” Kapt. Trew gee toe opdrag dat die betrokke konstabel voor hom geparadeer moes word. Later die dag word die konstabel voor kapt. Trew gebring. Kapt. Trew beskryf die konstabel as iemand wat 6’ 2’’ lank is, fors gebou wat die trots van ‘n Zulu kryger uitstraal Sy oë het mens deurboor. Kapt. Trew het vasgestel dat die konstabel lid van die koninklike familie in Zululand is. Kapt. Trew, kenner van manne en krygers voer toe die volgende onderhoud met die konstabel: “Wat is jou naam?” “Umdisa, inkôsie!” “Waarom laat jy die gevangene, Sopela, ontsnap?” “Inkôsie ek het nie geweet dat dit Sopela was nie. Die korporaal en ek was gisteraand op patrollie. Die reent was hard en weer was hewig. Ek het hoenders verskrik hoor raas. Ek het nader gekruip en die hoenderdief gevang toe hy ‘n hoender in ‘n sak sit. Ek het die dief geboei. Ek het hom na die korporaal geneem wat toe die dief se vingerafdrukke geneem het. Die korporaal het my toe beveel 12


om hom na die aanklagkantoor te neem omdat ons nie plek gehad het om die dief aan te hou nie. Sopela het voor geloop en ek agter. Die storm het steeds gewoed. Toe ons die rivier nader kon ek hoor die rivier afkom en dat die rivier vol water is. Toe ons oor die klein bruggie gaan, toe stamp die dief my met sy skouer en ek val. Met die val gryp ek vinnig na hom en ons albei val in die rivier. Terwyl ons val sê ek toe vir hom, as ek in die water moet sterf, gaan jy ook in die water sterf! Die rivier het sterk afgekom en ek het hom laat los. Ek het my warmjas uitgetrek en uitgeswem, van die dief, in die donker, was daar geen spoor nie. Ek het tevergeefs gesoek en hom nie gevind nie. Inkôsie dis al”. “Wat! Jy noem jouself ‘n Zulu en laat so ‘n dwase man wegkom! Ek beter jou terugstuur na Zululand waar die vroue vir jou sal lag! Jy is geen man nie, maar behoort saam met die seuntjies eerder bokke op te pas.” “Inkosi, ek is ‘n man. Stuur my om Sopela te vang. Ek beloof om hom te vang al duur dit baie maande.” “Reg, gaan vang hom. Gaan! Maar ek wil jou nooit weer sien, indien jy hom nie kan vang nie! Trew sê hy voeg die volgende, ietwat dommerig by: Ek wil Sopela hê, dood of lewendig!” Umdisa het salueer en vertrek met die woorde: “Dit sal so wees!” Na die verloop van ‘n week ontvang kapt. Trew ‘n telegram van die polisie te Brakfontein, in die Rustenburg-distrik, met die strekking dat Umdisa daar aangemeld het met ‘n beskuldigde, ene Joseph Sopela. Die beskuldigde word aangehou en sal die volgende dag onder geleide na Pretoria gebring word. Tot Trew se ontnugtering ontvang hy ‘n tweede telegram met die strekking dat die beskuldigde ontsnap het deur ‘n gat in die vloer onderdeur die sel se muur te grawe en dat Umdisa weer op sy spoor is. Twee weke het verloop voordat kapt. Trew weer iets gehoor het. Die polisie in Mafikeng het hom ‘n telegram gestuur en verwittig dat Umdisa daar aangekom het. Sopela het by ‘n groep mynwerkers aangesluit en het die Unie per trein verlaat. Verder is versoek dat Umdisa toestemming verleen word om hom agterna te sit. Kapt. Trew het toestemming verleen en het met die BSAP in Bulawayo, Rhodesië, geskakel en hulle versoek om Umdisa hulp te verleen. Die BSAP het berig dat Umdisa daar aangekom het en die beskuldigde by die Bush Tick Mine opgespoor het net om uit te vind dat Sopela die dag voor Umdisa se aankoms by die myn gedros het. Umdisa is weer op die gesoekte misdadiger se spoor. Vir twee maande het kapt. Trew geen taal of tyding van Umdisa of Sopela gehoor nie. Na ses weke het kapt. Trew besluit om Umdisa van die nominale rol van polisiebeamptes as droster uit die mag te skraap. Die handeling het hy met ‘n treurige hart uitgevoer. Na verloop van tyd het nog ‘n telegram by kapt. Trew uitgekom. Die boodskap het gelui dat ‘n lyk in die Bosveld gevind is. Die man se klere was verskeur en ‘n gebreekte assegaai was onder die oorskot gevind. Die lyk se hande was weg gevolglik kon geen vingerafdrukke geneem word nie. Sekere tatoeëermerke op die liggaam is positief met die van Sopela verbind. ‘n Week hierna word kapt. Trew by sy kantoor verwittig dat Umdisa daar was om hom te sien. Die man wat voor hom gebring was, was nie diè Umdisa wat hy drie maande gelede geken het nie. 13


Hierdie man was ineengetrek en ietwat korter. Hy het verwese en uitgeput voorgekom. Sy oë was steeds vol vlamme maar diep in hul oogkasse geset. Umdisa heet sy hande in die lug gegooi en uitgeroep: “Inkôsie, dit is volbring! Sopela sal u nie weer pla nie. Ek is soos een van die luise op die koning se kombers. Ek hoef nie bokke saam met die kinders op te pas nie! Nog minder sal die vroue vir my lag, want my assegaai het bloed gedrink.” Die volgende gesprek het toe tussen hulle plaasgevind: “Jou ou duiwel, jy het toe vir Sopela vermoor?” “Wel, u my vader, het beveel dat ek hom dood of lewendig voor u moes bring! Ek sou hom lewendig in gebring het maar die hond het my amper vermoor! Kyk hier! En hier! En hier!” Terwyl hy sy wonde uitwys. Hy het intussen sy klere van sy liggaam laat val. Kapt. Trew het die wonde bekyk en getwyfel of enige ander mense sulke ontberings en wonde sou kon oorleef. Kapt. Trew het sy pyp opgesteek, agteroor gesit en Umdisa genooi om sy verhaal te vertel. Die sonderlinge verhaal van deursettingsvermoë, speurvernuf en volharding wat in die stryd om lewe en dood gewikkel was, het kapt. Trew se verbeelding aangeryp. Dit sal ook enige mens ontroer. Umdisa se soektog het oor drie lande geloop. Hy is vereer met ‘n bonus. Sy werk vermoëns as polisieman het afgeneem en hy was altyd laat en het gekla dat hy moes is en nie lekker slaap nie. Umdisa het na ‘n rukkie eerder gaan afgetree en in die groen weivelde en heuwels van Zululand tussen sy vroue en beeste. Na ‘n gesprek met ‘n sielkundige oor waarom Umdisa van ‘n skitterende polisieman verander het tot ‘n probleem geval is dat hy moontlik ‘n slagoffer van post-traumatiese-stres sindroom geword het. Angs kan tot slaap versteurings lei. Om hierdie lid te nagedagtenis te eer, kan ‘n spesiale dekorasie, iets soos die Umdisa Dekorasie, vir ondersoekers ingestel word. Voorwaar ‘n mooi storie! Sien foto’s oor nie-blanke lede elders in die tydskrif - HBH

THE REMARKABLE STORY OF CONSTABLE UMDISA: THE HUMAN BLOODHOUND • • •

A true saga of dedication, alacrity and dedication From Pretoria to Mafekeng on foot From the Limpopo to Pretoria on Foot

That famous, but now forgotten, old raconteur, Colonel HF ‘Harry’ Trew, a former deputy commissioner of the SA Police told and wrote many a true story and has left with us with a rich heritage of personal history dating from the Anglo-Boer War right up to the early 1920’s. After reading this true saga of Constable Umdisa one would at once think the story is far-fetched or untrue! This particular story reminds one of De Quincey’s then famous theories in his essay Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts, viz. that it’s the safest place, from the murderer’s point of view, to murder a person before a crowd. 14


The bare facts of the murder were that on a bright sunny morning in Pretoria a loyal school janitor was murdered in a schoolyard in full view of the classrooms, facing which were about 50 children doing their lessons. Not one person saw the murder or the murderer or heard anything! In the schoolyard opposite the classrooms was the room that the school’s cleaner and caretaker occupied. He was a Zulu gentleman called Mr M’panki (sic). The door of his room faced the school. On the morning of the murder, at about 10am, a scholar informed his teacher that Mr M’panki might be ill, as he was lying on the step-in front of his room. On investigation, to their horror the school discovered that he was murdered and the Police were immediately called for. A detective and police photographer reported at the scene to investigate. The deceased had evidently been sitting on the top step with his back towards the interior of the room. He had been hit on the head by an axe. It was a fearful blow as the scull had split in two. A strong man had evidently delivered the blow. The murder weapon, a small American axe was found on the scene. Blurred fingerprints were found on the handle but fortunately a clear thumbprint, for identification purposes was found, on the axe. Enquiries elicited the fact that the axe belonged to the dead man. His thumbprint had to be taken for identification purposes. To the delight of the investigation officer the prints did not belong to the deceased. The inference was drawn that the prints belonged to the murderer. The print, at that stage, did not serve to identify the murderer as it was then seen as an impossible task to search thousands of records for a single print. Mr Henry, later Sir Edward Henry, later Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police, made an intensive study of fingerprints while a commissioner of the Indian Police. In the India and China thumbprints were used on documents as a signature but there was no system to of classifying them. Mr Henry then studied fingerprints and started to classify fingerprints in India. He later came to South Africa during 1902 and established our present fingerprint system. After his sojourn in South Africa he went to the United Kingdom. The investigating officer discovered other leads. First, he establishes a motive. Mr. M’pianki was not only the school’s janitor but also being a respectable man, a traditional African Banker. His mattress was the bank and this was ripped open! There was no cash left. As a ledger, he used an array small of sticks with cut nicks representing the names of clients and amounts. A strange stick3 was found in his room. As his friends turned up they declared that the stick was not the deceased’s stick. The police took possession of the stick and it was shown to thousands of African men in and around Pretoria. A young man came forward and identified the stick as the property of one Mr. Joseph Sopela. He said he spent many hours in Sopela’s company while the latter was carving it. The detective immediately went to the Pretoria Fingerprint Bureau and asked whether Sopela had a record. His record soon turned up showing that he was a former convict and perpetrator of violent crime. The facts were simple: Mr. M’piaki had been killed between 0930 and 1000 that morning. A large sum of money in his possession had disappeared. The thumbprint found on the axe was that of one Joseph Sopela, a well-known criminal. No evidence could be obtained that Sopela knew the deceased or how Sopela got into Mr. M’piaki’s room or knew where the money was hidden. However, Sopela’s wonderfully carved stick was found in the deceased’s room. Little did Sopela know that by carving his beautiful stick he in fact was carving his own death warrant. A warrant for his arrest was immediately issued, his photograph and description was circulated to all concerned.

3

Afrikaans – kierie; isiZulu – induku

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For a week, nothing was heard of Sopela until Capt. Trew reached his office one morning hearing his Head Constable4 ranting and raving. When Trew asked him what the matter was, he replied: Those fools at Daaspoort5 (sic) arrested Sopela last night on a charge of fowl theft. A patrol caught him in the act. They failed to recognize whom they had got, and at midnight sent him in to Pretoria under escort of a constable. He was handcuffed, but in crossing the Aapies6 (sic) River, which was in flood after a heavy thunderstorm, he pushed the constable into the river; the latter in falling grabbed the prisoner and they both fell in. The constable was nearly drowned before he succeeded in climbing out. At daylight, this morning they searched the river, but no sign of the prisoner could be found. They took the fingerprints of the man they arrested last night and brought them in this morning. I sent them to the bureau, and they have just telephoned to me that they are Sopela's prints. Capt. Trew, as the then district commandant of Pretoria, gave instructions that the constable who let Sopela escape should be paraded before him. This is how Capt.Trew describes the constable who appeared before him: he was a fine-looking man, stood at least six feet two inches, and was broad in proportion. He had a particularly fierce pair of eyes, which glared out as though the whole world were his enemy. Capt. Trew discovered later on that constable came of the Zulu Royal House, and was a descendant of King Cetewayo. The following conversation took place between Capt. Trew and the Constable: What is your name? Umdisa, Inkosi7. What do you mean by letting Sopela escape from you? Inkosi I did not know it was Sopela. I was on patrol with the corporal. The storm-god was angry, and the heaven was a blaze of light, and the rain fell down. I heard some fowls cackling in a yard, and I crept up and caught a man killing a fowl and putting it in a sack. I handcuffed him and took him to the corporal, who made marks with his fingers on the white paper. The corporal then said I must take the man to the charge office 8, because we have no safe place to keep him. The prisoner walked in front of me, and still the heaven blazed, and the rain fell down. When we came to the river I could tell by the noise that the river was raging. In the middle of the small bridge across the river, the prisoner pushed me with his shoulder. I fell, but I said to him 'If I die in the waters, then you die too,' and I pulled him in with me. Inkosi, the water was so strong that I had to let him go. I took off my big coat and swam out. In the dark and rain, I could not find him. That is all." What! You call yourself a Zulu and you let a dog like Sopela fool you; I will send you back to your kraal in Zululand and the women will laugh at you. You are not a man; you ought to be sent to herd the goats with the children.9

4

Head Constable equal to the former rank of Warrant Officer (SAP) and Inspector (SAPS). He was probably the District Clerk. 5 The area today policed by Hercules Police Station. 6 Pretoria’s famous Apies River 7 Literally ‘King’ but used rather in the context of Chief or Captain 8 Pretoria Central 9 This is an insult because young boys usually herd goats, the older boys herding the cattle.

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Inkosi, I am a man, let me go after Sopela, and I promise you I will find him and bring him back even if it takes many moons. All right. Go, but I never want to see you again unless you bring Sopela, and then Trew admits he rather foolishly added the following: I want Sopela dead or alive. Umdisa gave the Zulu salute, and said: It is settled, Inkosi! And with those parting words he walked out of Trew’s office. A week later Capt. Trew received a telegram from the police at Brakfontein, in the Rustenburg District, informing him that: Constable Umdisa reported here with prisoner Joseph Sopela. Am keeping prisoner in cell here tonight and will forward under escort tomorrow. The following morning Capt. Trew received a disappointing telegram from the Brakfontein police announcing that Sopela had, during the night, dug his way out under the wall of the cell and Sopela had escaped. Constable Umdisa was again in pursuit. For two weeks, nothing more was heard of the chase when Capt. Trew received a telegram from the police at Mafeking (now Mafekeng). The police informed him that Constable Umdisa had reported at Mafeking. The police had now discovered that Sopela had enlisted with a group of mineworkers to go and work at the Bush Tick mine, in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). The group had left by train. Constable Umdisa desired the police at Mafeking to send him after Sopela by train. The local police requested Capt. Trew’s authority. Naturally Capt. Trew gave the necessary permission and he also telegraphed the British South Africa. Police (BSAP – now the Zimbabwe Republican Police (ZRP)) at Bulawayo to give Constable Umdisa all possible assistance he may require. Consequently, the BSAP then informed Capt. Trew in Pretoria that Constable Umdisa had arrived at the Bush Tick mine only to find that Sopela had deserted and fled the previous evening. They said that Constable Umdisa had left in pursuit. For the next two months, nothing was heard from Constable Umdisa. At the end of six weeks Capt. Trew had Constable Umdisa struck off the strength in the Force Orders declaring him a deserter! This Capt. Trew did with a sad heart for he had judged Constable Umdisa to be a loyal, faithful fellow. Capt. Trew hated it to think that he had been deceived. Fortunately, a telegram was received from a lonely Bushveld police station to say that a trooper on patrol in the bush had found the body of a dead African. The corpse was much decomposed and had been torn by wild animals. The deceased had evidently been killed in a fight. A broken assegai lays under the body. The hands of the corpse were missing so it was impossible to take fingerprints. One arm had certain tattoo marks. These marks exactly resembled those described on the arm of one Sopela, wanted by the Police for murder. Surprisingly a week later at District Head Quarters Capt. Trew’s Head Constable reported: Constable Umdisa wishes to see you, sir. The police constable was brought before Capt. Trew. It was certainly Constable Umdisa, but according to Capt. Trew not the same Constable Umdisa who had left his office some three months before. Constable Umdisa seemed to have shrunk to half his previous size. He and he looked battered and worn, but still held himself proudly erect, although sunk far back in his head, his fierce eyes still blazed. Throwing up his hand in salute he said to Capt. Trew: Inkosi, it is finished. Sopela 17


will trouble us no more. I am but as one of the lice in the King's blanket, but I will not go to herd goats with the children, nor can the women laugh at me, for my assegai has drunk blood. Capt. Trew replied: You old devil, you killed Sopela! Constable Umdisa answered: Well, you my father, said ' dead or alive ', but I would have arrested Sopela if I could, but the dog nearly killed me; look here, and here, and here, Inkosi," Before Capt. Trew could stop him, Constable Umdisa had thrown off his clothing and showed the great weals of wounds newly healed. Capt. Trew doubted if any white man could have suffered such grievous wounds and lived to tell the tale! Capt. Trew filled his pipe, lit it and said: Now, Umdisa, tell me the whole story from the beginning. The Zulus are a wonderful nation of taletellers, and Capt. Trew thought it possible that Constable Umdisa must have been one of their stars! Constable Umdisa not only told the whole story, but acted parts of it, particularly when it came to the fight with Sopela; he showed every feint, every thrust, so that when he finished Capt. Trew felt inclined to clap his hands as one would do in a theatre. This is Constable Umdisa’s story as he told it to Capt. Trew: Inkosi, when I walked out of your office that morning I had no fear and I knew that I would catch Sopela. I meant to follow him as a dog would follow a wounded buck, until I ran him down. I went to the Apies River and followed far down its banks making inquiries. At last a local lady told me that she had seen a man with handcuffs on walking towards a kraal. I went to the kraal but they denied having seen such a man! However, I knew they were lying. One of the men had a little forge. He was the blacksmith of the kraal. I threatened him a little and at last he confessed. He admitted that he had filed the handcuffs off Sopela. I followed the directions they had given me at the kraal. For seven days, I was close behind him. Then one day I came to a kraal and asked the people about him, but they also lied and pretended they had not seen him. I let them think they had fooled me. I left and went off as though satisfied. When I got in the bush I worked myself round the kraal and got onto a hill. From there I could watch the kraal. After a time, I saw a man come out of the bush and walk into the kraal. I was sure it was Sopela. I waited until the sun was right over my head and it was very hot. All had retired to their huts. I then crept down to the kraal. I heard Sopela's voice in one of the huts, so I dashed in and had the handcuffs on him before he could stand up. Then he said to me: Someday, policeman, I am going to kill you! The locals showed me the way to the nearest police camp10, which was at Brakfontein. The sergeant locked Sopela up in a cell for the night. I slept hard that night, but early in the morning I went to see that Sopela was safe. The door of the cell was fast, but when I walked to the back of the cell there was a heap of earth and a hole under the wall. The jackal had escaped! I woke the sergeant, who came running and unlocked the door. Sopela had pulled the handle off the night bucket and had used that to dig down through the floor. The sergeant gave me food and I followed Sopela again. Sopela had always gone towards where the sun went down. So, I started that way, and that night I came to a farm where he had called when the sun was high and had asked for food. At long last, following him every day, I came to a town called Mafeking 11. I went to the police and showed them the Sopela’s photograph and in a little while they came back and said that 10 11

Rural police stations usually had a paddock for the horses. The station was usually referred to as the police camp. Mafekeng in the North-West Province – then Northern Cape.

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he had gone by train with other workers to Bulawayo. He was set to work on the Bush Tick mine in Rhodesia12. I asked the police for a ticket and some money that I might go and catch him. This they gave me. I went to Bulawayo where I found that the people could understand Zulu. The local police gave me an African Constable and we walked to Bush Tick mine. When we got there, we found that Sopela had deserted the night before. A jackal always goes back to his old hole, so I thought he would go back to the Transvaal13. I told the African Policeman to go back to Bulawayo and tell his superiors to speak to you over the iron wires and to say I had gone after him again. I went through bush and high grass until I came to a big river14 but I could not find Sopela. Then I walked along the river till I came to the camp of a smous15 and his workers told me that Sopela had come there to ask for food. I followed the river until I found his spoor in the mud where he had crossed. He wore sandals, and on the left foot two little pieces of iron. His left foot when he walked he turned out like that of a duck. I am not a Bushman who can make a spoor talk, but when I saw that spoor I knew always that Sopela was in front of me. I was frightened of the Limpopo; it was running hard and there were crocodiles in it. I thought to myself that if he can cross, then can a Zulu also cross. So, I tied my bundle on my head and took my assegai in my mouth and swam across the river. That night I slept near some big trees and while I was sitting by my fire a lion breathed on my neck. I threw fire sticks at the lion. I then climbed a tree where I stayed all night. Sometimes I would find a kraal where I got news of Sopela. The locals told me that Sopela now had armed himself with an assegai. I realised that unless I caught him asleep there would be a deadly fight. I thought he might creep back at night when I was asleep at my fire and kill me. So, every night after that, I would make a big fire. When it got dark I would then creep away and sleep elsewhere. Then for two days I lost him; there were no kraals where I could ask about his whereabouts. So, I walked straight ahead very fast, and came to big mountains with great krantzes and kloofs, and full of bushbuck. That day I found where a leopard had killed a bushbuck and dragged the body up into a tree, so I climbed up the tree and got the buck and ate enough meat to last me for some days. It was night when I came to the top of a mountain. I looked down for the light of Sopela's fire. Then at last, far below me and to one side, I saw a small fire. I tried to get down the mountainside in the dark, but I fell. I then camped there with no fire and left early in the morning. When I came to where I had seen the fire and saw that a man had pulled grass and slept there, but the ground was hard and there was no spoor. I followed a footpath down the berg until it came to a spruit and there again was the spoor of the man who walked like a duck! I must tell you Inkosi that when I came to a kraal I told them I was a Zulu and I was the Government16. The inhabitants then gave me food and sometimes a place to sleep.

12

Now Zimbabwe. Now the Limpopo Province. 14 The Limpopo River. 15 A travelling peddler. 16 Even during the 1960’s Zulu members of the Police referred to themselves as being ‘The Government’ i.e. being from the Police. 13

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Then I came to another river, where there were lots of wildebeest and I found a camp with two white men. They had a Cape cart and four mules. They were foolish men from Johannesburg. They had come to hunt but they had got drunk and beaten their driver who then had absconded. They had tried to inspan the mules but had got the harness all twisted up and a mule had kicked one of them. They were afraid to knee-halter the mules in case they also ran away so they led them about by the reins to graze and tied the mules up to the cart at night. Sopela had met them and had promised to inspan the mules and drive them next day but he had stolen a bottle of whisky and a blanket from them during the night and had vanished. I got the harness straight and inspanned the mules and they wanted me to drive but I said: No, I must go after Sopela. They could not drive. So, I made the one man sit in the cart and hold the reins while the other man lead the mules with a trek-tow. I told them to follow the path along the river until they came to a kraal where they could hire a man to drive and inspan for them. Truly they were helpless in the veld and they should stay in the big town. They told me that Sopela was lame and he had got a poisoned foot from a thorn. This raised my spirit so I hoped to catch him soon. Late in the evening I saw the light of a fire and I thought it must be Sopela. I crept up quietly to catch him as he sat but it was a young man from a farm looking for lost oxen. He had seen Sopela when the sun was overhead; he was very lame and looked very tired. He also said that in front was a big koppie; it was called Mamba Kop and the snakes were very fierce there! The local police commandant had been shooting near there one day and had wounded a duiker which had run into the kop. The Africans with him had told him not to go on to the kop. They had refused to go with him. He had gone with his dog and presently they had heard some shots and the commandant had come back very white to say the dog was dead and the kop full of devils! So, when I saw the kop in the morning I kept far away from it and in the evening just when it was getting dark I saw Sopela in front of me very far away. I ran but he saw me and then ran as well and I unfortunately lost him in the dark. For three days, I could not find him or his spoor. Nor had the locals seen him. I thought he had turned back like the cunning jackal and I nearly went back but my ‘snake’ talked to me that night and I knew that I must go on! I came then to a farm and I showed the farmer my police badge, and the picture of Sopela. The farmer said he had not seen Sopela but he asked his workers and the shepherd said that he had spoken to Sopela that morning so I knew I was on the spoor. That night I saw Sopela again in the distance but this time I did not run after him and he did not see me. My plan was to let him make his camp and sleep and then in the very early morning, before the morning star rose, I would creep up and catch him asleep. That night I when I camped I made no fire. However, I could smell the smoke of fire Sopela made, so I knew he was close. It was thorn bush country with lots of small rocky kopjes. In the very early morning, when it was still dark and cold, I left my blanket and sandals and taking only my assegai crept along in the direction Sopela had gone. At last I could smell the fire very close so I sat and waited for more light. Then I crept round the side of a small kopje and through the bush I could see the few live ashes of the fire. There was a dark figure lying near the fire and putting my assegai between my teeth I crept on my hands and knees forward so that I could feel if there were any sticks I might break in my path. 20


Sopela’s camp was in a small open space and when I stood up I could clearly see the figure wrapped in a blanket. Then my ‘snake’ must have looked my way for suddenly, although I heard nothing, I felt there was someone behind me. I flung myself to one side and doing so Sopela's assegai missed my heart but tore into my side, under my right arm. As I fell I turned around and struck out blindly. My ‘snake’ helped again, for the assegai struck Sopela in his thigh! He wrenched the assegai out of my hand. Then he laughed! But he laughed too soon. As he struck down I rolled for his feet, the assegai tore my left shoulder, but I got him round the legs and pulled him down. We rolled over and over, he trying to get the assegai in his hand in order to stab me. The blood was draining out of me but I caught his wrist and twisted it until he dropped the assegai. Once he got his thumb in my eyeball and I thought my eye was gone but I jerked my head to one side and we rolled apart for we were both weak from our wounds and we had no more breath. We stood on our feet and swayed backwards and forwards trying to get breath. Then we circled round, each looking for a death grip. He then jumped at me with his head down. I brought my knee up in his face and as his head jerked up I got my left arm behind his neck and my right hand on his chin. Then I pressed, oh, so hard on his chin until it went up and to one side. Something went ‘crack!’ His neck and his body went all-soft in my arms. I let him slip to the ground and fell down on top of him. I felt I was going to die, but it was a good fight! Remember I had promised the Inkosi 'dead or alive'. For a long time, I knew nothing and when I woke the sun was up. Sopela was dead. The Jackal must have known that I was close for he had stuffed his blanket with grass to make it look like a man lying there. Near the dead fire was a bottle with water. I crawled to it and drank it all. My wounds were burning like fire. I plucked grass and stuffed it in the assegai wounds. The night before I had heard the drums going for an African dance and I knew there must be a kraal nearby. Crawling through the bush I came on a path. Presently two women came along with basins on their heads. They cried out when they saw me and ran back shouting, and in a little while the men came and carried me to the kraal. The herbalist made muti 17 [umuthi – Zulu] for my wounds but for a long time I did not know night from day. Then I got better and came to tell the Inkosi and now my story is finished. I will now go to the barracks for I am very tired!" Umdisa was given a small money reward for all his trouble. Trew says he would like to be able to tell us that that Constable Umdisa worked hard and got his promotion to sergeant; but the truth is he became very lazy and was always being defaulted. Trew I sent for him one day and asked him what he wanted to do. He said he was ‘tired’ he that he had saved money and wanted to go back to his kraal and buy a wife. Trew gave him his discharge and Trew expected that, like the Inkosi, Umdisa is getting old and grey, but Trew says he could picture Umdisa sitting in his hut at night telling Mrs. Umdisa, for the hundredth time, the story of his Odyssey, and she, for the hundredth time, saying: " Well, dear, I think you are simply wonderful!" or words to that effect! The story does not end here. I spoke to a psychologist who reports as follows on Constable Umdisa’s later behaviour: Dr. Elaine Bing, a Pretoria psychologist, renders her expert opinion regarding Constable Umdisa’s strange behaviour after his epic journey and battle to death, as follows: Without the opportunity to question him about his experiences, we have to resort to conjecture. It was a battle to the death and Capt. Trew was surprised that he had ‘lived to tell the tale'. 17

Tribal medicine or the medicine of a traditional healer (inyanga yamakhambi - Zulu).

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He was afterwards described as 'lazy’ and was always being defaulted. This may refer to avoidance behaviour or / and poor concentration. He describes himself as 'tired' and one wonders how well he slept - did he have nightmares of his dangerous journey and its subsequent end? He may also be describing a feeling of depression or a loss of interest in things. Therefore, a psychologist would investigate the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and / or depression. Comment by HBH Constable Umdisa might have been one of the earliest victims of Post-Traumatic Stress syndrome. Nevertheless, his memory should be cherished by all members of the police especially investigators and therefore it is suggested that a decoration – UMDISA DECORATION – be instituted for all investigators that excel in detective work and criminal intelligence. It will be a fitting memorial and reward to an early South African crime buster! What a remarkable and dedicated man! Bibliography: Trew, Lieut-Col HF: African Manhunts,Blackie & Co, London, 1938. SA Multi-Language Dictionary and Phrase Book, Reader’s Digest, Cape Town 1991.

NIE-BLANKELEDE VAN DIE DESTYDSE SA POLISIEMAG – HBH Hierdie is ‘n eerlike poging om te onthou hoe dit was en watter rol die ‘nie-wit’ lid van die Mag in die Mag gespeel het. Natuurlik kan die verslag nooit volledig wees nie! Hierdie is maar ‘n grepie uit die geskiedenis en soos ek dit persoonlik ervaar het. Beleid word deur die politiek bepaal en stel in die geval van die polisie die doel wat die kommissaris moet behaal. Ons sien later in hierdie verhaal hoe die politiek van die dag, ‘n eens pragtige land en sy polisiemag kan verwoes. ‘’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’ “…the policy failures of the ANC government. First there was the far too rapid transformation of the civil service and the damage done by cadre deployment. Under white rule it took 55 years (from 1910 to 1965) for the civil service to reflect the 55-45 demographic ratio of the white community. Particularly in the technocratic departments and in the state corporations the NP government retained the scarce skills of English-speakers. Under the ANC government the civil service was transformed to conform to demographic population ratios within between ten and twelve years. The ANC government inherited an unemployment problem but also made it far worse. In 1990 Dr. Wim de Villiers, an astute business leader before he became Minister of Administration and Economic Co-ordination, identified unemployment as the country’s major problem. In the 1960’s a half a million jobs were created in the industrial sector but in the 1980s it had dwindled to 28 000 (Sunday Times, 4 November 1990). This was largely as a result of relying too much on gold production and failing to develop competitive exports in the other sectors. Then the ANC government came into office and passed the most labour-friendly legislation the developing world – with predicable consequences.’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’18

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http://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/what-future-for-southafrica?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=3548bc1f35EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_19&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-3548bc1f35-130042309

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Inleiding Van kleins af hou ek van polisiemanne! As kind kan ek onthou as my Vader met die polisiewa by ons huis stilgehou het: Daardie reuk van die polisiewa was een van gebroude sterkdrank ishimiyane utshwala, gavine en skokiaan19 en die geroep van die eenrigtingradio: “ZUP 9 complaint at ...” My Vader was soms waarnemende SB, maar destyds normaalweg die tweede-in-bevel en baie keer het ek saamgery as hy die stasie na-ure of oor naweke besoek het en dan ook die manne op rondtediens besoek. Ons het in ons privaat motor gesit en dan het hy gesê: “Oor ‘n minuut sal die konstabel om die hoek kom.” Dit het so gebeur. Ek het die swart- en Indiërlede op sy stasie begin ken. Baie nie-blanke lede was werklik voorslag-lede! Uitmuntende manne! Ek het gedink ek hou van polisiewerk. Ek het polisieman geword. Soos my Vader dit gedoen het, het ek ook in sy voetspore gevolg. Elke aflossing het aangetree en is geïnspekteer. Die SAP 15 is uitgemaak, die informasieboek is gelees. Horlosies is gesinkroniseer en lede het hul uitrusting getoon. Met ‘n: “To your duties break!” het die dag vir ons begin. Ek is ‘n redelike ‘dom’ ou; maar sodra ek weet hoe dinge werk; is dit maklik. Ek het baie goed nie verstaan nie. Dit het my bekommer. Ek het by die universiteit ingeskryf en sosiale antropologie, inheemse reg en isiZulu bestudeer. Ek het ook die kat uit die boom gekyk en gedink as ek swart was, ek ook teen die regering sou veg, soos my voorsate teen Engeland geveg het. Waarom? Bloot omdat een volk nie ‘n ander vir ewig kan onderdruk nie. Ek het begin verstaan hoe dinge werk. Die rol van bier in die Zulu-gemeenskap. Om in die polisie te wees moet mens verstaan dat die polisie die primêre gesagsorgaan van die staat is. Ek het gedink dat ons ‘n stelsel van outonome state in Suid-Afrika moes kry. Kenia bestaan vandag uit 47 outonome state. Apartheid egter, was internasionaal onverdedigbaar; net soos plaasmoorde, politieke moord en die plundering van staatsbates. Dele van hierdie land is onlosmaaklik aan my mense gekoppel, ander dele nie.

Die Zulu-konstabel Die Zulu-konstabel was van oudsher ‘n kryger. ‘n Goeie konstabel. Goed gemanierd en beskik oor miliêre swier, maar streng! Die Franse noem miliêre swier elan. Bekyk ek die Mag van die Britse tye af, was die swart-konstabel eintlik as ‘n hulp-konstabel aangewend so het die situasie voortgeduur tot 1948. Tydens die Britse bewind het hy egter tot sy reg gekom in die Nongqai – die Zulu-polisie wat in Fort Nongqai te Eshowe gestasioneer was. Hulle was polisie-krygers en gewapen. Hulle het ‘n uitmuntende rekord gehad. Hulle het ook in die verskillende gemeente polisiemagte (bv. Durban, Pietermaritzburg) gedien en in die Natal Mounted Police en die Natal Police. Kyk mens na die Indiër-polisieman dan sien mens hy was ‘n trappie hoër as sy Zulu eweknie geag. (Kyk na die foto hieronder en let op die Indiërkonstabel se uniform.) Hy het ook dan ‘n paar sjielings per maand meer verdien en diè se uniform was ‘n bietjie “beter”. Dit is in kontras met die ZARP’s waar die swart lede dieselfde uniform gedra het. [Sien adjudant Maraba se foto.] Dit wil lyk of die swart beredemanne hoed gedra het en die swart voetmanne ‘n kadotjie.

Post 1948 Dit is eers na 1948 dat die swart-lede eintlik volwaardige lede van die Mag geword het. Die leitmotiv vir hulle eintlike bestaan was hulle moes hul eie mense, in hul eie gebiede, dien en beskerm.

Although I have seen other versions such as ‘shimeyana’ and shimiyane – e-mail from Gillian Scott-Berning on 22 July 2017. 19

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Hulle was ongewapen. (Dit was niks snaaks nie, my vader was ook ongewapen en het eers in die 1960’s ‘n 38 ontvang. Ja, hy het ‘n .303-geweer, lang bajonet en 50 patrone gehad.) Die swart lede was met handboeie en knuppel uitgereik, party het knopkieries en assegaaie gedra. Op King’s Rest het die swart-sersant op skofte ‘n bajonet gedra. Sekerlik onthou ek toe ons onluste dril gedoen het, was die Zulu-konstabels die voorste linie met knopkieries en assegaaie.

Uniforms Teen die tyd dat ek by die mag aangesluit het, was alle nie-blankes in kakie-uniform geklee met toeknoop-kraag. Hulle het die kakie helmet gedra, die helmet is later met ‘n kakie pet vervang en die snit van die tuniek is verander om soos die blankes se blou uniform te lyk. Baie Zulu-konstabels het een uniform-knoop met swart materiaal toegemaak wanneer hulle gerou het of ‘n klein swart diamant op die mou, bokant die elmboog, gedra. Of dit wettig was om dit op die polisie-uniform te dra, weet ek nie. In my tyd was almal op King’s Rest netjies en skoon. As blanke konstabel, wat as wyksersant opgetree het, moes ek ‘spark” om nie sleg teen oor my swart kollegas in uniform te vertoon nie. Tydens nagdiens in die aanklagtekantoor het ek my petwapen blink gevryf deur dit op ‘n growwe handdoek te skuur tot dit mooi glad in die middel was. Ook my leerwerk het baie tyd vereis. Konst. Matabane het sy lyfband met “Tony Red” Nugget-politoer, gemeng met tandepasta, ge-bone. Toe ek offisier word is ek met ‘n Sam Browne uitgereik en het ure spandeer om die leerwerk blink te maak soos konst. Matabane se lyfband.

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Adjudant Maraba van die ZARP’s. (Sy uniform is dieselfde as die wit lede se uniform.)

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Iets oor die agtergrond van die Zulu-konstabel in Durban In Durban was daar hoofsaaklik twee swart woongebiede, nl. Umlazi en KwaMashu. In Durban-Suid (No 75 distrik) het meeste lede in Umlazi gewoon. Hulle moes twee busse haal om werk toe te kom en weer twee busse terug. Ons het ses skofte van agt-uur elk, per week gewerk. te. Ons het begin met ‘n middagskof (14:00 tot 22:00) gevolg deur ‘n rusperiode van 8 uur en weer om 06:00 vir die oggendskof begin tot 14:00. Ons polisiestasie, King’s Rest, was ver van die bushalte en hoofpad. Ons het twee weke nagdiens gewerk van 22:00 tot 06:00. Ons het een nag per week afgekry en dit was gewoonlik ‘n Dinsdag of Donderdag. Hierdie skofte het meegebring dat lede moeg tuisgekom het en feitlik weer na die werk moes terugkeer. Ek dink die skofte was baie swaar op die swart lede gewees. Party swart lede was maar sluipslapers in die agterplase van goedgesinde mense en hul bediendes. Hoe kom jy betyds by die werk as daar nie behoorlike busdienste is nie? Taxi’s was destyds nie so volop nie. Swartlede was taai en het ook rondtediens gedoen of leëhuise besoek. Alles was per voet. Die Bluff was te heuwelagtig vir fietspatrollie. Selfs No. 147002R sers. Q Khumalo het navrae- en ondersoekdiens per voet gedoen. (Daar was egter plek vir twee perde.) Dit kan gemeld word dat lede van die SAP in uniform en speurders (met ‘n bus-pas) het verniet op die munisipale busdiens gereis. Ons het ook ondersoek-en navrae per bus gedoen. Later het die SAP besluit om te bespaar en die gratis busdiens in Johannesburg, Durban en Kaapstad is teruggetrek asook ons taaltoelae. Nadat ek hierdie agtergrond geskets het, moet u ook kennis neem dat die polisie nie vir sissies daar was nie. Enige foute in die registers, terwyl jy op nagdiens was, en jy is gewek en jy moes stasie toe gaan en dit regmaak. Daar was gereelde parade-inspeksies, stasie-lesings en drilparades by die stasie en by die DK se kantore te Wentworth. Ons moes ook aan oefeninge van die Mobiele eenheid deelneem. Ons het almal maar relatief swaargekry en daar was ‘n kameraderie wat ongelooflik tussen swart en wit lede was. Ek het ook afgedeeldediens in Umlazi verrig en is vriendelik deur swartlede ontvang. Terwyl ek bestuur sou ‘n swart lid, twee sigarette aansteek en vir my as die bestuurder een gee. Ek is vol fiemies, maar het die aangesteekte sigaret geneem veral om nie aanstoot te gee nie. Jou lewe is in hulle hande.

Humor Toe ek op Wentworth was het die volgende humoristiese insident voorgekom. Ons is drie lede in die aanklagtekantoor. Die aanklagtekantoorsersant was “ongesteld” in die toilet. Hy het die een of ander probleem met die wingerdstok ervaar. Ons drie hou die fort. Ek is pas uit die kollege. Zulu-lid neem verklaring van ‘n bobbejaan-spanner wat gesteel is. Hy skryf die buitekant van die dossier op en skree: “Theft of one bobbejaan”. Die Indiër-konstabel antwoord en skree: “Stock theft!” Kyk daar was altyd in ‘n aanklagtekantoor geskree! Daar is talle prisoniers, speurders wat aankla, klaers edm in en buite die AK. Besige plek diè Wentworth gewees. Wel ek is nie links nie en registreer die saak in die ROM as “Stock theft.” Kyk die volgende ding is: Ek is op die mat by die seksiehoof van die speurders en word figuurlik warm geklap! So leer mens die reg en die wette. Daar is geen plaasvervanger vir ervaring nie.

Patrolliewabemanning Om ‘n patrolliewa te bestuur is ‘n voltydse taak. In die polisie is daar ‘n hiërargie. Eers stap jy ‘beat’ of doen diens as ‘n wag by ‘n inbraak of in die hospitaal by ‘n siek of gewonde verdagte. Stadig “vorder” jy en word wabemanning. Dis ‘n trappie hoër. Jou groot taak is om wanneer die bestuurder stilhou, rond te kyk en te verklaar: “Skoon links!” Dan ry (lees: jaag) die bestuurder, veral tydens ‘n jaagtog. 26


Na die aflossing geparadeer is, is dit die nie-amptelike taak van die wabemanning om die enjinkap op te lig en die water en die olie na te gaan. Dan stap hy om die wa en inspekteer die wa vir stampe en duike en skrape. Dan was hy die voorruit – baie taai seelug in Durban. Hy maak die stuurwiel skoon. Hy verwittig dan die wabestuurder dat die patrolliewa ‘reg’ gereed en reg vir die aflossing is. Hy kyk ook of die noodwiel styf en gepomp is. Die wit patrolliewabemanning het ‘n stywe taak hy moet “alles” doen; die verklarings neem en die botsings waarneem en die SAP 352 (S 68 E) invul. Die patrolliewabestuurder praat oor die radio, help met die “vang” van verdagtes ens. maar die bemanning doen al die administrasie. Wanneer jou patrolliewabemanning swart is, het hy net basies gesê: “Skoon links” of “clean left.” Die bestuurder moes letterlik alles doen, die botsings bywoon en die verklarings afneem. Die bemanning het bygestaan met sy kierie tydens kroeggevegte en gehelp om verdagtes wat weghardloop, aan te keer. Nie te min as jy ‘n jaar met so man op die patrolliewa werk, dan raak jy “lief” vir die ou. Op nagdiens het ons ‘n brood by die bakkery en twee bottels melk by die melkery “gekry”. Dit was ‘n gevestigde gebruik. Die brood en melk is gelykop tussen die twee manne op die wa en die twee manne in die aanklagtekantoor verdeel. Dis hoe dit was. Ons het saans na LM Radio se deurnagdiens - Robin Alexander? – geluister. Die SAUK se senders was gesluit van 24:00 tot 05:00. My vaste reël was: Ek het nooit iets voor die bemanning geëet, as ek nie met hom kon deel nie. Ek kon Zulu praat en ‘n Zulu se verklaring neem. My kennis van Zulu het my gehelp om my swart kollegas te verstaan. Bekingkosi Cele was ‘n tweede wêreldoorlog veteraan. Saans het hy my van die oorlog en die “German kosaans” en die ontploffings vertel. Hy was nooit by Tobruk gevang nie. Ons praat en hy vertel my as die swart mense die land oorneem gaan daar chaos wees. Sou ons die land verlaat, dan gaan hy saam, het hy gesê. Hy vertel my dat ek ‘n kind is, maar ‘n man se werk kan doen. Hy sê vir my dat ek altyd baie vrae vra as ons by ‘n klagte kom. Waarom vra ek so baie vrae, was vir hom ‘n raaisel. (Hy het ‘n motor gehad – die registrasie nommer was NUZ 1010.) Wat my verstom het, baie van die Zulu-konstabels se skolastiese opleiding het te kort geskiet; maar hulle was besonder goeie polisiemanne. Konst. Gumede het seker standerd vier gehad, hy was ‘n groot fris Zulu en het die wyk geken. As ons na ‘n klagte jaag dan het hy gesê: “Kosaan faga mafuta! Ek sal jou sê wanneer ons by 2251 kom!” Na die klagte dan het ek gevra hoe het jy geweet waar 2251 Marine Drive is? Kosaan ek het beat gestap en ken elke nommer!” Hy kon nie sy eie sakboekie opskryf nie – maar hy was ‘n goeie polisieman! Jou Zulu-bemanning was soos die weervoorspelling. Hy het jou vooraf gewaarsku, bv. in Umlazi wanneer jy in ‘n bepaalde gebied kom dan sê hy bv.: “Hierdie is mPlankweni, die mense kom van Cato Manor af, hulle kan moeilik wees”. Of as mens by ‘n oproerige blanke rusverstoring kom: “Kosaan jy kan maar fight, ek sal jou rug beskerm.” Ons ry een nag naby die Bluff-inry teater verby en hy vra my wat gaan daar aan? Ek ry toe met die patrolliewa by die uitgang in, en ons parkeer en kyk vir ‘n rukkie na die fliek. Ons het weer na so 10 minute vertrek. Ek het vooraf geweet ek mag dit doen. [Die polisiekoerant het al die flieksnitte aangedui en die kinderwet het my gemagtig om enige perseel waar kinders vermaak word, te betree.] In daardie dae kon swartes nie na sekere films kyk nie en sover ek weet was daar net Indiërfilmteaters.

Walvisvleis Gedurende walvisseisoen het ons na Union Whaling Co. se perseel op die Bluff langs die Indiese oseaan gery op aandrang van die swart lede. Hier het ons so ‘n kubieke meter rooi walvisvleis 27


“gekry” en die stuk vleis is agter in die patrolliewa gelaai. By die stasie is die vleis opgesny en gekook in ‘n paraffienblik totdat al die olie ‘af’ gekook is daarna is die vleis soos braaivleis gebraai. Ek het ook by geleentheid die honde-eenheid daar gesien wat ook ‘n stuk vleis vir die honde “gekry” het. Ander kollegas sal seker verbaas wees om te verneem dat ons erkenning van skuld aanvaar het, wanneer walvisse wat te klein/kort was, geskiet was.

Byname en Skinderpraatjies Elke blanke polisieman van belang het ‘n Zulu-bynaam gehad. Ons afdelingskommissaris, kol CC von Keyserlingk, se bynaam was “Umoba”. Umoba is suikerriet. Hy het soms gesê: “If you don’t want to be a policeman, go and chop sugar cane!’ Die Zulu-konstabel het ‘n fyn sin vir waarneming gehad en as jy hul vertroue gewen het, het mens baie stories – polisie-skinderstories – gehoor. Hulle het jou van gebeure vertel as mens by sekere plekke gekom het. So ry ons by ‘n huis verby en die Zulu-bemanning vra my: “Ken jy die man wat hier bly?” Ek het bevestigend geantwoord toe vertel die Zulu vir my van die kollega se kaperjolle oor die kleurskeidslyn. Min dinge het hulle ontglip. Ek het soms gedink hulle ken ons beter as wat ons hulle ken. Hulle het, in ‘n mate, destyds in ‘n OuTestamentiese wêreld geleef. Mense en stories was van belang en hulle waarneming was baie beter as ons sin. Een jong swart seun in Umbumbulu het meeste registrasienommer in Umbumbulu geken. Ons as blankes was altyd haastig – hulle weer, het daagliks vuur gemaak by die polisiestasie. Konstabel Nyawo was die bandietwag. Die stasie en die voertuie is skoongemaak en so by 10:00 het hulle vuurgemaak en “20c boy’s meat” gebraai. Die bandiete het dan hul kaboemmielies geëet.

Range Range, soos ons dit verstaan, beteken vir die Zulu eintlik niks. Vir hulle is die “bloed” – veral die koninklike bloedlyn van die lid, eerder as sy rang, belangriker. Tydens stasielesings het al die swart lede gekyk wat ‘n lelike verrimpelde ou konstabel se reaksie was. Hy het ‘koninklike’ bloed gehad en as hy saamstem met die SB, dan kan dit geïmplementeer word. (Dit was ‘n informele proses.) In die Transkei het ek ‘n swart polisie-generaal gesien wat op sy knieë voor ‘n swart sers.-majoor van die leër in eerbied gekniel het. Die sers.maj. het koninklike bloed in sy are gehad. Die nie-blanke lede het aanvanklik ‘n veelvoud van range gehad. My kritiek teen die “nie-blanke” range was die gebruik om die in die geval van nie-blankes hul ras voor hul rang te plaas. Dit was verkeerd. Daar is mos nie iets soos ‘n speurder-luitenant nie! Dis eenvoudig net luitenant. So is daar ook nie iets soos Bantoe-luitenant nie. Dis behoort net luitenant te wees. Die staatspresident ken range toe en daardie range moet gebruik word. Ek weet nie van wit lede wat swart lede met hoër range ongeskik of onbeleefd behandel het nie. Rasseverhoudinge was goed in die “ou mag” gewees – baie beter as wat dit vandag is! Baie wit lede kla oor omgekeerde rassisme en in die SAPS is wit lede skreiend al voor nie-wit lede behandel. ‘n Stasiebevelvoerder het my vertel hoe sleg wyle genl. Maharajh van Gauteng hom behandel het. (In teenstelling is die jong luit. Maharajh in Natal baie goed deur wit-lede behandel.)

Waardes en Norme Ons is almal mense; maar ons waardes en norme verskil aansienlik. ‘n Wit vroue sersant in die polisie raak swanger buite die huwelik en sy word ontslaan. ‘n Swart, ongetroude, vroue kolonel raak buite die huwelik swanger. Die vader van die kind is die minister! Niks word daaraan gedoen nie. Ons het partykeer die wit lede strenger beoordeel. [Ek van die beste; die slegste en die wreedste Suid-Afrikaners gesien tydens my dienstermyn in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie - om nie te praat van die skynheiliges nie.] 28


Black Jacks Die Durban se munisipaliteit se Bantoe-administrasie afdeling het in die swart woongebiede, hostels en biersale die sogenaamde “Black Jacks” gehad. Hulle het in ons polisiedistrik bv. ‘n hek gehad wat toegang tot ‘n woongebied verleen het. Ons kon hulle altyd skakel en vra: “ Hou die hek gesluit ons jaag iemand wat op pad is na julle geweste!” Samewerking was goed.

Uitstaande diens Swartlede op die stasies waar ek was, was oor die algemeen netjies, fier en regop. Geen nonsens gevat nie. Mens was trots op hulle. Hulle het nogal baie vernuf aan die dag gelê. Een reënerige aand ontvang Wentworth ‘n klagte van huisbraak. “Moord en roof” staan by en ek met King’s Rest se patrolliewa is naby en vra of ek ook kan aandag gee. Beheer gee toestemming. Almal hardloop en soek na die inbrekers op die groot industriële perseel. Sers. Sibiya van Wentworth staan eenkant en hy sê vir my: “Kosaan, jy moet met die leer opklim!” Hy wys met sy flits na ‘n leer wat toegang gee na ‘n volgende verdieping. Ek is op met die leer en skielik sien ek iemand hardloop. Ek skree: “Hima!” En toe klap die skote. Intussen het sers. Sibiya my gevolg en reg agter my neem hy twee inbrekers in hegtenis wat my van agter sou aanval! Hy neem die twee in hegtenis en ek het een gewond. Telling SAP: 3; Inbrekers: 0. Was sers. Sibiya bedank vir goeie werk gelewer? Nee. Het hy ‘n ekstra rusdag gekry? Nee. Dit was bloot ons werk. Baie keer het ons ‘n rusdag ontvang vir goeie werk gelewer, aan die anderkant het ons dubbelskof gewerk as daar nie ‘n wabestuurder was nie. Die werk was opwindend en vol avontuur. In die aanklagtekantoor het ek baie by die swartlede geleer. Waarom was hulle toe so ervare? Dit staan vandag in skrille kontras met my ervaring van die SAPS. Daar is ‘n paar lede wat goeie werk lewer maar kom ek skets ‘n verhaal van hoe swak die polisie werklik is mbt gewone dienslewering. Ons slaap en word wakker want ons hoor water spuit. My vrou kap my in die ribbes en verwyt my dat ek nie die kraan toegemaak het nie! Ons kom buite toe is ons kraan by in die straat gesteel. Elke huis het ‘n water-koppelpunt met koperwerk. Die polisie hou stil: “You must go and report it at the Charge Office to-morrow morning.” Toe ek in die polisie was, was dit my plig om vinnig ‘n eerste aangifte van misdaad-verklaring af te neem. Ek sien om te redekawel met ‘n lui man gaan my nie ver bring nie. Ek bel die water-afdeling en sê julle krane is gesteel. “No, you must first give a police reference number.” In my pajamas ry ek polisiestasie toe waar ‘n TV luid ‘n film met seksuele ondertone, uitblaker. Na sowat ‘n uur is my verklaring geneem en het ek die gesogte MAS-nommer om vir die munisipaliteit te gee. Die water het intussen lustig in die lug gespuit en in die pad afgehardloop. Vandag se polisie is anders; hulle weerspieël die bevolking se samestelling. Maak tog die polisie meer “wit” in blanke woongebiede. Oor jare sal die polisie nog sukkel om wit informante in wit-gebiede te kry – die stasiekommissaris, almal, is swart terwyl die woonbuurt oorwegend wit is. Dit het niks met apartheid of rassisme te doen nie – ek wil net polisie hê wat soos ek is en my en my mense se behoeftes en vrese verstaan. Ons kan nie met die polisie gesels nie. Hy is anders en verstaan ons nie. (Dit is nou die tyd vir gemeente-polisie.)

Die veiligheidstak Ons het uiters goeie en getroue nie-blanke lede in die veiligheidstak gehad. Luit. Nayager en ek was op dieselfde Saterdag-aflossing. In die “ou” dae van die 1970’s het ons elke vierde Saterdag diens gedoen. Hy was vol sjarme en het my aan die akteur Omar Sharif laat dink. Hy was ‘n goeie inligtingsman en het selfs wit bronne gewerf en hanteer. Ek onthou nog die grappies dat die nie-wit offisiere by die offisiersklub gaan aansluit.

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Welkom (OVS) Gedurende my dienstermyn het ek ‘n swart luitenant-kolonel gehad wat ‘n stasiebevelvoerder was. Junior distriksoffisiere moes noodwendig sy stasie inspekteer. Dit was die jaar 1990 en ek het gedink dat hy sy pos ontgroei het en het hom na die DK-kantoor verplaas as stafoffisier. As mens terug dink dan was dit ‘n baanbreker stap. Daar was aanvanklik weerstand by sommige dames op die personeel. Hy self, was so ‘n sjarmante offisier dat alle probleme gou vergeet is. Na ‘n maand kon mens sê hy is al jare op die DK se personeel. Op Theunissen is een lid se huis so baie met klippe gegooi dat die pleister afgeval het!

Soweto Soweto was ‘n anderste plek. Daar was goeie swart lede; maar ek het – subjektief - gevoel dat baie van lede daar juis a.g.v. die rewolusionêre aanslag in ‘n mate grootliks geneutraliseer was. As dit nie vir die blanke lede by die blitspatrollie en die onluste-eenheid was nie, sou Soweto gevou het onder die aanslag. Die dissipline in Soweto was ook nie van die beste nie; dog werp ek nie ‘n refleksie op my meerderes wat daar was nie, maar dis hoe ek dit ervaar het.

Die rewolusionêre aanslag Die rewolusionêre aanslag was fel in Soweto en ook op die Oos-Rand, Vanderbijlpark en Vereeniging. Ons kan gerus ‘n oomblik dink aan wat veral ons swart lede moes deurmaak. Hulle huise was aangeval met petrolbomme, daar is op hul huise geskiet en handgranate was in hul huise gegooi. Hulle moes onder daardie omstandighede kom werk en in uniform van die huis na die stasie beweeg. Baie swart lede was in tentdorpies gehuisves. Hulle het die verbruikers- en skoolboikotte aan die lyf gevoel. Dit was maar ‘leeu-wêreld” waar hulle gewoon het. Hulle het onder jeugdige aktiviste deurgeloop. Ons loof daardie wat gedien het en getrou was tot op die einde. Die rewolusionêre aanslag het ook ‘n nuwe gees in veral die swart woonbuurte gekweek – hierdie nuwe gees het ook ‘n nadelige invloed op die SAPS gehad. Dit gaan jare neem om die skade aan die polisie te herstel. Luit. G Rockman se optrede het destyds hoofberigte gevorm. Hy was gekant teen SAP-optrede teenoor kinders van sy gemeenskap.

Slot Ons het almal ‘n wonderlike tyd in die Mag gehad en ek weet van geen gevalle waar die Mag gemuit het nie – behalwe seker hier in 1914 rond met die polisie-staking. Nou stap ek in die nuwe SuidAfrika in Kaapstad. Daar vind ‘n polisie-betoging plaas en die manne dans in uniform en skree: “pansi uFivaz! Ek het my vir hulle geskaam. Ek verbeel my daar moeilikheid in Soweto tussen swart en wit polisie, ‘n swart lid was gedood. En ja in my tyd in Soweto is die nuwe kaserne aan die brand gesteek. Het ons armblankes wat by die weermag, spoorweg en polisie aangesluit het in die periode 1910 – 1940 ons so gedra? Nee. Ons het ons werk gedoen. En toe ek in die begin 1960’s aansluit was dit ook so. Die swart lede was ernstig en op hul taak gefokus. Miskien was die dissipline streng. Daar was nie politieke praatjies en vakbonde nie.

Konsensus Ons braai vleis en die manne rondom die vuur bereik konsensus: Almal is vandag “bang” vir die polisie. Ek hou oor die algemeen nie van die nuwe SAPS nie – hul professionalisme ontbreek. Hulle is nie meer ‘n bewonderingswaardige ‘mag’ nie. Kyk na die kaperjolle sedert genl. George Fivaz die 30


diens verlaat het. Ons kan maar net “rou” oor die pragtige doelgerigte polisiemag wat ons verloor het. Ons was “altyd getrou!” Ons was getrou aan ons onder-offisiere, adjudant-offisiere, offisiere en die kommissaris. Dit sal maklik nog 50 jaar neem om die diens te professionaliseer en op die vlak te kry waar hy in die 1990’s was. (Ek sê dit nadat ek baie hieroor gedink het.) Die land is ongeneeslik siek! My raad: Begin met dril. Weekliks moet hulle gedril word. Bring die gesag van die offisiere terug. Offisiere het hul gesag en status verloor. Offisiere moet bevel en beheer terugbring. Bring bevorderingseksamens terug. Skors en vervolg diegene wat korrup is en bring die ou etos van: ONS DIEN EN ONS BESKERM terug. Doen weg met vakbonde en rassekwotas. •

Ek het my ten doel gestel om ‘n lekker-lees artikel oor die nie-blanke lede te skryf soos ek dit ervaar het, as ek nie polities-korrek was nie, vergewe my.

Voorpublikasie-kommentaar deur Fanie Bouwer Hennie Jô, dis 'n allemintige, volledige skryfsel oor die onderwerp wat jy aanmekaar getimmer en gebeitel het. Ek onthou doeriejare toe alle swart lede, ongeag rang, volgens staande orders, die mindere van 'n wit lid geag was, ongeag rang.20 Was daar in die swartes se range21 nie 3 trappe gewees nie? Sergeant. Senior sergeant en (nie seker) special grade sergeant.22 Was daar daai tyd 'n swart adjudant-offisier rang gewees? Ek kan nie onthou nie.23 Tog was die swart lede nooit ontevrede nie. Hulle was lojaal en a-polities.24 Ek wonder hoe ek sou gewees het as ek in hulle skoene was. Daar was ook nooit rede om hulle enigsins te wantrou nie. Ek het op Idutywa 'n aap Jack gehad. Die swart lede het by DK later gaan kla dat Jack teen hulle diskrimineer. Hy het hulle so af toe 'n ligte bytjie gegee. Sowaar, die DK, kolonel Mitchell, stuur toe 'n amptelike brief dat "konstabel Jack" verplaas moet word. Ek lag nou, maar die swart lede kon beter Engelse verklarings as ons boerseuns neem. Dit het my altyd getiekel in Transkei - dat hulle, vandag nog, soos taalvaardig is. In my tyd was daar in Transkei - laat 60's, vroeë 70's - verskeie swart speurders gewees. Ek het van hulle sake geprosedeer in die hof. En daar was niks fout met hulle bekwaamheid en speurvernuf in daardie tyd sonder vandag se tegnologie nie. In elk geval, ek dink die ouens gaan jou skryfsel geniet in Nongqai. Groete - Fanie Dit is korrek – maar in die praktyk het die nie-wit sersant diplomaties as raadgewer opgetree - HBH. Daar was ook die korporaalsrang – sien foto’s elders - HBH 22 Korrek, toe geen AO-rang maar: Spesiale-graad-hoofsersant was ingestel: Drie streep chevron op mou onder ‘n AOkenteken – HBH. 23 Ja daar was nie-wit AO’s in die 1990’s te Welkom, (Distrik 79). Ek weet nie wanneer die rang ingestel is nie – HBH. 24 Almal was maar “bang” vir die veiligheidstak - HBH. 20 21

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MY ERVARING IN DIE SAP SAAM MET SWARTLEDE: KAPT. (V) E DE WET Ek het my opleiding gedoen, die 1st semester in 1982. En is daarna verplaas na Sundra. Sundra, is ‘n boere gemeenskap en bestaan die hele Sundra uit plotte en plase. Eloff wat ook onder Sundra SAP se gebied val, bestaan uit ‘n klein “dorpie”, maar is baie platteland. Omrede Sundra ‘n baie klein stasie was, was ons maar min lede. Met my aankoms op Sundra, het ek begin in die aanklagkantoor. Daar was ‘n A/O John Mthimunye wat al jare se ervaring het. Hy het my geleer hoe die aanklagkantoor “werk”. Van die voorvalle boek (VB), die selleregister, hoe om prisoniers in en uit te boek, besoek van die selle, ens. Alles wat in die AK gedoen moet word, het hy my geleer. Hy het my “Numsa” genoem en as ek vra wat dit beteken het hy altyd net gelag. Ek het later gehoor dit beteken “klein dogtertjie”. Wat ek ook kan was sersant Sidney, wat ondersoeke gedoen het en konstabel Organ Nkosi wat in beheer was van die prisoniers wat in die tuin gewerk het en ook die geboue skoongemaak het. Later het ek klagtes begin bywoon en was 95% van die tyd, my bemanning ‘n swartlid. Ek dink in daardie jare, was dit seker snaaks vir die publiek om ‘n wit vroulike polisielid, saam met ‘n swartlid te sien ry. Ek het ook geen probleem gehad om saam met swartlede te werk nie, want ek het hulle gesien as kollegas, ongeag van hulle velkleur. Daar was wedersydse respek tussen my en die swartlede en het ons na mekaar omgesien dat elkeen na afloop van ‘n skof, terug na ons families toe kan gaan. Ek moet erken, dat ek nooit die woord “rassisme” geken het, tydens my tyd toe ek gestasioneer was op Sundra en daar na op Pongola. Dit was kollegas wat dieselfde kleur uniform gedra het as ek.

Nr 0401199-6 Konst Elizabeth de Wet op 2 Julie 1982, sy het later die rang van kaptein beklee.

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TRANSKEI - EN MY OPLEIDING DEUR 'N SWART LID EN ANDER KAPERJOLLE: BRIG FANIE BOUWER Ek wil albei onderwerpe gelyktydig aanraak. Eerstens die voormalige tuisland self, en ook die swart lid wat my daar op Umtata die basiese van polisiewerk en administrasie geleer het in die laat 60's en die blywende indruk wat hy op my gemaak het vir die res van my loopbaan. En dan sommer ook 'n swart speurder se manier van ondersoek en verklarings afneem. Ek is die afgelope week telkemale herinner aan die Transkei waar ek as jong polisieman my tande, figuurlik gesproke, geslyp het. Oudpresident Mandela is mos daar in daardie destydse tuisland langs die hoofpad buite Umtata in Qunu op pad na Idutywa begrawe. Hoeveel keer het ek nie daar verby gery nie. Ek het destyds nie eers geweet van sy bestaan nie. Ek was op beide Umtata en Idutywa gestasioneer - ook in Qumbu en Engcobo. Umtata was destyds as ’n sg. ‘strafstasie’ beskou. Dit so terloops. ('n Ander stasie waar ek ook gestasioneer was as SB - Woodstock - was ook baie, baie jare gelede as 'n 'strafstasie' geklassifiseer. Wat is dit met my en sg. 'strafstasies', wat nie eintlik was nie. Hoe het dié persepsies ontstaan?) Maar dis eintlik oor die Transkei self wat ek eers iets wil sê – hierdie vorige tuisland wat daar strek van die Keirivier nie vêr van Oos-Londen tot by Umzimkulu daar onderkant KZN. Dit was die mooiste – die sieraad - van al die destydse tuislande. Almal Xhosas wat daar bly in ’n streek met die pragtigste heuwels en berge; riviere met gladde palings; die mooiste riviermondings, wat na my mening die mooiste is in SA - veral sy kusgedeeltes, wat selfs dalk mooier is as die Suid-Kaap. Dit is ’n deel van die land wat jou ‘sit’. Dalk sit dit wel in my hart en niere. Wie weet. Daarom wil ek weer net een keer teruggaan en gaan kyk wat daar aangaan en dinge van my wonderlike jongdae in daai ou tuisland weer inasem. Ek weet net nie wat die veiligheidsituasie deesdae daar is nie. Nou wil ek ietsie skryf oor 2 swart lede wat ek teëgekom het. Die eerste een was sersant Radebe in Umtata. As student was ek op sy skof ingedeel waar hy aanklagkantoorbevelvoerder was. Hierdie swart sersant was geweldig trots op sy werk. Hy het my altyd in Engels as 'student' aangespreek. Hy wou nooit gehad dat die vlymskerp stasievelvoerder ('n adjudant-offisier - seker nouse dae 'n baie senior offisier) enige 'querries' oor ons werk aanteken wanneer hy die registers nagesien het die volgende oggend nie. So het my geleer om die inskrywings perfek in die VB; die ROM; die RAA; die Ongeluksregister; die Selregister (SAP 14); die VVH ('Visit Vacant Houses'); die Informasieboek(IB); die Eiendomsregister 33


(SAP 81) en ander aan te teken, met die nodige kruisverwysings. Alles in Engels. Inskrywings soos: First Information of Crime; Charge Accepted, en dies meer. Sersant Radebe het ook geduldig gewees wanneer hy my geleer het om 'n verklaring af te neem. Hy het gewoonlik langs my gestaan; ook die luisterwerk gedoen terwyl ek die skryfwerk doen. Die klaers destyds was ook baie geduldig. Verklarings is ook maar 'n verslag, nie waar nie? Geen wonder dat 'n latere engelssprekende stasiebevelvoerder vir my gesê het dat indien die leser dit later nie verstaan of onvolledig is, die verklaring dan 'n "useless excerise" is. Sersant Radebe het my geleer om nié in dié slagyster te trap nie. Selfs later in my offisiers-loopbaan het ek dit altyd in gedagte gehou wanneer ek 'n verslag ingedien het. Alhoewel ek vlot isiXhosa kon praat, het sersant Radebe gedurende nagdienste seker gemaak dat ek 'n verdagte behoorlik volgens Regtersreëls in isiXhosa kon waarsku. Oor en oor moes ek dit vir hom opsê tot dat hy uiteindelik tevrede was. Sovêr ek kan onthou, was ek, konstabel Kenny Hand (Qumbu) en speurderadjudant-offisier Dudley Wattrus (Umtata) die enigste lede wat 'n swart verdagte in hulle eie taal ingevolge Regtersreëls kon waarsku. Daar mag ook iemand anders gewees het van wie ek nie bewus was nie. Nou, in Idutywa, waar ek aanklaer was, sien ek eendag 'n klomp getuies in speurdersersant Njozela se kantoor sit. Sy metodiek en ondervraging het, soos ek hieronder sal aandui, ingedruis teen alle gewone logika en voorgeskrewe ondersoekmetodes. Só het hy te werk gegaan: Hy luister eers gesamentlik na al die getuies in sy kantoor. Later sien ek hulle buite sit en word elkeen later individueel ingeroep. Ek vind later die volgende uit: Terwyl hulle buite was het hy dan elkeen se verklaring rustig in sy netjiese handskrif uitgeskryf en hulle dan later net afsonderlik laat inkom om hulle duimafdrukke op die verklarings te plaas. Tog het ek nooit probleme gehad met hulle getuienis later in die hof nie. Om af te sluit: Swart lede soos sersant Radebe na wie ek hierbo verwys, en wie al lankal oorlede is, kry dalk nie altyd die nodige krediet vir hulle positiewe bydrae tot sekeres van ons se ontwikkeling in die beginjare van ons loopbane nie. Met hierdie nagedagtenis gee ek dan eer aan hom.

HUMOR : UMTATA EN DIE SAP Sekere offisier kla steen en been oor hy op Hoofkantoor geplaas is. Baie ongelukkig en hartseer met sy standplaas, hoofkantoor. “Goed”, sê die brigadier, “pak jou goed!. Jy is na Umtata toe verplaas.” “O gaats”, kla die ou weer, “dis die ander plek waarheen ek nie wil gaan nie!”

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1970: SAP: KOMMISSIERANG: NIE-BLANKE OFFISIERE

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Let op inhoud van paragraaf 1, nl. “in ooreenstemming met regeringsbeleid”. Die SAP het reeds in 1970 begin om aan nie-Blankes kommissierang te verleen. Die politici in Suid-Afrika was ‘n rapsie vinniger as die van Rhodesië.

POLICING FOR A NEW SOUTH AFRICA Sien onderstaande boek deur Brogden & Shearing. See the under mentioned book by Brodgen & Shearing. Mike Brogden, Clifford D. Shearing: Policing for a New South Africa https://history.libraries.wsu.edu/spring2015/2015/01/20/police-brutality-a-history-of-race/

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1978: BSAP: ADVANCEMENT OF AFRICAN POLICEMEN

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1985: BLACK POLICEMEN IN SOUTH AFRICA: TARGETS OF INCREASING BLACK RAGE By ALAN COWELL, Special to the New York Times Published: April 2, 1985

JOHANNESBURG, April 1— The yellow police van pulled to a stop across the dirt road in one of South Africa's black townships, and an officer bearing a rifle tumbled out to block the path of the approaching sedan. To the rear, a second police car cut off retreat. The sedan's occupants were trapped. In another incident, this time on the border with the independent, black- ruled country of Lesotho, a South African officer searched a private car entering the country and found documents that he believed subversive, so the driver was summoned for questioning by a man who identified himself as a member of the security police25. The papers were seized. Departure from Stereotype The images might be familiar to those who keep up with the twists of South Africa's racial confrontation. But there was, in both episodes, a difference from the stereotype of white police officers crushing black dissent. In both cases the policemen were black, and their quarry were whites suspected of violating South Africa's extensive body of law. By official estimates, blacks constitute about 40 percent of the 45,000-member South African police force. And of late, their position among their fellow blacks seems more precarious than ever. Black officers were among the policemen who opened fire on a funeral procession of 4,000 people on March 21 in Langa, a black township of the southern city of Uitenhage, killing at least 19 blacks. President Reagan took note of this at a news conference that day, calling the shootings ''tragic'' but adding that there ''was rioting going on'' and that ''it is significant that some of those enforcing the law and using the guns were also black - black policemen.'' Last year, as unrest spread in the nation's myriad black townships, black activists sought to draw distinctions that offered various categories of opprobrium to the police. There were, said Patrick Lekota, spokesman of the United Democratic Front, blacks recruited as township policemen to protect black community councilors, and they were viewed as quislings, since the councils are seen by many blacks as fronts for continued white influence. In contrast, he said, there were black members of the South African police, who, except for officers who had gained personal notoriety for attacking fellow blacks beyond the call of duty, were looked upon as men just doing a job, albeit in the pay of white masters.

25

The correct term is “Security Branch” - HBH

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But in the last six months, something has changed. When rioting gripped the township of Kwanobuhle recently, after the police killings in nearby Langa, all the black policemen were evacuated to protect them from the vengeance of fellow blacks. ''The people,'' said Johannes Baloyi, a black police constable from Soweto, Johannesburg's huge black township, ''see us as enemies.'' Their white commanders put it the other way around. ''We are terribly impressed by the loyalty of these people,'' Maj. Steve van Rooyen, a police spokesman in Pretoria, said of the black officers. Few Hiding Places Black policemen are caught up in a fight by activists directed not at the whites - too powerful and too far out of reach - but against those blacks seen as their surrogates, easy targets in black townships where there are few hiding places from angry mobs. Since the violence started, according to Government figures that seem conservative, 4 black policemen have been slain and 56 have been wounded. The tally of black-on-black violence includes attacks on 109 black councilors, by official estimates, and the burning or destruction of schools, churches, clinics, homes, cars and buses. By Major van Rooyen's figures the South African police is made up of 22,997 whites and 22,564 nonwhites, a figure that includes a small number of officers of Indian or mixed racial descent. The figures do not encompass the separate police forces set up in tribal homelands or police reservists. The black policemen might be traffic officers with guns, or security policemen26, also with guns, or riot policemen, with even more guns. A couple of them, Major van Rooyen said, have attained the rank of colonel. Equal Pay for Equal Rank Pay scales, Major van Rooyen said, are the same for blacks and whites of equal rank, and contrary to earlier practice, all prospective police officers must have completed high school education. There is no specific loyalty test for recruits, he said, the assumption apparently being that they must be loyal to apply in the first place. Col. Leon Mellett, a spokesman for the Ministry of Law and Order, said there was no shortage of recruits for the police, since the force is seen by some blacks as providing steady and secure work. That its loyalty is under strain is acknowledged by white policemen, such as Major van Rooyen, who said he was not sure how loyal he would be under the same circumstances.

26

Members of the Security Branch - HBH

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Constable Baloyi, in Soweto, seemed also to acknowledge the problems - and some of the reasons the police are not too popular among blacks. ''If students throw stones, we are told to hit them hard and arrest them,'' he said in an interview. ''And that's what we do. ''I know that some people don't like us in Soweto,'' he said. ''But we don't care.'' The officer, 28 years old, has been on the force four years and comes from the remote tribal homeland of Gazankulu in the north. Constable Baloyi likes to say he knows nothing about politics, but his superiors tell him, he said, that radical blacks and students ''want to run the country by force.'' ''We are told that we must be hard on them,'' he said. ''My seniors tell me black people want to take over the country and run it like a Communist country where we are all going to starve. We are also shown films of people starving in Africa and we are told that if we don't stop the children from their nonsense we will all starve.'' All the same, he said, he does not like to use his gun against fellow blacks. ''I joined the force,'' he said, ''because there was no other work I could do at home. ''But when I retire,'' he continued, ''I want to go back home. It's quiet there. There are no riots.'' http://www.nytimes.com/1985/04/02/world/black-policemen-in-south-africa-targets-of-increasingblack-rage.html - July 2017

PHOTO JOURNAL / FOTO JOERNAAL Const. Umdisa and Pretoria Central more than 100 years ago

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Bantu Administration Security Corps: Leaving for riots in Cato Manor, they had to guard municipal property. – SB Bourquin-Collection via Gillian Scott-Berning.

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Attack on policemen during liquor raid, Cato Manor. 24th January 1960. SB Bourquin-collection via Ms Gillian Scott-Berning.

Note the government policy. Nongqai, November 1952 page 1179

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Det. Const. Hlope 1942-04-495

Const. Lepatsi 1957-02 In line with the National Party policy Non-White policemen received formal training for the first time. They were trained at various places in the Union. Adv. CR Swart said that nonwhites had to police their own areas.

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Note 3rd collum on intended government policy regarding the policing of non-white stations.

Non-European Training Depot: New Modderfontein For training courses for non-white members at the Witwatersrand Technical College see the advert below. Much was done to enhance training. One has to give Adv. CR Swart, minister of Justice and the National party credit for their plans to train non-white policemen. Sgt Lucas Majozi, DCM, was 49


employed as an instructor. As far as I could establish training was done at various centres in the Union including Wentworth and Umtata. See the advert directed to non-white members.

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Erkenning New York Times, mnr. Danie Kapp, kol. Terry Schwartz, brig.-genl. H Freibus, me. Gillian ScottBerning, kapt. (v) E de Wet & brig. F Bouwer

LIEUTENANT GENERAL KEITH COSTER ICD, OBE, SSAS Part II: Shot Down and POW in Italy by historian, author and copy-editor Gerry van Tonder (Please visit Gerry’s website: http://www.rhodesiansoldier.com/) Last month we followed the first period of Keith Coster’s military career, from attestation into the Union Defence Force to getting his pilot’s wings, and preparing to enter the Western Desert theatre in North Africa during the Second World War. In this month’s column, the late General Coster’s personal memoirs, generously entrusted to me by his family, are again used exclusively to relate his first taste of war, being shot down near El Alamein, and the Italian period of his incarceration as a POW. The aircraft drawings and General Coster’s profile poster (below) are by my very close friend and former SADF officer, Colonel Dudley Wall MSM, MMM, to whom I am indebted.

[00] During the Second World War, nearly 20,000 South African servicemen were taken prisoner, out of the 342,700 who had volunteered for service. 51


By far the largest single bag of South Africans taken prisoner by the Germans and Italians, was when Tobruk fell on 21 June 1942. Of the 30,000 Allied troops taken prisoner, no fewer than 10,722 were South African. Captain Keith Coster was to join those three weeks later in crude camps in North Africa, awaiting shipment to Europe. He was one of only 273 members of the SAAF taken prisoner during the war, out of a total of 44,569 who had volunteered to serve in the air force. South African Sergeant Wally Wolhuter of Die Middellandse Regiment said this of having been captured: “You are in the power of your enemy. You owe your life to his humanity, and your daily bread to his compassion. You must obey his orders, go where he tells you, stay where you are bid, await his pleasure, possess your soul in patience.” On 13 April 1942, Keith Coster flew out of South Africa on the Shuttle Service Lodestar to the Middle East. Arriving at the Middle East Command four days later, he underwent operational training until 30 June, when he was transferred to the Union Defence Force Base transit camp at Helwan, just south of Cairo. On 2 July, he was transferred to the SAAF Base Depot, before moving five days later to No. 5 Squadron, No. 7 Wing SAAF, No. 233 Wing RAF, No. 212 Group RAF. The Hurricane (made by Hawker in Britain), made famous during the Battle of Britain (between the Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe), was an exciting and delightful aeroplane to fly. The Tomahawk was heavier and less manoeuvrable but a bit faster. Apart from becoming familiar with the characteristics of the aircraft, we were trained in formation flying, air gunnery both air-to-air and air-to-ground and dive bombing as well as in the basic principles of air-to-air combat.

[01] I recall that Dick Clifton and I gave ourselves a terrible fright on one occasion when we decided to ‘attack’ each other head on. When you are flying at 250 miles per hour and carry out a head-on attack, the two aeroplanes are closing at a speed of 500 mph and everything happens very quickly. Neither of us wanted to be the first to break off the attack, so we both kept going flat out. At the last second, we realised simultaneously how stupid we were, and fortunately did the right thing: I broke to the right and upwards, and Dick broke right and downwards, thus averting a monstrous and fatal mid-air collision. We were both still shaking when we landed ten minutes later and climbed out of our Tomahawks. The instructors at the OTU were all RAF types who had finished an operational tour in the desert and were now passing on their knowledge and experience to the ‘new boys’. We got on very well with them and had some good parties in the mess from time to time. The course finished on the 18th June 1942, by which stage I had clocked up 11½ hours on Harvards, 12¼ hours on Hurricanes and 52


17¼ hours on Tomahawks. I was assessed as ‘Above Average’ as a fighter pilot, ‘Above Average’ as a pilot-navigator, and ‘Average’ in air gunnery. Dick and I and the others on the course travelled back to Cairo in the same way that we had got to Carthago, but our paddle steamer for the return journey was a ‘troop ship’, and thus much less luxurious than the one on which we had come up river. Back in Cairo, we were attached first to SAAF HQ, then to the UDF (Union Defence Force) Base in Helwan until 1st July. Here we made the most of the fortnight before our posting to operational squadrons. On 2nd July, we were ferried out to LG (Landing Ground) 85 in the desert, to join what was known as 233 Wing, which consisted of No’s 2, 4 and 5 Squadrons of the South African Air Force, but which was commanded by a Group Captain Beresford of the Royal Air Force. In an introductory speech, he told us that things were pretty rough in the desert at that time, with a great many casualties to air personnel and aircraft. I remember his closing words, “And if you break any of my bloody aircraft I’ll have your guts for garters.” We all dutifully laughed.

[02] I was assigned to No. 5 Squadron, which was equipped with Tomahawks. Dick Clifton, much to my envy, went to No. 4 Squadron, which had Kittyhawks, which were much superior to the ‘Tommies’. Fighter squadrons usually had twelve operational aircraft, seldom more, and often less if there had been casualties. The CO (Commanding Officer) of No. 5 Squadron up to a few days before had been Dennis Lacey. He had been shot down and killed, as had ‘Cookie’ Botha, one of my fellow cadets who, in the time that we had been at OTU, had shot down five enemy aircraft, been awarded a DFC, and then had been shot down himself. Our Acting CO at that stage was a Captain van der Spuy. The next day, July 3rd 1942, saw my first operational sortie, which lasted an hour and five minutes. Our task was close escort to twelve Bostons bombers, which were bombing ten miles south-west of El Alamein. This was a relatively uneventful sortie as we were not attacked from the air, but had plenty of flak coming up at us. Flak was the air force name for German anti-aircraft shells, timed to burst at the height at which the formation was flying. Although most of the flak was aimed at the bomber formation, a good deal of it also came the way of the fighter escort. One knew that if one was unfortunate enough to fly into one of these ‘black puffs’, it could in the worst instance prove 53


fatal. So to be hit by flak was unlucky. My next op was on 6th July; also a close escort job for twelve Bostons bombing five miles east of El Daba. It was equally uneventful. The following day, I was part of the first cover for eighteen Bostons, again bombing in the Alamein area. First cover was not as close to the bomber formation as close escort, but still got its fair share of flak. Most fighter operations lasted about an hour.

[03] On 9th July, I flew two sorties, one at 0830 in the morning, which was an offensive sweep to find the Luftwaffe. We did in fact encounter two Messerschmitt Bf 109s, who pushed off when they saw that they were outnumbered. Our second op that day was at 11:05: another close escort to the bomber formation consisting of thirteen Bostons and five Baltimores. The op on 10 July was to be our last from LG85 and called for No. 5 Squadron to provide medium cover to 18 Bostons bombing south of El Daba. At this stage, I had been involved in close escort, first cover and medium cover duties. The other form of cover to bombers was known as top cover. Later that day, 10th July, all the 5 Squadron pilots made a 30 minute ‘communication’ flight from LG85 to LG97 as the land battle shifted slightly in the favour of the German land forces, known as the Afrika Korps, and they advanced closer to Cairo. All the air force units had to move back closer to Cairo too. Little did I realise when I took off the next day that I would not see LG97 again – ever. I recall that on the night of 10th July there was a German air raid on Alexandria, the Egyptian seaport on the Mediterranean. One of the No. 5 Squadron pilots, Ray Armstrong, and I sat on the edge of a slit-trench dug into the desert sand, and watched the German bombers flying over our heads towards ‘Alex’, which was not very far away. One could see the Allied searchlights probing the night sky, hear the bombs exploding and the antiaircraft guns hammering away. Ray Armstrong survived the war but I did not see him again for at least three years.

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[04] The next day, 11th July, I was assigned to a medium cover operation to 18 Bostons and we took off in the early afternoon. Flying as my ‘number two’ was a young 2nd Lieutenant called Lionel Rapp. His function was to keep an eye open for any attacks from enemy fighters and thus to protect my rear. We were flying at about 8000 feet when all of a sudden, we were ordered over the radio to attack a formation of German Stukas that were dive bombing Allied forces in the same general area as our Bostons were going to bomb in. Almost immediately, I spotted them – and they obviously had seen us – because they stopped their dive bombing and headed downwards with their throttles wide open. My No. 5 Squadron formation broke away from the Bostons and dived in pursuit of the Stukas. As we hurtled towards the ground, the first thing of which I became aware was out of the corner of my left eye: a burning Tomahawk completely enveloped in flames. I presumed it was Lionel Rapp, which was later confirmed. It could mean only one thing: our formation had been ‘jumped by ME 109s, just as we had jumped the Stukas. At this point I had my sights on a Stuka and I fired my four .50 Browning guns at him. I know I damaged the Stuka, but whether he went down or not I don’t know, because I became pre-occupied with a sudden loss of my ring-sight that normally imaged on the windscreen in front of my face. We all pulled out of our dive as we were getting dangerously close to the ground, and as I levelled out, there was an almighty bang. I realised that I had been hit! While I was absorbing this development, a 109 passed in front of me and I gave him a burst from my Brownings – but it was not an aimed burst as my ring sight had gone. In trying to follow the 109, it became immediately obvious that my rudder had been shot away because there was no response when I kicked my rudder bar. An aircraft without a rudder becomes a sitting duck, as the basic manoeuvre in aerial combat is to turn into any aircraft that fires at you.

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[05 Caption: Flight of Junkers Ju-87 Stukas] It was obvious that without rudder control I couldn’t make any further contribution to the dogfight, so by the use of ailerons alone, I managed to start a long flat turn towards the sea when I was hit again. Not being able to turn into my attacker, I had but two alternatives: to climb or to dive. I decided on the latter and dived down to a few hundred feet above the ground. In the dive, I was hit a third time from directly behind – a long burst which started my Tomahawk burning and caused shrapnel wounds in my left arm and in my neck. I could see the long trail of smoke tailing out behind my aircraft and I knew that I had to make a very quick decision. To climb to a height where I could bail out would be inviting further – and probably fatal – attacks, or a complete burnout of the aircraft. As I was very close to the ground, I decided to put it down on the desert and get out before it went up in flames. I loosened my straps and jumped clear before the aircraft had come to a halt. When I stopped rolling, I jumped to my feet and ran to put as much distance as I could between me and the aeroplane. Seconds later, it burst into flames and very rapidly burnt out completely. I continued running, but could see the Me 109 turning and diving down towards me. Then he opened up, and a couple of cannon shells exploded close enough to me to cause rock fragments to penetrate the skin under my jaw. I fell forward as though I had been fatally wounded, and lay spreadeagled on the desert sand. The Me 109 pilot did another circuit to see whether I would get up again, but as I didn’t, he presumably considered me dead and flew home to his forward landing ground. When I was satisfied that there was no more aerial activity, I stood up and started running again, to get as far away from the burnt-out aircraft as possible.

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[06 Caption: Messerschmitt Bf 109E of Jagdgeschwader 27 off the North African coast] Suddenly I heard something behind me and looked around to see a small reconnaissance vehicle with three Afrika Korps soldiers closing rapidly on me, so I stopped running and turned to face them. One of them could speak some English and said, “For you the war is over. Every day is now Sunday.” I suppose this was funny, but I wasn’t in the mood for laughing. Just before I left Cape Town in January, I had bought a beautiful Tissot wristwatch, which caught the eye of my captors. The English speaker made it clear that he wanted it. When I protested, a machine pistol was pushed into my ribs, and my Tissot acquired a new owner. They loaded me into their vehicle and went off in search of a casualty clearing station to treat my wounds, which were not in fact very serious, although I was covered in blood. Having delivered me to the CCS, they pushed off back to the war and I saw them no more. After I had been cleaned up and bandaged, I was given something to eat and drink and then put in an ambulance for the night. I went to sleep almost immediately, only to be rudely awakened by a German doctor who said he was going to sleep in the ambulance, and that I should sleep on the ground outside, which of course I did – and very cold and uncomfortable it was. The next day I was delivered to a prisoner-of-war interrogation centre, which consisted of some tents and a couple of barbed-wire compounds for the holding of POWs, erected in the desert. Here, for a couple of days, the German interrogator endeavoured to get me to disclose the number of my squadron and other relevant information that would be of value to the Luftwaffe. However, all pilots had been briefed that if ever they became POWs, all that they were permitted to disclose was their number, rank and name. And so for two or three days we verbally sparred. No force or torture was used. Eventually I was discarded and handed over to the Italians. 57


[07 Caption: North Africa map showing where Coster was shot down] During the war, nearly 20,000 South African servicemen were taken prisoner, out of the 342,700 who had volunteered for service. By far the largest single bag of South Africans taken prisoner by the Germans and Italians, was when Tobruk fell on 21 June 1942. Of the 30,000 Allied troops taken prisoner, no fewer than 10,722 were South African. Captain Keith Coster was to join those three weeks later in crude camps in North Africa, awaiting shipment to Europe. He was one of only 273 members of the SAAF taken prisoner during the war, out of a total of 44,569 who had volunteered to serve in the air force. South African Sergeant Wally Wolhuter of Die Middellandse Regiment said this of having been captured: “You are in the power of your enemy. You owe your life to his humanity, and your daily bread to his compassion. You must obey his orders, go where he tells you, stay where you are bid, await his pleasure, possess your soul in patience.� Keith Coster relates his experiences as a Second World War POW: Two weeks before I was shot down, the desert fortress of Tobruk had surrendered to the Afrika Korps, and thousands of South African, Australian and British soldiers had become prisoners of war. They too had been handed over to the Italians for safekeeping, who began moving all POWs into the coastal town of Benghazi, from where they would be shipped across the Mediterranean to the Italian port and naval base at Taranto. I was also moved into Benghazi to join the vast number of South African officers who had arrived there from Tobruk.

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[08 Caption: Allied POWs after three months in the transit POW camp at Benghazi, North Africa] One of the POWs I bumped into was an Australian lieutenant-colonel, who was wearing army boots, long flannel pyjamas and the Australian hat turned up at one side. He told me that he had been asleep in his slit trench, in his pyjamas, when he was woken and told to report immediately to some tactical headquarters in the desert. He slipped on his boots and his hat, and set off in his Jeep in the darkest of nights. Unfortunately for him, he inadvertently found a gap in the wire which marked the front line, went through it, and found himself in the German lines where he was immediately ‘bagged’!

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[09 Caption: Italian troops (foreground with feathered pith helmets) look down on a column of Allied POWs marching towards Benghazi] I cannot remember when we left Benghazi, nor the name of the Italian ship that took us across the Mediterranean. However, when the war ended and I landed up in England, I went to stay with my uncle and aunt and my cousin David in London. David, who served in the Royal Corps of Signals in North Africa, was also captured in Tobruk. We discovered that we had both been in the same ship at the same time when we crossed the Med to Italy. The voyage lasted a couple of days, until our ship docked at Taranto from where we were taken by train to Bari and chucked into a POW camp. I can’t remember how long we were in Bari; not very long I think, as Bari was merely a transit camp. From there a train moved us across Italy from east to west. It was on this journey that I contemplated escaping by jumping from the train. The thought was that one would then wait in the dark beside the railway truck for a goods train to come by, and at the same place where the passenger train had slowed down, jump up onto the goods train and get as far north as possible. I had discussed this with a friend called ‘Bones’ Hobson, who had been my company commander when I joined the Special Service Company of the Royal Durban Light Infantry in Durban in 1937. By this time, I had caught him up and we were both captains. We got ready for the train to slow down and opened the compartment windows to jump out, but as we were about to go, some chap from the compartment ahead of us beat us to the jump. We expected the Italian guards to open up with their rifles on the man we could see crouched beside the track, his spectacles glinting in the moonlight, and hesitated. 60


Then the train started to pick up speed again and the moment was lost. We went on westwards across southern Italy, eventually arriving at a small town called Aversa, not all that far from Naples.

[10 Caption: Italian guards at the main gate of a permanent POW ‘P.G.’ Campo in Italy] This proved to be another transit camp [Campo P.G. 63] and I cannot recall how long we stayed there. All I recall is that it was summer and there were flies in their millions. The commandant of the camp was a small Italian lieutenant-colonel with a very short fuse. On one occasion when something upset him, he called a parade of all the officers in the camp: South African, British, some Australians, and a number of Indian Army officers. As he could speak no English, he harangued us in Italian, screaming and shouting, and punching the air with his fists. After about five minutes of this, he turned to his interpreter who said in English, “Gentlemen, the commandant is displeased with you.” We all burst out laughing, whereupon the commandant really went crazy, and finally stamped off the parade ground. We were not very long at Aversa before we were moved once again, this time quite a long way up north to a town called Modena, presently famous as the birthplace of opera singer Pavarotti, and the place in which the Ferrari factory is situated. For us it was the place in which Campo P.G. 47 was located. P.G. stands for Prigioniero di Guerra: prisoners of war (POWs). The camp was some way out of town, and was built in the form of a square, with all the buildings on the sides of the square, with a very large expanse of open ground in the middle. Our accommodation was in the form of large bungalows, each holding a substantial number of officers. We soon settled into a routine, which revolved around food, efforts to escape, and sport. As far as the latter was concerned, we laid out all sorts of sporting facilities on the open ground in the centre of the camp. One of our most popular sporting activities was softball, as it was so easy to organise and needed a minimum of equipment. One of my closest friends in the camp was Les Payn from Natal, who was a brilliant cricket all-rounder and an especially good left-arm leg spinner. When he was captured at Tobruk, he had a cricket ball in his possession, which survived through to Aversa. During a routine search there, the Italians came across Les’s ball, about which they were highly 61


suspicious and insisted upon cutting it open to see what he was concealing inside. Also when he was captured, he was wearing a Red Cross armband as he was in charge of African stretcher bearers (he spoke Zulu like a Zulu). His armband was to stand him in very good stead when a delegation from the International Red Cross visited the camp. They declared him a non-combatant and arranged that the Italians should repatriate him via Switzerland and the UK to South Africa. Back in the Union of South Africa, he went to see next-of-kin of POWs in our camp, and called on Molly to tell her that I was fine. After the war, Les became a Springbok cricketer and remained my very good friend until he died in the eighties.

[11 Caption: Italian POW campo perimeter fence]. In between our sporting and other recreational activities – I also played a great deal of bridge – we dreamt of escaping and getting back to our units while the war was still on. We never considered that it could go on for another three years. There was only one entrance to the camp, which was heavily guarded day and night. On the other side of the buildings, was a continuous perimeter fence of barbed wire: very high, and interspersed with mutually supporting sentry towers equipped with searchlights and machine guns. There were also 24-hour foot patrols moving along the perimeter fence, so there was no way out of that camp except through the front entrance, so our thoughts turned to tunnels. A tunnel is no easy thing to construct … or to conceal. You must start with a tunnel entrance, which must be in a building so that your activities are hidden from prying eyes, and where you can spot the approach of enemy sentries in time to close down tunnelling activity before they came upon it. Then your major problem is to get rid of the ‘spoil’: the earth that you excavate from the tunnel. You must keep the tunnel going in the right direction – easier said than done – or you may find it breaking out in the Italian commandant’s office! And finally, you have to contend with the technicalities of tunnelling such as ‘shoring up’ to prevent subsidence and ventilation as the tunnel increases in length. Digging a tunnel may take many months and then not be successful.

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[12 Caption: Innovative construction of equipment used in tunnelling]. I was involved in two tunnels in Modena, which kept me busy for most of the time I spent in Campo P.G. 47. Both were eventually discovered before we had got very far. In the one case, the tunnel entrance was found during a routine search, despite it being very well concealed. In the other case, the spoil, which we distributed over the sports fields during the night, showed up a different colour in the light of day, alerting the Italians to the fact that a tunnel was under construction. They would then search for days until they found the entrance. While we were busy with the second tunnel, I approached an air-force friend, Jeff Morphew, to ask him whether he would care to join our tunnelling team. Much to my surprise, he turned the offer down. What I didn’t know then was that Jeff and a friend of his were on the brink of a brilliant escape, which for security reasons he dared not tell anyone else about. Jeff and his friend were both small men. They had made themselves Italian soldiers’ uniforms, complete with wooden rifles, which looked just like the real thing. When the time came, their plan was to wait for dusk when the day guards inside the camp finished their shift and marched out of the front entrance to the compound. They would fall in behind the single file of departing guards and march out with them, hoping that there was no-one counting the number of guards who marched out – as it turned out, no-one was.

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[13 Caption: After Jeff’s death, Keith Coster checked the manuscript of Five Frontiers to Freedom (Vineyard International Publishing 1999) as his friend had asked him to do earlier on: Jeff had written that Keith was ‘the man for the job’.] 64


Jeff and his friend Coelgees were taken to be genuine Italian soldiers, and once out of the POW compound, they laid up until it was completely dark and then walked out of Campo P.G. 47 altogether. They then changed out of their Italian uniforms into civilian dress, and bought tickets at the local railway station to get as far away from Modena as possible. Later, while they were en route to the Swiss border, they became separated and Coelgees was recaptured. Jeff, however, made it into Switzerland, where he met the girl he was eventually to marry. From there he was helped by the French underground to cross occupied France by train, thence through Spain to Gibraltar, which remained in British hands throughout the war. From Gibraltar, he was flown back to England where he was seconded to the RAF, finding himself back on operations against Germany. Jeff wrote a marvellous book after the war about his escape, which has now been published [see above]. Probably the subject nearest the hearts of all POWs was food, as this was usually the most pressing problem. The food provided by our captors was never sufficient but fortunately, for us, the International Red Cross was a wonderful organisation that looked after prisoners of war of whatever nationality and wherever they were.

[14 Caption: Typical Second World War Red Cross POW parcel] 65


When everything was going well, we would receive a weekly food parcel from the Red Cross, with such wonderful delicacies as ‘Klim’ (powdered milk), condensed milk, biscuits, jam, ‘Spam’ (American tinned meat), sugar and tea, etc. When things were not going well, the Italians – and later the Germans – would withhold the Red Cross parcels in order to punish us. It was virtually impossible to live on the food provided by our captors, which usually consisted of a couple of slices of dry bread and a bowl of watery ‘soup’ per day. Now and again, we might be given a couple of shrivelled potatoes, or a piece of some ghastly vegetable called kohlrabi; also known as turnipcabbage. There were also long periods when no Red Cross parcels could be delivered to the camps. During these periods, we really knew what hunger pangs meant. Now, some fifty or more years after the war, it is difficult to recall just how hungry one was most of the time, but I do know that even when the supply of Red Cross parcels was satisfactory, one was still perpetually hungry. It was not unknown for some POWs to give promissory notes for up to £100 – to be paid after the war – for the purchase of a Red Cross parcel. I think it was in Modena that I received my first letter from Molly. When I was shot down, she was officially advised that her husband, Capt. Keith Robert Coster was “missing, presumed killed in action”, which naturally came as a terrible blow to her.

[15 Caption: A typical Italian POW campo letter-card: this one from a Rhodesian POW in Campo P.G. 47, where Captain Coster was also incarcerated at one stage]. As POWs, we were allowed to write only one letter-card a month to our next-of-kin, and it wasn’t until we got to Modena that we were given this privilege, so it was a couple of months before Molly learned that she still had a husband after all. Whatever we wrote was subject to censorship by the 66


Italian military authorities, so there wasn’t much that we could say about how we really were and what we really felt. Nevertheless, it was a lifeline to which we clung tenuously, as it was our only link with home. Despite being locked up and isolated from the outside world, we were always aware of the progress of the war. Every camp had a clandestine radio receiver, which listened in to the news bulletins from the BBC. We also got an occasional newspaper into the camp from ‘friendly’ guards, so we knew what was going on in Italy and indeed the rest of the world.

[16 Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery (left) and Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel] The year 1942 passed painfully slowly for us, but we knew that the tide had turned with the battle of El Alamein fought in the Western Desert in North Africa in October, between the British 8th Army under General Montgomery and the German Afrika Korps under Field Marshal Rommel. Rommel’s drive towards Cairo had been stopped at the Alamein line, and then turned around after the Battle of El Alamein. The Afrika Korps and their Italian allies were soundly defeated. They started a withdrawal to the west, which would eventually lead to their being forced out of Africa and back, firstly to the island of Sicily, and then on to the mainland of Europe. The last battle on African soil was fought on 12th May 1943, heralding the end of the desert war. Then came the Allied invasion of Sicily. The writing was on the wall for the Italian armed forces. The Fascist leader of Italy, Benito Mussolini, was driven from office in July 1943. We began to get very excited when Allied forces entered Italy from the south, and as they began to move northwards with the intention of driving the Axis forces out of Italy altogether. At about this time, the Italian component of the Axis forces, realising that the war was effectively over for them, capitulated, leaving only the 67


German armed forces to confront the advancing Allies, so we believed that it would not be very long before our camp was overrun and we would be released. Regrettably, I cannot now recall the dates on which things happened. I used to have a POW log in which I recorded the events that governed my life in those days, but this disappeared when I was living in Potchefstroom from 1949 to 1951.

[17 Caption: Map of the progress of Allied forces as Italy is liberated. As the Axis forces were pushed north, they took their Allied POWs with them.]

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It must have been August 1943 when it became apparent that very shortly our POW camp would cease to be guarded by the Italians. It was our hope that the Allied forces would overrun our camp and set us free. However, the Germans had dug themselves in on various defensive lines across Italy, effectively holding up the progress of Allied forces. The British and American armies were trying to move up from the south of Italy to the north, into what Churchill referred to as “the soft underbelly of Europe�. So much so, that when the Italian capitulation took place and the guards disappeared from Campo P.G. 47, their place was taken immediately by the Germans, who entered the camp with the express intention of moving all the POWs out and transferring them to Germany. Many of us in the camp had decided to get out the moment the Italian guards left. We were ready to do so, but then a message was received, via our clandestine camp radio, from the British HQ in Italy, to the effect that we should stay where we were and not leave the camp under any circumstances until we were relieved by the British forces. We were all summoned on to the parade ground and addressed by the senior officer in the camp, who was a New Zealand lieutenant-colonel. He said that he had received this instruction from the British HQ in Italy and advised no-one to disobey the instruction. Subsequently, when he realised that the great majority of the officers in Campo P.G. 47 had been moved to Germany because of following his advice, he very sadly committed suicide. The next morning, the Italian guards disappeared and the Germans marched in. The following day we were marched out of the camp, and down to the Modena railway station where we were loaded into cattle trucks for the long train journey to Germany. On the railway platform, I witnessed one of the most horrible things I have ever seen. Italian civilians were also being sent to Germany as labourers. One young Italian lad was embracing a woman who presumably was his mother. She was crying and holding on to him, while a young German officer was yelling at him to get on to the train. The more the German yelled, the more the woman cried and clung to the young man. Eventually the German officer pulled out his Luger pistol, and without further ado, shot the young Italian dead in his mother’s arms.

[18] Next month, we follow Keith Coster, as the retreating Germans take the POWs with them into Germany. 69


POLICE: AFRICANS, INDIANS AND COLOUREDS: SERVED WITH PRIDE

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Below: The Zululand Native Police: The Nongqai with CO, Inspector Fairlie: 71


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Servamus: March 1987.

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SQUADRON LEADER, LATER SHUTTLEWORTH: AT SPIES

LIEUT.

COL.,

LAWRIE

Wow, wow and wow!!!!! Recently, on the 30th of June 2017 in fact, I had the honour and privilege to meet a true living legend of South African aviation. I just must say that again. Wow!!! Yes, on the mentioned date, I met Mr. Laurie Shuttleworth, no, that is not quite correct, I met Squadron Leader, later to become Lieutenant Colonel, Lawrie Shuttleworth and believe me, for me the meeting really was an honour. Colonel Lawrie is a legendary, ex-South African Air Force pilot and hero from WW2. Having started his Air Force career in 1939, Lawrie probably now is the last surviving pilot from that distant, East African campaign, where the allied powers were fighting battles against Italy. Despite his age, Lawrie’s mind and 79


memory is as clear as a bell. The only bother for him is a bit of Presbycusis, probably enhanced by his earlier exploits of being seated between two thundering radial engines for hours on end. Lastly, I must mention that the man is the uncle of Marc Shuttleworth and was present in Russia when that famous man blasted off into Space. Let me first tell you about the moment I met Lawrie. It was quite by chance, or was it by design, that we attended the same function in the small dusty little town called Boshof. I virtually bumped into the man as he walked out of the bar, beer in hand. Now, I must admit that a man fetching his own beer is probably not that remarkable but when realize you that Lawrie will be celebrating his 103rd birthday in September, it puts a totally new perspective on that instance. How fortunate it was for me to share a beer and even two more with this remarkable man and let me add, both those latter beers were fetched by the great man himself. To these remarkable facts I can add that Lawrie stopped playing competitive bowls at the age of one hundred years, probably just to give the younger bowlers a chance to win now and then. Also, every morning, at 0800, he still visits his business empire to ensure that everything is absolutely “tickety-boo” and he even does his own grocery shopping, pushing his own cart. Really??? What a man!!! I had the privilege to spend a truly remarkable afternoon discussing my own, and of course his, favourite topic, which just happens to be flying and aircraft.

The two pictures speak a thousand words. Allow me now to tell Lawrie’s story, a story well worth reading about. Lawrie started private flying at Baragwanath airport in April 1937 and eventually earned his wings in February 1939. As a newly qualified pilot, he was immediately placed on the South African Air Force’s reserve list. With the outbreak of the war, during September 1939, he was called up to join 40 Squadron SAAF and by June 1940, he was posted to Kenia, flying Hawker Hartebeest planes and combat sorties against the Italians. One of his first sorties was a bombing mission near Yarlie in southern Abyssinia. That was where he had his first encounter with an Italian Fiat fighter and Lawrie was almost shot down at the time. He survived that deadly encounter by entering into a violent spin, first to one side and then the other but in doing so, the legend lived on. Several weeks later, while flying observation missions for the Army near a place called Wajir, Lawrie again met up with two Fiat fighters in the air. He was flying 80


“top cover” for an army convoy, en-route to Mogadishu when the Italians attacked him. This time, his rear gunner managed to hit one of the Fiats and that fighter had to limp home with smoke pouring from its engine.

Student

Pilot’s licence

Officer in the SAAF

Soon after that last encounter, Lawrie was stationed at Jigjiga in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). At that time, he had reached the end of his operational tour with 40 Squadron and was posted to 41 Squadron in South Africa for R&R. By then, the Italians had already been subdued over most of Abyssinia but a large force was holding out near Gondor on the Blue Nile. Lawrie was soon sent back north and was then stationed at Alamata. He was now tasked to fly bombing sorties against the Italian general holding out at Gondor castle. He was also promoted and was acting Officer Commanding A-flight, of the Squadron stationed at Aksum.

OC “A”- Flight, 41 Squadron

Wolchefit pass, Abbysinia

A strong force of Italians was dug in at the top of Wolchefit Pass and no amount of attention from the Army could dislodge them, however, after a prolonged aerial bombing campaign by Lawrie and his 41 Squadron comrades, they eventually surrendered. While flying further sorties against the enemy at Gondor, Lawrie’s aircraft was mistakenly identified as an Italian aircraft and was fired upon by heavily armed Abyssinian locals. The Hartebeest’s engine quit and Lawrie attempted a forced landing on one of the few ploughed fields in the vicinity. Unfortunately, the field was very soft and the aircraft flipped onto its back during that forced landing. Despite this calamity, Lawrie and his gunner could get out of the wreck virtually unscathed but was now set upon by the Abyssinian locals. Fortunately, Lawrie’s gunner, Jack Lamb, having an agricultural background and with great presence of mind, calmed down the armed men and convinced them that they were English aviators and not the enemy. Again, it was all’s well that ended well.

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The wreck of Lawrie’s Hartebeest. When the Italian campaign finally came to an end, Lawrie was posted back to Rand Airport, Germiston. His stay at Germiston was short lived because he was soon posted to Bloemfontein to commence training on twin engine aircraft, flying the already antiquated Oxford.

The Oxford was only a stepping stone onto the more advanced PV Ventura Bomber.

The magnificent Ventura. With the Suez Canal closed to shipping during the war, the route around the Cape again became paramount to the Allies and Lawrie flew many an escort sortie in protection of those vulnerable ships. He was now the Commanding Officer of 25 Squadron, stationed at Port Elizabeth. 82


Lawrie Shuttleworth, Officer Commanding 25 Squadron. For months, they managed to keep the shipping convoys, around the Cape, safe from U-Boat attacks but eventually the Squadron was sent north, to be posted in Italy, based at Termoli on the Baltic sea. From there, they flew across the Adriatic to bomb targets in Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece. It was on one of those missions that Lawrie experienced another close brush with death. Just after take-off from his home base, both engines of the Ventura quit and he had to ditch in the sea. Sadly, two of the persons onboard his aircraft drowned but a fishing boat rushed to the rescue of the survivors. Not much later, an Air-Sea Rescue flight, in an amphibian Catalina flying boat, landed near to the small boat and uplifted the surviving crew members, transporting them back to dry land.

The Catalina

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The Marauders that Lawrie flew. For a while, Lawrie also flew Marauder bombers at 25Sqn as part of the Balkan Air Force but then he and the OC of 15 Squadron, still called the “Desert Air Force” at the time, swopped places as Officer Commanding.

15 Squadron was located to the north and was the flying Baltimore bombers so again there was another conversion onto yet another aircraft. Lawrie’s last brush with death came while flying the Baltimore. On one of the numerous bombing missions he flew, his bomber was hit in the left engine by Ack-Ack, setting it on fire. Struggling to control his seriously crippled bomber, Lawrie ordered his co-pilot to bail out which the man duly did. Unfortunately, the bail out was over enemy held territory and the man ultimately ended up in a POW camp. Despite the fire on board, Lawrie managed to fly his crippled aircraft into friendly territory where he crash-landed successfully. He and the gunners in the aircraft barely escaped the wreck before it exploded when the fire reached the fuel tanks. Again he lived to fight in later battles.

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The Baltimore bomber. The above was just some of the adventures which a truly remarkable man experienced during several tours of duty in the war. Lawrie, I salute you!!! What a life, what a man!!! At Spies

LT. COL. JOHN “JACK" SHERWOOD-KELLY, VC, CMG, DSO.: PETER DICKENS This is a short tribute to one of South Africa’s most colourful characters of World War One - Victoria Cross recipient and hero Lt. Col John “Jack" Sherwood-Kelly VC CMG DSO. The twin sons John Sherwood Kelly and Hubert Henry Kelly was born on 13 January 1880 in Lady Frere in the Cape Colony in South Africa as the son of James Kelly of Irish decent. James Kelly was at one-time mayor of Lady Frere and a believed in justice for all and was himself a hero. On 08 December 1876 James Kelly saved the lives of 25 people when the Italian ship, SS Nova Bella, ran into trouble at the St John’s river mouth. John (also called "Jack") attended the Queenstown Grammar School, Dale College in King William’s Town and St Andrew’s College in Grahamstown. At school John was keener on the outdoor activities such as horse riding and boxing, in which he excelled, than school work. During this period John first lost his mother, with whom he had a very close relationship, when he was only 12 and a year later in 1893 lost his twin brother Hubert in a riding accident. In 1896, age 16, John enlisted in the British South Africa Police and saw action in the Matabele revolt in the then Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). With the outbreak of the South African War (Anglo Boer War) 1899 – 1902 he enlisted in the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers and saw action as a Trooper in the Relief of Mafeking as a Private in Colonel Plumer’s Column.

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On 08 January 1901 John was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Imperial Light Horse (ILH) and later joined Kitchener’s Fighting Scouts as a Lieutenant and saw action in Rhodesia, Orange Free State and Transvaal. He was twice mentioned in despatches during this. After the South African War (Anglo Boer War) 1899 – 1902 he worked in his father’s store, but this was not what John had in mind. Having resigned his commission, he volunteered to serve as a Trooper with the Somaliland Burgher Corps in the 3rd Expedition against Haji Muhammad Abdullah Hassan (known to the British as Mad Mullah) over the period November 1902 to July 1903. During the period, he was promoted to the rank of Sergeant. In 1904, he was reduced to Trooper and returned to South Africa where he worked first a trader and later as a recruiter of native labour in the Transkei. In 1905/6 he saw action during the Zululand Bambatha Rebellion. Over the period 1906 to 1912 John was involved in the family business in Butterworth which was involved in the recruiting labour for the mines. In 1912 John married Emily Sarah (nee Snodgrass) and widow of John Edward Lawlor. Finding a lasting solution for the Irish crisis remained a challenge for the British and in 1910 another attempt failed. The situation deteriorated and by 1912/13 the call went out for “all unionist” to return to Ireland. Being from Irish descent John and his brother Edward answered the call and travelled to Ireland where they both joined the Ulster Volunteer Force. With war clouds gathering over Europe late 1913 and early 1914 the Irish crisis dropped on the list of priorities and by July 1914 John and Edward travelled to London. John being a man that liked adventure saw the gathering of war clouds as an opportunity for him to become involved. John soon joined the 2nd Battalion King Edward’s Horse as a Private. With a chest full of medals it was not long before John was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant. During this time John met Nellie Green and soon John and Nellie were active in the London social life. During his leave John married Nellie Elizabeth Crawford on 22 April 1916. Early May 1916 saw John recalled to the front once again in command of a battalion, this time the 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers as part of the 29th Division preparing for the upcoming Battle of the Somme. Leading his Battalion from the front during fighting in the Beaumont Hamel sector John was shot through the lung and saved by Jack Johnson until he could be evacuated back to London. During a political rally by Jack in November 1923 a woman came up to Nellie and introduced herself as the mother of Stretcher Bearer Jack Johnson. A meeting was arranged between John Kelly and Jack Johnson. In an interview with the Derbyshire Times John Kelly said “good deal of handshakes and some tears”. During July 1916 John and Nellie embarked on a recruiting tour to South Africa where John was received as hero. On his return to England in September 1916 John immediately reported for duty. Jack remained in England and on 29 November 1916 received his Distinguish Service Order (DSO) from King George V. During November 1916 John was posted to the 3rd Battalion Kings Own Scottish Borderers as a Major. Very soon after arrival requested to be transferred to the 10th Norfolk Reserve Battalion On 01 January 1917 John Sherwood Kelly was awarded the Distinguished Order of St Micheal and St George, Third Class or Companion, post nominal CMG. It is awarded for service to the Empire, probably for John's recruiting drive in South Africa during 2016. 86


In February 1917 John was again posted to the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers as Officer Commanding. Early part of 1917 saw a new British offensive in Vimmy and Arras which was followed by offensives 87


in Ypres and Passchendaele. A smaller offensive was planned for November 1917 in the Cambrai sector, using the new weapon “the Mark 1 Tank”. On 20 November 1917, the opening day of the first Battle of Cambrai, 87th Brigade advanced on Marcoing, three miles south-west of Cambrai. 1st Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, crossed the Canal de St Quentin by the lock east of Marcoing copse. For his gallantry during the crossing of the canal and in leading the attack against the enemy defences on the far side, Acting Lieutenant Colonel John Sherwood-Kelly was awarded the VC. Meanwhile, two companies of 1st Battalion, The Border Regiment, crossed the canal by the railway bridge at Marcoing and one at the lock by the railway station at the north-eastern outskirts of the town. Sergeant C E Spackman was awarded the VC for attacking a machine-gun which threatened this advance. For this action John was awarded the Victoria Cross. The citation reads as follows: “For most conspicuous bravery and fearless leading when a party of men of another unit detailed to cover the passage of the canal by his battalion were held up on the near side of the canal by heavy rifle fire directed on the bridge. Lieutenant Colonel Sherwood-Kelly at once ordered covering fire, personally led the leading company of his battalion across the canal and, after crossing, reconnoitred under heavy rifle fire and machine gun fire the high ground held by the enemy. The left flank of his battalion advancing to the assault of this objective was held up by a thick belt of wire, where upon he crossed to that flank, and with a Lewis gun team, forced his way under heavy fire through obstacles, got the gun into position on the far side, and covered the advance of his battalion through the wire, thereby enabling them to capture the position. Later, he personally led a charge against some pits from which a heavy fire was being directed on his men, captured the pits, together with five machine guns and forty-six prisoners, and killed a large number of the enemy. The great gallantry displayed by this officer throughout the day inspired the greatest confidence in his men, and it was mainly due to his example and devotion to duty that his battalion was enabled to capture and hold their objective”. The Germans launched a counter attack which was successfully repelled by the 29th Division during which time Acting Captain A. M. Lascelles, another South African hero, of the 14th Durham Light Infantry was awarded a Victoria Cross. John returned to a hospital in London having been gassed again. On 11 January 1918, the London Gazette reported that John had been awarded the Victoria Cross which he received from King George on 23 January 1918 at Buckingham Palace. Extract published with the kind permission of The VC and the GC, The Complete History, published by Methuen and The VC and GC Association in 2013. Story via Peter A Dickens, South African Legion of Military Veterans written by Charles Ross.

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VICTIM OF THE RHODESIAN BUSH WAR: JOHN BRADBURNE, MC John Randal Bradburne, O.F.S., [1] M.C. (14 June 1921 in Skirwith, Cumbria, England, U.K. – 5 September 1979 near Mutoko, Mashonaland South, Rhodesia – now Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe), was a lay member of the Order of St Francis, a poet, warden of the Mutemwa leper colony at Mutoko. Killed by guerrillas, he is a candidate for canonization. But he has not yet received from the Vatican the official title of “Servant of God”, the first step toward canonization. Background John Randal Bradburne was born on 14 June 1921 in Skirwith, Cumbria, England. He was baptized there as an Anglican on 31 July 1921, the son of Thomas William and Erica May Bradburne [2] He had two brothers and two sisters. Their father, an Anglican clergyman, was the Rector of Skirwith at that time. [3] John was also a cousin of the playwright Sir Terence Rattiganand a distant relative of Lord Soames. Education Bradburne was educated at Gresham's, an independent school in Norfolk, England, from 1934 to 1939. He was planning to continue his studies at a University. But, when World War II began, he went straight to the Army. War Service Bradburne was assigned to the 9th Gurkha Rifles of the Indian Army in 1940. He soon found himself with them in Malaya to face the invasion of the Imperial Japanese Army. After the fall of Singapore, Bradburne spent a month in the jungle. With another Gurkha officer, he tried to sail a sampan to Sumatra but they were shipwrecked. A second attempt was successful, and Bradburne was rescued by a Royal Navy destroyer and returned to Dehra Dun. For his escape, he was awarded the Military Cross. He then saw active service with Brigadier Wingate’s Chindits in Burma. Career Bradburne had a religious experience in Malaya, and the adventurer became the pilgrim. When he returned to England after the war, he stayed with the Benedictines to the Buckfast Abbey, where he became a Roman Catholic in 1947. He wanted to be a Benedictine monk but the Order would not accept him because he had not been in the Church for two years. [4] After a while, he felt a strong urge to travel. So, for the next sixteen years, Bradburne wandered through England, France, Italy, Greece and the Middle East with only a Gladstone bag as his companion. In England, he stayed with the Carthusians for seven months. In Israel, he joined the small Order of Our Lady of Mount Sion, founded for the conversion of the Jews, and went as a Novice to Louvain, Belgium, for a year, where he met Geza Vermes, who would become a famous scholar. [5] After that, he walked to Rome and lived for a year in the organ loft of the small Church in a mountain village, playing the organ. He then tried to live as a hermit on Dartmoor, then went to the Benedictine Prinknash Abbey, before joining the choir of Westminster Cathedral as a Sacristan. Cardinal Godfrey asked him to be the caretaker of his country house, Hare Street House, in Hertfordshire, England. Along the way, in 1956, on Good Friday, he joined the Secular Franciscan Order but he remained a layman. However, he decided he wanted to be buried in the habit of St. Francis of Assisi. Bradburne's wanderlust was almost coming to the end in 1962, when he wrote to a Jesuit friend in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). He asked, “Is there a cave in Africa where I can pray?” The answer was the invitation to come to Rhodesia and be a missionary helper. After his arrival, Bradburne told a Franciscan priest that he had three wishes: to help the victims of leprosy, to die a martyr, and to 89


be buried in the Franciscan habit. [6] A few years later, the Jesuit missionaries introduced him to the Mutemwa Leprosy Settlement near Mutoko, 143 kilometers (89 miles) northwest of Salisbury (now Harare). He arrived in 1969, went on to become its warden, and remained until his death. Death By July 1979, the Rhodesian Bush War, then in its 15th and last year, was coming near Mutemwa. Bradburne was urged by his friends to leave but he insisted that he should stay with the lepers. On Sunday, 2 September 1979, the guerrillas came for him. Accusing him of being an informer, they kidnapped him and then shot him. He died instantly, on 5 September at the age of 58. He was buried in a Franciscan habit, according to his wishes, at the Chishawasha Mission Cemetery, about 18 kilometers (11 miles) northeast of Salisbury (now Harare). [7] Legacy Feature articles on John Bradburne and Mutemwa appeared in the print versions of England's Sunday Telegraph on 23 April 1989 and on 28 August 1994 and the online version on 14 September 2009. [8] The last two articles were written by the newspaper's editor, Charles Moore, who had visited Mutemwa. In July 2001, the Franciscan priest Father Paschal Slevin, O.F.M., presented a petition to Patrick Fani Chakaipa, Archbishop of Harare, for an inquiry into Bradburne's canonization. Father Slevin commented: "I have no doubt that John died a martyr in his determination to serve his friends, the lepers. If his martyrdom is accepted, his cause for sainthood could go quite quickly". [9] A service is held in Bradburne's memory at Mutemwa every year, drawing as much as 25,000 people each time. In 2009 a Mass commemorating the 30th anniversary of his death was held at Westminster Cathedral in London, England. [10] A poet, he left behind 6,000 poems. [11] References • • • • • • • • • • •

^ (en) Although Bradburne was a S.F.O. when he was alive, members of his order, the Secular Franciscan Order, are now required to use O.F.S. after their names by the 2011 declaration of the order’s General Chapter. ^ (en) Rt. Rev. Patrick O’Donoghue, the Bishop of Lancaster, “A Pilgrimage to Skirwith!”, John Bradburne Memorial Society Newsletter, Winter 2004, p. 2 ^ (en) Ibid. ^ (en) Joan Carroll Cruz, Saintly Men of Modern Times, p. 164 ^ Vermes, Geza (1993). Providential Accidents: An Autobiography. 1998. pp. 78– 79. ISBN 0334027225. ^ (en) Ibid., p. 166 ^ (en) Ibid., pp. 167-169 ^ (en) Charles Moore, “John Bradburne: a martyr who turned love into the divine”, Telegraph.co.uk [London, England, UK], Monday, 14 September 2009 ^ (en) Spectator (UK), “Letter from Zimbabwe”, ZWNews.com, Friday, 29 June 2001 ^ (en) “London: John Bradburne: Anniversary Mass and Talk”, Independent Catholic News, 5 September 2009, http://www.indcatholicnews.com/news.php?viewStory=14768 ^ (en) http://www.johnbradburnepoems.com

Bibliography

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1. (en) Father John Dove, S.J., Strange Vagabond of God: The Story of John Bradburne (Leominster, England: Gracewing, 2001) ISBN 0-85244-383-8 (Published 1985 and 1990, revised 1997, reprinted 2001) 2. (en) John Bradburne and Professor David Crystal, editor. Songs of the Vagabond (Leominster, England: Holy Island Press, 1996) ISBN 0-951306-34-0 3. (en) Prof. David Crystal and Hilary Crystal, eds., John Bradburne’s Mutemwa in Poems and Pictures (Leominister, England: Holy Island Press, 2000) ISBN 0-951306-35-9 4. (en) John Bradburne Memorial Society, John Bradburne of Mutemwa, 19211979 (Leominster, England: The John Bradburne Memorial Society, ca 1995) 5. (fr) Didier Rance, John Bradburne, le vagabond de Dieu [John Bradburne, the Vagabond of God] (Paris: Éditions Salvator, 2012) ISBN 2-706708-82-4 6. (en) Joan Carroll Cruz, “John Bradburne / 1921 – 1979 / Vagabond of God / England/Africa”, Saintly Men of Modern Times, pp. 163-169 (Huntingdon, Indiana, USA: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 2003) ISBN 1-931709-77-7 7. (en) Leo Knowles, “Come Sweet Death on Wednesday”: “John Bradburne”, Modern Heroes of the Church (Huntingdon, Indiana, USA: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 2003), pp. 15-24 ISBN 1931709-46-7 8. (en) Nanette Mary, “The Long Road to Mutemwa” [a poem about the life and adventures of John Bradburne], The Long Road to Mutemwa: And Other Writings (Bloomington, Indiana, USA: AuthorHouse, 2012), pp. xiii-xiv, 1-21. ISBN 978-1-4772-2661-2. The first five pages of the poem are available online at GoogleBooks Documentaries 1. (en) “On Eagles’ Wings: The Life and Death of John Bradburne”, VHS, running time, producer, place, and date unknown, available from the John Bradburne Memorial Society. 2. (en) “Vagabond of God”, 59 minutes, format unknown, Norman Servais, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999; released to coincide with the 20th Anniversary of the death of John Bradburne. For more information, go to [1]. External links 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(en) The John Bradburne Memorial Society (en) The Poems of John Bradburne (en) Letter from Zimbabwe in The Spectator, 30 June 2001 (en) John Bradburne at icon.co.za (en) Mutemwa Leprosy Settlement and John Bradburne

Thanks 1. With thanks to Col. Terrance Schwartz. 2. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bradburne

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MEDIA: POLISIE-GESKIEDENIS / POLICE HISTORY IN THE MEDIA Drawing a thick red line through the thin blue line William Saunderson-Meyer writes on the reopening of inquest into Ahmed Timol's death, and Hillsborough Jaundiced Eye Reputedly, the mills of the gods grind slowly but exceedingly fine. When the perpetrators of wrongs are police officers, it can seem that they simply grind to a halt. This week, almost a half century after the events under scrutiny took place, a South African inquest court re-examined the supposed suicide of political activist Ahmed Timol, while held at John Vorster Square police station in Johannesburg. His was one of 73 documented deaths, all inflicted with impunity, in police detention over the period 1963-1990. Coincidentally also this week, almost 30 years after Britain’s Hillsborough disaster in which 96 football fans died, criminal charges were brought against six people for what happened there. It includes two senior police officers – the officer in command on the day and a knighted former chief constable. In South Africa, the judicial process now underway is largely symbolic. The possibilities of legal retribution are diluted by the passage of time and the fact that Timol died while in the custody of a diabolical, secretive security police. In any case, only three of the officers implicated are still alive. In Britain, the shorter period and the mass of evidence available, make some form of punishment more likely. The charges against the officers range from misconduct while in public office to multiple charges of manslaughter. While the lesson that the law will, mostly and eventually, collar the wrongdoer is an important one, these developments in SA and Britain are obviously not only about crime and punishment. They are also about bringing a sense of closure to the loved ones of the victims. They are also a reminder that the police – whether you choose to call them a “force” or a “service” – occupy an ambiguous place in society. Protection can slide easily into aggression, or even repression. The primary purpose of the police is to form that “thin blue line” that shields civilians from a savage criminal underworld. But it is the state that pays salaries and determines senior appointments, so pragmatically, their ultimate loyalty is to the government of the day. And, in the case of the SA Police Service (SAPS), what a disaster has resulted from this. All three national commissioners appointed from within ANC ranks over the past 17 years, have been abject failures, with one going to jail and two narrowly avoiding doing so. As the Institute of Security Studies pointed out with the launch this week of a campaign for a meritbased, transparent process to appoint the next national police commissioner, even the government’s National Development Plan acknowledges that the SAPS has a “serial crisis” of top management. 92


It’s a crisis, says the ISS, that has “destabilised the SAPS and fundamentally undermined public safety”. That is an understatement. Not only does lack of police leadership mean that crime is rampant and the nation’s citizens are being robbed and slaughtered with relative impunity, but the police are distressingly often the offenders. Statistics from the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (Ipid), which is supposed to police the police, tell the scale of the problem. In 2015/16, there were 216 deaths in SAPS custody, while a further 366 people died as a result of police action. Of those deaths, 66 – as supposedly was the demise of Timol – were claimed as suicides. Interim Ipid figures presented to the parliamentary oversight committee last week, show a worrying upward trend from that report. Deaths from police actions this year were up by 30% to 207, compared to the same period last year. Just under six out of 10 of those deaths were the result of “police brutality”, as Ipid put it. Just over 4 out of 10 of those deaths were while the arrested person was in police custody. One cannot simply conclude from these statistics that the new SAPS is as bad, or even worse, than the apartheid era one. The one thing that has improved since the death of Timol, is official record keeping. What hasn’t improved is our ability as a supposedly civilised society to ensure justice. In the period 2015/16, Ipid managed to secure only 4 convictions for deaths in custody and 25 for deaths as a result of police actions. From those 29 convictions for wrongful death came not a single jail sentence. Not one. As Gareth Newman, analyst at ISS, points out, the first step to rectifying the SAPS’s problems is to ensure that the next national police commissioner is fit to serve. SA, both in terms of ordinary crime and police brutality, cannot afford another fool in gold braid. But, at the end of the day, it comes down not to mechanisms of government. As with the re-opening of the Timol inquest and the launch of Hillsborough prosecutions, it ultimately comes down to the determination of ordinary people to hold their governments and their public servants to account. We must seek justice not only for Timol, but for anyone and everyone who has been the victim of police criminality. Follow WSM on Twitter @TheJaundicedEye http://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/drawing-a-thick-red-line-through-the-thin-bluelin?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=2b3ff1e70eEMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_02&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-2b3ff1e70e130042309 - 2 July 2017.

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PRESS RELEASE: HOW TO APPOINT AN HONEST AND COMPETENT POLICE COMMISSIONER ISS: How to appoint an honest and competent police commissioner Pretoria, South Africa – President Jacob Zuma and new police minister Fikile Mbalula have an immediate opportunity to radically improve policing in South Africa (SA) through the appointment of a competent, honest and experienced person to head the South African Police Service (SAPS) and the special investigation unit, the Hawks. This would solve the long-standing crisis in police management and the resulting deterioration in public safety over the past five years. A new campaign by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) and Corruption Watch has called for a SAPS national commissioner to be appointed on merit following a transparent and competitive process, in line with recommendations in government’s National Development Plan. The selection criteria for SA’s top cop are today less rigorous than for the lowest rank of constable. This has led to people being appointed for political reasons rather than their ability to do one of the country’s most important jobs. The campaign proposes that candidates for SAPS national commissioner be chosen for their skills, experience and integrity. They should have to pass a security clearance and psychological evaluation prior to selection. The recruitment process proposed by Corruption Watch and the ISS would have prevented the appointment of past police commissioners who were dismissed for incompetence, dishonesty and corruption. The campaign calls for the public and the parliamentary portfolio committees of police and justice to have a greater role in appointing SA’s police leader. ‘The secretive way in which the president chooses SA’s top police officer is clearly not working,’ says Gareth Newham, Head of the Justice and Violence Prevention Programme at the ISS. ‘We need clear and sensible criteria for assessing candidates and a transparent process to appoint a police officer with the right credentials and integrity to lead the SAPS.’ The campaign says the new process could be started quickly and five candidates could be shortlisted by end-2017. ‘This may be the most important change in SA policing strategy for many years,’ Newham said. SA has had eight police commissioners since 1994. With the exception of George Fivaz, none of the permanent appointments to the post of SAPS national commissioner had policing experience – and each of these appointments ended in disgrace with a board of inquiry recommending that the SAPS head be fired. SAPS national commissioner is a powerful position but appointment of the wrong people has badly affected police performance, put the public at risk, and hindered social and economic development.

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The SAPS annual budget rose from R36bn in 2007 to R87bn in 2017, but detection of murder and robbery decreased. Visible policing also went down. Civil claims against police have risen 175% in five years to R290m. The murder rate has gone up 19.5% since 2011, and aggravated robbery is up 31.5%. ISS and Corruption Watch propose that the police minister establish a panel of skilled people to shortlist the most qualified candidates, with support from the Civilian Secretariat of Police and the parliamentary Portfolio Committee of Police. The panel’s first task will be to develop meritbased criteria for leading a professional police agency. An honest person with the right skills would have more support from colleagues and the public, the campaign says. And proper screening would make them less likely to be corrupt. ‘Years of incompetence and corruption in the senior leadership of the SAPS have allowed wealthy and politically connected individuals in South Africa to get away with corruption,’ says David Lewis, Executive Director of Corruption Watch. ‘This campaign aims to address the problem. With sufficient public support, it could be a game changer in the battle against corruption.’ The campaign proposes that candidates be interviewed publicly, before a shortlist of five is presented to the president to choose from. Constable vs commissioner? Current criteria for being SAPS national commissioner are simply that candidates are SA citizens by birth, over 18 years, and don’t have a criminal record. Constables face a higher bar. They need to be between 25 and 40, of sound character, and physically and mentally fit. They also have to have matric and to undertake screening and training. Summary of SAPS police commissioner appointments since 1994 General George Fivaz succeeded in merging 11 police forces into a single national service. He served five years before stepping down. His successor Jackie Selebi, and ally of then president Thabo Mbeki, was convicted of corruption and imprisoned. Lt Gen Tim Williams took up an acting role and was instructed by former police minister Nathi Mthethwa to appoint Richard Mdluli to head the SAPS crime division. Mdluli is now being prosecuted for murder, assault, intimidation and corruption. The next permanent appointment was Gen Bheki Cele, who had no policing background but was an ally of President Jacob Zuma. He was fired in 2012 after the Public Protector reported on his involvement in unlawful property deals. Lt-General Nhlanhla Mkhwanazi acted in the role for nine months before the permanent appointment of General Riah Phiyega, who lacked any police experience. She damaged morale and performance by replacing senior officers with people lacking experience or integrity. Damning findings were made against her for the police’s killing of 34 striking workers at Marikana. Zuma suspended Phiyega in 2015 but she drew a full salary and benefits until the end of her contract in 2017. Career policeman Lt-General Julius Phalane came next, serving as acting commissioner from October 2015 to May 2017. He is being investigated for corruption and was replaced in June 2017 by the current acting SAPS commissioner is Lt General Lesethja Mothiba. (5 July 2017).

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GENERAL RSS BADEN POWELL – FOUNDER OF THE SA CONSTABULARY

Foto: Nico Moolman 96


MISDAAD / CRIME Who killed the Scorpions? Politicsweb | 18 July 2017 The names of all the MPs who voted, in October 2008, to dismantle the one unit that could've saved us from the Zuptas. Over the past several weeks the investigative journalists of amaBhungane have, through their reports on leaked Gupta emails, provided chapter and verse on how state and parastatal institutions have been plundered over the past several years. Equally shocking is the fact that despite the reams and reams of prima facie evidence of criminality there have been no police searches to collect further evidence, no arrests, and no prosecutions. The one institution that once did have the capacity and independence to investigate and prosecute this kind of high-level criminality was the Directorate of Special Operations (“the Scorpions”). This unit was however disbanded in 2008 – following a resolution adopted at the ANC’s Polokwane conference in December 2007 - by legislation first introduced while Thabo Mbeki was still state president and finally adopted after Kgalema Motlanthe had replaced him. This was before Jacob Zuma was elected to office in 2009. For context below are the transcripts of speeches by two MPs during the debate on 23 October 2008 on the second reading of the National Prosecuting Authority Amendment Bill and the South African Police Service Amendment Bill, the two bills which finally did the Scorpions in. The first is by the DA MP Dianne Kohler Barnard, speaking against this legislation, and the second by ANC (and SACP) MP Yunus Carrim, speaking for it. At the end is a list of all the MPs who voted for - and against - the dismantling of the Scorpions. READ FURTHER BY CLICKING ON: http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/who-killed-thescorpions?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=c900b2512fEMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-c900b2512f130042309 - 19 July 2017.

ANC-vergrype en gruweldade UNPO aanvaar mosie van VF Plus om ANC-vergrype en gruweldade teen minderhede in SA te ondersoek. Die internasionale organisasie vir die beskerming van minderhede, UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization) het vandag in ʼn verreikende stap ʼn mosie van die VF Plus aanvaar om ondersoek te laat doen na onder meer vergrype van die ANC-regering oor ʼn wye spektrum, asook oor gruweldade teen plaasboere in Suid-Afrika. 97


Dr. Pieter Groenewald: VF Plus-leier Die besluit het gevolg op ʼn mosie wat dr. Pieter Groenewald, leier van die VF Plus, aan UNPO se dertiende algemene vergadering in Edinburgh, Skotland voorgelê het. Die mosie het ingesluit die aftakeling van die land se ekonomie, korrupsie, magsmisbruik, die marginalisering van minderheidsgroepe, rassepolarisasie en die lot van die boeregemeenskap in Suid-Afrika. Hier volg die volledige voorlegging: Die VF Plus spreek sy kommer uit oor die algemene toestand van Suid-Afrika gesien teen die agtergrond van die huidige ekonomiese resessie, hoë vlakke van korrupsie en magsmisbruik deur die regering en die regerende party; en betreur die groot toename in die marginalisering van minderheidsgroepe in Suid-Afrika en die deurlopende rassepolarisasie wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse regering en sy president teen die Afrikaner-minderheid gevoer word; en neem kennis van die geweld en gruweldade teen ʼn strategiese minderheidsgroep-onderneming wat nie net vir voedselsekuriteit verantwoordelik is nie, maar ook vir werkskepping, ekonomiese groei en voorspoed vir die hele Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking. en Neem kennis van: Die openbare uitsprake van pres. Jacob Zuma en ander regeringsleiers wat die Afrikanerminderheid demoniseer; die president en ander regeringsleiers wat die Afrikaner-minderheidsgroep die skuld gee vir die huidige ekonomiese onrus, werkloosheid en armoede; die voortgesette strewe van die regering om die onteiening van grond sonder vergoeding te wettig; die meer as 2 393 plaasmoorde en 14 589 plaasaanvalle wat sedert 1991 plaasgevind het; die brutale en gewelddadige aard van hierdie plaasaanvalle en moorde;

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die vergelykende syfers gemeet aan die internasionale gemiddeld van 7 moorde per 100 000 van die bevolking per jaar: Suid-Afrika het 33 moorde per 100 000 per jaar en 133 per 100 000 per jaar wat boere aanbetref. die voortgesette pogings van die regering om Afrikaans as 'n taal en 'n medium van onderrig op primêre-, sekondêre- en tersiêre vlak te marginaliseer; die regering se volgehoue pogings deur wetgewing om Afrikaners (onder die generiese en rassistiese etiket as "wit") uit die arbeidsmag uit te sluit deur die Wet op Billike Indiensneming – Wet 55 van 1998 soos gewysig, wat regstellende aksie-kwotas aan die publiek opdwing. Private sektore moet die nasionale en streeksdemografie weerspieël en sodoende word die reg van Afrikaners waarvan die meerderheid bekwaam is - om aan die ekonomie deel te neem, 'n leefbare loon te verdien en om die ekonomie te laat groei, ernstig benadeel. die strewe van die regering om Afrikaners (onder die generiese en rassistiese etiket as "wit") uit die ekonomie uit te sluit uit hoofde van die Wet op die Breëbasis Swart Ekonomiese Bemagtiging, Wet 53 van 2003 soos gewysig, en die Kode vir Goeie Praktyk wat op die totale ekonomie betrekking het en rassekwotas opdwing in alle openbare en private ondernemings in die vorm van eienaarskapskwotas gegrond op ras waardeur punte behaal word vir die "swartheid" van ʼn onderneming. Hoe meer "swart", hoe meer jy kan sake doen met die regering of groot private ondernemings, hoe meer "wit", hoe kleiner is jou kanse vir besigheid en "swart" aandeelhouding onder 40% diskwalifiseer 'n Afrikaneronderneming om sake te doen met die regering of enige groot onderneming wat die grootste deel van die ekonomiese aktiwiteit in Suid-Afrika uitmaak. Die Kode bevorder totale swart eienaarskap wat Afrikaners se reg tot eienaarskap in besigheid in Suid-Afrika ontken. Daarom dring UNPO se Algemene Vergadering daarop aan dat: Die Suid-Afrikaanse regering aan die Handves van Regte van Suid-Afrika moet voldoen, dat sosiale eenheid, minderheidsgroepe se taal- en kultuurregte bevorder word, plaasaanvalle tot 'n prioriteitsmisdaad verklaar word en dat daadwerklike stappe gedoen word om dit stop te sit; en dat die Verenigde Nasies se Menseregtekommissie versoek moet word om 'n volledige ondersoek te hierna te doen om sodoende druk op die Suid-Afrikaanse regering te plaas om 'n einde te maak aan hierdie gruweldade.

VF Plus-nuusbrief 538: https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/15d0827b2803e7a0 Afgelaai - 3 Julie 2017.

Crack team to investigate break-in at our offices - Hawks Hawks | 05 July 2017 Computers at Finance, SCM and HRM offices were stolen, case dockets not taken 99


Hawks acting national head condemns office burglary Media Statement from Directorate South African Police Service

of

Priority

Crimes

Investigation

(HAWKS)

Intensive investigations are underway following the break-in at certain offices of the Hawks' Head Office buildings in Silverton, Pretoria. Investigators are currently working on the scene and more information will be communicated in due course. The Hawks would like to confirm that so far only computers at Finance, Supply Chain Management and Human Resource Management offices were stolen. No docket has gone missing. The Acting National Head of the Hawks Lieutenant General Yolisa Matakata has condemned the unfortunate incident and assured all in sundry that a crack team will foresee the investigation in this regard. More information on the incident will be communicated in due course. Statement issued by Brigadier Hangwani Mulaudzi, The Hawks, 5 July 2017

http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/crack-team-to-investigate-breakin-at-our-offices-?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=616c150f70EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_05&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99616c150f70-130042309 - 6 July 2017.

Glebelands Hostel a 'reservoir of hitmen', corrupt cops 2017-07-17 14:07. Kaveel Singh, News24. Durban – The Glebelands Hostel is a "reservoir of hitmen" and police are actively involved in violence there, the Moerane Commission of Inquiry heard on Monday. "Anyone who wants someone [taken] out goes there. Glebelands has become a reservoir of hitmen," independent researcher and human rights activist Vanessa Burger said. Hitmen were hired to kill taxi industry operators and politicians. The trend began when a ward councillor allegedly orchestrated the killings of block committee leaders. Block committee leaders represent the majority of ordinary hostel residents. The hitmen "diversified from there", she said. Political leaders were commissioning hitmen to undertake a number of the political killings in the province. KwaZulu-Natal Premier Willies Mchunu established the commission in October last year, chaired by advocate Marumo Moerane, to investigate the high number of political killings in the province since 2011. Police 'actively involved in violence' 100


Police were not politically independent. Good police officers trying to do decent work got nowhere and were "politically smacked down". Cases were being interfered with and statements were being fabricated. Since March 13, 2014, 89 people had been killed in the area. Burger said no arrests had been made. She said a policeman who had lived in Glebelands all his life had been arming hostel residents and earned too much to be living there. Police "are not only not clean, they are actively involved in violence". Hitmen were using police-issued R1 assault rifles. There was large-scale bribery and the Umlazi SAPS had lost all credibility. "They have proved themselves to be, in the majority, absolutely corrupt."27 Burger said Glebelands hitmen were behind the recent shooting of three ANC councillors, including former ANC Youth League secretary general Sindiso Magaqa, in Umzimkhulu. An R1 was used in one of these hits. "There was a collection of money to pay the killers for guns [and] ammunition. Apparently some of the residents were forced to do the collections." Collections were used to bribe investigating officers, prosecutors, and magistrates. National police needed to intervene, Burger said.

http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/glebelands-hostel-a-reservoir-of-hitmencorrupt-cops-20170717 - 18 July 2017

Moerane Commission Hears of Culture of Murders for Political Favours A UKZN academic says the criminal justice system in KwaZulu-Natal is also complacent and perpetrators are rarely held to account.

Ziyanda Ngcobo | about 4 hours ago DURBAN – The Moerane Commission investigating political killings in KwaZulu-Natal has heard that there’s a culture of committing murders for political positions. The inquiry is probing the underlying causes of violence in the province where at least 89 politically affiliated people have been killed since March 2014 with no conviction to date. University of KwaZulu-Natal academic Paulus Zulu is sharing his research into how politicians don’t need qualifications to build their careers, creating an environment for the elimination of competition through criminal means.

We would like to pose the question: “Do Black lives matter to the ANC and to SAPS?” More people are dying in police custody and through ineffective policing than ever before in our Police History! And we are not even talking about the murder of farmers, politicians and taxi drivers. Does SAPS have the will to serve and protect? Looking at the scoreboard the results are pathetic and shameful – HBH. 27

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He says the factions seen at a national level are also mirrored in provinces where councillors kill each other for positions and not because of a difference in ideology. The professor says that the criminal justice system in KwaZulu-Natal is also complacent and perpetrators are rarely held to account. Zulu has suggested to commissioners here today that there needs to be some form of qualification required to become a politician as a way to do away with building a career based on who one is.

Earlier, the commission heard how assassins live at the residence undetected due to mismanagement by the eThekwini Municipality when allocating rooms which have led to tensions between different blocks. This submission follows a Public Protector’s report which has found that police failed to uphold the rights of Glebelands residents to be free from all forms of violence as written in the Constitution. Vanessa Burger says that the reason why police have failed to make a single arrest since March 2014 is because some officers are directly involved in the violence. She says that cops provide hit men living at the Glebelands Hostel with state issued R1 rifles used in crimes linked either to politics or the taxi industry. Burger submitted a diagram showing how some assassins from the residence can also be linked to murders in the Eastern Cape and southern KwaZulu-Natal. The activist says this is also exacerbated by the fact that police watchdog IPID has also been dysfunctional because evidence has not been taken in over a year and medical records are left with pathologists for long periods of time. (Edited by Leeto M Khoza) http://ewn.co.za/2017/07/18/moerane-commission-hears-of-culture-of-murders-for-political-favours - 18 July 2017.

#GuptaLeaks: The captured presidency The Guptas targeted officials holding positions of personal trust closest to President Jacob Zuma, offering gifts, favours and business deals. 19 Jul 2017 - Scorpio, News24 and amaBhungane http://amabhungane.co.za/article/2017-07-19-guptaleaks-the-captured-presidency

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Gauteng’s killer cops still patrolling the streets – Kate Lorimer Kate Lorimer | 18 July 2017 DA says not a single SAPS officer has been suspended or charged with police brutality

Gauteng’s killer cops still patrolling the streets 18 July 2017 The DA has learnt that in the wake of the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID) report, which revealed that 59 deaths had taken place in Gauteng as a result of police brutality, not a single SAPS officer has been suspended or charged. In June this year IPID revealed that the number of deaths as a result of police brutality had risen year on year from 45 in 2016 to 59 in 2017. Following this, I questioned the MEC of Community Safety, Sizakele Nkosi-Malobane, as to the nature of each death and what action had been taken against the officers involved. While most incidents were pending a decision on what action is to be taken, no officers have been placed on suspension. Click here to access the response. Some of the deaths reported at the hands of these killer cops are harrowing. In one instance of police brutality, a baby died from exposure to pepper-spray due to its negligent use by police officers. In another instance, a mentally ill person was shot in a police station after having an altercation with his neighbour. These horrific statistics bear testament to the fact that the SAPS in Gauteng are violating basic human rights while no action is seemingly being taken to curb this trend. Earlier this year, a study conducted by StatsSA entitled “Victims of Crime”, indicated that the public had increasingly lost faith in the SAPS and that there had been a breakdown in trust. The evidence collected by the DA from MEC Nkosi-Malobane further reinforces the public perception that the police cannot be trusted. The MEC must take decisive action in this matter so as to reassure the public that police officers do not receive special privileges as they are not above the law. If an officer has killed a person, they should be placed on suspension until an investigation into the matter is concluded. Issued b, DA Gauteng Shadow MEC for Community Safety, 18 July 2017 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/gautengs-killer-cops-still-patrolling-the-streets?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=c900b2512f103


EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-c900b2512f130042309 - 19 July 2017.

After 59 deaths, allegedly at the hands of SAPS in Gauteng, no officer has faced justice Greg Nicolson / 18 JUL 2017 11:40 (SOUTH AFRICA) https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-07-18-after-59-deaths-allegedly-at-the-hands-ofsaps-in-gauteng-no-officer-has-facedjustice/?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=First%20Thing%2019%20July%20NB%20Publisher s&utm_content=First%20Thing%2019%20July%20NB%20Publishers+CID_f201a6384596ada9bc 18a1817af1fb01&utm_source=TouchBasePro&utm_term=After%2059%20deaths%20allegedly%2 0at%20the%20hands%20of%20SAPS%20in%20Gauteng%20no%20officer%20has%20faced%20 justice

Human trafficking: A terror run for her life 2017-07-23 06:04 / Msindisi Fengu Between 600 000 and 800 000 people are trafficked across international borders a year. Of these, 80% are female and more than 50% are children. Nomsa* still cannot believe that the police did nothing after she told them she’d escaped from a gang of human traffickers. After she escaped from the boot of a car – traumatised and petrified – the young South African woman immediately told the police about her ordeal and informed them about the other young girls who had also been kidnapped. But the response from the authorities was cold. Indifferent. Nomsa is haunted by the faces of those other drugged girls, and agonises over what has happened to them. After she pretended to be unconscious, traffickers left her in an open boot while they carried away the two other teens who could no longer walk because they were incapacitated by the drugs they’d been injected with. Despite the drug cocktail coursing through her veins, she jumped out of the car boot, ducked into a nearby forest and ran as fast and far from her traffickers as she could. When Nomsa escaped, she was near the border of South Africa and another sub-Saharan country, which, to protect her identity, cannot be named. “I ran for my life until I came to a river. I just wanted to throw myself in it, but then I saw an oncoming car,” she says. Nomsa made a split-second decision to put her faith in the unknown motorist. She flagged the car down and the motorist took her to the nearest police station. “I told the police about those girls, but they said that only the Hawks, Interpol and others would follow up on leads,” says Nomsa. “They could have called security at the border gates – or Interpol – if they did not want to be the ones doing the chase ... The girls have not been found.” In addition to the police’s disinterest, no trauma counselling or medical assistance was offered to her, she says. She had to go to her private doctor so that he could draw her blood and test it to find out what sort of cocktail of drugs she’d been injected with. Living in fear 104


Nomsa’s extraordinary ordeal began when she climbed into an ordinary taxi in one of our big cities – something that thousands of South Africans do every single day. When she got inside, the driver pointed a gun at her and then took out a bullet to show her that it was real. He told her to act normally. Behind her was another man. After driving for almost 30 minutes, they stopped. Another car arrived with four men inside it. The driver of the taxi got out to talk to them. At that moment, she reached for her phone, which the driver had placed next to the gear lever. The other man in the back jumped out, and dragged her off the passenger seat. During the struggle, she managed to put her phone into one of her boots. When she was taken over to the boot of the other car, there were already two girls inside it. They squashed her in with the others and, despite the lack of space, she managed to send text messages to her loved ones to tell them that she had been kidnapped. Suddenly, the traffickers stopped the car and opened the boot. They grabbed her phone and then injected Nomsa and the other two girls with a drug that made them drowsy. The kidnappers then made regular stops to inject them again. “They were speaking in their language the entire time. When I woke up, it was soon after we were injected for the second time. One of them was speaking in English, telling the person on the other end of the phone how old we were and saying they would have to pass by the border before midnight. “Then, after a long while, the car stopped again. There were two other cars that were in front of us and I realised that was going to be our separation point,” she says. “It was so dark and cold. I played dead – like I was gone from the drugs. They came to take the other girls, but they could not walk. The kidnappers helped each other to move the girls from one car to the other. They must have thought that I was completely unconscious from the drugs, so no one stayed behind to watch me at the back of the car.” Nomsa says she continues to live in fear for her life, and she gets calls from unknown numbers at different times during the day and night. The caller never says a word. Nhlanhla Mokwena, the executive director at People Opposing Women Abuse, said this was probably because the traffickers were trying to find Nomsa. “They are probably trying to locate her. This is a syndicate and is very dangerous. They know human trafficking is a huge offence.” Challenges Mokwena said it was disgraceful that the police Nomsa spoke to allowed her to leave the police station without being referred to a place of safety. She said there were government initiatives operating in partnership with nongovernmental organisations that the police could have contacted or referred Nomsa to. One of these is Thuthuzela Care Centre, where Nomsa’s blood could have been tested so that she didn’t have to go to her own doctor. Often, evidence collected by an attack survivor’s private doctor is inadmissable in court. Mokwena said that a survivor’s case was often botched by police because officers regularly didn’t follow the correct procedures. Added to this, there were no repercussions if the police did not follow the correct steps when dealing with this kind of case. “Sometimes police don’t know how to handle these cases. They end up further traumatising the victims,” Mokwena said. Marcel van der Watt, a lecturer at the University of SA’s department of police practice and the case manager for the National Freedom Network, said that, since 2015, when the Prevention and 105


Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act came into force, government had progressively responded to its international obligation to address the issue of human trafficking. Van der Watt has worked with issues related to human trafficking for the past 15 years. “I am encouraged to say that this year has seen a rejuvenation in South Africa’s 13-year counter-human trafficking journey since we ratified the Palermo Protocol in 2004.” The Palermo Protocol is an agreement to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children. It supplements the UN convention against transnational organised crime. “Government should be commended for the manner in which it actively engages civil society and nongovernmental organisations in formulating South Africa’s counter-human trafficking strategy,” Van der Watt said. However, he said that, at this stage, the successes pale in comparison to the work that still needs to be done. Perhaps the greatest challenge is increasing the trust between the police and the communities that rely on them. Van der Watt said that every resource needed to be put to work to ensure that all South Africans felt compassion for each other so that the cause of social cohesion can be advanced. “Accountability and responsibility is a double-edged sword, and requires communities and government to be co-creators of solutions to the change that is needed when responding to human trafficking,” he said. South Africa, as a signatory of the Palermo Protocol, features in the Trafficking in Persons Report that was compiled by the US and published last month. According to the report, our government did not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, the report said it was making significant efforts to do so. The presidency and the department of social development had not responded to requests for comment by the time of going to print. * Nomsa is not her real name. It has been changed to protect her identity.

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- Call the National Human Trafficking Resource Line on 080 022 2777 - Follow the National Freedom Network on Twitter @NFN_SA TALK TO US Do you think the state should be doing more to protect citizens? SMS us on 35697 using the keyword HUMAN and tell us what you think. Please include your name and province. SMSes cost R1.50

http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/human-trafficking-a-terror-run-for-her-life-20170723-2 23 July 2017.

ONDERSOEK VAN MISDAAD / INVESTIGATION OF CRIME

Incomprehensible that mortuary strike still ongoing – Jack Bloom Jack Bloom | 04 July 2017 DA MPL says this is despite an agreement being signed last week 107


Why Is Mortuary Strike Still Continuing? It is incomprehensible that the illegal strike by forensic assistants is still continuing at the 10 Gauteng state mortuaries that do postmortems on all unnatural deaths in the province. A negotiated agreement was signed last week on Thursday (29 June) by all unions except the Public Servants Association (PSA). NEHAWU has said repeatedly that the strike is over, but forensic assistants are still refusing to assist with autopsies despite winning a pay hike, a danger allowance and a special allowance, and protective clothing and uniform. Furthermore, the agreement provides for them to register with a statutory body as professionals and to have career pathing and job evaluation within 6 months. It is major bad faith for the strike to continue, causing incredible anguish as families wait more than a week to bury their loved ones. Gauteng Health MEC Gwen Ramokgopa has handled this strike abysmally. All the other provinces managed to avoid a strike, but she showed weakness in not enforcing a court order against the strikers that was obtained by the Gauteng Health Department in December last year when an incipient mortuary strike was quashed. This court order needs to be applied now as mortuaries are an essential service. The real heroes are the pathologists who have worked largely without assistance for more than three weeks doing as many autopsies as they can in adverse circumstances, including a fair amount of intimidation. The forensic assistants have won their victory. Now they must return to work and help reduce the backlog of autopsies as soon as possible. Statement issued by Jack Bloom MPL, DA Gauteng Shadow Health MEC, 4 July 2017 ttp://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/incomprehensible-that-mortuary-strike-stillongoin?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=57e3e351f4EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_04&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-57e3e351f4130042309 - 4 July 2017.

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE NEWS & ANALYSIS

‘Fuck White People’ artwork not hate speech – Magistrate News24 | 05 July 2017 Judgment is a beacon in a perilous time, says artist Dean Hutton 5 July 2017 108


Cape Town - The controversial Fuck White People artwork displayed in the South African National Gallery was not in contravention of South Africa's hate speech laws, the Cape Town Magistrate's Court ruled on Tuesday. The court compared the work by genderqueer artist Dean Hutton to the messages of struggle expressed by ANC liberation stalwarts like Albert Luthuli and Nelson Mandela, the Cape Party said in a statement. It found that the words "white" and "people" were not directed at all white people, but rather at a general system of oppression inherent in "white domination", and had ruled that the display could, therefore, not be seen as discrimination against all white people. Cape Party leader Jack Miller, who brought the case against Hutton, said the ruling brought into question the protection of minority rights in the country. The Cape Party is demanding "independence" for the Western Cape. "This court case‌ was about ensuring that the laws of the country are balanced and applied equally to everyone, that it protected minority rights, and ensured common respect and decency between our many different cultures and races," Miller said. "In 1994, the South African government under Nelson Mandela promoted a vision of a 'Rainbow Nation'. Today, Fuck White People is art. Where is this country going?" Hutton said she was grateful for the "very thoughtful" judgment. 'Listen and learn' "This judgment is a beacon in a perilous time where we are seeing a global rise of white nationalism. Brexit, Trump and the rise of fascism in Europe and other settler colonies. Let's make racists afraid again," Hutton told News24. "My work is an amplification of the words and intellectual labour of black people who have been critiquing white people's actions for hundreds of years. When black people talk, we white people must listen and learn." In the description of the artwork in the museum, Hutton said the installation was meant to provoke white people. "White people made racism and made sure it is deeply embedded in our social systems, laws, economies, institutions and individuals. So, this provocation is here to make you feel that 'white pain'," Hutton's description of the artwork reads. In January, a group of men dressed in Cape Party T-shirts vandalised the artwork, by pasting a sticker reading "Love Thy Neighbour" over the piece. In a video of the incident, Miller said it was time to put an end to racism in the country. The Freedom Front Plus in January also called for the removal of the artwork, calling it racist. "In times where racial relations are extremely sensitive, and where people who are guilty of making racist comments are severely punished by courts, the exhibition is short-sighted, and it is experienced by many people as inflammatory," FF Plus leader Pieter Groenewald said in a statement at the time. 109


News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/fuck-white-people-artwork-not-hate-speech-magistr?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=616c150f70EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_05&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-616c150f70130042309 - 6 July 2017

The Judgement: Case Number EC02/2017 MAGISTRATES’ COURT JUDICIARY REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA IN THE EQUALITY COURT IN THE MAGISTRATES’ COURTS FOR THE DISTRICT OF CAPE TOWN HELD IN CAPE TOWN CASE NUMBER EC02/2017 In the matter between CAPE PARTY-KAAPSE PARTY

COMPLAINANT

And IZIKO – SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL GALLERY

RESPONDENT

JUDGMENT

INTRODUCTION. [1] This is a complaint in terms of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2000 (Act No. 8 of 2000) (hereinafter referred to as the Act). No oral evidence was led by any of the parties. The complaint was adjudicated solely on the affidavits filed. There was no dispute of fact. The matter was determined after hearing legal argument. [2] The complainant instituted proceedings in which they allege unfair discrimination based on race and hate speech in violation of sections 7, 10 and 12 of the Act. The applicant seeks an order in the following terms: (a) a declaratory order that it is hate speech to say, print, display or communicate the word “Fuck White People”. (b) an order for the payment of damages in the amount of R150 000-00. (c) an order restraining further discriminatory practices and the removal of the offending display. (d) an unconditional public apology. (e) an order of a deterrent nature. (f) a referral to the Director of Public Prosecutions and (g) a cost order. [3] The respondent alleges that the work does not fall within the sections of the Act on which the complaint is based and that in any event Iziko is protected by section 12 of the Act and the 110


constitutional right afforded in section 16 of the Constitution. The Respondent further alleges that the work complained of must be viewed in its context in the exhibition and for that reason is not a contravention of the Act. The respondent alleges that the work and the exhibit are, in general, designed to enhance the critical debate on issues of race and discrimination, which it has done, and prays for the dismissal of the complaint, and an order that the complainant be ordered to pay the costs. FACTS. [4] The complainant is a duly registered political party with the Independent Electoral Commission of South Africa with registration number 467. [5] The respondent is a cultural institution established in terms of section 6 of the Cultural Institutions Act, 119 of 1998 and is a State entity under the direction and control of the Department of Arts and Culture that focuses on the preservation of natural and cultural heritage. Its mission is to manage and promote the unique combination of South Africa’s heritage collections, sites and services for the benefit of present and future generations. It administers the platform for the appreciation and enjoyment of artistic artworks and encourages public commentary, debate and engagement. [6] The work complained of was loaned to the respondent to form part of the exhibition titled “The Art of Disruptions”. It was created and is owned by a student at the University of Cape Town, Dean Hutton, who is studying for a Master’s Degree in Fine Art. It is part of their research towards a Master’s Degree. The aim of the “Art of Disruptions” exhibition was to collect and create dialogue. [7] The “Art of Disruptions” exhibition included other works which are not the permanent collection of the respondent, loaned from contemporary artists which were all part of the theme. These works included the works of Gerard Sekoto that depict the violent scenes of the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, the Russian revolutionary protestors and the sculptures by Jane Alexander that represents the lack of humanity during the state of emergency in the 1980’s. [8] A synopsis of the meaning and the creation of “The Art of Disruptions” exhibition, is displayed prominently on the wall of the exhibition, for visitors to see and be made aware of the curatorial intention. The synopsis appears as Annexure A to the respondent’s answering affidavit and reads as follows: “This year, 2016, marks several milestones in the history of South Africa. The 70th anniversary of the 1956 Women’s March to Pretoria against pass laws, the declaration of District Six as a whitesonly area in 1966 (under the Group Areas Act of 1950), the 50th anniversary of the 1976 youth protests (mainly against the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction), and the 1986 declaration of a state of emergency (the first was in 1985) by the South African government intended to repress and curb mass action. Reflecting on these events and on the contemporary times, the exhibition questions the role of “protest” art in society and highlights some of the strategies employed in the current milieu to deal with and comment on the various issues that plague our society. Such issues include racism, sexism, homophobia, inequality and privilege, migration and environmental degradation. In examining the strategies employed, the exhibition also explores the role of media and technology in expressions of freedom and justice (or lack thereof). At its core, the exhibition is intended to create dialogue. Guests to the exhibition will be presented with an opportunity to have their say and participate in further disruptions. While foregrounding artworks from permanent collections of the Iziko South African National Gallery, the exhibition will also feature contemporary loans and interventions which speak to this theme. 111


Furthermore, the exhibition attempts to situate and link current struggles and expressions within trajectories and histories of protest internationally.” [9] The background of and motivation for the work is explained by the artist in a text on a label displayed next to the work in the exhibition, and was available to be read by anyone taking the time to view the work, as part of the work. What appears on the label is attached as Annexure B to the respondent’s answering affidavit and reads as follows: DEAN HUTTON (b. 1976) Fuckwhitepeople wall, chair and goldendean boots 2016 On loan from the artist From the artist: “if you are white, you’re probably feeling some type of way right now. White people have been having a lot of feeling lately about ‘reverse racism’ as if it’s a thing. White people made racism and made sure it is deeply embedded in our social systems, laws, economies, institutions and individuals. So, this provocation is here to make you feel that ‘white pain’. Breathe deeply through it. Earlier in this year I photographed a student Zama Mthunzi wearing a t-shirt with the words ‘Fuck White People’ smeared in black pain(t). He was threatened with expulsion and a case at the Human Rights Commission. None of the complainants said anything about the front of the t-shirt which read “Being Black is Shit”. You see, white pain demands attention all the time, while black pain flows constantly. So I made a suit to fuck white people. It began as an experiment to see what happens when a white body wears this. It makes people angry, sometimes to the point of violence. But I can do it- that is white privilege. I’m here for your pain because white people think empathy can cure racism but what we must strive for is complete dismantling of the systems of power that keep white people racist. Learn to fuck the white in you too. Fuckwhitepeople.org #fuckwhitepeople”. [10] The work includes a multi-media installation which consists of wallpaper mounted on a board, a chair and golden boots. The wallpaper on the board consists of the words “Fuck”, “White” and “People” repeatedly written on each line in capital letters. The words “Fuck” and “People” are black and written on a white background. The word “Fuck” is in italics. The word “White” is white on a black background. FINDINGS ON THE FACTS. [11] There is nothing that the complainant has said in their papers that stands in contradiction to the direct evidence by the respondent, that the work is part of a research in fulfilment of a Master’s Degree program in Fine Art by a student at the University of Cape Town. There is no evidence to countervail the evidence of the respondent that the work was designed to cause a debate and a response that would create a dialogue regarding race and racism in the country. The work was intended to be challenging and provocative. [12] If there is one thing that the work has achieved, through this complaint and others to which my attention has been drawn in this matter, is to draw South Africans to a moment of self-reflection, if we are serious about building one nation, one collective with the same values and agreed principles. That self-reflection avails a choice. You either elect an extremist, sectarian, destructive, alarmist, factually emaciated and pity-me-I-am-a-victim attitude that seeks to suppress the other view, which 112


poses a challenge to social cohesion and peace; or you elect an objective, inclusive, constructive, optimistic, factually based and courageous attitude that does not avoid the challenge of throwing in your own to prove the cogency and supremacy of your own thoughts in the festival of ideas of a nation at work to reconstruct a new South Africa. In this festival of ideas, one needs to be sensitive to Black pain and White fear. [13] In that festival of ideas, my view is that one cannot at all times seek to understand the meaning of words and texts as used in South Africa, from their understanding as used by the English and defined by their intellectuals at Oxford University and published by the Oxford University Press in the Oxford Dictionary. [14] In my view, the word “Fuck” in its general usage in this country, is a facility to convey two propositions: 1. Rejection of an idea. 2. Declaration of preparedness to confront the idea. [15] The word “White” in my view, must be understood in the context in which it is used, which is within protest art and debate around issues that plague society. [16] The President of the African National Congress between 1952 and 1967, Inkosi Albert Luthuli, received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1960. In his acceptance speech in Oslo, on December 10, 1961, he said the following: “Indeed, the challenge is for us to ensure the world from self-destruction. In our contribution to peace we are resolved to end such evils as oppression, white supremacy and race discrimination; all of which are incompatible with peace and security. This is indeed a threat to peace. In some quarters, it is often doubted whether the situation in South Africa is a threat to peace, it is no doubt that any situation where men have to struggle for their rights is a threat to peace. We are encouraged to know by the very nature of the award made for 1960 that in our efforts we are serving our fellow men in the world.” [17] In April 1964 in his treason trial, the man who is now celebrated as the founding father of the new democratic and constitutional South Africa, uTata Nelson Mandela, said then to the Judge: “During my lifetime, I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against White domination, and I have fought against Black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” [18] In 1961, Inkosi Albert Luthuli described it as “oppression, white supremacy and race discrimination”. In 1964, Nelson Mandela described it as “White domination”. In 2016, Dean Hutton describes it as “systems of power that keep White people racist.” This is the “White” in Whites that Dean Hutton says South Africa must strive to dismantle. It cannot be denied, in my view, that whatever one chooses to call it, the three thought leaders refer to what plagues the South African society. [19] It follows in my view, that Hutton makes a distinction in his use of the word “White”. On the one hand, there is “White” which refers to structures, systems, knowledge, skills and attitudes which keep White people racist which are to be rejected, confronted and dismantled. It is this “White” that Hutton says to others “Learn to fuck the White in you”. Hutton is here referring to something “in” the White person. The “something” includes the state of mind, heart, meaning, appreciation, judgment and purpose. Hutton is calling for a “Damascus experience”. On the other hand, the “White” used refers to persons of a particular race, which is a race to which Hutton self-belongs. Neither Luthuli, 113


Mandela nor Hutton in their struggle called for anything adverse against Whites as a race. At most, Hutton’s advice to Whites as a race is that showing care and compassion is not enough to cure racism or redress the imbalances of the past in South Africa. [20] In my view, properly contextualised and understood, the words complained of by the complainant against respondent, to wit, “Fuck White People”, is Hutton’s main message, which viewed in the totality of the work means: “REJECT, CONFRONT AND DISMANTLE STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF POWER THAT KEEP WHITE PEOPLE RACIST.” ISSUE. [21] The issue to be determined is whether the words complained of amounts to unfair discrimination on the ground of race as prohibited in section 7 of the Act, amounts to hate speech as prohibited in section 10 of the Act and whether its dissemination, publication and display is prohibited in terms of section 12 of the Act. THE LAW. [22] Section 7(a) of the Act reads as follows: “7 Prohibition of unfair discrimination on ground of race Subject to section 6, no person may unfairly discriminate against any person on the ground of race, including(a) The dissemination of any propaganda or idea, which propounds the racial superiority or inferiority of any person, including incitement to, or participation in, any form of racial violence.” Section 6 provides as follows: “6 Prevention and general prohibition of unfair discrimination Neither the State nor any person may unfairly discriminate against any person. [23] Section 10(1) of the Act provides as follows: “10 Prohibition of hate speech (1) Subject to the proviso in section 12, no person may in public, propagate, advocate or communicate words based on one or more of the prohibited grounds, against any person, that could reasonably be construed to demonstrate a clear intention to(a) Be hurtful; (b) Be harmful or incite harm; (c) Promote or propagate hatred.” [24] Section 12 of the Act provides as follows: “12 Prohibition of dissemination and publication of information that unfairly discriminates No person may(a) Disseminate or broadcast any information; (b) Publish or display any advertisement or notice, That could reasonably be construed or reasonably be understood to demonstrate a clear intention to unfairly discriminate against any person: Provided that bona fide engagement in artistic creativity, academic and scientific inquiry, fair and accurate reporting in the public interest or publication of any information, advertisement or notice in accordance with section 16 of the Constitution, is not precluded by this section.” APPLICATION OF THE LAW TO THE FACTS.

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[25] In so far as my command of English as a language extends, Hutton does the opposite of propound, which is the verb that is the constituent part of section 7(a) of the Act. The appropriate antonym for “propound” is “suppress”. In my view, at best Hutton calls on Whites to suppress the racial superiority within themselves, and this is the idea which the respondent displayed. Hutton is calling for the suppression of racial superiority of Whites by Whites. In his text on the label that is part of the work, Hutton clearly addresses Whites in South Africa. Hutton is calling for Whites as a race towards a demonstrable change of mindset, a paradigm shift from the old ways. Hutton suggests that the time has come in the growth of the living system of doing things amongst Whites when old practice and ancient formulae must be modified in order to keep in touch with the expansion of ideas, and also to keep pace with the requirements of changing conditions in South Africa. In my view, Hutton does not participate in nor incite any form of racial violence. It follows that I am unable to find that the respondent, by dissemination of Hutton’s ideas, contravened section 7(a) of the Act. [26] It is natural that those who have enjoyed and continue to benefit from the alcoves of the privileges of being in the secluded spots reserved for Whites, would be distressed by a call which is disadvantageous to their cubicles of comfort and detrimental to their superiority status. In that sense, one would understand their pain by the call that Hutton makes for their tabernacles to be dismantled. Change is by its very nature painful. Birthing a new nation has its labour pains. [27] It is to be expected that the dominant interests in those alcoves would strive to stifle genuine engagement and earnestly lobby to side-line other views like that of Hutton, in an attempt to stop the light of the nation to streak on the true issues that plague South Africa, in order to maintain the prevailing conditions. In my view, the Bill of Rights cannot be interpreted to affirm the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom by stifling dialogue meant to contribute to healing the divisions of the past. The dialogue which is intended to contribute to the establishment of a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights must be allowed. [28] If South Africa is to build one nation which has harmonious race relations that will sustain and maintain peace, each citizen must be true to their responsibility, as custodians of a South Africa which is held in trust for their children and their descendants into the future. The price to pay, in any intimate relationship, is to sacrifice some aspects of one’s ego. Today’s comfort and benefit of one race cannot be a reason not to attend to what needs to be done for transformation and redress in order to ensure substantive peace and stability tomorrow. [29] The fear of losing the debate in the battle of ideas, is not enough reason to take the battle to the legal trenches and hope to have the canons of judgments from the courtrooms to shoot down and repress, curb or kill the opposing views. Issues that plague a nation need to be properly ventilated in all available fora of the nation if that nation is to properly account for a better future. [30] The question to answer now is whether the pain, anger and disgust suffered by the complainants, as sensitive and volatile as it is, and as part of the outcry of some sections of our White compatriots, is hurtful in accordance with the law as envisaged in section 10 of the Act. For the reasons I have already given, in my understanding of Hutton, I am unable to find that what they said amounts to advocacy of hatred for White South Africans based on their race, which hatred constitutes incitement to cause harm. It is simply far-fetched to suggest that Hutton hate themselves or the race they belong to, so much so that they would incite other races to cause harm to themselves. [31] Hutton is a Master’s student and the work is part of their research in fulfilment of a programme for their degree in Fine Arts and was meant to elicit responses, comments and dialogue in furtherance of their research. The work is Hutton’s artistic creativity and part of their academic and 115


scientific research. Even if it were to be found to be unfair discrimination, which it is not, it would be saved from prohibition by the proviso to section 12 of the Act. RELIEF. [32] The work in general, and the words “Fuck White People� in particular as used by Dean Hutton in his protest art is not unfair discrimination on the ground of race as envisaged in section 7 of the Act. It is not hate speech as prohibited by section 10 of the Act and its dissemination, publication and display by the respondent is not prohibited as envisaged in section 12 of the Act. ORDER. I make the following order: 1. The complaint is dismissed. 2. No order as to costs. Dated today the 4th day of the month of July in the year 2017 at Cape Town. _________________ DM THULARE CHIEF MAGISTRATE CAPE TOWN

Kommentaar: Adv Len Els, SC. Vryheid van spraak (soos alle ander regte in die Handves van Regte) word in Art 36(1) van die Grondwet (wet 108 van 1996) beperk "in die mate waarin die beperking redelik en regverdigbaar is in 'n oop en demokratiese samelewing gebaseer op menswaardigheid, gelykheid en vryheid.." Hierdie beperking is in casu van toepassing. Dat dit ook haatspraak is, is ooglopend duidelik en behoef geen 'rocket science' nie. As die hof se argument water dra, moes die 'kunswerk' mos "Fuck some white people" geheet het.... Adv (dr) Len Els SC. Comments by a senior magistrate The objectives of law are amongst others: To secure order in the society; to establish balance between conflicting interests in the society and to maintain stability in the society Our right to freedom of speech or expression by art has its limits. If it infringes to such a large extent on the feelings and dignitas of fellow human beings then the order in society is pushed out of balance. The laws of a specific society may then be utilised to bring back order, balance and stability. If the law is utilised in an unjust manner it may make matters even worse and aggrieved members of society may retaliate. Art is supposed to bring enjoyment to all whom it is exposed to. The value of what is displayed as art will diminish if it is vulgar or if swear words or insults are used. If a large section of people who view an item is aggrieved by it then it is not art any more. If it is still judged as art the law and judgment applied may be viewed as biased or unjust. That may render the judgement to be considered as weak or unjust. It is against the aforesaid background that the picture may be viewed and the judgment itself judged by whomever it is displayed to. 116


The artwork in question

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Counter-campaign aims to overshadow derogatory work of art – Solidarity Juran van den Heever | 17 July 2017 Movement aims to cover Dean Hutton's artwork with positive and constructive words which all South Africans can identify with Counter-campaign aims to overshadow derogatory work of art – Solidarity 17 July 2017 Trade union Solidarity today launches its campaign against the derogatory “F*** white people” artwork by Dean Hutton. The campaign aims to cover this ‘work of art’ – with positive, constructive words with which all South Africans can identify. This follows after Solidarity launched an online poll last week asking people what they thought of the now infamous F*** White People ‘artwork’. Thousands participated in the poll and about 85% indicated that the “artwork” offended them. Based on this outcome, Solidarity decided that an opportunity existed for a positive alternative to this artwork. According to Juran van den Heever, Head of Communications at Solidarity, the trade union believes this exhibition to be ill-considered in a time of extremely sensitive race relations in South Africa. “This ‘artwork’ shows division and does not deserve any exhibition space in the world of today,” Van den Heever said. Van den Heever argued that racial tensions in South Africa should not be inflamed even further; instead, ways should be found to show that we need not dwell in negativity as reflected by this ‘work of art’. Solidarity needs your help to combat the negativity fuelled by this ‘artwork’. “We should all rather build together to improve the things of real importance in our country: better education, productive workplaces and safe communities,” Van den Heever said. For more information on the counter-campaign. Click Here. Issued by Juran van den Heever, Head: Solidarity Communications , 17 July 2017

http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/countercampaign-aims-to-overshadow-derogatorywork?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=3024d9fb59EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db993024d9fb59-130042309 18 July 2017.

Man waits more than a decade for justice, awarded millions News24 | 05 July 2017: Sinovuyo Godlo was shot in leg by police in 2006, detained for 64 days, had to have leg amputated 5 July 2017

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Durban - Exactly 11 years and one month to the day he was shot in the leg by police and then detained for 64 days, during which he had to have his suppurating leg amputated, a former bricklayer has finally got justice. On Monday, Judge Thoba Poyo-Dlwati, sitting in the KwaZulu-Natal High Court in Pietermaritzburg, ordered the minister of police to pay Sinovuyo Godlo almost R7.8m in compensation and to pick up the bill for his legal fees and expert reports. Last week, News24 reported on the plight of Godlo who, at age 22, had left his village in Matatiele and obtained a job on the construction site of a local casino. He was walking home from a spaza shop on the evening of June 4, 2006, when he heard gunshots. He fell down and lost consciousness. He was taken to the local police station and booked in as a rape suspect. Mistaken identity He was then transferred to Westville Prison where, one expert said, he was subjected to the "worst form of torture" suffering "unimaginable pain" while his leg started to rot. His cries for help were ignored and he relied on his fellow inmates to help him. Finally, seven days later, he was taken to hospital where his left leg was amputated. He stayed there, under police guard, for two weeks before being released back to prison, without even a crutch to help him walk. The police finally conceded that it was a case of mistaken identity and all charges were withdrawn. Unable to work, he went back home to live with his mother and to wait the 11 long years it would eventually take for his civil case against the minister to be finalised. Last week, advocates acting for him and the minister agreed that he should be paid R850 000 for pain and suffering and R3.3m for loss of earnings. What could not be agreed on was what he should be paid for unlawful arrest and detention and future medical expenses. In her ruling handed down today, Poyo-Dlwati said much of the events - including the fact that he had been detained for 64 days - had been common cause. 'Humiliation and embarrassment' She said while no evidence was led regarding the outstanding issues, she had been guided by the expert reports which had already influenced the partial settlement. She had also been guided by the fact that while Godlo would have had to explain to his family and those closest to him that he was injured while being arrested on (what would later turn out to be false) accusations that he raped two girls. "His right to dignity and his right not to be arbitrarily deprived of freedom were seriously infringed," she said.

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"He also suffered humiliation and embarrassment while he was hospitalised. He was under heavy police guard and people must have thought he was a criminal." She said she took judicial notice of the fact that "conditions at prisons in our country cannot be described as best". While she had taken into account damages awarded in other cases of unlawful detention, she said she agreed with Advocate Rajesh Choudree, SC, for the minister, that in these matters there could be no "daily rate" - which had also been correctly conceded by Advocate Peter Rowan, SC, for Godlo. "Each case has different circumstances," the judge said, saying under these circumstances R650 000 was fair compensation. She also awarded just short of R3m for future medical expenses. According to reports before the judge, Godlo was a hard-working, diligent young man who had shown initiative and had a bright future ahead of him. He will never be able to work again as a builder or construction worker. Further, he had undergone a personality change "and struggles to socialise or see a future for himself". News24 http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/man-waits-more-than-a-decade-for-justiceawarded-m?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=616c150f70EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_05&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-616c150f70130042309 - 6 July 2017.

Boere-pantsertrein In Natal tydens die Anglo Boere-oorlog. 120


OOR ‘N KOPPIE KOFFIE: WELKOM IN MY WÊRELD 4 Julie 1964. Ek onthou ........... vandag 53 jaar gelede. Ek was in Troep 7 (Berede) en ons het in die kollege uitpasseer.

Ek het 'n karbonkel in my armholte - lyk soos 'n pruim. Ek "hoor" as jy siek rapporteer - ek het nie eens geweet van siekverlof - dan moet jy nog ses maande bly. Wel, ek is op die perd - Turk - met .303 geweer - met elke beweging van die perd se kop; skiet die pyn in my lyf op! Wel ek het uitpasseer en nie van die perd afgeval nie. Sersant Alwyn Lesch was vir die dag 'n AO - hy was die parade sers.-maj. Volgende dag is hy weer sersant. My pêl, dr. Donald Campbell (toe veeartseny-student), neem toe 'n foto waar ek op die perd sit en ek het nooit daardie foto te sien gekry nie - of enige foto van daardie betrokke uitpaseringsparade nie. (Ongelukkig is Donald later oorlede.) In ons troep was die akteur Paul Eilers en Leon Wessels, het later "ons" minister geword - klein Blikkies het 'n spioen geword en verder het ek nooit weer een van my troepmaats raakgeloop nie! Maar dit was vandag 53 jaar gelede - 'n oogknip terug! Ek onthou tot vandag die vrees wat die troepsersante en PT-strukteurs by ons ingeboesem het. Ek het gedink hulle is "gode". Dan was daar majoor "Vingers" Snyman, OBE, en Oom Bokkie Breedt en sers. Otto, DCM , sersant Johnnie Coetzee en sers. Tulleken. Talle PT-instrukteurs was “Springbokke” - ons was in uitgelese geselskap! 121


Wat 'n wonderlike opleiding! Dit was van wêreldgehalte gewees. Ek salueer al die ou "gode" en "reuse" van weleer! U weet, as een van hulle praat en ons was sowat 2000 dan LUISTER ons! Ja daar was humor ook. Baie dankie aan die "ou" SAP - julle wat my gemaak het en geslyp het! Dankie aan die instrukteurs! Julle was instrumenteel dat ek 'n polisieman kon word - ja die opleiding was "kwaai" maar dit het ons voorberei vir dit wat voorgelê het ! Sersante en AO’s ek salueer julle! (Julle was die ruggraat van die Mag!) Ek is diep dankbaar en kyk nostalgies met rooskleurige getinte bril terug op my polisieloopbaan en my lewenspad. Net een maal slae met ‘n kierie in Umlazi gekry. Net een pakslae en jy is dadelik straatwys – dit gebeur nie sommer weer nie! Daar was baie versoekings op die pad gewees. Elke ou klein stampie of skrapie aan die patrolliewa was ‘n vreeslike klomp rompslomp. Stamp die “van” en maak hom vinnig reg by die Indiërduikklopper in Clairwood. Dis baie beter om R10-00 te betaal as om “Ou Mof” se vreeslike ernstige vermaning aan te hoor. Eendag het ek met die “van” met die prisonierstrok gebots. Ek het petrol ingeneem en agteruit gery. Die prisonierstrok het ook agteruitgery – ons het mekaar reghoekig agteruit benader; ligte stampie – baie papierwerk! (Reversing without due care!) Eendag het ek ‘n botsing tussen twee polisievoertuie in Police Station Rd, Isipingo bygewoon. Ongelukke en botsings gebeur! Wat klerklike werk betref het “Mof” en ‘sant Xaba vir my geleer. Nou die dag in die Kaap lekker met Goovy Vetten gesels – hy was ook op King’s Rest. Soos alle polisiemanne het ek ook gesteelde voertuie ingejaag, inbrekers en verkragters gevang, kroeggevegte hanteer, duisende botsings bygewoon, weke lank daggaplante gekap en verbrand, rusverstoringsklagtes bygewoon, onluste, grensdiens, ja ..... baie dinge ervaar en nooit beseer in ‘n botsing, kroeggeveg, onluste of dies meer nie! Dank die Heer!

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R2.99 belasting! R6-83 vir pensioen wat ek steeds geniet! Klerasie R9-00 dit is 10.6% van inkomste vir uniform se terugbetaling. Ons is gelukkig: Lede van die Natal Mounted Police moes hul perd koop en vir die voer betaal! Dit was interessant, ek bostaande storie op Facebook geplaas. Die reaksie, wat tot die geskiedenis bydra, is soos volg: Facebook reaksie 101 persone het gelees Aan Martin Loubser: Ek salueer ook julle geslag! Julle het ons kinders opgelei!!! Dankie Ou Kollega 'for a job well done'! Martin Loubser: Dankie Oom Hennie, bykans 240 000 in 29 jaar, alles net deur die Here se genade! Raymond Griffiths: Ja, ou Hennie. Kan nie glo 53 jaar gelede het ons klaar gemaak in die kollege ek is jou blou gat no. 43751 Herman Sadie: Ek dink my Pa het ook as ‘n berede polisieman sy loopbaan begin, totdat hy te groot vir die perd geword het. Hy het toe ‘n motorfiets met ‘n "sidecar" gekry Hennie Heymans: Herman Sadie - Oom Basie Sadie was legende in Durban en toe ek in die kollege was, was hy daar vir die atletiekkampioenskappe. Ons Vaders was saam op Point tydens die oorlog.. Nico Visser: Ek 19 Februarie 1959 en my eerste magsnommer was 36588. Later van jare is die E mos verander en het daar mos ook ‘n letter vooraan gekom. En ek was in voet troep 85. Wouter Mentz: Goeie ou dae. Paul Greyling: Ek dink dat dit nie verkeerd sal wees om te sê dat ons ook met heimwee kan terugdink aan die dissipline en behoorlike opleiding in alle aspekte van Polisie-werk nie. Ben Harmse: Toemaar oom Hennie Heymans. Op hierdie dag was ek darem as ses maande in graad een gewees. My (skool)loopbaan was op dreef. Gawie Botha: 3/11/1959 al die lede te die kollege soos Hennie se opleiding tyd was in my tyd daar, behalwe dat hulle op daardie stadium ‘n rang laer was! Sersant Otto was ons troepsersant en ondersersant Johnny Coetzee, berede afdeling! Ina du Plessis Trotse polisieman. Gawie Botha Hier sit die manne! Nico Visser: Ja, ek onthou nog daardie ouens. Het darem paar van my troepmaats raak geloop. Party lewe nog, ander al oorlede. Wat ‘n voorreg wat ons gehad het! Hou van Hennie Heymans: Inderdaad groot voorreg! Casper Steyn: Dit was voorwaar net een groot plesier en voorreg om in daardie tye in die Polisiemag diens te kon verrig . Ek het eers drie jaar later my opleiding gedoen , maar ek ken al die menere waarvan u skryf . Ek is trots om een te kon wees . 123


Johann Fouche: Pragtige vertelling. Ja en Onthou ons nog vir sers. Guppel met die spiere wat elke jong rekruut jaloers gemaak het. Die soepelheid van ‘n sers. Le Hanie wat vir die springbokke skares op die trampolien vermaak het. Die Snyman wat ek geken het, het ‘n ander minder vleiende bynaam gehad. Eendag my blad geskud met ʼn klein prestasie toe voel dit of hy my ʼn skaapboud inni hand stop. Ou groot Mof Myburgh wat sy bes probeer het om ons iets van noodhulp in die kop te kry. Dan die flinke springbok skrumskakel Piet Uys wat jou weereens trots gemaak het om in uniform op straat te verskyn en laastens die militaris Alwyn Lesch, sy skoene was altyd kraakvars nuut en het altyd geblink soos ʼn ster aan die hemel. Hennie Heymans jy het dit so mooi raakgevat, daardie plek wat genoem was die Polisie Kollege het ons gebrei en voorberei vir ʼn trotse loopbaan in ʼn eens trotse polisiemag. Dan salueer ek saam met jou almal wat by ons opleiding betrokke was. Nico Carl Lamprecht: Hennie Heymans ou maat, ek is werklik beïndruk deur jou geheue. Ek kan wragtie niks van my Julie 1977 uitpasseringsparade onthou nie- Ja dit is 50 jaar gelede. Ek onthou wel die volgende dag se vervoer van die Kollege na die Skinnerstraat barakke.in Pretoria se middestad. Eienaardig genoeg ek het altyd 4 Julie vereenselwig met 'n tong in die kies onderduimse, sinistere VSA.komplot . Dankie vir die vriendskap oor al die jare. Zelda Bothma Hennie deel die mooi belewenis met Leon Wessels, hy sal dit sooo waardeer. Hy en sy pragtige eggenoot, Tersia, sal seker saam met jou lekker heimwee kry. Bel my dan gee ek jou hul kontak nr. Groete. Chris De Vos Goeie memories Hennie.... Boela Snyman Ek het nog kontak met sers. Johnny Coetzee, wie ook ‘n instrukteur was by die berede afdeling. Ek self was in 1971 in die berede vertoongroep. Tulleken was toe A/O gewees. Cathy Van Onselen Was Turk nie een van brigadier Snyman se perde nie? Baie dankie vir staaltjie, oom Hennie Heymans! Dis baie interessant. Nie geweet Paul Eilers was 'n polisieman nie. Hy is darem maar 'n briljante akteur. Hennie Heymans Ja Turk was een van brig. Snyman se perde! Jy onthou goed! Hennie Heymans: Leonie Loock Grobler - weet jy wie die pêl was, wat die foto geneem het? Wyle dr Donald Campbell - ons was almal saam in Dirkie Uys Hs. Leonie Loock Grobler: Ek onthou hom goed! Hy was so handsome - ons meisies was almal verlief op hom! Hennie Heymans: Leonie Loock Grobler - Hy het veearts geword en is oorlede hier in 1994. Robert van Onselen Sover my kennis was Fleur eintlik brig. Snyman se perd. Kan nie onthou watter perd brig. Snyman aan die agterent gebyt het en hy toe teen die grond geklap het met sy groot hande nie. Dink dit was ‘n perd met die naam De Wet. Hennie Heymans U dogter is reg - hy het verskillende perde gehad - Fleur vir seremoniële optogte en ander weer vir perdesport - ek het foto van Turk in sy album gekry. Hier is Kavalier se foto:,

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Hennie Heymans: Brig Snyman met Nugget

Buks Bluff Botha die foto’s nou voor my!!!.Trotser kan ‘n Polisieman nie wees nie.!!Absoluut ONS OU polisiemag se Trots!!! Lt. Lesch Troep 42. 1972. Robert Brand Diep waar oom Hennie Heymans

Robert van Onselen Nog so ‘n ou foto van swart lede saam met my oupa ongeveer 100 jaar gelede 125


Robert van Onselen: Jammer korreksie - my pa as Sersant met swart lede ongeveer 1940 Robert van Onselen: Hier is my Oupa 1918 met swart lede

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Henk van Heerden My oorlede skoonpa, G.C. Fourie: A Kompanie: Voet troep 35: 23 November 1963, na kollege-opleiding gestasioneer te Amanzimtoti, Umbumbulu en John Vorster Plein.

Hennie Heymans: Henk van Heerden - Umbumbulu en Amamzimtoti was in Durban-Suid, No 75, distrik. Ons het ons eerste TIN-opleidng by Umbumbulu gekry in 1966. Sandy Evan Hanes: His son was my Platoon Sgt, he was a captain when I was in College. Reon Coetzee: Ek is respekvol ‘n blougat in hierdie gesprek... 88218M, 24 Desember 1980. 'n Klein wêreld - drie name hier: 1. Het die eer gehad om onder toe Majoor Hennie Heymans te die 2. My oom is Johnny Coetzee. 3. Sal nooit Mof Myburgh se handdruk op my oupa (ook 'n lid) se begrafnis vergeet nie. Hennie Heymans Ek onthou sers. Johnny Coetzee van Amamzimtoti - Reon lekker verrassing om van jou te hoor! Benjamin Rensburg: Ai 53 jaar gelede was ek nog op skoolbankie. Lekker musiek gemaak ek en my maats, lekker stout gewees. Nog ‘n helse ses houe met ‘n rottang kaalbas gekry ek en my maatjies by sersant Jonker by Kabegapark se polisiestasie omdat ons gekyk het hoeveel straatligte ons kon stukkend gooi....nogal die aand nadat ons op ‘n plaasboere musiek gemaak het vir al die boere omies en tannies. Wie sou nou kan dink 1970 sal my 12 maande neem om ‘n duursame en 127


welverdiende opleiding in die SAP-kollege Pretoria sou deur gaan onder dieselfde leiers, maar ek dink strenger en hoĂŤr in rangstruktuur...ja dankie vir daardie dae en al die voor opleiding by Maleoskop en al die grensbediening ...alles die moeite werd om ‘n sterk siel op te hewe in ‘n mens.

John Roderick: Netjies oom. Ek is u bewaarder, en het ook net mooi herinneringe van John Vosteropleidingskollege. Marietjie van Dyk: My man was vanaf begin 1974 tot einde 1975 by die Polisiekollege gestasioneer. Reon Coetzee: Kan iemand dalk help om my oupa MJ Coetzee, 'n 1926 bosluis se magsnommer op te spoor? Reon Coetzee: Sy magsnommer was 15522 - 'n totaal nuttelose stukkie inligting wat my sommer net lekker laat voel:-) Hennie Heymans: Reon Coetzee - oor so twee weke dan is ons webtuiste beter aan die gang - ons het 'n afdeling; "NOMINAL ROLL" ons kan dit dan daar plaas waar almal dit kan sien en waardeer. Nie so nutteloos soos u dink nie! Hennie Heymans: Het jy 'n foto van hom? Reon Coetzee: ek sal my pa vra om te skandeer en te stuur - glo nie daar is "deppo" fotos nie maar wel latere foto’s, medalje oorhandiging ens. Reon Coetzee: Hy het my vertel hoe hulle patrollie op polisiekamele gery het:-) Hennie Heymans Stuur alles - dan kom hy die maand in die NONGQAI! SO ek wag vir julle Reon Coetzee Kamele in diens van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie? In die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu was daar wel sulke polisiekamele. Die era het in 1914 begin toe die Polisie drie van die diere vir patrolliewerk aangeskaf het. Die getal kamele het in 1939 to...Sien Meer

Kameel -- die woestyn se koddige wonder MIELIESTRONK.COM Reon Coetzee: http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/nl/geheugen/view... Reon Coetzee: en daar sien ek nou ek kan u niks vertel van kamele in die polisie nie đ&#x;˜Š https://issuu.com/hennieheymans/docs/1-06/7

Police Gazette 1-06 police Gazette Volume 1 Issue 06 ISSUU.COM

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Hennie Heymans: Dr Abbott het 'n boek oor kamele uitgebring. Deur die jare het daar baie artikels oor kamele in die Nongqai verskyn - bly 'n romantiese onderwerp. Reon Coetzee Reon Coetzee: my oom Johnny Coetzee was 30135F, sy seun Mathys 68418T, soek nou my niggie en my oupa se broer se nommers:-)

Boet Meintjes Dankie Oom Hennie vir die mooi terugblik op die verlede. Vertolking: Ons was skoolseuns en die Mag, deur sy kollege, het mans van ons gemaak! Die polisie was ‘n wonderlike plek om te dien, ja daar was ‘n paar idiote in die Mag wat nie die verskil tussen: “om dinge reg te doen” en “die regte dinge te doen” geken het nie” Wat nie geweet het dat Staande Orders slegs gedien het as ‘n riglyn vir wyse manne of vir die slaafse navolging deur gekke nie. (Ek wonder of hulle ooit die voorwoord tot Staande Orders deurgelees het?) Ons was goed opgelei maar nie toegerus vir die fyner en sagter dinge van die lewe nie. ‘n Voorbeeld wat uitstaan: ‘n Heerlike somersdag, die wind waai nie, die see is potblou en die paar wolke is spierwit. Honderde mense geniet die see en strand. Pragtige dag; mense eet roomys. Klagte: Brightonstrand. Kind het verdrink. Sussie is die “klaer”. Ons doen die papierwerk alles reg; maar die menslike sy het ek afgeskeep. Het nie daaraan gedink om die sussie ‘n koppie tee te koop of om haar huistoe te neem nie. Die insig het ontbreek. Was dom – so met die jare slyp die lewe jou! Jy is ‘n seun wat ‘n man se werk doen. Jy is ‘n leier. Jy is ooggetuie van die lewe en sy kronkelpad. DANKIE AAN DIE GEWER VAN ALLE GOEIE DINGE VIR SY BESKERMING, INSIG EN LUS VIR DIE TAAK – WAT EINTLIK ‘N VOORREG WAS! Nog ‘n staaltjie oor die Julie 1964 parade Kol. Lesch vertel die dag van 4 Julie 1964, daardie dag toe hy net vir die dag in die uniform van ‘n AO, as sers.-maj. opgetree het: Maj. LG Snyman se moeder is die oggend oorlede en indien die majoor ‘n instorting sou kry, moes hy die parade oorneem. Hy het derhalwe nie op sy gebruiklike plek, heel agter gestaan nie, maar direk agter die majoor wat die parade bevelvoerder was. So weet ons glad nie van die drama wat agter die skerms afgespeel het nie. My drama, behalwe my karbonkel, was: ‘n Stalkneg het my bruin stewels vir ‘n fooitjie gepoets en met my stewels verdwyn. Dit was “my probleem” het die troepsersant gesê. Ek het luitenant Paul Roux, wat in Sinoville gewoon het, geskakel. Ons het naby mekaar in Durban gewoon en vir my was hy “Oom Paul”. Hy was ‘n ou “stoorman” en hy het vir my ‘n paar bruin stewels gebring en geleen!

Mev. en kol. Alwyn “Kraai” Lesch geneem by die begrafnis van lt.-genl. JJ Viktor. 129


SERS. AF HEYMANS, SE ‘ONWETTIGE’ PERDE (HBH) My wêreld bestaan ook uit my liefde vir perde. As kind het ek ‘n perd in Durban gehad terwyl my Vader, sers. Heymans, baie perde gehad het. Die handel in perde was in stryd met die polisieregulasies.

Foto bo: Sormanyweg en die Roomse sendingstasie in die agtergrond. Let op die plotte van die Zanzibari’s. Die foto is geneem waar Taraweg vandag is. My Vader en ‘n trop perde op die Bluff. (Vandag Van Riebeeckpark.) Die witperd se naam was “Trigger” en bonte was “Beauty”. Links: Nico Heymans, op sy perdjie.

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My Pa se “Hop-along Cassidy Ranch” op Durban se voorstrand.

Joseph was die man wat die perde versorg het. Op die ander foto sit my broer, Nico Heymans. Modus operandi: Die kinders het elk ‘n trippens betaal om op die perdekarretjie te ry. Joseph was die koetsier en die kondukteur. Foto’s is geneem voor die Beach Hotel. Die drama met die polisie-owerheid: My Vader was ‘n Boere-Jood en hy kon geld maak. Toe ek vier jaar oud was kry ek my eerste perd om kleuterskool toe te gaan. Sers. Piet Fabritius het die perdjie beslaan – later sou ek en hy te Kompol x 302 saamwerk. Mense het toe my Vader gevra waar hulle perde kon koop. Gou het my Vader troppe perde in die Vrystaat gekoop en na Jacobs se spoorwegstasie getrok. Die perde is dan na die groot vlei geneem en daar het hulle op die oop gronde gewei. Fabriekwerkers het perde gekoop en na die Transkei versend en so het my Vader ‘n mark geskep. Saterdae en Sondae het Joseph my perdjie na Brightonstrand geneem. Hy het ‘n cowboy-hoed en -hemp gedra en vir ‘n tiekie per slag ‘n kind op die perd laat ry. Met kerkbasaar het ons ook ‘n perdjie beskikbaar gestel. Later het my Vader ‘n waentjie gebou en die perdjies op Durban-strand ontplooi. Alles het goed gegaan met die perde tot iemand gekla het. Ons is almal voorgelig om te sê: “Dis Oupa Heymans op Van Reenen se perde!” Toe die offisiere kom; toe vertel ek die waarheid: “Nee Oom, dis nie Oupa se perde nie, dis MY Pa se perde Oom!” Almal bly by die storie – ek bly trots by my storie: Dis my Vader se perde. Ek kan nie onthou of my Vader departementeel verhoor was nie – ek was te klein om te getuig.

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My Vader het toe die perde en waentjie aan Sam Newton se “Amusement Park” verkoop. Joseph is saam omdat hy die perde geken het. Dit is die storie van my Vader se ‘onwettige’ perde!

TOEKOMSNAVORSING / WHAT FUTURE FOR SOUTH AFRICA? Lees gerus hierdie artikel – dit is beslis die moeite werd. OPINION

What future for South Africa? Hermann Giliomee | 19 July 2017 Hermann Giliomee reviews Frans Cronje's book "A time traveller’s guide to South Africa in 2030" 132


Ever since the end of the Second World War, the question was whether whites would move quickly enough in offering to share power and thereby avoid the fate of becoming an impotent political minority. A very perspicacious observer sensed that whites would delay the fundamental choice for too long. He was C. Louis Leipoldt, a well-known Afrikaans poet and public intellectual, who published a poem about The Fool and The Master watching a game of chess between the whites and the blacks with political control of South Africa as the prize. “The much belauded Fool Looked wise and pondered what he saw. “I think” he said, “that if he tries White still might make a draw!” The Master smiled and shook his head “You have left it all too late”. “There is no doubt of it,” he said, “It’s black to move and mate.” Leipoldt wrote the poem in 1947 and died in the same year. In South Africa, serious thinking about the country’s future only started in the early 1970s. Dr. Anton Rupert was one of several South African business leaders who was a member of the Club of Rome. Concerned about rapid population growth that was fast depleting natural resources, the Club commissioned a study that would later appear under the title The Limits of Growth. It predicated “overshoot and collapse” by 2070 if the world continued with “business as usual” approach and allowed a rapidly growing world population to destroy the economy and environment. Four decades later the forecasts would be vindicated by a team of Australian researchers. With the assistance of Rupert and some other South African business leaders who attended the Club of Rome meeting, the Unit for Futures Research28 was established in Stellenbosch in 1974. For many years its director, Professor Philip Spies, played a major in commissioning papers and thinking about the future in innovative ways. By the mid-1980s solving the racial issue and looming economic crisis could no longer be avoided. At this point Anglo American’s Clem Sunter began making a major contribution to the intellectual debate about the country’s future. He developed the options of the High Road and the Low Road as stark alternatives that South Africa was facing. He argued strongly that with a democratic constitution and a growth-oriented economic policy the High Road could lead South Africa to a prosperous future and stable democracy. Writing in the Leadership SA issue of March 2008, with Chantell Ilbury as co-author, Sunter returned to the theme of South Africa’s future. The article argued that South Africa made the right choice when it chose the High Road in the early 1990. The authors went as far to say that in 1994 South Africa “vaulted in the ‘Premier League’ of nations. It concludes: “South Africa has remained there as a result of 14 years of stable government and disciplined macro-economic policies, all of which took place in the context of the global ‘Long Boom’ scenario.”

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As lid van die SSVR het ons van hul lesings oor toekomsnavorsing bygewoon - HBH

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Tow ards the end a note of pessimism creeps into the article. On international leagues that rated competitiveness and business friendliness South Africa was plummeting. Health and education systems were defective and there was the need for a dramatic reduction in crime. The essay gloomily concluded that South Africa had ceased to be a member of the Premier League and was sinking to the Reserve League. It was even possible that South Africa could relapse into a “2nd Division”, which was usually marked by internal disharmony and eventually overt conflict. Remember all this was written a year before Jacob Zuma became South African President. A new book by Frans Cronjé, CEO of the Institute of Race Relations and a sought-after scenario planner, raises the debate on the future to a new level. His book is called A time traveller’s guide to South Africa in 2030 and is published by Tafelberg. It is the best guide we have to the trends that are likely to unfold different between today and the year 2030. It also sketches four different scenarios that may unfold over the next thirteen years. The book can be seen as constituting two parts. The first part tells of the tremendous successes of the ANC government in its first ten to fifteen years in power in building houses, and providing running water and electricity. Under Trevor Manuel, and the leadership of the Reserve Bank and Treasury the state’s financial affairs were in as a good shape as one could wish for. The second part deals with the policy failures of the ANC government. First there was the far too rapid transformation of the civil service and the damage done by cadre deployment. Under white rule it took 55 years (from 1910 to 1965) for the civil service to reflect the 55-45 demographic ratio of the white community. Particularly in the technocratic departments and in the state corporations the NP government retained the scarce skills of English-speakers. Under the ANC government the civil service was transformed to conform to demographic population ratios within between ten and twelve years. The ANC government inherited an unemployment problem but also made it far worse. In 1990 Dr. Wim de Villiers, an astute business leader before he became Minister of Administration and Economic Co-ordination, identified unemployment as the country’s major problem. In the 1960’s a half a million jobs were created in the industrial sector but in the 1980s it had dwindled to 28 000 (Sunday Times, 4 November 1990). This was largely as a result of relying too much on gold production and failing to develop competitive exports in the other sectors. Then the ANC government came into office and passed the most labour-friendly legislation the developing world –with predicable consequences. Cronjé points out that the economy under NP rule seldom lost more than a million working days from industrial action until the early 1980s. In 2007 lost days had skyrocketed to an astonishing 13 million. In Jacob Zuma’s first term five million working days were lost in three of the five years. Then there was the crisis in black education stemming from both the policy to use English as medium of instruction at a far too early stage, the collapse of discipline, and the excessive power of the unions. Along with the failure of black schools and universities government has imposed a demographic dictatorship by enforcing the 80-8-8-2 principle together with cadre deployment in the civil service, and as many other public institutions as possible. 134


Earlier on in the process a senior advocate in the prosecution service described the effect on morale as follows: "The department is supposed to render a service, and the best service is supposed to be the criterion [for promotion.] What now happens is that promotion does not depend on performance but on race. The result is that whites are too demoralised to perform because there's nothing in it for them-- no incentive. Conversely, there is no incentive for people of colour to perform because promotion is not dependent on performance." In his preface Clem Sunter provides an admirable summary of the four main scenarios outlined in Cronjé’s book. First there is the rise of the “rightists” (or “regsgesindes” in Afrikaans). It emasculates rights and freedoms in an effort to boost growth and the living standards of all South Africans and it succeeds in promoting a sense of cohesion and purpose among South Africa very much like the rulers of Singapore and China have done. To me this looks like a recipe than could only work in a racially homogeneous society. The second scenario is the rise of a left-wing dictatorship, which pursues the classic socialist policies that attracted so many despots in recent history and that led to so much misery. This scenario is unlikely for the simple reason that South Africa lacks the prerequisite for such of form of rule, namely a brutal and disciplined army. At a recent meeting commemorating the Dakar conference of thirty years ago the retired ANC politician Aziz Pahad remarked that our army “is too weak to deal with even a mild Arab Spring”. The third scenario envisages the disintegration of South Africa as a state under a weak and irresolute government and stagnant economy. Those who own property and have a steady income would live in beleaguered camps, while the poor would become ever more destitute and desperate. This scenario is unlikely to unfold in Western Cape but it could become true in many other provinces. Finally, there is a scenario called “the return of the rainbow”. People no longer wait for government to “deliver” houses, jobs and services, and begin to take command of their own destiny. Race-baiting commentators who are presently flourishing will become more and more discredited. There is an increasing realisation that South Africans had it right in the late 1986 when large majorities in a sample of people living in the area then called the Witwatersrand preferred a joint government in which no groups dominated. Black support was as high as 75%. The idea that South Africa could evolve into a liberal democracy and remain stable was a pipe dream that only some academics can believe in. To my mind a government of national unity is the only system that can get us out of the mess the Zuma government has created. Frans Cronjé’s book is by far the best account of the dilemma in which our country finds itself. Hopefully is spawns thousands of conversations about our future. Hermann Giliomee’s Historian: An Autobiography (Tafelberg) has recently appeared http://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/what-future-for-southafrica?utm_source=Politicsweb+Daily+Headlines&utm_campaign=3548bc1f35EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_19&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a86f25db99-3548bc1f35130042309 – 23 Jul 2017.

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IN MEMORIAM Die Doodsengel het weer sy rondtes gedoen en ‘n paar goeie vriende en kennisse is oorlede, soos bv. Kol Vic McPhearson, (hy het sy naam “Vick” gespel en dis uitgespreek “Wiek”) genl Rust, genl Viktor en brig. Paul Abrie.

HONDE: BELGIESE MALINOIS / DOGS OF WAR Dogs of war... at 14,000ft! Parachuting pooch completes her fifth and final training jump with the Colombian Air Force • • • •

Siara the Belgian malinois has been trained to cope with dangerous situations since she was a few days old She has been training alongside Technician Carlos Andres Pineros Ramirez of the Colombian Air Force The dog is held in a specially designed harness which allows the air force man to keep control of the jump The amazing images of the jump from 14,000 feet were taken by freelance photographer Oliver Ehmig

By Darren Boyle for MAILONLINE Published: 16:49 BST, 20 July 2017 | Updated: 17:08 BST, 20 July 2017 A death defying danger dog jumps out of a plane at 14,000 feet to graduate as an elite member of a search and rescue unit. Siara is a one year old Belgian malinois, and since a few days after her birth she has been trained to cope with stressful situations in different environments both day and night. Once in the air, Siara behaves like your average dog in a car and can even be seen barking at her fellow jumpers as they pass by.

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Siara and her handler Chief Technician Carlos Andres Pineros Ramirez exit the military aircraft backwards at 14,000 feet.

Carlos Andres Pineros Ramirez of the Colombian Air Force taking Siara the dog on her fifth and final jump of her training. 137


Siara looks relaxed as the aircraft increases its altitude to 14,000 feet when she will jump out along with her handler. The incredible photos were taken at a Colombian Air Force base during a search-and-rescue training exercise. Siara is trained in all infiltration techniques, so she is able to reach the most dangerous areas on the most treacherous terrains by any means necessary. This includes by truck, abseiling, helicopter and ultimately by parachute. Chief Technician Carlos Andrés Piñeros Ramírez of the Colombian Air Force, a specialized combat search and rescue (CSAR) parachutist with 24 years of service, was the officer taking Siara on the fifth and final jump of her training. Photographer Oliver Ehmig said: 'At the end of the exercise both of them were euphoric.'

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Siara was strapped to her handler using a specially designed rig to allow her to safely freefall and parachute to earth.

The training mission took place high above a Colombian military air base and was photographed by Oliver Ehmig. 139


The harness keeps Siara high enough so Ramirez can land safely and use his own legs to cushion the impact with the ground.

Siara landed following her fifth and final training parachute jump and is now mission ready. 140


The 38-year-old freelancer has been taking photos with the Colombian military for seven years, and said: 'A great photographer used to say that if your photo is not good enough, it's because you were not close enough. 'To achieve these images, you need to know the environment, but more than that, you must know the jumpers. 'One minute before the jump at 14,000 feet I found myself on the ramp of the plane - in that place the wind feels hard. 'However, I am calm, I use a very reliable harness with several anchor points that prevents me from getting fired from the plane. 'At that moment, I'm just concentrating on not missing the moment I was waiting for. 'When you do something that you are passionate about, I think the feeling is of deep emotion and joy.' Share or comment on this article. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4715102/Colombian-air-force-dog-completes-parachutetraining.html - 20 July 2017.

TECHNOLOGY First UK police drone unit is launched in Dorset, Cornwall and Devon in a 'historic step'

Devon and Cornwall and Dorset Police launched the first fully operational drone unit at Westpoint Arena in Clyst St Mary, near Exeter. • 67 comments • 1 video • 13 shares Comment: Hennie Heymans My son is a boffin on computers and he has asked me, before the publication of this article, when do I think the SAPS will deploy drones? I don’t know. To me it appears a very cost-effective way to patrol a township or suburb. Surveillance could be done without the subjects knowing they are being followed and recorded. All action of perpetrators could be gathered for evidential purposes while the police are on their way to arrest the perpetrator.

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BRIEF AAN DIE MEDIA: GENL JOHAN VAN DER MERWE Genl. Van der Merwe het op sekere bewerings van brig. Pallas in Rapport (16 Julie 2017) geantwoord. Ons weet nie of Rapport die brief geplaas het nie. Ek het ‘n afskrif van genl. Van der Merwe se brief aan Rapport bekom en terwille van die polisie-geskiedenis plaas ek die brief. Die Redakteur Rapport GENERAALS HET NIE EUGENE DE KOCK SE DADE TOEGESMEER EN HOM DAARNA IN DIE STEEK GELAAT NIE! Rouen Pallas se skrywes oor die generaals wat Eugene de Kock se dade sou toegesmeer het en hom daarna in die steek gelaat het, het betrekking. Rouen Pallas het gedurende die sestigerjare onder my bevel gedien toe ek in beheer van die grensposte op die RSA-Lesothogrens was en ek het gereeld met hom geskakel. Daar het ‘n goeie verhouding tussen ons bestaan en ek wou nie by hierdie aangeleentheid betrokke raak nie. Sy knaende aantygings jeens die generaals wat Eugene de Kock se dade toegesmeer het en hom daarna in die steek gelaat het, noop my egter om daarop te antwoord. Genl. Piet Viljoen is reeds op 17 Mei 2015 oorlede en genl. Johan le Roux het ‘n breinoperasie gehad en nog nie volkome herstel nie. Die persepsie dat die generaals Eugene de Kock in die steek gelaat het, het inderdaad sy oorsprong by aantygings wat Eugene de Kock by verskeie geleenthede self gemaak het. Ek het in antwoord op ‘n ope brief wat Eugene de Kock uit die tronk geskryf het sy aantygings aan die hand van feite weerlê wat volledig in die Rapport van 27 Julie 2014 verskyn het. Die Goldstone-kommissie is gedurende 1991 deur mnr. F W de Klerk aangestel om ondersoek in te stel na geweld wat na 17 Julie 1991 plaasgevind het. In die loop van sy ondersoek het die kommissie hom egter begin toespits op die ondersoek van dade wat in die konflik van die verlede plaasgevind het en ten opsigte waarvan amnestie-onderhandelinge aan die gang was. Die ondersoek het op ‘n eensydige en onbillike wyse geskied en was slegs gemik op dade wat deur lede van die veiligheidstak gepleeg is. Dit het onder andere Eugene de Kock en sy eenheid ingesluit. Ek het by mnr. De Klerk beswaar aangeteken dat die kommissie sy mandaat oorskry, maar mnr. De Klerk wou nie ingryp nie en het aangevoer dat dit die indruk sal wek dat hy dade toesmeer. Ek het daarna mnr. Mandela genader, aangesien ek vermoed het dat mnr. Mandela ook met regter Goldstone skakel en waarskynlik meer invloed as mnr. De Klerk gehad het. Mnr. Mandela het met my saamgestem en het onderneem om regter Goldstone te versoek om die betrokke ondersoeke te staak. Die kommissie het egter voortgegaan met die ondersoeke en regter Goldstone het later heftig ontken dat mnr. Mandela so ‘n versoek aan hom gerig het. Ek het daarna opdrag gegee dat ‘n span speurders al die gevalle waar lede van Ukhonto we Sizwe moorde gepleeg het, wat verskeie motorkarbomvoorvalle ingesluit het, waar lede van die Nasionale Uitvoerende Komitee van die ANC/SAKP-alliansie op grond van gemeenskaplike opset aanspreeklik is, ondersoek moet word. Mnr. Mandela het onmiddellik beswaar gemaak en gedreig om hulle aan die onderhandelinge te onttrek. Mnr. De Klerk het daarop gelas dat die ondersoeke gestaak moet word. Die ondersoek ten opsigte van gevalle waarby Eugene de Kock betrokke was, is deur dr. Jan D’Oliveira, die prokureur-generaal van Noord-Transvaal, en sy ondersoekspan oorgeneem. Ek het dr. D’Oliveira gaan spreek en ingelig dat Eugene de Kock en sy eenheid in opdrag van hoërgesag, onder andere mnr. P.W. Botha, mnr. Vlok en ekself, Khotsohuis en Cosatuhuis vernietig het en dat hulle nie ten opsigte van dade wat binne die bestek van die amnestie-onderhandelinge val, vervolg behoort te word nie. Dr. D’Oliveira het saamgestem, maar aangevoer dat hy regtens oor geen 142


bevoegdheid beskik het om op daardie tydstip te weier om ten opsigte van moord te vervolg nie. Ek het nie kennis gedra van die werklike feite van die moorde waarvoor Eugene de Kock vervolg is nie en kon derhalwe nie daaroor kommentaar gelewer het nie. Al die gevalle waarby Eugene de Kock betrokke is en waarvoor hy amnestie gevra het, verskyn volledig op die webtuiste van die waarheid- en versoeningkommissie. Daar is geen geval waar daar enige melding gemaak word van enige dade wat deur generaal Piet Viljoen toegesmeer is of waarvan hy redelik kon kennis gedra het nie. Generaal Johan le Roux het saam met Eugene de Kock vir een voorval amnestie gevra wat egter deur twee lede van die amnestiekomitee geweier is. Die derde lid van die komitee, mnr. Wynand Malan, het in ‘n minderheidsuitspraak oortuigend aangevoer dat die weiering ‘n growwe dwaling was. Die weiering sou derhalwe op hersiening tersyde gestel gewees het. Genl. Le Roux was ‘n kolonel in bevel van die veiligheidstak op Krugersdorp toe die voorval plaasgevind het. Dit maak gevolglik ook geen sin dat genl. Le Roux die verplasing van Rouen Pallas gereël het om Eugene de Kock se dade toe te smeer nie. Ek het ten opsigte van alle voorvalle waarby ek betrokke was volledige aanspreeklikheid aanvaar. Waar enige persoon wil beweer dat ‘n generaal enige voorval waarby Eugene de Kock betrokke was, toegesmeer het en daarna aanspreeklikheid ontduik het, gee asseblief besonderhede van die voorval met vermelding van die datum en plek waar dit plaasgevind het. Ek sal met graagte daarop antwoord. Om persone op grond van veralgemenings te beswadder bly egter laakbaar en oneties. Johan van der Merwe 19 Julie 2017 DIE VETERANE VAN NEWLANDS: ANDRE VOLLGRAAF

Vandag verras met 'n kuiertjie deur vriende (oud-kolegas) uit die dae van Newlands Johannesburg toe al vier van ons saam daar gestasioneer was. Soos jy kyk Ogies Vermaak (links) myself (middel) Leon Ferreira (regs) wie ek 1994 laas gesien het en sittende Tom Truter. Het dit terdeë geniet.

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BRIEWE Stratkom en die Timol-doodsondersoek (Brief aan genl. Van der Merwe met afskrif na die Nongqai.) Geagte Generaal, Ek het die Tak: Sielkundige Aksie van die SSVR met ingang van 1 April 1982 gestig. Dit het die inter-departementele Sielkundige Aksie Komitee vervang wat ek by die NVBS aangetref het toe ek in Augustus 1980 daar aangestel is. Omdat ek nie van die naam en term sielkundige aksie gehou het nie, het ek dit later daardie jaar na Tak: Strategiese Kommunikasie verander. Omdat dit weer vir ons te lomp geklink het, het ons in 1983 gedurende 'n spanbou by NI se plek genaamd ‘Kopkrap’ op 'n eiland in die Vaalrivier, besluit om die akroniem Stratkom te gebruik. Ons het die akroniem daar aanvaar toe genl. Tienie Groenewald dit aan my voorgestel het. Voor dit het daar sover my kennis strek nie so 'n naam of Afdeling bestaan nie. Ek sien 'n sekere Erasmus het in die Timol-ondersoek getuig dat hy vir die Police Security Unit, Stratcom, gewerk het. Timol is in 1971 oorlede en ek glo nie daar kon toe al so 'n afdeling by die SAPV gewees het nie. Ek het gedink u sal belangstel. Groete A P Stemmet http://city-press.news24.com/News/crushed-testicles-fake-signatures-mail-cops-apartheid-cop-attimol-inquest-20170724

Casper Rossouw: Die legende Dirk Ligter Hallo Hennie Sien Aangeheg. Ek het die boekie by die skrywer so ʼn paar jaar terug gekry as geskenk. Dit handel oor ʼn skaap steler in die Karoo wat te slim was vir die polisie. Regtig ʼn goeie boek. Wonder hoeveel van die ou manne weet van hom. Groete Casper Rossouw •

Wie van ons afgetrede lede ken die verhale en legendes van Dirk Ligter?

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SLOT / END Geagte leser: Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese dokument ons maak van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie. Dear reader of this quasi-historical document: please note we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Hennie Heymans: No 43630 (B)

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Nongqai Vol 8 No 8  

Some aspects of South Africa's National Security History. Enkele geskiedkundige aspekte van ons Suid-Afrikaanse nasionale veiligheidsgeskie...

Nongqai Vol 8 No 8  

Some aspects of South Africa's National Security History. Enkele geskiedkundige aspekte van ons Suid-Afrikaanse nasionale veiligheidsgeskie...

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